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Bin i Kh Hu

Vai tr ca Vin Khoa hc K thut Nng nghip min Nam trong nghin cu trin khai nhm gim thiu tc hi ca vic bin i kh hu trong lnh vc nng nghip

Ni dung
I. Bin i kh hu: tc nhn, h qu, II. nh hng ca BDKH n Vit Nam III. Cc chng trnh d n ang trin khai ti Vit Nam IV. Bin php khc phc v gim thiu V. Vai tr ca Vin
nh hng chung ca tng n v ng gp vo d n

I. BIN I KH HU: TC NHN v H QU

Tri t nng ln
Nguyn nhn Trong cng nghip, du v than s dng nhiu. Do thi vo khng kh mt lng ln CO2 (tng 20% so vi lng c cch y 40-50 nm), N20, CH4 lm bc x khng thot ra c CO2 cng vi hi nc hnh thnh nn mt lp mng bao ph Tri t, cho nhit lng t Mt tri pht ra i ti mt t mt cch d dng, nhng li hp th nhit lng t mt t tn x vo khng gian ri li pht nhit lng xung li mt t. Nn hin tng ny gi l hiu ng nh knh CO2 tng gp i, nhit khng kh trung bnh ti mt t lin tng 2 30C

Chu trnh hiu ng nh knh

Tri t nng ln
Nhit b mt tri t ang nng dn ln, t nm 1850 n nay, nhit trung bnh hng nm tng 0,740C, d bo c th tng thm 1,10C - 6,40C vo nm 2100 Mc nc bin ti chu dng ln trung bnh 2,4 mm/nm, ring thp nin va qua l 3,1 mm/nm, d bo s tip tc dng cao hn trong th k XXI khong 2,8 mm 4,3 mm/nm

Tri t nng ln
Tc hi Khong 2 t ngi trn th gii lm vo tnh trng thiu nc trong nm 2050, trong c ti 90% ngi dn chu . Cc t nng bc cht ngi, cc cn bo, l lt v hn hn s xut hin thng xuyn hn Khi mc nc bin dng cao t 0,2-0,6 m, s c 1.708 km2 t b ngp nh hng ti 108.267 ngi sinh sng. Nhit ton cu gia tng s nh hng n cc yu t khc ca thi tit, s thay i ma, ti nguyn nc, h sinh thi

Kh thi CO2
Lng kh thi CO2 tng cao t l thun vi s gia tng nng acid trong nc bin. iu ny s dn ti "hi chng trng", hay cn gi l vi ha cc di san h do cc khong cht nui dng san h b acid phn hy v cc di san h c th cht sau 1 nm nhim bnh lng kh thi CO2 ti Vit Nam tng t 6,7 % vo cc nm 1995-2000 ln n 10,6 % vo cc nm 2000 2005 v t l tng ny c nh gi l cao nht th gii Theo s liu thng k mi nht ca WMO, lng kh CO2 trong kh quyn ln ti 383 ppm, tng 0,5% so vi nm 2006.

Kh thi CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, SH6


cht CH4 (methane) thi ra trong qu trnh chn nui, cht thi ca ng vt. So vi CO2 , CH4 c mc gy hi cho mi trng gp 21 ln. N2O thi ra trong qu trnh sn xut cng nghip v s dng phn v c. N2O c mc c hi vi mi trng gp 310 ln CO2. Mt N2O trong nm 2007 cng mc cao k lc (tng 0,25%) v lng kh mtan tng 0,34%, vt c mc cao nht o c trong nm 2003. HFCs (Hydrophoro Cacbons), thi ra trong qu trnh sn xut cht bn dn, c mc c hi cho mi trng gp 140-11.700 ln so vi CO2. PFCs (Pezpluoro Cacbons) thi ra trong qu trnh lm sch cht bn dn, cht lm lnh v cht to bt, c mc nguy hi cho mi trng gp 6.500 - 9.200 ln so vi CO2. SH6 (Sulphur Hexafluoride) thi ra trong qu trnh sn xut t, c mc gy hi vi mi trng gp 23.900 ln so vi CO2

Hiu qu s dng nc km
Do canh tc la, Do ti chy trn Chu c nguy c thiu lng thc do hiu qu s dng nc km

Ngh nh th Kyoto
L mt ngh nh lin quan n chng trnh chung v vn bin i kh hu (Farmework Convention on Climate Change) mang tm quc t ca Lin hip Quc vi mc tiu ct gim lng kh thi gy hiu ng nh knh. Bn d tho c k kt vo 11/12/1997 ti hi ngh cc bn tham gia ln th 3 nhm hp ti Kyoto v chnh thc c hiu lc 16/2/2005 K t thng 11/2007 c khong 175 nc k kt tham gia chng trnh ny. Trong 36 nc pht trin c yu cu phi c hnh ng gim thiu kh thi nh knh m h cam kt c th trong ngh nh v 137 nc ang pht trin phi bo co thng nin v vn kh thi

