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Preface

On behalf of the Higher Education Commissions Committee for Development of Social Sciences and Humanities in Pakistan (CDSSHP), several representatives from civil society, senior staff of HEC Islamabad and University of Gujrat, I am pleased to share with you detailed report of the 1st HEC International Conference on Promotion of Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities: Prospects and Challenges, held in Islamabad from 16-18 April 2012. The Conference was attended by about 150 participants from all major public and private sector Pakistani universities, besides one dozen foreign delegates some of whom were already based in the country. The participants represented not only all the geographical regions and provinces of the country, but also all major disciplines of the social sciences: economy, sociology, political science, psychology, international relations and media. More important, the level of the participants varied from that of vice chancellors to young faculty members and PhD scholars in the social sciences. This imparted a unique flavour to the Conference, which was much needed in terms of its agenda and goal: identifying interdisciplinary social science research priorities for Pakistan through a fine balance of time-tested and fresh perspectives. The proceedings of the Conference shared through this report amply reflect multiple views on a number of challenges facing Pakistan. An open discussion on the most controversial issues was what we had strived for and that is exactly what we were able to achieve. This discussion led to some very concrete and workable recommendations put forth by the five parallel working groups and endorsed by the plenary. The research priorities identified by the Conference are in no way the final word. They are, at best, the beginning of a long discussion. The Conference has rightly recommended that professional associations should hold annual conferences in social science disciplines to refine and take forward this agenda, This report attempts at comprehensively capturing the discussion and recommendations of the Conference. We believe that this is an agenda for the future and anyone wishing to take it forward needs to have a complete picture. All the presentations made during the seven plenary sessions have been included, as are the remarks by the chair, discussions, questions and answers. The discussion held in the working groups and their recommendations have also been included. Moreover, all the presentations made during the working groups and academic papers shared with their members have been included in the appendices for the benefit of the discerning readers. Taking this opportunity, I want to thank all those whose input made it possible to successfully organize this Conference. I will start with HEC Chairman, Dr. Javaid R. Laghari and Executive Director Dr. Sohail H. Naqvi, who were gracious enough to support not only this Conference but also the idea of making it an annual feature. Members of the CDSSHP deserve a special mention for their continued support and cooperation.

The organization of the Conference was made possible due to the financial support extended by the HEC, UNFPA, CCE, NUST and NTS. Besides these, nine public and private sector universities Agricultural University Peshawar, Peshawar, Beaconhouse National University, Lahore, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Sukkur Institute of Business Adminstration, Sukkur, University of Swat, Saidu Sharif, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, University of Karachi, Karachi contributed Rs. 100,000 each to the Conference. I take this opportunity to thank all of these. I also thank the consultants, Dr. James C. Witte, Director, Center for Social Science Research, George Mason University, USA, Dr. Grace C. Clark, Professor, Department of Sociology, Forman Christian College, Lahore, Dr. Anita M. Weiss, Head, Department of International Studies, University of Oregon, USA and fellow members Dr. Nasser Ali Khan, Director, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar, Dr. Rasul Bux Rais, Professor, School of Humanities, Social Sciences and Law, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore, Dr. Mehtab S. Karim, Distinguished Senior Fellow and Affiliated Professor, School of Public Health, George Mason University, USA, Dr. Syed Jaffar Ahmed, Director, Pakistan Study Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi, Dr. Yasmin N. Farooqi, Professor, Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Mr. Fida Hussain, Director General (Quality Assurance Cell), Higher Education Commission, Islamabad, Mr. Muhammad Anees Sadozai, Director General (Services), Higher Education Commission, Islamabad, Syed Wasim S. Hashmi, Project Director, FFHP-UESTP-Faculty Development Program, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad, Mr. Sulaiman Ahmad, Deputy Director (Academics), Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Pakistan, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad, Mr. Muhammad Murtaza Noor, Project Manager, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Pakistan, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad of the Conference Organizing Committee. It would indeed be unjust not to mention CDSSHP Chairperson Dr. Nasser Ali Khan. To me, the successful organization of the Conference owes to his self-belief more than anything else. Let me also thank the Conference Secretariat staff Dr. Fauzia Maqsood, Associate Director, Faculty of Social Sciences, Mr. Javed Sajjad Ahmad, Senior Consultant, Sheikh Abdul Rashid, Additional Registrar, Press, Media and Publications, Ms. Tanzila Qamar Gill, Deputy Registrar, Ms. Sidra Maqsood, Lecturer, Department of Sociology, Mr. Faisal Iqbal, Personal Staff Officer to Vice Chancellor, Mr. Muhamad Faisal, Accounts Officer, Mr. Hassan Raza Awan, Research Associate, Centre for Population, Urban and Environment Studies, for its hard work and dedication. In particular, the Coordinator of the Conference, Mr. Mustafa Nazir Ahmad, who is also the editor of this report.

Prof. Mohammad Nizamuddin, Ph D

Chairperson, Conference Organizing Committee, Committee for Development of Social Sciences and Humanities in Pakistan (CDSSHP), Vice Chancellor, University of Gujrat, Gujrat.

Introduction to the Conference

Introduction to the Conference


The social sciences encompass diverse areas and concerns of society. They include a broad spectrum of interests drawn from disciplines such as anthropology, economics, education, history, international relations, media, political science, psychology, public administration, social work, sociology, etc. The significance of social sciences in the education system should be reinstated by not only highlighting their increasing relevance in todays context, but also pointing to their indispensability in laying the foundations of an analytical and creative mindset. It should be recognized that the social sciences lend themselves to scientific inquiry just as much as the basic sciences do. This requires articulation of a pre-programmed methodology and its practical implementation in those areas where the social sciences are distinct from the basic sciences. The boundaries of social science disciplines need to be opened up and a plurality of approaches applied to facilitate a free and open transfer of knowledge. This can be achieved by facilitating interdisciplinary thinking, with priority given to themes where different disciplinary approaches could facilitate an in-depth understanding of human societies.

Pakistans Context

The social science research output from Pakistani universities leaves a lot to be desired. Even in post-graduate courses, where writing a research monograph is a requirement, the same can be substituted with alternate options avoiding rigorous empirical methods and techniques. The reasons for adopting such an approach are often legitimate. Financial and socio-cultural constraints, mobility problems and the facultys own handicaps hold back students from undertaking even small research projects. A general lack of interest in the social sciences in Pakistan, as evident from the publication of dismally low number of research papers in internationally reputed journals, prevents academics from pursuing even those research projects that could bring funding to their universities. The people of Pakistan have paid dearly for the neglect of social science research, with its cumulative impact being felt in terms of the declining quality of the state apparatus. Without a vibrant, rational tradition in social science research, the theoretical perspectives and empirical research on which sound policymaking ought to rest remain woefully inadequate.

Promotion of Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities

Another explanation given for the dismal state of social science research in Pakistan is the lack of a culture that promotes open and free-flowing discussion and debate. The intolerance prevailing in society coupled with absence of exchange of ideas, freedom of expression and indigenous research hampers progress in this direction. Factors such as the lack of incentives for social scientists and the low value attached to social science research have contributed largely to the decline of academic institutions in Pakistan. This trend has been further accentuated by the absence of a thriving intellectual community in the country. Even worse, research priorities for Pakistan are usually determined by donors and, more often than not, lack relevance to the local context. Similarly, social scientists continue to apply borrowed theoretical constructs and conceptual frameworks to Pakistani conditions without questioning, debating or defining their validity and relevance to the country. To address these and many other related issues, the Higher Education Commission [HEC], Government of Pakistan, formed the Committee for Development of Social Sciences and Humanities in Pakistan [CDSSHP] in 2003. The dismal state of social science research in Pakistan was also discussed during several Inter-University Vice Chancellors meetings. Subsequently, a high-powered Committee was formed under the chairpersonship of Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin (Vice Chancellor, University of Gujrat) to give recommendations and suggestions for the promotion of social science research and teaching in Pakistani universities. The Committees foremost recommendation was to organize an annual international social science conference for regular and meaningful discourse among leading social scientists and academics from home and abroad, with a view to identifying interdisciplinary social science research priorities for Pakistan.

Organizing Committee and Secretariat

Against this backdrop, members of the CDSSHP under the chairpersonship of Dr. Nasser Ali Khan (Director, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar) unanimously agreed to organize the 1st HEC International Social Science Conference in April 2011 in Islamabad. Subsequently, a Conference Organizing Committee was formed and Dr. Nizamuddin was appointed as its chairperson. Besides him, the Committee comprised of leading social scientists from home and abroad, as well as senior HEC officials, as members and consultants. The two biggest challenges before the Conference Organizing Committee were shortage of time and funds. To meet the first challenge, a Conference Secretariat was established with representation from both the University of Gujrat and the HEC, and Mr. Mustafa Nazir Ahmad (Director, Press and Publications, University of Gujrat) was appointed as its Coordinator. To meet the second challenge, the Organizing Committee requested vice chancellors/directors/rectors of all private and public sector universities and degree-awarding institutions in Pakistan to contribute at least Rs.100,000 to the Conference. HEC Execu-

Introduction to the Conference

tive Director Dr. Sohail H. Naqvi was also requested for financial and administrative support, as were some leading government and United Nations agencies, NGOs, and other civil society organizations. The Organizing Committee decided to hold the 1st HEC International Social Science Conference on the Promotion of Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities: Prospects and Challenges, in Islamabad from 18 to 20 April 2011, with equal representation from all the geographic regions of Pakistan, and participation of PhD scholars along with seasoned academics. The Conference was dedicated to the memory of the late Dr. Inayatullah, founder of the Council of Social Sciences and founder chairperson of the Department of International Relations, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. In addition, the Conference Organizing Committee invited nominations from all members of the CDSSHP for the 1st HEC Lifetime Achievement Award in Social Sciences to be conferred during the Inaugural Session of the Conference. The Conference Organizing Committee also resolved to make the HEC International Social Science Conference an annual event, with focus shifting from identification of research priorities to sharing of research findings in subsequent years.

Thematic Focus

The 1st HEC International Social Science Conference covered all major social science disciplines; however, considering Pakistans current priorities, the focus was on: 1. Sustainable Human Development, Poverty and Inequality. 2. Costs and Opportunities of Pakistans Rapidly Changing Age Structure: Demographic Dividend, Population Ageing and Urbanization. 3. The Pakistan State: Internal and External Challenges. 4. The Role of Media and Civil Society in Ensuring Human Rights and Cultural Diversity. 5. Problems of Conducting Dissertation Research in Pakistani Universities.

Objectives

The main objectives of the 1st HEC International Social Science Conference on the Promotion of Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities: Prospects and Challenges were to: 1. Develop and promote an interdisciplinary approach to study the Pakistani ociety. 2. Identify common research priorities to meet the contemporary social, economic, political, cultural and environmental challenges faced by the akistani society. 3. Examine latest methodological tools, conceptual paradigms and techniques to address the challenging research issues facing Pakistan. 4. Build the capacity of young faculty members and PhD/ MPhil students to conduct qualitative and quantitative social science research. 5. Encourage and facilitate replication of social science research

Promotion of Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities

conducted in the United States and other developed countries. 6. Provide a forum to the academics and researchers from different disciplines within the social sciences to come together and learn from each others experiences. 7. Establish an inter-university consortium to enhance the role of social science research in Pakistans public policymaking. The 1st HEC International Social Science Conference shared improvements in pedagogical strategies, as well as application of innovative techniques and technologies, in social science disciplines. Moreover, it provided an opportunity to Pakistani universities to share their accomplishments, failures and future strategies. The Conference also examined the HECs efforts to promote social science research in Pakistani universities under the umbrella of the CDSSHP.

Inaugural Session

Inaugural Session
The Inaugural Session of the 1st HEC International Social Science Conference on the Promotion of Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities: Prospects and Challenges, was held at a time when the news of HECs dissolution was in the air in the wake of the 18th Constitutional Amendment. This called for inviting maximum number of stakeholders to the Inaugural Session, so as to use the occasion for sharing the HECs point of view on the issue and its achievements over the years with them. Besides the Conference participants, the Inaugural Session was attended by a large number of guests, including vice chancellors/rectors/directors of public and private sector universities and degree-awarding institutions; representatives of diplomatic missions and international organizations; staff of research institutes, NGOs and civil society organizations; senior government officials; and media persons. Conference Coordinator Mr. Mustafa Nazir Ahmad (Director, Press and Publications, University of Gujrat) fulfilled the responsibilities as the Master-of-Ceremonies in the Inaugural Session, which started with recitation from the Holy Quran. Mr. Ahmad introduced the Chair, speakers and keynote speaker Prof. Rehman Sobhan. He termed the organization of the Conference in less than three months nothing less than a miracle, and credited Dr. Nizamuddin and Dr. Nasser with this achievement.

Opening Remarks

[Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin]

After giving a brief overview of the Conference, the Conference Coordinator invited Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin (Chairperson, Conference Organizing Committee; Vice Chancellor, University of Gujrat) to deliver the opening remarks. Dr. Nizamuddin started by thanking foreign participants and those distinguished guests who had travelled long distances within the country to attend the Conference. He acknowledged that the organization of the Conference had been made possible due to the financial and administrative support extended by the HEC, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the Centre for Civic Education (CCE) and the National Testing Service (NTS). Besides these, he informed that nine public and private sector universities had contributed Rs. 100,000 each to the Conference. Dr. Nizamuddin thanked members and consultants of the Organizing Committee for their valuable contribution. He also thanked staff of the Conference Secretariat, particularly Conference Coordinator Mr. Mustafa Nazir Ahmad (Director, Press and Publications, University of Gujrat), for their utmost dedication and hard work. The Chairperson of the Organizing Committee said that the organization of the Conference was necessitated by many important concerns, but none more important than the current state of social, political and economic affairs in Pakistan. The absence of a culture of research- and evidence-based policy formulation has resulted in policies and programs that are mostly in utter disregard of peoples needs, desires and aspirations. Hence disillusionment, expressed in violent and extremist behaviour, seems to have become our national character, he said.