Ngh nh th Kyoto
a ra quy nh v kim sot cc kh nh knh gm CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, SF6. Theo Ngh nh th ny, tt c cc nc cng nghip trn th gii s phi gim lng kh thi gy hiu ng nh knh t nht 5,2% vo nm 2012. Hn th na l t ra mt mc tiu c th cho mi loi kh, cc mc tiu tng th i vi tt c 6 loi kh s c qui i "tng ng vi CO2"

Ngh nh th Kyoto
S cam kt ghi r rng tt c cc bn k kt vo Ngh nh th phi tun th mt s bc bao gm: thit k v trin khai cc chng trnh gim thiu v thch nghi vi s thay i kh hu. chun b mt s liu thng k quc gia v loi b cc pht thi bng cch gim carbon. khuyn khch chuyn giao cng ngh thn thin vi kh hu. thc y s hp tc trong nghin cu v quan st thay i kh hu, cc tc ng v cc chin lc i ph.

Ngh nh th Kyoto
Cc yu cu t c mc tiu ca nhm 5%: ct gim 8% pht thi ca cc nc Thy s, phn ln cc quc gia Trung v ng u, v EU (s t mc tiu ca n bng cch phn b cc mc ct gim khc nhau trong s cc nc thnh vin); Gim 7% pht thi ca M Gim 6% pht thi ca Canada, Hungary, Nht v Ba lan. Nga, New Zealand v Ukraina n nh mc pht thi ca mnh Na Uy c th tng pht thi thm 1% c c th tng mc pht thi thm 8% Ai-x-len c th tng pht thi ln 10%.

Ngh nh th Kyoto
C nhiu tranh ci xung quanh mc hiu qu ca ngh nh ny gia cc chuyn gia, khoa hc gia v nhng hot ng mi trng n nm 2012, Nht Bn c trch nhim ct gim 6% lng kh thi CO2 so vi mc nm 1990. Tuy nhin, lng kh thi ca Nht Bn tng 6% vo nm 2005. Vit Nam k Ngh nh th Kyoto vo ngy 3/12/1998 v ph chun vo ngy 25/9/2002.

Ngh nh th Kyoto
16/2/2005, cc nc ph chun ngh nh th Kyoto s phi thc hin ngha v gim pht thi kh nh knh, nhm ngn nga hin tng tri t m ln. Ngh nh th c 141 quc gia ng h, nhng vp phi s ty chay ca M, quc gia gy nhim nht th gii. Vit Nam (VN) khng bt buc ct gim, song y cng l c hi ln nc ta ci tin cng ngh, gim nhim v ch trng tng cng cc d n CDM nhm ci tin cng ngh, mi trng v mang li li nhun cho t nc. Tim nng CDM ca Vit Nam ch yu trong lnh vc nng lng (nh sn xut in theo cng ngh sch hn, chuyn i t nhit in sang thu in, in sc gi hoc in mt tri, tit kim nng lng), trong lm nghip (nh trng rng, ti to rng).

II. nh hng ca BIN I KH HU n VIT NAM

VNG NG BNG SNG CU LONG


ng bng sng Cu Long c hnh thnh vo khong 11000 nm tr li y. Cao trnh mt t tng i thp. Trn nhiu vng kh rng, trong ng Thp Mui, T gic Long Xuyn, Bn o C Mau chng hn, nhiu ni cao trnh ch vo khong 20 30 cm. Vi nhng tc ng cp trn y, cc yu t thy nng quyt nh c cu ma v, sinh thi thy vc, h sinh thi rng ngp nc ngt (trong ng Thp Mi, T gic Long Xuyn v trong U Minh thng v h), ... chu tc ng mnh m, thm ch c ni e da c chnh s tn ti.

D BO TC NG CA BIN DNG LN MI TRNG T NHIN


Khi mc nc bin dng, hu qu d thy nht l nhiu vng s b ngp. Nhng hu qu ca bin dng khng phi ch c ngp tnh. ng lc bin vng ven b v ca sng, sng v khi tip cn b s tc ng mnh hn ln ng b, bi triu. B bin b xm thc v c s h tng ven bin b e da ln hn. cc ng bng ven bin, ngp su hn, thi gian ngp ko di hn. Xm nhp mn s vo su hn, ngun nc ngt khan him hn. Ch thy vn, thy lc trn tng a bn v trn c ng bng s c nhng thay i, khin cho ng thi bi xi b sng, c lao, cn bi, bi lng ph sa trn h thng sng chnh v vng ca sng cng thay i.

Qua cc d bo trn, Vit Nam c lit vo cc a bn b uy hip nghim trng nht Theo d bo ca Vn phng qun l iu tra ti nguyn bin v mi trng (B Ti nguyn v Mi trng), Vit Nam mc nc bin s dng cao t 3 n 15 cm nm 2010 v t 15 n 90 cm vo nm 2070; cc vng nh hng gm c C Mau, Kin Giang, B Ra-Vng Tu, Thanh Ha, Nam nh, Thi Bnh. Cng theo d bo ny, nu mc nc bin dng cao 1 mt th 23% dn s s thiu t.

3 Kch bn Bin i kh hu
Kch bn bin i kh hu v nc bin dng ca Vit Nam va c Ph Th tng Hong Trung Hi ng B Ti nguyn v Mi trng dng lm c s ban u xy dng cc gii php ng ph vi BKH ti Vit Nam Ba kch bn bin i kh hu ti Vit Nam c xy dng da trn ba kch bn pht thi, l pht thi thp, pht thi trung bnh v pht thi cao Nu th gii pht thi t, dn s khng gia tng, thc bo v mi trng tt th c th din ra theo kch bn pht thi thp: nhit ca nm 2100 ch tng t 1,4 n 1,7 ty theo tng vng

3 Kch bn Bin i kh hu
Nu dn s tng nhanh, cc nc tip tc gia tng s pht thi th kch bn pht thi cao: nhit c th tng t 2,1 cho n 3,6 (gp i kch bn pht thi thp) Kch bn nc bin dng cng c xy dng theo cc kch bn pht thi thp - trung bnh - cao. Theo , vo gia th k 21, mc nc bin c th dng thm ln lt l 28 - 30 33 v n cui th k 21, mc nc bin dng thm t 65 -75 - 100 cm so vi thi k 1980 1999

3 Kch bn Bin i kh hu
Ly kch bn trung bnh lm nh hng
Nhit trung bnh nm c th tng ln 2,60C Ty Bc, 2,50C ng Bc, 2,40C ng Bng Bc b, 2,80C Bc Trung B, 1,90C Nam Trung B, 1,60C Ty Nguyn v 2,00C Nam B so vi trung bnh thi k 1980 - 1999. Nhit cc vng kh hu pha Bc v Bc Trung B s tng nhanh hn so vi nhit cc vng kh hu pha Nam. Ti mi vng, nhit ma ng s tng nhanh hn nhit ma h. Tng lng ma nm v lng ma ma ma tt c cc vng kh hu ca nc ta u tng, trong khi lng ma ma kh c xu hng gim. Lng ma nm vo cui th k 21 tng khong 5% so vi thi k 1980-1999 nc bin dng: mc nc bin s dng 30cm vo nm 2050 v cui th k 21 s dng khong 75cm. Tng ng vi mc nc bin dng 75cm th phm vi ngp khu vc TP.HCM l 204km2 (10%), BSCL din tch ngp 7.580km2 (19%).

Cc kch bn nc bin dng * TP. HCM: khi mc nc bin dng 65cm, phm vi ngp 128km2 (6%); dng 75cm, ngp 204km2 (10%); dng 100cm, ngp 473km2 (23%). * ng bng sng Cu Long: dng 65cm, ngp 5.133km2 (12,8%); dng 75cm, ngp 7.580km2 (19%); dng 100cm, ngp 15.116km2 (37,8%).

D BO NH HNG V KINH T-X HI CA BIN DNG


Tiu vng ni nh hng ngun chim u th (A) l cc tnh gip bin gii Cam-pu-chia, l ni hai nhnh sng Mkng v sng Bassac i vo lnh th Vit Nam v l sng M-kng trn b v trn ng vo ng bng sng Cu Long. Tiu vng ny chu tc ng v mi trng t nhin ca mc nc bin dng nhng khng mnh nh hai tiu vng B v C. Do qu trnh bin mnh ln do bin dng, ranh di ca tiu vng s li v pha ngun, su ngp vo ma l s su hn v thi gian ngp cng c th ko di hn. Bi l b sng, cn bi hot ng mnh hn.
V mt kinh t-x hi, khu vc I ca nn kinh t bin ng nhng vic khc phc khng qu kh, v ch yu vn cn l cc h canh tc nc ngt. C cu ma v, h thng canh tc c th xy ra ti mt s a bn v s iu chnh cc cng trnh thy li nhng a bn ny l cn thit. Khu vc II v khu vc III ca nn kinh t c th nhn phn dch chuyn u t v pht trin th t hai vng B v C. Mt dn s v qu trnh th ha chu tc ng t s dch chuyn mt phn dn c, lao ng v cc c s kinh t ca hai vng B v C.