Promotion of Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities

Dr. Nizamuddin underlined that, throughout the developed world, social science research is a domain of the universities, not bureaucracies or civil society organizations. The universities can also help in meeting the challenges posed by the state and society in Pakistan. This Conference is, in fact, an expression of the realization that Pakistani universities should identify interdisciplinary social science research priorities. He raised five questions that begged to be answered if Pakistan were to become a developed, prosperous and peaceful nation: 1. Why does the gap between the rich and the poor increase with high economic growth in Pakistan? 2. What strategies have we devised to ensure that our youth population becomes an asset, not a liability? 3. Is increasing intolerance and extremism in Pakistan an outcome of mistakes made by us in the past in the arenas of foreign policymaking and development planning? 4. Is there a direct link between human rights/cultural diversity and development? 5. What can be done to create conducive environment for social science research in Pakistani universities? Dr. Nizamuddin informed the guests and participants that the thematic underpinnings of the Conference were these and many similar equally important questions. Through plenary sessions, keynote addresses and working groups, we will try to collectively answer these questions; or rather we will learn how to frame our questions in such a manner that they may be answered. I have come to believe that research, especially in the social sciences, enables us to not only answer questions, but also ask better questions, he said. During the next three days, we will also try to explore the linkages between the problems we are facing, with a view to identifying interdisciplinary social science research priorities for Pakistan. To round off, we will try to identify the institutional and financial mechanisms required for implementing the priorities highlighted by the five working groups, he added. The Chairperson of the Organizing Committee shared with the audiences that the HEC had agreed to make the International Social Science Conference an annual event. In coming years, the focus will shift from problem-identification and agenda-setting to concrete research endeavours. Another important consideration will be to provide young social scientists with an opportunity to share their research findings. Dr. Nizamuddin reiterated that the capacity of social science departments/faculties of the public sector universities in Pakistan needed to be strengthened through generous funding by the government and the private sector, particularly the latter. The private sector should generously support social science research since most of the graduates from public sector universities end up working in the private sector, said Dr. Nizamuddin, Pakistan needs to produce quality research, for which quality research institutions and programs, as well as sustainable funding mechanisms, are a must.

Inaugural Session

The policymakers in Pakistan are not dying to listen to the academia and civil society, but they are not averse to their recommendations either. The main reason why social science research has not yet been able to become an essential feature of the policymaking process in Pakistan is its mediocre quality, he said. Once social science research becomes an integral part of the policymaking process, through the implementation of right institutional and financial mechanisms, things will improve. Dr. Nizamuddin also shard details of the conference document provided to the participants as resource material. The document includes a summary of the three-day program along with about 50 abstracts contributed by keynote speakers, panelists, participants and PhD scholars. Next, he read a message sent by Dr. Grace C. Clark (Professor, Department of Sociology, Forman Christian College University, Lahore), who is also one of the consultants to the Conference Organizing Committee: The scope of the Conference is wonderful and the range of social scientists you have gathered together is breathtaking. After reading the abstracts, I do not feel that the social sciences are in dire straits at all; not with such wonderful people. What we do need to do is to get organized and work together to produce more results. He fully agreed with Dr. Clark that Pakistan had no dearth of social scientists. In the end, Dr. Nizamuddin thanked the guests and participants and on behalf of the CDSSHP, and hoped they would come up with a workable agenda for promoting social science research in Pakistan. We cannot promote social science research by organizing such conferences alone; we also need to strengthen institutions and funding mechanisms for that, he concluded.

Keynote Address

[Prof. Rehman Sobhan]

After Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddins remarks, Conference Coordinator Mr. Mustafa Nazir Ahmad invited Prof. Rehman Sobhan (Chairperson, Centre for Policy Dialogue, Bangladesh) to deliver the keynote address. Prof. Sobhans paper titled, The Crisis in Social Science Research Across South Asia: Coping with Market Failure and Structural Constraints, is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: I am indeed honoured to be invited to address the 1st HEC International Social Science Conference on the Promotion of Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities: Prospects and Challenges and more so to do this in the presence of such a distinguished audience of academic personalities. The central message I seek to present before these audiences, which transcend your borders, draws on my limited knowledge of social science research across South Asia: effective demand for academic research in the social sciences remains both weak and, in particular cases, undiscovered. My argument is that this market failure in articulating a need for quality research is compounded by the structural constraints that distort the market for such research, and generate disincentives for researchers to be both more socially relevant and professionally recognized in the nature of their research.

Promotion of Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities

In preparing my address, I drew inspiration from an excellent paper written by Dr. Akbar S. Zaidi on the dismal state of the social sciences in Pakistan. What struck me as disturbing and evocative in Dr. Zaidis paper was the haunting similarity between the state of social science research in Pakistan and my country Bangladesh, as well as the neighbouring countries of Nepal and Sri Lanka. India, of course, does not escape untouched by the crisis in the social sciences that I discuss in my paper, but the state of research there remains at an altogether different level from other South Asian countries. The main burden of my argument will, therefore, rest on the experience of Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, where the social sciences have been driven by broadly similar dynamics, yielding largely parallel outcomes compromising the quality and effectiveness of research. In the context of the social sciences, the market demand for research originates from four major sources: 1. The need by policymakers for research inputs to assist them in the design of policy. 2. The need for quality research to serve as a route for professional advancement. 3. The need of the commercial market that is willing to pay for research. 4. The need from within society for an articulation of its concerns so that they are satisfactorily addressed. In South Asian countries, the need for and effective use of social science research remains shallow. The policymaking process, except with brief moments of aberration, remained largely within the domain of bureaucracy, aided and abetted by our external patrons, the so-called development partners. The extent of influence exercised by these partners depended partially on the professional competence of our bureaucracies and partially on their political clout. But the binding constraint remained the degree of aid dependence of our governments that determined the extent of leverage exercised by donors over our policies. One of the many consequences of such structural constraints within our polities on the quest for policy advice was the marginalization of research outcomes generated by the academic community within our universities and research institutions. Even in the glory days of the Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE) in the 1960s, when expatriate economists of some distinction as well as eminent indigenous economists were working with it, and the Pakistan Development Review was a globally recognized peer reviewed journal, PIDEs research output exercised only peripheral influence on the design of development policy. In those days, Pakistans policy was heavily influenced by the World Bank and the Harvard Advisory Group, working in intimate collaboration with local bureaucrats, as well as some Pakistani economists of considerable competence and eventual eminence. That many of those economists ended up working for the World Bank was perhaps not entirely a coincidence! For those of us who had the misfortune to dwell in the remote jungles of university campuses, our work was considered of no consequence; and, when recognized, viewed as seditious. When some of us, through the processes of history, could briefly emerge from our

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jungle habitat on the campus and find ourselves located at the heart of public policymaking in the newly independent country of Bangladesh, the same contradiction between the professional community and bureaucrats, reinforced by their traditional partners, external development community, asserted itself. However, soon business as usual prevailed and policymaking was restored to its rightful place within the donor-bureaucratic alliance. This structural feature of policymaking was much in evidence in Sri Lanka, Nepal, and even in India. In the case of India though, the quality and traditional influence of the bureaucracy inherited from the British raj, as well as the strong weight of the countrys democratic traditions and its lesser need for aid, ensured that the external influences over policymaking were weaker than in Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Still, even in India, despite a much stronger academic community, the influence of the university campus was less effective until policy-oriented academics were willing to join the government or serve on the many Commissions formed by the government to tender policy advice. In India, the contribution of some of these Commissions on policy reform has been quite significant, especially in relation to other South Asian countries. In such an environment, the policy market for research from the academic community remained severely limited in South Asian countries except India. Even there, if an academic aspired to influence policy, he or she had to enter the hallowed domain of the government (and perhaps also spend time in the World Bank or the IMF). Periodically, academics and researchers were invited to provide background papers for the preparation of the Five-Year Plan. Our plans, however, have traditionally been the weightiest manifestations of the market failure, because very few, if any, people in the policymaking establishment bother to read these voluminous documents, let alone use them in the design of public policy. The domain of external influence, and the consequent use of foreign expertise through consultancy services in the design of policy, has had lamentable consequences for the quality and outcomes of our development policies. It took many years, with much damage to our economies and the quality of life of our citizens, for our external partners to discover that unless development policies enjoyed domestic ownership, they could not be effective. Unfortunately, the donor version of ownership usually meant that domestically designed or owned policies were a facsimile of policies already designed by the external partners. The consequences of such a regime of externally-driven research have been devastating for much of the social science research community in South Asia outside of India. With little, if any, effective demand for their research from the policymaking establishment, the better qualified members of the academic community opted for servicing the commercial market for policy research. The demand rarely originated from a genuine market where profit-seeking business houses were willing to pay large sums of money for research that would enable them to improve their bottom line. For those researchers who were not in a position to secure regular employment abroad in such agencies that guaranteed lifetime security and first-world living standards, the ever expanding domestic consultancy market became the poor mans window into the globalized world. The social scientists working in the less-marketable disciplines, such as political science, anthropology or sociology, were usually consigned to the outer

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darkness of unfunded research. In the 1970s and 1980s, this consultancy bonanza was largely feasted on by external consultancy firms and academic communities, who either benefited from tied aid or their close links with the multilateral funding agencies. Native consultants from South Asia, in those days, were permitted to feast on the crumbs dropped from the expatriates table, either as door-openers for the external consultants or as data collectors for the foreign researchers. This market has, fortunately, undergone a sea change over the past two decades, so that a much larger volume of external funds is available under the head of technical assistance for indigenous researchers to prepare reports and papers, as well as underwrite research in the social sciences that can be used by our external patrons. This later development has inspired the emergence of a growing number of local consultancy firms, in addition to non-governmental think-tanks with some research capacity. Many researchers with some marketable skill have, thus, moved out of the universities and government-sponsored research institutes and set up or moved into such non-governmental institutions. Those who remain within public service institutions spend a great deal of their working hours moonlighting as consultants for the development agencies or NGOs set up by their former colleagues. The consequences for the nature and quality of social science research in such a structurally constrained market have been severe. Let me summarize some of these outcomes: 1. The lack of effective demand for research from within the policymaking establishments of our countries has had a strong de-motivating influence on the social science research community. The best of the researchers, frustrated at the preference by their governments for externally-sourced ideas over domestic research, have tended to migrate abroad either to academic institutions or to the very development institutions whose policy access usurped their own influence at home. Many such researchers have ended up propagating the same policy ideas that they challenged at home on behalf of their international agencies. 2. With many of the qualified researchers moving abroad, most of those who stay behind make peace with the realities of policy influence. In such an asymmetrical intellectual universe, the research agendas in the social sciences have been effectively re-colonized. The external development agencies now largely determine the terms of reference of such research, the methodologies to be used and quite often the outcomes to be attained. In particular, in the realm of development studies, these agencies validate only those policy conclusions that they seek to impose on our countries. The donors are then happy to demonstrate to our governments that their own researchers have produced such policy advice or, at least, collaborated in its generation. 3. Much of the donor-driven consultancy research work is treated as the private property of the funding agency, thus it rarely sees the light of day in any publication. Much of such research serves as an intermediate input to consultancy reports prepared by an expatriate firm or academic institution, in which the work of the domestic researchers may, if they are fortunate, be cited as a footnote. This consultancy-based research ensures little, if any, visibility for the researcher through published papers or books. This eventually effaces the professional image of the researcher who retreats into a twilight zone, where the wider domestic society rarely gets to know the views of the research

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community on some of the most important issues of the day. 4. This cloak of invisibility, however, also serves to protect researchers from professional scrutiny. This lack of exposure to critical evaluation by peer groups, who can assess such consultancy-driven research for purposes of publication or evaluation for purposes of professional advancement, serves as a disincentive for quality work. In such an opaque professional universe, a form of Greshams law prevails; good researchers, who are always in heavy demand by donors, churn out instant research that is well below their professional capabilities and standards, knowing that it will never be exposed to public scrutiny. 5. More seriously for our future, a younger generation of researchers who had no exposure to a pre-consultancy world, where professional work had to be recognized for advancement, are now barely after their graduation being swallowed up in the constrained donor-driven consultancy market. 6. Some of the well-known research institutions in the South Asian region such as the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS), the Institute of Policy Studies (IPS) in Sri Lanka and PIDE have accumulated enough of critical mass to ensure that they produce a regular volume of research output, enabling them to set standards for peer review of their work, for purposes of academic advancement. These institutions, however, largely depend on government funding and salaries; hence they also need to compete for external funding and, in the process, may lose some control over their research agendas. 7. Compared with these research institutions, social science departments/faculties of South Asian universities, as well as specialized research institutions within these universities that traditionally remain starved of research funding, have witnessed a steady decline in professional excellence. Their researchers are neither exposed to peer review nor do they expect to be judged for academic advancement on the basis of their published work. The research output from these universities, which may still retain academics of some merit, has thus dwindled in volume, quality and policy influence. For those who choose to remain in the public universities, the heavy claims of consultancy work often result in defaults in their teaching obligations, meaning that the ultimate casualty of our constrained research market are the innocent students whose aspirations to higher learning remain unfulfilled. 8. In South Asian countries other than India, the new growth industry remains the non-governmental think-tanks, such as the Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD) in Dhaka, the Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) in Islamabad and the Institute for Integrated Development Studies (IIDS) in Kathmandu. These institutions were founded largely as organizations committed to policy advocacy; and they sought to bridge the marshy terrain between the exclusively research-driven institutions such as PIDE, BIDS and the IPS and the government and civil society. Though these facilities have generated some quality research, they still remain dependent on external funding since they are non-governmental. So we also need to look into this important area. 9. The dependence of our governments on external funding for social science research has resulted in research dedicated almost exclusively to policy-related issues.

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Promotion of Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities

Though understandable given the nature of the market, as a result little space has been left for more academic research, particularly on theoretical issues that can provide the basis for conceptual thinking, which can then inspire more innovative policy ideas. Compared with the experience of other South Asian countries, the Indian Social Science Research Council (ISSRC) provides a significant volume of unconstrained funding to researchers that could support both institution-building and theoretical research of some relevance to the policymaking process. Their research is now manifested in exceptionally high-quality publications like the Economic and Political Weekly that provide a prestigious outlet for not only academically renowned scholars but also young researchers who are willing to work with limited budgets, to compete for academic recognition and advancement. In none of the other South Asian countries do we have a comparable critical mass of researchers, either young or old, who are driven so strongly by the compulsions of academic excellence as in India. The propositions offered above are in the form of stylized facts that are intended to dramatize the crisis afflicting social science research in our region. We should, thus, bear in mind that in each South Asian country distinguished exceptions, located even within the universities, continue to conduct quality research unsupported by any sponsorship and manage to produce work of considerable scholastic merit. Even when research is conducted for a consultancy project, some of the academics and researchers try to ensure that the work may culminate in a publication of academic excellence. That is why many of these academics and researchers produce work to be consumed mainly in the market, since it gets published commercially and does not depend on any support. The climate for social science research has been evolving with the changing times. Today the international development community is much more open to heterodox thinking than it used to be. The global discourse on development policy has not remained immune to the crisis within the globalization process. The increasingly severe manifestations of this crisis have compromised the legitimacy of the ideologically-driven policy agendas imposed on aid-dependent countries. The agendas that once dominated the policy thinking in South Asia have, in most countries, failed to deliver sustained growth or significant alleviation of poverty, while social disparities have widened. New agendas, prioritizing poverty reduction, environmental sustainability, human development and good governance through policy ownership, have now been introduced into the policy domain. Once marginalized domestic researchers are now being rediscovered. More resources are being channelled from without to both governments for inviting inputs from their domestic research establishments as part of the agenda to promote policy ownership and non-governmental think-tanks and advocacy groups. Those within the institutionalized research community, who are equipped to participate in this expanding market for their services from the policy establishment, have to bear in mind the Faustian nature of their contractual bargains. Entry into such markets is rarely the outcome of a competitive process, but often depends on whom you know and thus may not be sustainable since such patronage processes tend to serve a moveable feast.

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Therefore, those researchers who are seriously seeking to influence policy are advised to seek the ear of political leaders during their moments of adversity that, in our political culture, are likely to be many; and influence their thinking when they have more time and less patronage at their disposal. Such leaders may rediscover you and your ideas at an appropriate historic moment when the wheel of politics throws up new social forces more receptive to innovative thinking. But this possibility remains in the realm of the imagined market. South Asias undiscovered market for policy research lies within the subaltern constituencies of our societies. We may term these communities the excluded or the resource-less the aam aadmi in India, the awam in Pakistan and the janagan in Bangladesh. What is common to these communities is that their voices remain unheard and their concerns unaddressed, within not only our policymaking establishments but also mainstream social science research. Since these communities cannot afford to pay for policy advice, they cannot register an effective demand, in the conventional sense, for relevant and quality research from competent social scientists. But their needs remain no less essential as well as urgent. They need quality schools and health care, regular jobs, access to ownership of productive assets, care in old age, social security, and freedom from corruption and oppression. Above all, they seek justice and dignity from their society and its institutions of governance. In an era of widening income inequalities and social disparities, both our market players and governments fail to respond to these demands at their peril. In our societies, whenever these constituents are given the right to freely exercise their effective demand for change, they respond by voting incumbent governments, who failed to respond to their needs, out of office. Strangely, more often than not, the successor government, which is being elected to office based on its promises to respond to this need for a better quality of life, also fails to honour its commitments to the electorate. If the voting process remains free, which is not always the case in South Asia, the incumbent government too may be voted out of office in next elections. I term this a form of political market failure, where political leaders and their parties know what their constituents want but fail to respond to their demands. This political market failure is exposing our societies to increasing tensions, which are in turn weakening the credibility and sustainability of our fragile democratic institutions. Where political markets fail the awam in ostensibly democratic societies, to whose demands should social scientists be responsive? The burden of my concluding argument before this august conclave is that, in a world of failed and constrained markets for our research, we should rediscover the market of the people in seeking inspiration for our academic and intellectual endeavours. A wide range of issues are central to the concerns of the awam in our region. They demand conceptual definition, diagnosis and policy prescription; and can engage researchers for at least a generation. The 10 most important issues specific to South Asia that have formed the basis for my research over the years include: 1. How inclusive is the growth process? Who actually contributes to growth and who benefits from it? The whole GDP-centric fallacy that 6-7% growth rate is some of

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panacea to which we should aspire is meaningless for the awam. They want to know how they are going to participate in that growth. 2. What are the structural sources of poverty? Identifying poverty and suggesting that we need more human development or better social safety nets is just not enough. We need from social scientists and researchers to explore the nature of society and its injustices, such as people not having social safety nets and equitable access to opportunities. 3. Why is there unequal distribution of assets? What is its underlying political economy? Why does society deny the marginalized groups the opportunities to participate in the growth process? 4. What are the asymmetries created because of the disequalizing role of education? Why do narrow segments of society get a chance to be educated at the best schools, while the great majority goes to substandard public or religiously-denominated schools? 5. Why is there inequitable participation of the poor in the marketplace? What are its consequences? Will some people only be able to operate in the primary tier selling their produce at the doorstep, while a narrow segment will continue to add value to this produce and control the upper tiers where value is added? 6. Who will address the issue of non-transparent budgeting? Though our governments claim that 40% of budgetary allocations are made for poverty reduction, very little actually reaches the poor. 7. What is the scope of collective action by the poor in the competition for resources? How can we bring them together, so that they can collectively compete for resources and participate in the development process? 8. Why do people who can spend vast sums of money end up getting elected to parliament in our countries? 9. Why do unjust institutions of governance exist in democratic systems? 10. What sort of political economy is needed to introduce genuine agendas for inclusive change? All such concerns originate, in my conceptualization of poverty, from the unjust and unfair nature of societies across South Asia. I have tried to capture this trend in my recently published book titled Challenging the Injustice of Poverty: Agendas for Inclusive Development in South Asia. I am sure many of you have shared similar concerns, and even been engaged in research on these and similar issues. My aspiration is to see a much broader community of researchers across South Asia engaging in a much wider range of issues within their respective social science disciplines, with a view to addressing the sources of poverty and the nature of injustice in our societies, as well as exploring policy agendas for their redress. In understanding such a range of subaltern concerns, we need to be more actively engaged with these communities, so that we can better understand their needs,

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their definitions of their predicament and their ideas on what can be done about this. This task is particularly challenging for those academics who prefer to do their research behind closed doors. Advocacy organizations also conduct research to sustain their work. Because some of these organizations remain closely engaged with their subaltern clients, their research insights may also be calibrated to the latters needs. These organizations, however, still need to establish track records of quality in their public policy research. Thus, what we need, in the context of this Conference is to reconnect the social science research community with these communities of the excluded, so that a stream of research originating out of our universities and specialized research institutions remains focused on those issues that can project the voice of these constituencies before not only the wider academic community but also the policymakers, as well the influential sections of the national and global community. Such work will need to be inspired by substantive and quality research, rather than journalistic advocacy. Research on and for the people will also need to be delivered to them in a language that they can easily understand. A scholarly research paper that makes a powerful case, for example, for agrarian reform will need to be distilled into a simple set of ideas and a language that can be delivered to the doorstep of haris or kissans (peasants or small farmers), who may expect to be benefited by the research and may also be willing to politically raise their voice for a doable agenda of reform. The critical question is that if the South Asian research community were to rise to the challenge of meeting the unmet needs for such people-centred research, who would foot the bill? The willingness of governments and mainstream development agencies to fund research that promotes structural change may not be tremendously enthusiastic and, when offered, sustainable. In such circumstances, where do we stand? In an ideal world, governments elected by the awam and to stay in office through their vote would want to draw on quality research that provides them with both creative and credible policy options to bring about substantive change in the life of their citizens. To meet this end, they would need to channel adequate budgetary resources to the research community without any political strings attached to it. The trade off is: research of quality and relevance would have to be delivered, so that it also forms the basis for repeat funding. The South Asia Network of Economic Research Institute (SANEI) provides a possible regional model for such a facility. However, ensuring that all such initiatives, including SANEI, remain ideologically unconstrained, and professionally and transparently administered, is important, as is that they do not degenerate into instruments of patronage. Such a facility would provide the South Asian academic community with autonomy from donor and governmental hegemony over research, and promote indigenous talents. Since all such research would be presented before a competitive and an open market, the issue of quality control would be looked after.

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The governments across South Asia must give a clear signal to the research community that they have a felt need for quality research in the design of policy, and that they will surely prioritize indigenous research based on its merit and relevance. They need not shut themselves off to external ideas, which would of course help in widening our intellectual horizons, but these ideas must compete on merit with those of our researchers and must not be given preference just because donors feel that they have a monopoly over our policy agendas. I firmly believe that if quality research, which inspires genuine agendas for inclusive change, can be put on the table with full backing of a democratically-elected government, the international community will be persuaded to respect and recognize these influences as legitimate sources of policy change. Most importantly, the international community has recently stressed the need for such ownership over our research agendas, particularly if they respond to the universally accepted and recognized goal of ending the injustice of poverty. The important operative issues before the participants of this Conference and those beyond are: whether our governments genuinely want to bring about such a change that redefines the position of the awam in the structures of power and economic opportunity or they have doubts or ambiguities regarding such a change? How do researchers project research for change before audiences who can benefit from it? Where do we find people who would commit resources to undertake such projects? These may be some of the issues we need to address in this Conference.

Address by the Chair


[Dr. Javaid R. Laghari]
After Prof. Rehman Sobhans keynote address, the Conference Coordinator invited Dr. Javaid R. Laghari (Chairman, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad) to deliver his address as the Chair of the Inaugural Session. Dr. Laghari warmly welcomed the distinguished guests and participants to the Conference, and hoped that it would be productive for them. He said Pakistan was an evolving state, as evident from that the 1st International Social Science Conference was being organized 64 years after the countrys independence. The CDSSHP, the host to this Conference, was established in 2003. In fact, this was one of the first steps taken by the HEC after its inception in 2002. This shows that the social sciences have started to receive the attention they deserve, said Dr. Laghari, adding that the Committee was now working for more than seven years and has so far had three chairpersons, including Dr. Najma Najam, Dr. Ishrat Hussain and Dr. Nasser Ali Khan, who took charge just six months ago. The HEC Chairman said that the Committee was facing many serious challenges: The first challenge is the promotion of research and development in the social sciences, which is also one of the main reasons for organizing this Conference. This includes faculty and curriculum development, quality assurance, and institutional and infrastructural development. The second challenge is defining the scope of the social sciences, since they include areas as diverse as business studies, fine arts, economics, media, film, cul-

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ture, history, etc. The experts in different fields should help the CDSSHP in dealing with these challenges. Dr. Laghari said that the HECs Curriculum Committees, comprising senior faculty and administration of the universities, had updated curricula for all major social science disciplines, but we need to go further ahead and understand the latest trends in these disciplines. He viewed that setting standards for social science research posed an even serious challenge to the HEC. Historically, academically and internationally, only a refereed research journal paper is counted as research, but this criteria cannot be applied to all social science disciplines, such as fine arts, business studies, history, literature, media, film, music, etc. Dr. Laghari said that the HEC had left such deliberations to its various committees. Following a consensus-based approach, these committees deliberate on and define the way ahead through an infrastructure that accommodates the latest trends in any particular field. In engineering, a question keeps cropping up: if a patent comes under the same category as a refereed research journal paper. The same question keeps cropping up before the HEC regarding social science research and its position is similar to that of most universities around the world: research journal papers form a minimum baseline. Above and beyond this baseline, a department or faculty can add any number of requirements necessary for the advancement of the programs it offers, he elaborated. The HEC Chairman said that another major issue that keeps cropping up is the categorization of social science research journals. The vast majority of social science journals published from Pakistan is substandard, very far from meeting even the minimum requirements of a world class journal. In the absence of good researchers, the quality of research suffers and results in the type of substandard journals published from Pakistan. Dr. Laghari viewed that certain social science disciplines like business education had seen improvements since the HECs inception in 2002. In the first 55 years after the independence, Pakistan had only 11 PhDs in business education, while 58 PhDs were completed in this discipline in only the past eight years. During the same period, however, the number of PhDs in social sciences disciplines excluding business education, arts and the humanities dropped from 900 to 700. The HEC Chairman added that a large number of scholars were pursuing their PhDs in social science disciplines, either from universities abroad or within the country. In addition, when the HEC advertised the Fulbright scholarships last year, in 2010, it ensured that all major social science disciplines were accommodated, instead of focusing on only science and technology as had been the practice previously. Dr. Laghari lamented that the situation of PhDs in the arts and humanities was even worse. More than 600 PhDs were completed in the arts and humanities in the first 55 years after Pakistans independence, but the number has dropped to 377 in the past eight years since the HECs inception. He further said that a major challenge for the participants of this Conference was to find ways of focusing on these social science disciplines. We still have a long way to go in Pakistan. The first generation even in developed western countries comprises carpenters and electricians. As the society evolves,