D BO NH HNG V KINH T-X HI CA BIN DNG


Tiu vng ni nh hng bin chim u th (C) y l vng duyn hi ca cc tnh gip vi Bin ng v Vnh Thi Lan. Tiu vng ny chu tc ng v mi trng t nhin ca mc nc bin dng trc tip nht. H sinh thi bi triu v rng ngp mn qua gnh chu cc tc ng s th hin vai tr m gim sng, phng h v gi t. Tnh hnh xi l ng b s mnh hn. Tnh hnh bi lng cc ca sng s thay i. ng ranh vi tiu vng (B) s b y ln v pha ngun. Quy hoch thy li, bao ven bin cn c tnh ton li vi nhng tham s mi ca phn vng thy vn thy lc trong tiu vng. V mt kinh t - x hi, khu vc I ti y, thch ng t trc vi iu kin ngp theo triu v nhim mn hu nh quanh nm, s thay i theo hng kinh t nc mn l chnh. Vng sn xut la s b co lai. Khu vc II, khu vc III v i sng, sinh hot ca ngi dn s kh khn hn do ngp tng v khan him ngun nc ngt. Ngun nc ngt ti y ch trng ch vo nc ma v nc ngm. u t cho c s h tng tn cao v bo v cng trnh s tn km khng t. V nhng l do , mt b phn dn c c th s dch chuyn ra ngoi tiu vng. Vn ln nht ca tiu vng l bo v cc thnh qu ca lao ng qu kh.

D BO NH HNG V KINH T-X HI CA BIN DNG


Tiu vng chu nh hng hn hp bin v ngun (B) y l a bn th hin r rt nht s giao thoa gia hai qu trnh sng v bin, vi qu trnh bin mnh ln. Tiu vng chu s tc ng v mi trng t nhin mnh dn theo hng t ngun ra bin. Din tch ca tiu vng b thu hp li. nh hng n kinh t - x hi tiu vng ny rt to ln do y l vng tp trung dn c th, c nhiu c s kinh t quan trng, m sinh hot v cc hot ng kinh t-x hi cho ti nay u da vo ngun nc ngt di do hu nh quanh nm. i vi khu vc I, mt s a bn gip vi tiu vng (C), cc h thng canh tc trn nn nc ngt nh canh tc la, vn cy n tri b tc ng v mt nng sut, v din tch canh tc; chn nui gia sc gia cm gim mnh; din tch nui trng thy sn nc ngt b thu hp do b nc l v mn ln ln. Khu vc II, khu vc III, th v dn c b nh hng v c th b xo trn kh nhiu. Mt b phn s dch chuyn v tiu vng A hoc ra ngoi vng do thiu ngun nc ngt, do ngp lt hoc do xy dng kt cu h tng cp nc ngt v chng ngp qu tn km. Cng v nhng l do ny, sc thu ht u t kh s cng kh.

Cc vn lin quan n bin i nng nghip


Ngnh nng nghip chim khong 14% lng kh nh knh pht thi trong khi s chuyn i t nng nghip, ph rng cho cc mc ch khc chim khong 17%; Nng nghip ang gp phn pht thi kh nh knh nh kh metan t cc cnh ng la, nit oxit t s dng phn bn, carbon t ph rng v thoi ho t; Nng nghip l ngun pht sinh v gim thiu kh CO2 S dng t trng trt thiu bn vng nh chuyn i mc ch s dng t (ph rng) v gy thoi ho t l nguyn nhn khin tng lng pht thi carbon vo kh quyn, gp phn gy ra s m ln ton cu.

Mn xm nhp
Trong vi nm gn y, thi tit vng BSCL bin i bt thng. Ma kh hn nng nng gay gt, nc bin sm xm nhp su vo t lin. Trong khi ma ma l ko di hn, i khi cn xut hin mt hai cn bo ngoi khi hng vo t lin, iu m trc y rt him khi xy ra vng ny. Hot ng sn xut ca va la v thy sn ln c nc s chu tc ng ra sao ?

T thng 3 nm nay, ma kh trong vng BSCL tip tc hin tng khc thng: nng nng, nhit tng cao ban ngy. Tuy nhin, bt cht xy ra mt vi cn ma tri ma cc b mt vi tnh ven bin. Trong lc ny, ma kit nc nn mc nc trn sng Tin, sng Hu xung thp, nc mn xm nhp sm vo cc tnh Tin Giang, Bn Tre, Tr Vinh, Sc Trng, Bc Liu. Theo s liu ghi nhn t c quan chuyn mn, lu lng nc trn sng Tin, sng Hu vo ma kh kit cch y 30 nm l 2.500 m3/giy, nhng ti nm 2006 ch cn 1.600 m3/giy, gim 36%. Do nc ngt t thng ngun v t nn mn y ngt vo su trong t lin. Vo thng 4-2004, nc mn tng dn su cch 15 km l ti trung tm TP.Cn Th, mn o c 1%0. T cc d liu thu thp qua nhiu nm, Trung tm Quan trc Ti nguyn v Mi trng TP.Cn Th cho rng, n nm 2050, vo ma kh nc mn 1%0 c th xm nhp vo Cn Th thng xuyn hn vi su 0,5 m. Lc , vng sinh thi nc ngt Cn Th go trng nc trong s chu nhiu tc ng. Vo ma ma, trong nhng nm qua thng n sm, ko di v kt thc mun, ch khng cn theo quy lut ca my chc nm trc. Trong nm 2007, 2008, ma ma ko di mi n thng 12 v thng 1 nm sau, mun hn my nm trc hn 1 thng. Ma l cng c tr, nh l thng xut hin mun. Hng nm, nh l xut hin vo cui thng 9 u thng 10, th t nm 2006 ti gia thng 10 mi xut hin nh l. Tnh trng ma ko di, l v t nh mun v trng vo lc triu cng hng thng khin cho vng h lu nhiu ni b ngp.