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the second generation is of engineers and doctors. As the society develops further, the third generation of artistes and intellectuals comes to the fore. Though Pakistan is still far from achieving this level of development, we are trying our level best to encourage and promote this trend, the HEC Chairman said. Dr. Laghari elaborated that the three major challenges before the HEC were that of access to higher education, quality assurance and relevant research. The third challenge is where the social sciences come into the picture. We want social scientists to focus on building communities in Pakistan, because only then we could truly say that the universities are building Pakistan. Therefore, I would like to declare the theme of the 1st HEC International Social Science Conference as Universities Building Communities. The universities have a major role in terms of building communities, especially in the areas of health, education, environment, population planning, disaster management, governance and so on, he said. The HEC Chairman deplored that the social fabric of the Pakistani society had deteriorated over the years because of the step-motherly treatment meted out to the social sciences. Because of the deterioration of this social fabric, democratic institutions are not flourishing in Pakistan. For example, the judiciary is independent, but it cannot implement its decisions. Higher education is flourishing, but politicians and governments still fail to see its relevance. Thus, social scientists would have to play their due role in making these institutions strong, he said. Dr. Laghari said that we needed to improve the quality of social science research in the universities; develop the capacities of social scientists by sending them abroad for pursuing higher education and attending research conferences; support research endeavours such as publication of peer-reviewed journals and organization of international conferences; and create think-tanks in the universities that would invite politicians and intellectuals to discuss important national issues with the students. He concluded that the universities needed to be involved in polls and surveys. We need to understand what people really want in terms of their daily needs. We have a base of 132 public and private sector universities, with about 750,000 students. These universities should be conducting polls and surveys on important national issues and then publishing their results in a timely manner; for example, on whether the HEC should be a federal or provincial subject, or whether both the federation and the provinces could play their roles simultaneously. We need to address such issues on an urgent basis and social scientists come into the picture here, Dr. Laghari said.

Vote of Thanks

[Dr. Nasser Ali Khan]

After Dr. Javaid R. Lagharis address, Conference Coordinator Mr. Mustafa Nazir Ahmad invited CDSSHP Chairperson Dr. Nasser Ali Khan (Director, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar) to deliver the vote of thanks. Dr. Nasser started with a quote: We may have granted the people of Pakistan political citizenship, but we have not granted them economic citizenship. We may prosper materially, but if we have to grow socially, culturally and spiritually, focus on the humankind is imperative. He viewed that the social sciences were facing an inherent bias in

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Pakistan. Whether this bias is by default or by design? I leave it your imagination in the light of the keynote address by Prof. Rehman Sobhan. What we see in our society today is confusion, fear and insecurity, and we have always heard and we believe that social scientists are visionaries. Where are those visionaries? he said. Dr. Nasser said the idea of organizing the 1st HEC International Social Science Conference was conceived last year. We used to criticize the Committee as too small a space for us. We wanted to bring social scientists from all over Pakistan and abroad on one platform to look at the way forward. This Conference is a step in that direction. The CDSSHP Chairperson informed the audience that HEC Chairperson and Executive Director had already agreed to make this Conference an annual feature. Provinces and regions can also hold their own conferences to promote the social sciences within their respective boundaries. Dr. Nasser thanked HEC Chairman Dr. Javaid R. Laghari, HEC Executive Director Dr. Sohail H. Naqvi, UNFPA Country Representative in Pakistan Mr. Rabbi Royan, CCE Executive Director Mr. Zafarullah Khan, Conference Organizing Committee Chairperson Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin (Vice Chancellor, University of Gujrat) and the NTS for their support. When we were planning this Conference, members of the Committee thought that holding an international event in only three months was impossible and Dr. Nizamuddin was the only person we could agree on as the Chairperson of the Conference Organizing Committee. All credit for holding this Conference goes to him and his wonderful team at the University of Gujarat and the HEC. He said. He also thanked vice chancellors/directors/rectors of the Agriculture University Peshawar, Peshawar; Beaconhouse National University, Lahore; Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar; Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat; National University of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad; Sukkur Institute of Business Administration, Sukkur; University of Gujarat, Gujrat; University of Karachi, Karachi; and University of Swat, Saidu Sharif for contributing Rs. 100,000 each towards realizing the objectives of this major Conference. Dr. Nasser also thanked the Conference Coordinator Mr. Mustafa Nazir Ahmad (Director, Press and Publications, University of Gujrat) and other members of the Conference Secretariat Dr. Fauzia Maqsood, Mr. Javed Sajjad Ahmed, Ms. Tanzila Qamar Gill, Ms. Sidra Maqsood and Mr. Faisal Iqbal from the University of Gujrat; and Mr. Muhammad Murtaza Noor and Mr. Sulaiman Ahmad from the HEC for successful organization of the Conference.

1st HEC Lifetime Achievement Award in Social Sciences

The Inaugural Session of the Conference concluded with Chair Dr. Javaid R. Laghari conferring posthumously the 1st HEC Lifetime Achievement Award in Social Sciences on the late Dr. Inayatullah, in recognition of his meritorious services for the promotion of social science research and teaching in Pakistan. Mrs. Inayatullah received the commemorative plaque from the HEC Chairman on behalf of her late husband.

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The recipient of this prestigious award was decided by the CDSSHP members, who were asked to nominate one social scientist of Pakistani origin. Through the Lifetime Achievement Award, the HEC wanted to honour an academic who had made significant contribution to the social sciences in Pakistan. This contribution could be in research, leadership or mentorship. A decision was also made that the Lifetime Achievement Award in Social Sciences would be conferred every year during the HEC International Social Science Conference. In view of his long association with the late Dr. Inayatullah, Dr. Syed Jaffar Ahmed (Director, Pakistan Study Centre, University of Karachi) was requested to read the citation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: Dr. Inayatullah, founder and president of the Council of Social Sciences (COSS), rendered great services for mobilizing social scientists of Pakistan. He was not only an academician and a writer par excellence, but also a visionary social scientist, with groundbreaking studies like Social Sciences in Pakistan: A Profile to his credit. Dr. Inayatullah, after establishing COSS, not only launched an aggressive membership campaign in Pakistan and abroad, but also brought out a bulletin and a number of other publications. Some of the publications by COSS under the dynamic leadership of Dr. Inayatullah include Professional Associations of Social Scientists: An Analytical Study; Social Sciences in Pakistan: A Profile; Social Sciences in Pakistan in the 1990s; Towards Understanding the State of Science in Pakistan; and The State of Social Sciences in Pakistan. An important dimension of the late Dr. Inayatullahs dedication and determination to promote the social sciences in Pakistan was his passion for quality research journals. Moreover, he was also extremely committed to train a new generation of Pakistani social scientists, for whom he was always a guiding and motivating force.

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Session II

Session II The Role of Social Science Research in Public Policymaking Thematic Note
Developed societies make important and strategic policy decisions based on evidence and facts. When critical decisions concern social and economic matters, social science research can provide the much-needed evidence. Social science research not only furnishes necessary data for policy decisions, but also helps in determining the outcomes of policy decisions. Evaluative research can identify factors responsible for the successes or failures of costly projects, and provide guidance for changing directions in mid course or for future planning. Evidence does not suggest that the policymakers in Pakistan rely on carefully gathered and analyzed data for making important decisions. While this can be a cultural deficit, it also reflects relative scarcity of relevant and reliable data. The policymakers are constantly facing tough choices, often under political pressure, regarding the allocation of resources for projects and programs. Politically-influenced decisions may please the constituents, but may not be the advisable option. A critical indicator of research is the publication of research papers in scientific and professional journals. According to data compiled by the HEC, the number of universities with publications reached 97 in 2010, from 42 in 2007. In other words, faculty members of 97 Pakistani universities published research papers in internationally-recognized scientific and professional journals in 2010. Data also tell us that 24 of these universities had 50 or more publications, while nearly half had only 17 or fewer publications. Since most of the published papers are likely to be in the basic sciences, the situation of social science research in Pakistan is even worst.

Keynote Address
[Dr. Jochen Hippler]
Session II on The Role of Social Science Research in Public Policymaking started with Chair Dr. Ishrat Hussain (Director, Institute of Business Administration, Karachi) inviting Dr. Jochen Hippler (Political Scientist/Lecturer, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany) to deliver the keynote address, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: I want to take the participants of this Conference along three stages: 1) Social sciences and development; 2) Social sciences and power; and 3) Social sciences and role conflict. Let me start with the first stage! The social sciences have a key role to play in the development of all countries, whether rich or poor. I will give you two examples to demonstrate the importance of the way the state and society are organized, in the context of realizing development potential. The first example pertains to Germany. After World War II, Germany was divided

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into two countries that were organized very differently. The people were similar and the economic conditions were comparable. Still, because of the different ways the state and the society were organized in the two countries, their economic, political and cultural development was very different. This example shows the role of governance in realizing development potential. The second example pertains to Pakistan and South Korea. In the 1950s, the two countries were very similar in most regards, particularly in their level of economic development. GNP of the two countries, for example, was quite comparable at that time. But today, South Koreas GNP is six times more than that of Pakistan. Consider this from the perspective of a starting point that was very similar. The quality of the Pakistani or the Korean people, however, has not been responsible for this, rather the different ways the state and the society have been organized in the two Asian countries. If the way the state and society are organized is so crucial to development, social scientists should and can play a very important role in researching and suggesting ways to remove the hurdles that may affect a countrys ability to develop. From a political scientists perspective, the key problem seems to be that of governance the ways of organizing rules, mechanisms and instruments to solve societys problems by state and, sometimes even by, non-state actors. Some of these problems actually emanate from de-link between state structures and society. What will be helpful for a society in realizing its development potential that will allow both state structures and society to develop? By focusing on this and similar type of questions, social science research has made important progress in the past decade or so. Let me give you an example on the more practical side. If you look at religious extremism in different parts of the world, very often the impression you would get from the research being conducted is that extremism is only because of political vacuum of governance and weakness or incompetence of state structures that allow certain actors to use this vacuum for extremism. But as the recent situation in Egypt, Tunisia and some other African countries has demonstrated this vacuum is not necessarily filled by extremists; pro-democracy forces can also fill it. The interface between the state and the society is crucial to not only political stability, but also economic development opportunities. Social scientists can play an extremely important role in this regard, by analyzing and coming up with suggestions to help their societies in dealing with this interface. This takes us to the second stage: social sciences and power. Most politicians and decision-makers are not keen on getting the advice from social scientists and academics, thus the latter are increasingly complaining of being ignored or of not being taken seriously by the former, who listen to them only if they support their policies. For instance, if a politician wants to introduce a specific policy, then the advice of only those social scientists or academics would be sought who are known to be in favour of that policy. In short, the advice by social scientists is not influencing the decisions of politicians or decision-makers. I have worked with the Global Parliament as an advisor for several years; and

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have experienced first-hand that if the advice by social scientists is unsupportive of the current policy, the tendency is to ignore it. The quality of research was not responsible for this, but self-interest and power. If a social scientists advice to politicians/decisionmakers coincides with what they wanted to do anyway, they would probably hold a press conference to tell the public that a social scientist has supported their policy because it can help them politically. Let me give you another example of the relationship between the social sciences and power. The US Army published a manual titled Counterinsurgency in December 2006. The interesting thing, the reason why I bring it up here, is that social scientists were also included in writing the text. In this case, social scientists were not ignored; rather, they were transformed into instruments of power against the weaker forces. Neither is it the job of social scientists to tell imperialist forces how to tackle insurgencies nor can such work be called academic. Another important aspect regarding the social sciences and power is that many social scientists are now behaving like mercenaries and, in a sense, renting their services for money. The keynote speaker in the Inaugural Session talked about the consultancy business. As a consultant myself, I often run into people who would provide exactly the same advice as is being sought by the people footing the bill. Again, such work is not academic, but more of a business enterprise. Social scientists should try to focus on the benefits that their profession can bring to their society. They will have to find ways to deal with the problem of being either ignored or used, since they cannot afford to be irrelevant. I am sure you will have an interesting discussion on how to deal with this problem during the next three days. This takes us to the third stage: social sciences and role conflict. Not everything social scientists do is academic work. For example, the advice by social scientists to governments may be based on their earlier academic work, but it cannot be termed academic work. Social scientists should not be giving advice to governments only for money; their advice should be based on years of academic work. Drawing conclusions from research and academic work, and injecting them into the political discourse, is different from doing academic work. I fully agree that giving advice to the government is part of social scientists job, but they should be aware that they are changing roles here. For social scientists, on the one hand is the role of a researcher, involving impartial and unbiased analysis of the situation; while on the other of an advisor, involving judgments about what should be done and why. Again, I am not criticizing the role of social scientists as advisors; I am only trying to make them realize that not everything they do is academic. Some of the work social scientists do is different from research and they should accept this reality. Social scientists can do very useful work in another area also that is not academic, but is again hopefully based on their earlier academic work. They could become prime advisors to the public and society at large, rather than just the power elite. They should use the media, such as television channels and radio networks, to explain what they have to say to people since they cannot go to everyones house to explain the results of their research. But, once again, this work is not academic; it can, at best, be termed an

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attempt to give meaning to things. Confusion was mentioned in the Inaugural Session as a characteristic of our societies. Because most of the issues we face are complicated and confusing, people would greatly benefit if someone could help them in making sense of the ongoing processes or explain them in a simple language. If people cannot make sense of their life and society, they will be paralyzed, thus unable to act reasonably. Explaining complicated social and political processes to the public is, once again, neither research nor academic work, nonetheless an area where social scientists can have a very important role and impact. To sum up, I have tried to briefly take you through the three stages that are important: how useful social scientists can be to their societies? What is the dilemma of power for social scientists? What type of role conflicts do social scientists have in non-academic environments and what should be done in such situations? My suggestion is to consider these questions while developing the curricula and academic structures for social scientists. We need not only financial strengthening of institutions, but also mechanisms where social scientists can better reflect on these questions.