Thiu nc canh tc
Da vo cc m hnh ton hc v cc kch bn ca y ban Lin Chnh ph v bin i kh hu ca Lin Hip Quc (IPCC), cc nh khoa hc phng on, vng BSCL v cc ng bng khc i mt kh nhiu vn . C th hng nm, t thng 1 n thng 4 xy ra hin tng kh nng, thiu nc, gi chng, nhim mn, hn - phn u v, sm st; t thng 5 n thng 6 hn b chn; thng 7, thng 8 l sm; thng 9, thng 10 l, st l, ma, triu cng; thng 11, thng 12 bo, lnh. Trc tin l v la H thu nc ta, t thng 4 n thng 8 s chu nhiu nh hng: thng 4 bt u cy i cn nc rt nhiu t 10-20 cm, nhng li gp kh hn u v, ri ro trong tng lai khi hn gia tng, ma gim, chi ph bm ti s tng. Thng 5 s cy cn nc trung bnh 510 cm. Thng 6 la n bi, chi nch cn nc gia tng dn t 2-10 cm, nhng lc ny thng gp ri ro, lng ma gim, hn b chn. Thng 7 la tr bng cn nc nhiu 10 cm. Ti thng 8 vo giai on cui v la xanh, chn, nc gim dn 5-10 cm, trong khi ma li gia tng nh hng ti nng sut. Trong tng lai, tng lng ma H thu t 15-5 n 15-6 s gim, hn u v s gay gt hn, lng ma gim di t 5% n trn 35% v phn b bt li cho sn xut. Vng ven bin ma gim, kh nng mn xm nhp gia tng. Vng c nhit trn 370C tr ln m rng. S ngy nng trn 400C vo ma h nhiu hn. Din tch ngp l s m rng vo nm 2030, nhng s ngy ngp l vng u ngun s gim v tng khu vc h lu. Tc ng ny s gy nh hng ti vng nui tm Bc Liu, C Mau.

III. Cc chng trnh d n ang trin khai ti Vit Nam

Cc chng trnh, d n ang trin khai


D n "Tc ng ca bin i kh hu v nh gi tnh tn hi cho thnh ph Cn Th" (Climate Change Impacts and Vulnerabilities Assessment for Can Tho city) Vin Nghin cu Bin i Kh hu - i hc Cn Th
Chng trnh c ti tr bi Qu Rockerfeller (M) H tr nhm cc thnh ph Chu c kh nng chng chu vi bin i kh hu (ACCCRN) xy dng cc cng c v bin php thc t ng ph bin i kh hu, gim ngho v qun l tc th ha ang gia tng. ( ba thnh ph Vit Nam l Cn Th, Nng v Quy Nhn)

Cc chng trnh d n ang trin khai


D n Tc ng ca bin i kh hu v nh gi tnh tn hi cho thnh ph Cn Th
Vit Nam l quc gia u tin thc hin chng trnh ACCCRN nhm thch ng vi bin i kh hu D n khi ng t thng 5-2009 v hin ang tp hp s liu, ng thi phi hp vi Vin Khoa hc thy li min Nam chy nhng kch bn, m hnh v BKH nh: lng ma tng ln, nc bin dng trong vng 10-20 nm na xem nc dng ni no b ngp nhiu, ngp su, ngp bao lu. Trn c s ny, cc nh khoa hc v nng nghip, thy sn, nh qui hoch th... s tnh ton v a ra d bo tc ng nh th no n sn xut nng nghip, thy sn, c s h tng ca TP Cn Th, a ra khuyn co c th cho cc nh hoch nh gii php ng ph ph hp D kin cng on thu thp s liu s kt thc trong thng 8, hay thng 9-2009

Cc chng trnh d n ang s trin khai


D n bin i kh hu v bo tn, s dng bn vng a dng sinh hc C Mau Ni dung: lm r tc hi ca nc bin dng, thin tai, triu cng, l, nng nng, hn hn; kin ngh u t xy dng cc trm quan trc mc nc bin, hi vn, trm gim st ti nguyn mi trng thu thp d liu

Cc chng trnh d n ang trin khai


D n S thch ng vi bin i kh hu cp cng ng v cc chnh sch c lin quan tnh Tha Thin Hu
Do i s qun Phn Lan ti tr, c Vin Ti nguyn, Mi trng v Cng ngh sinh hc phi hp vi 2 x Hng Phong (huyn Hng Tr) v x Qung Thnh (huyn Qung in) v cc n v ca tnh Tha Thin Hu t chc thc hin 6/7/2009 bn k hoch thc hin d n Ni dung: gip nng cao hiu bit v tnh d b tn thng v kh nng thch ng a phng i vi BKH, tch hp nhng gii php thch ng BKH vo i sng hin ti v tng lai cho ngi dn a phng

Cc hi tho v BKH
IUCN Vit Nam t chc v thc y ba hi tho nhm gio dc v khuyn khch chia s tng v gim nh v thch ng vi BKH trong qu I nm 2009 Hi tho th nht, Bin i kh hu v Mc nc bin dng Vit Nam
Do IUCN v B Ti nguyn & Mi trng (TNMT) ng ch tr ny, vi h tr ti chnh ca DANIDA Cung cp cc thng tin mi nht v tc ng tim tng ca BKH i vi cc khu vc ngnh ngh khc nhau, m t mi lin kt gia BKH v thin tai, v bn cch lng ghp cc vn v bin i kh hu vo cc chin lc pht trin ca quc gia.

Cc hi tho v BKH
Hi tho th hai v vn thch ng vi bin i kh hu ti tiu vng sng M-kng
Do B TNMT, IUCN v t chc Sng kin khng kh sch chu ch tr 30 chuyn gia t M, c, Trung Quc, Thi Lan, Anh v Vit Nam hp mt ti hi tho ny v tho lun nhng cch thc m khu vc ny c th dng ng ph vi cc tc ng ca BKH

Hi tho th ba, Thch ng vi bin i kh hu vng M-kng


Do IUCN, WWF, SEA START RC v i hc Cn th ng t chc Tho lun v cc chin lc cp vng thch ng vi nhng tc ng xuyn bin gii ca bin i kh hu

Cc hi tho v BKH
Hi tho Mng li cc thnh ph chu c kh nng chng chu vi BKH (ACCCRN) ln th nht gia cc i tc thnh ph nm trong d n ti thnh ph Nng
Do B TN-MT, UBND thnh ph Nng phi hp vi Qu Rockefeller vo 25/8/2009 Ni dung: phn tch cc gii php, kinh nghim cng hc hi v chia s kinh nghim trong cng tc ng ph v chng chu vi bin i kh hu Trong khun kh D n Mng li cc thnh ph chu c kh nng chng chu vi bin i kh hu do Qu Rockefeller ti tr, thnh ph Nng c ti tr 200 nghn USD trin khai d n Tng cng kh nng chng chu vi bin i kh hu trn a bn qun Lin Chiu v Sn Tr

Cc hi tho v BKH
Hi tho Quan im ton th gii v s nng ln ton cu (WWViews) ti Vit Nam din ra ngy 26/9 ti H Ni
L c hi ngi dn tm hiu v BKH l hot ng gio dc nng cao nhn thc cng ng ti tng ngi dn, tng a phng

Cc t chc quc t quan tm ti VN


UNDP: ng gp 22 triu USD cho cc d n v mi trng v bin i kh hu ti Vit Nam UNDP tip tc h tr VN xy dng chnh sch, tng cng nng lc, h tr iu phi v cho rng nn m rng hp tc trong vn a dng Sinh hc, qun l cht thi bnh vin v nng cao nng lc ng ph vi BKH Ngn hng u t Chu u (EIB)
EIB u t 100 triu EURO cho Vit Nam cho vic gim thiu bin i kh hu thng qua cc d n i mi ngun nng lng hoc s dng nng lng mt cch hiu qu (70%) v cho cc cng ty Chu u u t ti Vit Nam (30%)

IV. BIN PHP KHC PHC, GIM THIU

BIN PHP KHC PHC


Nghin cu cc ging la mi c kh nng chu ngp, chu mn, chu phn nhm thch ng vi BKH Xy dng cc nh knh gn bin chuyn i nc mn thnh nc ngt canh tc m khng phi dng ti nh my kh mui. Nu d n ny kh thi th trong tng lai vic canh tc trn sa mc s tr thnh hin thc 1,2% tng lng pht x kh nh knh trn quy m ton cu l do vic sn xut cc loi phn bn ha hc gy ra. khc phc tnh trng bin i kh hu th nn dng cc loi phn bn khc hoc s dng cc vi khun c nh nit.