Presentations

[Dr. James C. Witte]

After Dr. Jochen Hipplers keynote address, the Session Chair invited first panelist Dr. James C. Witte (Professor, Department of Sociology; Director, Center for Social Science Research, George Mason University, USA) to make his presentation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: Social scientists the world over are facing many of the same issues about the relevance of the social sciences and about how they assert themselves; and let the policymakers, other scientists and the public realize that they have a contribution to make. That is something they share in common. It applies in Europe, in Pakistan, certainly in the United States and even in Russia, where social scientists are fighting the exact same issues and trying to figure out how they assert their value in important policy discussions. More directly to Dr. Hipplers address, the example of the manual on counterinsurgency was very relevant for me. One of my colleagues at George Mason University, who is president-elect of the Association for Anthropologists Without Borders, has taken a very strong stand against consulting for the military. I have myself been consulting for the Director of the Office of National Intelligence, often referred to as the bad guys, and we have talked quite a bit about what role social science research should play in areas like the military or intelligence community. The first thing that has allowed me to work for the bad guys is I have also done a lot of work for the good guys such as the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the federal agency that takes on discrimination in the United States. In both cases, what I really have to do is to hang on to my professional training and ethics, which are about not only research methods but also their correct application. Similarly, they are about not only understanding my role as a social scientist, but also in other capacities. Therefore, I suggest that ethics should be an integral part of any social science curriculum.

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The second thing that has allowed me to work for the bad guys is I refuse security clearance; I am allowed to write about and fully disclose any work I do for the government. If government officials do not want me to disclose it, they better not give me the consultancy. I think social scientists should not do anything either for the government or the private sector that they cannot disclose since the scrutiny of their peers allows them to stay honest. One of the things talked quite a bit about in my discipline, sociology, is what we call public sociology. George Mason University has the first PhD program in public and applied sociology; we do not know what it means though. We are struggling as much as you are in tying to figure out what are the standards we should hold our students and ourselves to, and what should be the focal points of this type of program. The earlier speakers talked about some of the solutions that we have also focused on. The first is collaboration with the public. If social scientists work with the public at all levels and seek its input in all issues, this will not only serve national interests but also enhance the quality of social science research. The second, as also alluded to by both keynote speakers, has to do with communication. Whatever social scientists learn does not have a lot of value if it sits in American Journal of Sociology article that is read or cited by, at best, a few hundred people. Instead, social scientists need to enter the public debate, translate the knowledge they have gained, and make it accessible to the public that has helped them produce it. Finally I come to the role of values in the social sciences! On the one hand are ethical standards; while on the other is willingness of social scientists to articulate their values. Rather than being blinded by them, social scientists should share with the public the values that guide their research. For example, I am doing some work on climate change. Our team is very committed to the idea that we have got a problem, which for some reason is not being discussed openly and objectively, at least in the United States. One of the things we have learnt is that we have to be extra good researchers, not just good researchers. That will be a value for us as well, because our peers know we are advocates for a particular position and they are going to look at every number we produce. An interesting aspect of public sociology is to broaden your peer review, which will become even stronger if you are clear about the values that guide your research.

[Dr. Rashid Amjad]

After Dr. James C. Witte, the Session Chair invited next panelist Dr. Rashid Amjad (Vice Chancellor, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad) to make his presentation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: The topic of this session, the role of social science research in public policymaking, poses a question that is rather difficult to answer. How and at what stage a particular decision is taken, and what are the factors that influence a particular decision by the policymakers, is very difficult to separate from the body of knowledge and research, the political possibilities, and the whole question of the spectrum of possibilities. This makes it very difficult to say that this particular policy came as a result of this particular research.

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I agree with those who say that we should look at the role of social science research in public policy debates, and at how good research and analytical work has influenced public policy debates in Pakistan; and have three questions in this regard: 1. What role have social scientists played in the realm of public policy debate in the past? 2. What role are social scientists playing today? 3. What lessons can social scientists learn from the present and the past to look at what they should do more effectively in the future? Looking at the past, we must not lose sight of the fact that when Pakistan came into being, the education base was weak and the research base was even weaker. Those who have carried out a review of social science research in Pakistan with great regard for the work of COSS, Dr. Akbar S. Zaidi and others have not done justice to the research conducted at least until 2000 by Pakistani social scientists. A few things must be done before people start writing articles claiming no social science research was done in Pakistan, or whatever was done was useless, or whatever was done was done by the Americans or consultants, since this can be debated. First of all, we need to carefully analyze and document the research done by Pakistani social scientists. One thing the HEC should do through the CDSSHP in this connection is carry out survey articles on different topics related to the social sciences. These articles would document the work done by different scholars at different periods of time and give us an exact idea of their contribution. When I was studying at University of the Punjab in the late 1960s, revolution and change were in the air. The Social Science Research Centre was doing some very basic research, while the Board of Economic Inquiries was carrying out research on economic issues. The impression that nothing was happening is wrong, thus I would repeat that we should first document the research done by Pakistani social scientists in the past. I can give one example from my own institution. As part of PIDEs Economic History Series, we are carrying out survey articles on its contribution to policymaking and policy debate during different decades and in different areas. As Pakistanis, our main problem is that we raise huge questions and then try to find answers to them. Instead, we should look at what we have already done and try to build on it. Here I would like to mention that the Oxford University Press, by publishing a large body of work such as memoirs, has provided social scientists with enormous possibilities to use this material in their research. I now come from the past to the present. One thing most experts agree on is that, at least, economically Pakistan has not done too badly. The countrys population has increased by five or six times since the independence, but its per capita GDP has also increased by three times, though we could have done much better. Just to cite an example, in the 1960s, the exports of not only South Korea, but also all the four Asian tigers were less than those of Pakistan. The problems Pakistan faces are structural; they can be tackled only through indepth analytical research by social scientists. To understand the dynamics of our growth

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process, its foundations need to be analyzed by social scientists working not only in their narrow fields of specialization but also collectively. Pakistan has gone through different paths: the great movement for the independence, the great era of capitalism under Ayub, the great period of socialism under Bhutto, the great period of Islamization and capitalism under Zia, etc. The way we have changed and the way we have looked at the issues that we have raised is fundamental. Today, we face what I like to call the perfect storm: stagflation in the economy, global recession, mini-world war on borders, insurgency and regional forces fighting for a part of the economic cake. At this particular movement in time, social scientists will have to play a very important role. They will have to look into their arsenal, the research they have carried out, to be able to tackle the very difficult and challenging problems that we face. In addition, these problems would need not short-term but fairly immediate solutions that are never easy. Let me talk about some of the issues that I feel are very important! The first is corruption and injustice. Today a wind is blowing across the developing world, be it the Middle East or South Asia, against corruption, which has eaten at the very fabric of our societies. The majority of young people in these countries are frustrated because not only they did not get a job, but also they felt injustice was done to them; they were better qualified and still they did not get a job. Our judiciary and media are playing a very important role in fighting corruption at the highest levels, but more needs to be done. The second is devolution. We have devolved, but as always, we have not done our homework; thus devolution has raised a large number of issues. The third issue is womens empowerment. We really need to tap on our greatest unutilized resource: the women of Pakistan. The women are underutilized and overworked, and they have not been given a sufficient role to play in this country. Have we, as social scientists, played any part in decision-making? My answer would be yes. I was a member of the Panel of Economists that was asked to frame the 10th Five-Year Plan. Just as we were about to release the report, the policy agenda changed and new people came in. Still we gave our research to libraries, so that the body of knowledge we had accumulated remains accessible to researchers. Even if our research did not become the plan, it is feeding into the future. To my mind, Pakistans greatest problem is its failure to face up to the challenges of globalization. This comes as a surprise considering that a large number of Pakistanis work abroad and send remittances back home. But globalization has meant a complete change in the way economies and businesses work, and even in the way people think. Pakistan was so well-placed up to the early 1990s that it became the seventh fastest growing economy in the world, but the country has failed to register significant growth since then. In comparison, India and China have taken great advantage of globalization. We really need to think through why is it that we are going backwards in many parts especially in our thinking and ways rather than looking forward into a highly compatible global world and taking advantage of it. Also, in a strange way, if you are behind others, you can learn from their mistakes. This provides us with an opportunity.

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Let me end on a very personal note! My family has set up a university, the Lahore School of Economics, and my elder brother happens to be the rector there. I used to come from abroad and say that this is not right, this should not be done and other such things. One day, my brother turned to me and said: Junior, the first 100 years are a bit difficult. After that, it will become better!

[Dr. Ashfaque Hasan Khan]

After Dr. Rashid Amjad, the Session Chair invited Dr. Ashfaque Hasan Khan (Dean, NUST Business School, National University of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad) to make his presentation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: The role of social science research in the policymaking process is an ongoing debate in different parts of the world. The most important question raised in this connection is whether the policymakers care about social science research. I have spent 18-19 years in PIDE as an academician and a researcher, and 11 years in the Ministry of Finance as a policymaker. Instead of repeating what has been already said, I will try to share my experience sitting on both sides, as a researcher and as someone who was implementing the research outcomes in economic policymaking. In Pakistan, three major actors social scientists, political leadership and bureaucracy are involved in implementing the agenda regarding the role of social science research in the public policymaking. Some of the important questions that come to mind concerning these actors are: 1. Are Pakistani universities producing quality social scientists capable of playing a positive role in the public policymaking process? 2. Are we encouraging our universities to produce quality social scientists? 3. Do we have enough resources to produce quality social scientists in a large number? 4. Does the political leadership show interest in the findings of social scientists and researchers while taking important decisions? 5. Is the bureaucracy capable of understanding the outcomes of policy research or implementing the policy recommendations emanating from social science research? I fully agree with Dr. Rashid Amjad that the state of social science research in Pakistan is not as bad as often reflected, and that social scientists have made a huge difference in the countrys public policymaking. I would like to give you three concrete examples in support of my argument: The first relates to the support price of wheat. Empirical evidence suggests that 10% increase in the support price of wheat increases inflation by 3% in Pakistan. When I was working in the Ministry of Finance, officials of the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock used to submit proposals that the support price of wheat should be increased. I always countered such proposals with imperial findings which suggested that such a move would be highly inflationary, thus not good for the countrys economy and people. Due to these arguments, the support price of wheat increased at a very low rate from 2000-2007, thus helping the previous government in maintaining price stability.

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The second relates to the Fiscal Responsibility and Debt Limitation Act, 2005. This law is based on the findings of empirical studies and it imposes several binding constraints on the federal government to maintain financial discipline. The previous government pursued this law very effectively; as a result, Pakistans debt burden, which used to be over 100% of GDP, came down to 55% of GDP. Today, unfortunately, we are not adhering to the principle of sound economic management and the Fiscal Responsibility and Debt Limitation Act is often violated, though no one seems to bother. Coming to the third, in 1998, I published a paper on inflation in Pakistan in Economic Development and Cultural Change, a reputed research journal published by the University of Chicago Press. By early 2000, debate had begun on how to kick-start Pakistans economy. The country was in a very serious debt situation at that time and it did not have the scope of using the fiscal policy as an instrument to kick-start the economy. Dr. Ishrat Hussain, who is chairing this session and was then the Governor of the State Bank of Pakistan, suggested that the only solution was to ease the monetary policy and reduce the discount rate. In the Ministry of Finance, I convinced the minister and the secretary, based on my empirical research findings published in a respectable journal, that this was the route to take. That is how we succeeded in reviving economic activity, which ultimately reached close to on average 7% growth between 2003 and 2007. These examples show that social science research has played an important role in public policymaking in Pakistan. Now let me give you an example of how policies may have disastrous effects for the country if they are not based on solid economic research! The latest National Finance Commission (NFC) Award has sowed the seeds of perpetual macroeconomic crisis in the country, because no solid research was conducted in terms of distribution of resources between the federation and the provinces before its announcement last year. In the previous meeting of the Pakistan Society of Development Economists, I raised this point that until we impose binding constraints on the provincial governments, Pakistans fiscal situation will remain in crisis. The same view was echoed by the IMF Mission in its note to the Government of Pakistan last month. I would like to reiterate that social science research has played a major role in influencing public policymaking in Pakistan. We have faced problems only when we have not done our homework properly or have implemented policies without solid research base. Therefore, it can be safely assumed that the state of social science research in Pakistan is not all that pathetic. Finally, the universities have a major role to play in inculcating the importance of social science research in public policymaking.