BIN PHP KHC PHC, GIM THIU


Thay th phn bn ha hc bng cc loi phn bn vi khun, hu c khng ch tt cho mi trng, sc khe con ngi m cn lm cho cy trng hi sinh, ra nhiu qu hn Vic ti lm giu cho t c xem l mc tiu quan trng duy tr ngnh nng nghip pht trin bn vng trong tng lai, bng cch b sung cc loi phn bn hu c, sinh khi charcoal hay biochar (cc loi phn bn c to bi thin nhin) v bin t canh tc thnh ni lu gi ccbon. Biochar c tc dng hp dn c cu vi sinh, gip cy trng tip cn cc ngun dng cht c trong t v gip cho t lu gi c nhiu nc hn, ng thi bo qun ccbon tt hn, hn ch pht tn vo bu kh quyn

BIN PHP KHC PHC, GIM THIU


Lu tr lng cacbon cao hn trong t, ngi nng dn c th gip gim thiu lng kh cacbon dioxit trong khng kh, nng cao kh nng phc hi ca t v lm tng sn lng ma v Gim cy cy, tng cht hu c trong t, tng che ph t, ci thin qun l ng c, phc hi cc vng t thoi ho, trng thm nhiu cy, thay i thc n cho gia sc v s dng bn vng ngun a dng gen ng vt, s dng phn bn hiu qu, ci thin cng tc qun l nc v ng cc chnh l nhng s la chn m ngi nng dn c th p dng nhm gim thiu s pht thi kh nh knh trong nng nghip

Thy li
Xy dng mi v nng cp h thng , nng nn cc cng trnh st bin Xy cao 1-1,2m bo v cng bin, di tch, im du lch, trong vng ngp do nc bin dng Qun l sng v m ph Qun l tng hp ti nguyn nc v iu hnh cc h cha

Pht trin bn vng


Cm cht ph cy chng mi mn t Trng rng ngp mn v quy hoch nui trng thy sn Pht trin cc khu bo tn sinh thi Khng quy hoch khu nh c gn b bin, ca sng

Tr cp nng nghip chng bin i kh hu


Nu tt c nng dn ti cc nc ngho c h tr trong hot ng sn xut nng nghip, lng kh thi gy bin i kh hu s gim xung ng k. Ngoi ra, bin php ny cn gip hng trm triu ngi thot cnh i ngho. Nu sn xut nng nghip ti cc nc ang pht trin tr nn bn vng hn v c kh nng phc hi nhanh hn trc tc ng ca bin i kh hu, th s ngi ang sng trong ngho i (khong 1 t) s gim xung. Ngoi ra, ngi dn s c thm nhiu c hi kim vic lm v tng thu nhp, Alexander Mueller, tr l tng gim c T chc Nng lng Th gii (FAO), pht biu hm qua. Tc ng ca nng nghip i vi bin i kh hu l r rng, bi kh thi t hng trm triu nng tri trn khp hnh tinh chim khong 14% tng lng kh gy hiu ng nh knh. Tnh trng thay i mc ch s dng t trng nh t rng lm nng ry ng gp thm 17% na. Gia nm 1990 v 2005, lng kh thi do nn nng nghip ti cc nc ang pht trin to ra tng khong 30% v s tip tc tng cao hn na. Hng trm triu nng dn ngho trn th gii c th gip loi ngi trong n lc ct gim kh thi gy hiu ng nh knh, Peter Holmgren, iu phi vin ca FAO trong cc cuc m phn v bin i kh hu, nhn xt. ng Holmgren cho rng vic ti tr cho nng dn l hnh ng cn thit gip h vt b nhng thi quen canh tc lc hu v tip cn nhng bin php thn thin vi mi trng. Nhng tp qun canh tc bn vng khng ch tng nng sut cy trng, m cn lm gim bt kh thi c hi, FAO khng nh. Theo Holmgren, mt hip nh quc t mi v bin i kh hu (thay th Ngh nh th Kyoto) nn a vo cc bin php h tr ti chnh gim nh tc ng tiu cc ca hot ng sn xut nng nghip nh phc hi t thoi ha v ngn chn nn ph rng. Lin Hp Quc s t chc mt hi ngh ton cu ti Copenhagen (an Mch) vo thng 12 nm nay, nhm hng ti mt tha thun v bin i kh hu. Tha thun ny s thay th cho Ngh nh th Kyoto ht hiu lc vo nm 2012.