[Dr. Saba Gul Khattak]

After Dr. Ashfaque Hasan Khan, the Session Chair invited Dr. Saba Gul Khattak (Member, Social Sector, Planning Commission, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad) for her presentation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: The lack of debate on the issues that have been raised since this morning makes it music to my ears to hear different speakers express the concerns that they have, whether about researchers going into the consultancy mode or the poor quality of social science research.

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I am also very happy to know that scholarships for social science disciplines have been increased. Having served on the Fulbright board, I always protested that 80% of the scholarships were going to the basic sciences and was always told to talk to the HEC about it. The 20% scholarships left for the social sciences were usually gulped by economics and business studies, and very little was left for political science, anthropology, sociology, etc. I hope the ratio is more equitable now. Part of the reason why we have a crisis in the social sciences is that not enough people have been trained over the years. Other factors are also responsible for the dismal state of social science research in Pakistan. Let me first ask a question! Why are we talking about social science research as policy relevant only? Social science research, by itself, is relevant. To say that the raison dtre of social science research is input in policy would be narrowing its scope; policy is important, but social science research is far more than policy alone. The social sciences have generally been ignored in Pakistan, such as in scholarships. That policy creeps into other government policy documents as well. When we were preparing the 10th Five-Year Plan, which Dr. Rashid Amjad just mentioned and which has been shelved, I did raise questions about the lack of public policy investment in the social sciences; and was told that science and technology is the sector we needed to promote to boost economic growth. That kind of policy logic remains and is the dominant policy logic. Given that policy logic, we have the kind of policies that will promote the basic sciences only. I have nothing against them, but I do feel that there should be investment in the social sciences also. As a researcher for the past 20-25 years, I feel that social science research in Pakistan is faced with many challenges. The first and foremost, as Prof. Rehman Sobhan painstakingly articulated in his keynote address, is the overarching political context of Pakistan in particular and South Asia in general, where violence that results in political instability is not an aberration but a reality and a continuous historical given. We have to understand what social science research has done with regard to public policymaking within that context. Similarly, legitimacy or accountability of researchers is also very relevant: for whom is the research relevant? To whom are researchers accountable: donors, government or people? I also want to raise the issue of accountability, because I am talking about political violence; and we just spoke about how Pakistan has constantly suffered political instability, violence and wars; the ongoing war of terror, the Afghan War or the Cold War before that to name just a few. In that context, the role of social scientists in militarized development, if they are complicit in it, becomes very important. If we can publish our research is beside the point. The main question is if, as anthropologists or sociologists or political scientists, we go out into conflict zones, are we in the service of the empire or are we truly social scientists? What are we doing in the realm of militarized development? How are we contributing to the dominant discourse, and the capture of communities and power structures? These are some of the moral and ethical dilemmas many of us face. Now I come to categories of research: 1) Policy research, which is very popular in Pakistan due to a lot of funding in it; 2) Action research, which has mainly been

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pursued by NGOs in Pakistan; and 3) theory-building research, which has never been pursued in Pakistan and one hopes that the universities will step in to fill this gap. Acknowledging the contribution of Dr. Inayatullah, Dr. Rubina Saigol, Dr. Akbar S. Zaidi and others would only be fair. They have done a thorough, not impressionistic, review of the research conducted in Pakistan over the years. They generally state that while quantity has not been the problem, the lack of focus on quality has been. That is where the universities come in. Dr. Inayatullah has also written detailed history of associations of Pakistani social scientists focusing on how they were captured and how they reflect societal norms. That brings me to different categories of researchers. We can talk about state intellectuals and public intellectuals, as well as organic intellectuals if the first two overlap. State intellectuals generally work for state research institutions and reproduce the dominant discourse. They justify government policies and are generally not considered to be very independent in their outlook. Public intellectuals, on the other hand, question policies and issues, brining them to the forefront. They are the ones who need support. The problem in Pakistan is that state intellectuals do not give you enough support, while public intellectuals do not have enough support. Though a few independent public intellectuals work in Pakistan, not becoming part of the dominant discourse remains an uphill task. Social science research in Pakistan is faced with many serious challenges, as Prof. Rehman Sobhan also elaborated: 1. The policymakers lack the time, while research cannot respond fast enough to the constant crises they face. 2. The consultancy circuit is very much there, though some researchers are independent of any influence. 3. Donors have their own set of issues, such as they cannot fund research that may offend the government or they need to justify things to their taxpayers at home, so they would like to fund research about girls schools but not issues of philosophical or historical importance. Also, the focus of donors is mostly on quick solution-oriented research, which is not the whole gamut of research. 4. The universities offer very few incentives to researchers and the rules are such that usually they do not want to get into them. We all know what our problems are? The question is what are the solutions? Having served on various regional committees that select students for scholarships and fellowships, I can assure you that even in India, except for Jawaharlal Nehru University and a couple of other universities in the north, the quality of applicants is the same as the rest of South Asia. Many times we were hard pressed to choose, and sometimes we even debated if we should lower our standards and get the scholarships filled or just let the scholarships go. We need to ensure flexible pools of research funding, invest more in quality education and support researchers in the use of mass media. Another aspect we need to talk about is research networks and consortia in the region. Some researchers recently

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brought up the idea of a South Asian University with campuses all over the region. Hopefully that university will soon take off for the promotion of social science research in not only Pakistan, but also the whole of South Asia.

[Dr. Nasir Jamal Khattak]

After Dr. Saba Gul Khattak, the Session Chair invited Dr. Nasir Jamal Khattak (Vice Chancellor, Kohat University of Science & Technology) to make his presentation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: I want to start with a disclaimer. Whatever I say here is meant to raise questions and not to criticize anything, anybody or any institution. I also apologize to the foreign participants because they may not be familiar with some of the sources from which I have quoted examples. When I was preparing for this Conference, I thought I would talk about the situation of social sciences in Pakistan, but doing that in a 10-minute presentation was like trying to squeeze quite a few things in a very small place. So I thought I would rather focus on something that perhaps any educated person who graduated from college or university after 1982 would be familiar with. I chose Pakistan Studies and Islamic Studies (Islamiyat), both taught in schools, colleges and universities as compulsory subjects. I will talk about how we manipulate the truth to carve out an identity for ourselves and use it for a certain purpose. If you read the textbooks of these subjects, which perhaps your children or younger siblings are reading, you will find that some of the examples are very interesting. There apparently was some kind of a rush. We needed a course that we could call Pakistan Studies, since we wanted to promote national integration. Not only this, we also needed a course that we could call Islamic Studies, since we also wanted to promote yet another kind of an identity the Islamic identity. The two courses try to have some kind of a dialogue between national integration and Islamic identity. And as they do that, they inherently contradict each other causing an unstated confusion among the students. I have collected data from students who have been the victims of Pakistan Studies and Islamic Studies. Whatever I am saying is based on whatever I heard from them. The first is that a huge gap exists between the world of books and the world of reality. So many students whom I reached out to said this and I do not blame them after going through their Pakistan Studies and Islamic Studies textbooks. The textbooks that are supposed to teach them about their society promote a self-ideal that has noting to do with the reality. So the gap between the idealized self and the real self is quite emasculating and disillusioning, resulting in fear, confusion and insecurity among the students. Let me share some of the interesting things! The Pakistan Studies and Islamic Studies textbooks have on the back a certificate given to them as for how they have been approved by the federal or provincial government. This means that somebody is blessing them. That is why I would go back to what I had said in the beginning: we are manipulating the truth to do something, but what is it that what we want to do? Perhaps we do not know but have to do something, so let us manipulate the truth!

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For example, a huge focus on self-glorification is obvious in the Pakistan Studies book. While we are glorifying ourselves, we are inherently otherizing it. Moreover, we are doing that not only philosophically, but also practically. We are the best and they are the worst, whosoever they are though the book is very clear about them. Whatever our freedom fighters did at the time of partition was fair, just and legitimate; while whatever was done to them was unfair, unjust and illegitimate. We were the good guys and they were the bad guys, but the book does not clearly state who we were up against: the British or the others? In this case, we were up against the others, which is like saying that we were okay with the British ruling us, but not the Hindus. So the Hindus are the ones whom we demonize. This otherization and demonization eventually translates into the amount of hate that takes practical shape in the form of torching places of worship of minorities. I would like to quote the 6th principle of the Pakistans ideology from a textbook approved by the federal government: Non-Muslim citizens of an Islamic state have equal social status with the Muslim citizens. Their civil rights are guaranteed. They are allowed to preserve their culture, language, personal law, places of worship and religious institutions. The problem is that you can perhaps conceal the historic facts, but then what can you do with what is happening now? For example, this textbook very conveniently overlooks what happened to the Sikhs and I quote: With partition, the Sikhs were ethically cleaned from Pakistans Punjab. As the result of the creation of the Islamic state of Pakistan, the Sikhs lost absolute access to their shrines. When the killing and cleansing of 1947 ended, not a single Sikh was visible in Lahore. Interestingly, at that time in one street, driven by the spirit of freedom, people were chanting slogans for a free country, whose fundamental principle was to give equal rights to non-Muslim citizens; and in another street, driven by another kind of frenzy, people were killing those non-Muslim citizens. The point in not to criticize what happened in the past; the point is we need to admit and acknowledge some of these manipulated truths, and try to bring our past into our present and plan for the future. Whatever the ideology of Pakistan perhaps means, social scientists need to revisit that. The same book further says: Dismissal of entire anti-democratic government. On 22 August 1947, only eight days after Pakistan came into existence, the Quaid-i-Azam dismissed the Congress Ministry in the NWFP headed by Dr. Khan Sahib as it had lost peoples confidence and the people later rejected its program with an overwhelming majority in the referendum held in July 1948. On 22 August 1947, the Father of the Nation dismissed the anti-democratic government in the NWFP and, a year later, the results of the referendum proved him right. I would cautiously say that is promoting a kind of persona and self that does not know what it wants to do, but something it must. Now I quote from Jinnahs speech: We maintain and hold that Muslims and Hindus are two major nations by any definition or test of a definition. We are a nation of 100 million people and, what is more, we are nation with our own distinct culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names and nomenclature, sense of value and proportion. A few pages later, the same book says commenting on what hap-

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pened to the two Pakistans in 1971: The two wings were not geographically contiguous. At the nearest point of proximity, 800-kilometre Indian territory separated the two wings from one another. Both areas had a different cultural and ethnic background. Have you noticed the contradiction? Similarly, the Islamic Studies textbook should discuss the contemporary issues. You will be shocked, as I was, to know that they can even manipulate the Holy Quran, which is one of the sources that no one wants to question, especially when it talks about family planning. For instance, the verse from Surat-ul-Baqra that talks about how women should give milk to the children for two-and-a-half years is very conveniently ignored!

Discussion

After Dr. Nasir Jamal Khattaks presentation, Session Chair Dr. Ishrat Hussain opened the floor for discussion. Most of the comments made by the participants pertained to Dr. Khattaks presentation. The salient ones are being summarized: Dr. Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Jadoon (Director, Institute of Administrative Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore) viewed that the history written by the British was also biased. He asked was the concept of Orientalism also not based on us and they? This issue is not specific to Pakistan. So to change this trend, we need to reconstruct the history globally. Dr. Rasul Bakhsh Rais (Professor of Political Science, Lahore University of Management Sciences) drew attention of the audience towards what Dr. Rashid Amjad had said in his presentation regarding the documentation of research findings. The critique of social science research emanates generally from ignorance of the policymakers and reviewers. In most of the universities in Pakistan, a lot of research has been conducted in not only English, but also Urdu and regional languages. But I have not seen any publication that objectively and scientifically documents the research done in the country. Probably the HEC should have done this. Dr. Rais also criticized Dr. Khattak for using in his presentation examples from school textbook sources to judge the quality of scholarship in Pakistan. Dr. Syed Jaffar Ahmed (Director, Pakistan Study Centre, University of Karachi) said that we had neglected the research conducted in Urdu and regional languages of Pakistan. Idara-e-Saqafat-e-Islamia, Muqtadra Qaumi Zaban, the Institute of Sindhology, the Baloch Academy and others have produced a lot of research. Unfortunately, neither those who claim that the state of social science research in Pakistan is dismal nor those who claim otherwise take into account the research conducted in Urdu and regional languages. Dr. Maqbool H. Sial (HEC Foreign Professor; Dean, Faculty of Management and Administrative Sciences, University of Sargodha) stated that interdisciplinary collaboration among social scientists was another area that needed urgent attention of the HEC. This Conference has provided social scientists with an opportunity to sit under the same room, but generally in the universities, working within their own departments/faculties, they do not get much chance to collaborate with each other or know about each others work, thus the research conducted in the universities is mostly impractical with a lot of missing links.

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Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin (Chairperson, Conference Organizing Committee; Vice Chancellor, University of Gujrat) deplored that the universities had neither deans for research nor offices for research coordination. Until we establish such offices, we cannot expect quality research from the universities. He also said that this issue would be discussed at length in Session III on the Challenges to Promotion of Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities and HECs Experience. Dr. Mehtab S. Karim (Distinguished Senior Fellow, School of Public Policy, George Mason University, USA) said that a university should not be confused with a college. Many public sector colleges were recently upgraded as universities. They are basically teaching institutions that should not be called universities since they do not have the required potential to do research. Similarly, university teachers have been reduced to school or college teachers. At both public and private sector universities, they are expected to teach a few classes and then go home; hence they have no interaction whatsoever with their students. In addition, the majority of public sector university teachers in Pakistan have become briefcase professors, who prefer teaching at private universities over conducting research. Dr. Farzana Bari (Director, Center of Excellence in Gender Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad) criticized the way research is being conducted across different social science disciplines. Certain research approaches and paradigms continue to fight for legitimacy in Pakistan. For example, a lot of knowledge continues to be produced using a very endocentric framework. Despite an urgent need to conduct research from a feminist perspective using more qualitative approaches, we still face challenges within the academia in terms of having legitimacy for that kind of scholarship. Before giving his remarks as the Chair of Session II, Dr. Ishrat Hussain invited the panelists to answer any of the questions that they may feel was addressed to them or offer clarification on any of the issues raised by the participants: Dr. Nasir Jamal Khattak clarified that he did not quote sources from a school textbook in his presentation and that he chose that particular book only because its language was English. This book starts at the college level, but textbooks used at the university level also have similar passages. My purpose, however, was not to criticize what is there in these textbooks, but to help us question ourselves. When a controversial topic comes up for research, we start using pet sentences and want to ensure that it does not question everything freely. Therefore, I thought I would look at it from an academic point of view. He said the focus of his presentation was that the discrepancy between the idealized self and the real self is so much that the mind is confused at a very unconscious level. When you are facing a problem because of a decentred self, you have trouble solving it. As Dr. Jochen Hippler rightly pointed out in his keynote address, when money or certain agendas are involved, we end up somehow end up compromising on our academic standards. We should not compromise on truth and share with people whatever it may be. Dr. Saba Gul Khattak said that we needed to not only better understand the social sciences, but also allocate adequate resources to them. Though economic growth is important, we cannot have a dichotomy between the social sciences and science and technology; the two need to go hand in hand, but usually the former gets treated rather badly in Pakistan.

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Dr. James C. Witte said that working with the military or the intelligence community did not necessarily imply supporting the dominant discourse. For instance, the social scientists in the United States are also working on ways to broaden participation in the intelligence community, so that immigrants may have access to jobs as well as the clearances that are vital to a number of industries, not just the defence or intelligence. He further said that interdisciplinary research needed our attention. We, as social scientists, should recognize that everything is social; and be able to work with biologists, chemists, architects, etc. We have something to contribute to them and they have something to contribute to us. Moreover, many aspects are cultured today that do not have anything to do with science and technology, but they are all touched or possibly touched by it. We would be doing a disservice to ourselves if we did not recognize that. Dr. Jochen Hippler did not agree that social scientists were in any real danger of lowering standards to become a part of the policymaking process since they can also be instrumentalized when they do excellent work. Let me give you an example! One of my friends, a university professor, carried out an in-depth, self-critical study about corruption in the Palestinian Authority. When news about the study appeared in the media, he got a phone call for Mr. Dick Cheney, the then-Vice President of the United States, who wanted to have the study, not because he was interested in improving the quality of governance but because he wanted to use it as a tool to hit the Palestinian Authority. What are social scientists going to do in this kind of situation? One of the major dilemmas they face is this. He further said, as an outsider, I am a bit hesitant to judge the quality of research in Pakistan, but I would like to say that Pakistani social scientists have produced top quality research. The standards, however, are very diverse, because world class research and one that should not have been published in the first place exist side by side.

Remarks by the Chair


[Dr. Ishrat Hussain]
Session II on The Role of Social Science Research in Public Policymaking concluded with remarks by Chair Dr. Ishrat Hussain (Director, Institute of Business Administration), which are being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: I do not think that the ongoing debate on where we position the social sciences versus the basic sciences, or within the social sciences one subject versus the other, is very useful. All of us, whatever our field may be, should try to produce quality research that can both inform the public policy and, as Dr. Saba Gul Khattak rightly pointed out in her presentation, generate knowledge that can be used by others in future. That you must have an immediate gratification in the form of affecting the policy is not utilitarian. We do not afford an adversarial relationship between the social sciences and the basic sciences, also because of the shortage of good social science researchers in our universities. Initially, the HEC had comparative research grants, but the money for the social sciences was never fully used because of the lack of good research proposals. So we have to work on both the demand and the supply side. Moreover, some subfields of the social sciences like economics are more established than others like sociology, anthropology and psychology.

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The emerging issues such as extremism, fundamentalism and terrorism are not amenable to one particular area; they need a multidisciplinary approach. But here I would like to add a word a caution that I have borrowed from Dr. Rubina Saigol, who will be the chair/moderator of Working Group 5 on Day 2. She says most researchers seem to think that multidisciplinary means simply adding on material from another discipline or producing some perspective from another subject. We do not have to fall in this trap since multidisciplinary means going beyond the tools of our subject and trying to understand it in the broader context, so that nobody has the monopoly over wisdom looking from his or her own prism. As Prof. Rehman Sobhan pointed out earlier today, the donors and NGOs have crowded out serious academic research in South Asia, but in Pakistan the media has also done the same by making the researchers instantaneous celebrities. They are now spending more time giving their opinion and expert views in television talk shows than supervising their students or writing research papers. This makes perfect sense because if you publish a paper in your disciplinary journal, which is read by only a few hundred of your peers, you are not likely to get the kind of name and face recognition that you get by appearing on television. Based on my experience in both the academia and the public policy domain, I think what Pakistan needs the most is intermediation between the policymakers and the researchers. For example, when I was working in the public policy domain, I used to translate the technical, jargon-filled research papers into a language that was comprehensible to the policymakers. We are missing the point if we expect the policymakers to lay their hands on a research paper with simultaneous equations and then arrive at some judgment. To fill this gap, some of us should be well-conversant in technical writing, as well as in communicating in the language of the policymakers.

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Promotion of Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities

SESSION III Challenges to Promotion of Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities and HECs Experience Thematic Note
The HEC firmly believes that quality education in the social sciences is vital to Pakistans development. Therefore, since its inception in 2002, the Commission has took many steps ranging from developing human resource to providing research grants, and developing linkages at both the national and international level to promote quality social science education. Most importantly, the CDSSHP was formed in 2003 to identify the problems and recommend short, medium and long-term solutions to make social science education dynamic and attuned to the present and future needs of the country. Dr. Nasser Ali Khan is the current Chairperson of the CDSSHP. The HEC has also established the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, which provides research grants, promotes linkages between universities within and outside the country, and provides funds for organizing seminars, symposia and conferences. A well-equipped library, along with a database of faculty and their research, is also being established through the Council. At present, the total amount allocated by the HEC for ongoing projects related to the social sciences, arts and humanities is Rs. 4.744 billion. A good indicator of social science research needs would be the size of student population in PhD programs. Data posted on the HEC website show that the overall trend in enrolment for PhD programs is upwards, but not steep. The number of PhD students in Pakistan increased to 7,421 by 2008-09, from just 3,061 in 2001-02.

Presentations

[Dr. Ishrat Hussain]

Session III on the Challenges to Promotion of Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities and HECs Experience started with Chair Dr. Sohail H. Naqvi (Executive Director, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad) inviting first panelist Dr. Ishrat Hussain (Director, Institute of Business Administration, Karachi) to make his presentation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: I start with Dr. Inayatullahs analysis as to what is the direction of the social sciences in Pakistan. His analysis was published in 2003, but it remains valid even today. He says that the social sciences are moving in the two broad directions of superficial speculative analysis and hyper factualism or abstracted empiricism. He notes that social scientists adopt a journalistic style of analysis of political events and foreign policy ap-

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proaches, and indulge in narrative and descriptive history and other disciplines. There is a tendency to explain events in terms of personalities and their particular attributes. Scientific analysis in terms of fundamental social processes, dynamic movements of history, and the inter-relationship between social parts and social wholes is less frequently undertaken, Dr. Inayatullah says. Analyzing the study of history in Pakistan, Dr. Naeem Qureshi, in his paper titled Whither History (1989), comments on the belief that the countrys foundation lies in religion. He writes that such an attitude does not inculcate objectivity in viewing social phenomena; rather it creates a closed mind incapable of scientific inquiry. As concerns economics teaching and research, the findings of Dr. Nadeem-ul-Haque and Dr. Mahmood Hasan Khans study, published in the Pakistan Development Review in 1998, are still valid: Reflecting the pathology of larger feudal bureaucratic social order in Pakistan, the senior management in academia generally follows the national model of centralized power without consultation and participation. A high proportion of the junior research and teaching staff finds itself in a patron-client relationship, in which the patron has considerable power to punish and reward individuals. The personalized nature of power breeds mediocrity because salary, scholarship and promotion are rarely based or merit and personal achievement. Some of the senior research staff and faculty have achieved their positions through this system and suffer from a sense of insecurity. The majority of Pakistani public sector universities have evolved into bureaucratic organizations with inflexible status system that rewards non-academic assignments, rather than excellence in teaching and research. The constant battles for capturing prize posts such as registrar, dean, controller of examinations, director or chairperson of a department/faculty, etc. testify to this observation. In such an environment, finding the requisite analytical capacity to address the kind of issues that we have flagged is difficult. You have may have a difference of opinion with the three sources I have quoted from, as well as with my own casual empiricism based on visits to most of the universities in Pakistan, but I think that we should look ahead rather than look at the past. This Conference is a very important turning point for setting the agenda for promoting social science teaching and research in our universities and academic institutions. My suggestions and recommendations are: 1. We need to inculcate the tradition of solid empirical research based on primary data collection, structured interviews, surveys, field visits and observations. This can also be done by requiring Masters, MPhil and PhD students to actively participate in these activities. Not only will these students get training in the research methodology, but also the empirical foundations of their theses and dissertations will be strong. Moreover, the prospective bright candidates, who cannot afford higher studies because of financial constraints, could be offered research fellowships and grants under different HEC programs. The HECs funding constraints have become quite serious in the past two or three years, but before that a lot more money was available for research grants and fellowships, though very few research proposals met the peer review standards and were accepted. Even with the limited resources, we should focus on conducting solid empiri-

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cal research on issues that all of us agree are relevant to Pakistan. 2. We should establish the tradition of open seminars in which the professionals working in the same field in one city should be invited to present their research proposals as well as preliminary results, and obtain feedback and critique before the papers are finalized. At the Institute of Business Administration (IBA), Karachi, seven of our PhDs in Economics who are doing research. Just next door is the Applied Economics Research Centre (AERC) of the University of Karachi, where different academics are conducting research in the same discipline. So for the first time, we brought researchers from the IBA and the AERC together, and now collaboration in both teaching and research has started. We should never forget that no university in the world is fully self-sufficient; you may have expertise or competence in one field, while others may have competence in other fields. Then why not pool our resources? Why not have joint teaching and research programs? This approach would also silence those who are always complaining about the limited resources. 3. Social science students seem to be stuck after completing their course work as to how they go about preparing and defending their research proposal. Because of some kind of a disconnect; what we are teaching in our universities is not preparing the students for conducting research. We have to fill this gap and remove the barrier hindering PhD students from doing research. 4. Social science journals should be upgraded by making them regular in frequency of publication, insisting on stringent peer review system, abstracting and indexing them, and broadening the editorial boards. The CDSSHP has taken some positive steps in this direction and I hope that this will continue in future also. 5. The tradition of annual conferences by professional associations has completely disappeared in Pakistan over time. For example, this Conference should ideally not have been organized by the CDSSHP; rather professional associations representing anthropologists, psychologists, economists, political scientists and other disciplines should have held their own annual conferences, as it happens every year in, say, India: dates are announced, papers are invited and screened by peer reviewers, and to be accepted for presentation at an annual conference is considered to be a great honour. 6. We must not become wedded to a particular viewpoint or ideology or thought process, because knowledge is created by challenging conventional and established wisdom. I have observed that a lot of our teachers take any challenge in the classroom as a personal affront. If you do not listen to young and fresh minds, whose views may completely deviate from your thinking or from the established wisdom, you are not going to create new knowledge. So our attitude towards knowledge creation has to change; rather than taking offence to questions, we should encourage them since asking the right ones is the first step in research.

[Dr. Pirzada Qasim Raza Siddiqui]

After Dr. Ishrat Hussain, the Session Chair invited next panelist Dr. Pirzada Qasim Raza Siddiqui (Vice Chancellor, University of Karachi) to make his presentation. He was requested to speak in Urdu since he is a renowned poet of the language.