Ngn chn CO2 kh quyn tng thm


Hin tng gia tng kh thi nh knh vt ra ngoi tm kim sot, trong khi cy c khng th hp thu nhiu hn CO2 dng vo quang hp v cc nh my cng khng th ngng hot ng. Nhng vic ngn chn CO2 tng thm kh quyn li l yu cu sng cn cho c nhn loi. Hai quan im thc hnh ngn chn tri ngc nhau ang c hnh thnh. Quan im th nht coi CO2 l loi cht thi c hi cn c chuyn thnh dng cht rn carbonat (CO3) bt ng, ri em chn vo cc hm m b hoang nm di mt t hay to thnh bi thi gia lng i dng. K thut trn s c th im t nm 2015, ngha l phi mt hn 20 nm na mi thnh hin thc. Chi ph cho vic chuyn mi tn CO2 ln n 80-120 USD khng ch lm cc chnh ph nn lng v u t ln m cc nh sn xut cng ngn ngi v mi sn phm s phi mang thm chi ph kh thi. Quan im th hai coi CO2 l nguyn liu, t y bt u quy trnh sn xut ra sn phm mi. im ni bt trong quan im ny l a khi lng khng l kh CO2 t cc nh my nhit in vo tri nui to sn xut nhin liu sinh hc. Mt khi du m cn kit th ch c rong to sc thay th nh sinh khi ln, tng trng nhanh, li sng c trong mi trng bin. Khc bit gia CO2 cht thi v CO2 nguyn liu ti s dng l mt bn phi b tin ra em i chn, bn kia to ra ng tin t sn phm mi. Cng ty Mantra Energy cho bit c mi tn CO2 dng li h thu c 700 USD t acid formic v cc mui format, thng qua k thut kh electron CO2 trong mi trng nc. u im vic ti s dng CO2 vo nn kinh t l c th thc hin ngay bng cc k thut khc nhau t sinh ha, nhit ha, sinh xc tc hoc quang xc tc nh nng lng mt tri, hay trng hp kh electron trong php in ha. Ngi ta c th u t thnh nhiu d n va tm, nht l ni cc nh my thi nhiu CO2 m mt dy chuyn ti s dng s lm tng thm li nhun doanh nghip.

Vietnam: Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change Study


Floods have caused extensive damage to infrastructure, significant losses in the agriculture and fisheries sectors, as well as a large number of fatalities. According to Vietnam's Emergency Events Database (EMDAT) floods alone affected 35 million people between 1960 and 2006. Climate change is expected to bring increased disasters to Vietnam in the form of typhoons, cyclones, floods and droughts. Approximately 10 percent of Vietnam's population and GDP is expected to be impacted if sea-level were to rise by one meter. Rice, vegetables and maize are some of the countrys most important agricultural products. They cover 60 percent of the total cultivated area and are grown by 79 percent of households. Maintaining food security and reducing poverty are some of the priorities in the countrys development agenda. Vietnam also has a large amount of forest area covering almost 40 percent of the country. According to Vietnams forest use classification system, 17 percent of these forests are considered special use, 41 percent are considered as protection and 42 percent are classified as production.

Th gii ngh g v chin lc ca VN nhm i ph vi BDKH


The World Bank Adapting to Climate Change Vietnam has had a long history of designing and implementing adaptation projects especially regarding floods and cyclones. Some of the adaptation measures the nation has been involved in include: Developing crop patterns suitable to climate change. Upgrading irrigation systems for agriculture. Reserving and storing local crop varieties and establishing a crop-seed bank. Accounting for sea-level rise and increasing temperatures while building infrastructure. Planning and implementing extensive sea-dykes system while building infrastructure. Building storm shelter port systems along the coast and on islands. Promoting public awareness on climate change. However, despite this intense set of activities, little is known with respect to the costs and benefits of these adaptive measures in Vietnam. The EACC study estimates that it will cost $75 - $100 billion (dry & wetter scenarios) each year to adapt to climate change from 2010 to 2050.

Vai tr ca Vin Khoa hc k thut Nng nghip min Nam

Vin Khoa hc k thut Nng nghip min Nam


Vin s c nhng nh hng g? Vin d nh s tham gia vo lnh vc g? a bn hot ng: DBSCL? Duyn hi Nam Trung B? Ni dung c th c th tham gia?

Cc Lnh vc nghin cu c th tham gia


Tim nng v nhng mt hn ch ca ngun gen thch nghi i vi ngp, hn hn, chu nhit v chu mn ca cy la Gim thiu pht thi kh thi nh knh trong canh tc la Ci thin kh nng hi phc do Bin i kh hu ca cc h thng canh tc vng DBSCL

Cc Lnh vc nghin cu c th tham gia

Lai to ging la chng chu


Chn lc nhng dng c kh nng chng chu ngp, mn, nhit, hn hn

Vai tr ca cc loi cy trng khc nh Bp, u, rau


Chn lc nhng dng c kh nng chng chu ngp, mn, nhit, hn hn

Bin php k thut canh tc


ph nhiu t v Dinh dng cy trng Qun l nc Qun l t phn, mn

Chuyn i h thng canh tc: cy trng v vt nui


Cy trng cn c th dng thay th? Vt nui?

Qun l cht thi trong chn nui


Vt nui?

Thy Nng
Cc bin php iu tit nc, tng s hu dng ca nc v xy dng k hoch s dng nc hiu qu

Kinh t X Hi
Th trng cho cc sn phm nng nghip Cch ng x ca ngi nng dn v qun l him ha trong canh tc,

Rt mong nhn c nhiu kin ng gp ca cc Anh Ch

Xin Cm n