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Dr. Siddiqui thanked the HEC, Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin, Dr. Nasser Ali Khan, the Conference Organizing Committee and the Conference Secretariat for holding this meaningful event. Though I am not a social scientist, based on my 43 years experience as an academic, I would like to make a few observations about the conflict between the social sciences and the basic sciences, and the challenges and opportunities for social science research in Pakistan. Reflecting on the use of words like sorry or dismal to describe the state of the social sciences in Pakistan, he viewed that instead the word non-satisfactory should have been used. Next, Dr. Siddiqui raised a few important questions before going on to answer them: who will do social science research in Pakistan? Will it be a career choice or a temporary aberration for that person? Who will give jobs to social scientists and what is their standing in the society? Why dont the top students opt for the social sciences? Research should ideally be conducted by students, scholars and faculty members of social science departments in the universities, but the foremost are the students. When students apply for admission in the university, the most important thing on their mind is as to what types of careers are offered by the subject they choose, thus we see a big difference between the students who opt for the basic sciences and those who opt for the social sciences. The academically top students opt for the basic sciences since they ensure a better career; while the academically poor students opt for the social sciences since they have no other choice. Because this trend is resulting in serious problems for our society, we need to start a movement for motivating the top students to join the social sciences. To make this field attractive for them, they should be provided with proper counselling and incentives, such as paid fellowships and research grants. Only after these prerequisites are met, we will get students capable of doing quality social science research. Dr. Siddiqui also questioned the compartmentalization of knowledge in Pakistani universities; a student cannot study other disciplines after joining one particular discipline. For example, a student majoring in physics cannot study philosophy or a student majoring in commerce cannot study environmental sciences. On the one hand, we have compartmentalization of thinking, depriving our students of the versatility that is the trademark of personalities; on the other, compartmentalization of knowledge is badly hurting our education system, he said. Dr. Siddiqui viewed that Pakistan had turned into a graveyard of unfinished agendas. We start a project, abandon it and start something new. In the whole region, professionalism has become the name of the game. Everyone needs excellent and hardworking professionals. I see no harm in this, but do you need robots or humans? If you need humans, then they should also be familiar with religion, language, culture, arts, etc., since all these make a personality versatile, he concluded.

[Dr. Masoom Yasinzai]

After Dr. Pirzada Qasim Raza Siddiqui, the Session Chair invited next panelist Dr. Masoom Yasinzai (Vice Chancellor, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad) to make his presentation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing:

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Kindly bear me out as I am not a social scientist! I am a hardcore laboratory scientist and I am not sure whether you will accept me as your first cousin or not. Let me briefly share with you a few things that I have experienced over the years, starting with the major challenges to the social sciences in Pakistan! The social sciences have always been meted out a step-motherly treatment in Pakistan. Successive government have focused on science and technology, mostly at the cost of the social sciences. The overall resource constraint problem has further aggravated the situation for the social sciences. The major chunk of resources goes to science and technology and very little, or almost none, is left for the social sciences. Another challenge is that the product is not tangible in the case of the social sciences, as it is in the natural or biological sciences, science and technology, etc. The BA or MA degree is mostly pursued to get promotion or increment, and not to make a career in the social sciences. Hence the policymakers need to revisit if students should be allowed to pursue these degrees privately. Moreover, the government, the policymakers and the social science community lack coordination. Take the example of HECs devolution after the introduction of the 18th Constitutional Amendment! Though higher education is a major social sector program of the country, the government did not take any social scientist into confidence before making a decision in this regard. These are some of the issues and challenges we have faced over time. So what is the way forward? As I look at it, inter- and intra-faculty interdisciplinary approach should be adopted in higher education institutions. At the Quaid-i-Azam University, over the past one year, we have moved from a departmental to a school structure, to encourage an interdisciplinary approach. That is within the Faculty of Social Sciences, but I am talking about inter-faculty interdisciplinary approach as well. Here I would like to share an experience with you! I was part of a group of vice chancellors that recently visited the leading educational institutions of the United States. The Vice Chancellor of the University of Yales invited us over lunch in a student house. By chance, a student of Pakistani origin was sharing the table with me. During discussion, he told me that over the past three years, he has done 12 majors in chemistry and seven majors in the social sciences. He has studied law, political science, literature, anthropology and what not. This made me recall my student days, the way I got my masters degree from the University of Balochistan. When I was doing my Masters in Chemistry, I was only allowed to look in the Department of Chemistry, not here and there. The students who have done, along with the basic sciences, all those social sciences will be complete human beings by the time they graduate from the university. We are trying to do something similar at the Quaid-i-Azam University by offering 4-Year BS in Social Sciences, Basic Sciences and Biological Sciences following an interdisciplinary approach. The HEC and provincial governments should arrange special funds for research projects and scholarships in the social sciences. We also need a think-tank at the national level to identify the relevant social science issues, because we have already paid a very heavy price as a nation for ignoring them. This think-tank should visit all universities of Pakistan and help the social scientists working there develop research projects around

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those issues. The HEC and other donor agencies funding these projects should have a soft corner for the social sciences, because other sciences have already developed to a large extent. Let me to finish my presentation with an example! The Quaid-i-Azam University has 86 faculty members on the Tenure Track System, only four of whom are in the social sciences. This shows that we need to revisit the system of incentives too.

[Dr. Nasser Ali Khan]

After Dr. Masoom Yasinzai, the Session Chair invited Dr. Nasser Ali Khan (Chairperson, CDSSHP; Director, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar) to make his presentation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: Let me first ask you a simple question: how many of you know about or have actually received funding under the HECs National Research Program for Universities (NRPU)? Only four! Now that is the problem. A huge chunk of money is available under the NRPU, which is widely believed to be meant only for the basic sciences, mainly because of the condition of impact factor. I used to believe the same and complained to the HEC Executive Director about it, demanding that the condition be waived for social science projects. Dr. Naqvi, however, denied having any such condition. When we checked the website, much to my embarrassment, he was right and I was wrong. Under the NRPU, up to Rs.10 million can be accessed by all faculty members, whether they are in the social or basic sciences, even if they have 0 impact factor. So here is a challenge! More than 100 social scientists are present here. By the end of May, we should ideally submit at least 50 research proposals for funding under the NRPU. In addition, the CDSSHP manages the Thematic Research Grant Program (TRGP) having an unspent budget of Rs.32 million. The HEC Executive Director recently raised the ceiling for funding of research projects under the Program from Rs.1 million to Rs.2 million, but then what are the hindrances? When I took over from Dr. Ishrat Hussain as Chairperson of the CDSSHP last year, 46 research proposals were in the pipeline for funding under the TRGP. Only yesterday could funds for three be released and we are looking at perhaps four more. This speaks volumes about the overall quality of these proposals: they could not even go through the first screening. That is the dilemma! Though adequate funding is available for research, the majority of social scientists lack the capacity to develop good proposals for accessing it. Therefore, the CDSSHP plans to organize training workshops on writing good research grant proposals in all major cities of the country. When we started at the Institute of Management Sciences a few years ago, neither was there any research being carried out nor was there any funding available for it. But now we spend almost 8% of our budget on research. I would propose to the vice chancellors present here that if your institution does not have a specific budget for research, start spending 5% of its budget for the social sciences, arts, humanities and business education on research. Let me also explain how this 5% will come back to your institutions! All public sector universities in Pakistan have the capacity to undertake consultancy work. Requests for

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proposals are advertised in the newspapers almost daily. For example, the universities can conduct surveys projects for different donor agencies within the country and abroad, but for this they need to have a core group within their departments. I can proudly share with you that, starting with zero, 6% of the funding of Institute of Management Sciences now comes from consultancy work. Unfortunately, HECs approach too is biased against the social sciences to a certain extent. You may ask where that bias is. Let me tell you! Weightage is given to different disciplines in research funding. Social science subjects have a weightage of 1, agricultural subjects of 2 and engineering subjects of 3. The HEC needs to raise the weightage of social science subjects from 1 to 2 at least. Considering the low output of social science research in Pakistan, until special attention is paid to it, we may not be able to get the desired results.

[Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin]

After Dr. Nasser Ali Khan, the Chair invited Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin (Chairperson, Conference Organizing Committee; Vice Chancellor, University of Gujrat) to make his presentation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: I want to raise some issues based on my experience of social science research in Pakistani universities, but first I want to make two statements: 1) Research in both the social sciences and the basic sciences belongs to the universities, not to the HEC or any other organization; and 2) Unless the universities develop their own research capability, no grant will help them. As some earlier speakers have also pointed out, money drives the research. Money drives research agenda, research programs and research capabilities. Until you put money into research, nothing is going to happen. More important, money should come from the universities themselves, not from other funding sources. As Dr. Nasser Ali Khan also mentioned in his presentation, raising money is not difficult for the universities due to the services they can offer to international organizations and donor agencies. However, more than anything else, this entails changing the prevalent mindset. I find it shocking that people who have not undertaken a single research project themselves are supervising MPhil and PhD students. Faculty members are supervising social science research without themselves having an ongoing research project on the university campus. What are they going to teach to their students without having any experience in conducting research? I am often asked that why Pakistani academics working abroad do not return and conduct research in their own country. Only because of the dearth of research projects on the university campuses in Pakistan! I am sure that if we could come up with interesting research projects, many of those academics would return to Pakistan. We should also not lose sight of the fact that none of the universities in Pakistan has a social science research laboratory. Let me add that the sooner the structural issues of research on university campuses are addressed, the better. A possible solution is a dedicated office for social science research in all the public sector universities of Pakistan. The proposed office should not offer degree programs;

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it should only facilitate other university departments/faculties in undertaking research projects, and train the faculty and students in research techniques. Unless we have such a structural arrangement on university campuses, research will be sporadic and fragmented, thus ineffective and inefficient. Research proposals of the faculty members pass many hands before they finally reach the vice chancellors desk. This should not be the way to organize research. Instead the proposed office for social science research should be authorized to approve the submitted proposals for onward transmission to the HEC or other donor agencies. Complete autonomy of the proposed office is also imperative. One of the reasons behind the HECs success is its autonomy. The same applies to the universities. Most of the faculty gets disinterested only because of the lengthy procedures involved in applying for a research grant. Hence when the vice chancellors office invites proposals in response to some HEC program, mostly the faculty does not show interest. The proposed office should also be entrusted with the responsibility of interacting with the HEC, international organizations, and donor and funding agencies. After finishing their course work, PhD and MPhil students can work as research associates or assistants in this office, as is the case around the world. Unless we have such a culture of research on university campuses, nothing will change. The reason why funds available under the NRPU and the TRGP are not being fully utilized is the lack of capacity in most Pakistani universities to put together a good research proposal. This makes it natural that their faculty has negative stories to tell: they sent proposals, did not hear from the HEC and got disheartened. Considering this, why doesnt the HEC allocate the same money to selected universities for supporting research? Until this money is transferred to the proposed offices for social science research under some agreement, it will never be fully utilized. I am at a loss to understand that why cannot vice chancellors, who have authority over their universitys budget of billions of rupees, be trusted with just Rs.50 million or Rs.100 million for research? Another major problem with grant programs is that they are managed by bureaucrats, though you need professionals with research experience for this type of work. The reviewers of the proposals submitted for funding under the TRGP should not be consultants or paid people; instead they should be people who are genuinely committed to research. This can also be done by the universities themselves too; if they were not involved at that level, promotion of research would remain an elusive dream in Pakistan. Another problem is that when someone talks about the social sciences, immediately the data-based hardcore social sciences come to our mind. Though quality research has also been done in disciplines such as history and political science, somehow the tendency is to negate the soft sciences since they do not use much of computer analysis. We need to remove this bias at the earliest.

[Dr. Abdul Razzaq Sabir]

After Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin, the Session Chair invited Dr. Abdul Razzaq Sabir (Director, Balochistan Study Centre, University of Balochistan, Quetta) to make his presentation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing:

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Language, a crucial part of any culture, determines the basis for nationalism or ethnicity since it represents a nations identity and preserves its heritage. Language is also the driving force behind the unity of people since it makes them distinct from others. Language is never imposed, always adopted; and once a language is adopted, it is not easily eliminated. Pakistan is a multilingual country having more or less 60 major and minor languages. Urdu is the national as well as the official language, while English is the coofficial language of the country. Except for Sindhi, which enjoys some official status in the province of Sindh, none of the major languages spoken in Pakistan Punjabi, Pashto, Balochi, Saraiki, Brahvi, Hindko and Kashmiri enjoys any official status. Most of these languages are taught in schools as elective subjects, while selected universities also offer Masters, MPhil and PhD degree programs in them. Pakistan is one of the worlds most backward countries in the field of linguistics. Proper attention has never been paid to linguistics, which is still not being taught along modern lines in the country. Moreover, very few books and journals of linguistics are printed from Pakistan. Another problem is that the majority of universities in the country do not have the department of linguistics. In such cases, the department of English fills the gap by offering courses in general and applied linguistics. I quote from Dr. Tariq Rahmans paper titled Linguistics in Pakistan: Those who are interested in linguistics either write in the nineteenth century philological tradition ignoring all recent advances in linguistics or produce prescriptive manuals of good usage. Activists of language movements also write works of an immature or tendentious quality either to air their views or promote their languages. In Pakistan, there are neither academic journals of linguistics nor professional associations and groups holding conferences and responding to research. Those who write in this field are virtually isolated. That is why linguists turn away from linguistics proper to interdisciplinary areas in which the resources of the established social sciences such as political science, history or sociology are available. The prominent language institutions in Pakistan the National Language Authority; Sindhi Language Authority and Sindhi Adabi Board; Punjabi Adabi Board; Pashto Academy, University of Peshawar, and Pashto Academy Quetta; Balochi Academy; and Brahvi Academy and Brahvi Adabi Society mainly focus on that aspect of language planning that is known as corpus planning. Besides publishing books and dictionaries, these language institutions standardize spellings. They are mostly run by experts in literature who do not have much knowledge of modern linguistics, thus they do not produce any serious research in linguistics. Barring a few local scholars, most of the serious work in linguistics in the context of Pakistan has been done by foreign scholars, mostly from Western countries. The social sciences in general and linguistic and language research in particular have always been neglected in Pakistan. Despite some growth in the latter in recent years, the number of teachers and institutions in this field is still far from satisfactory. Moreover, no significant research has emerged from the language institutions or university departments of languages.

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Therefore, the HEC should take concrete steps to deal with the problem of shortage of proper research facilities by supporting at least one university in each province to establish the department of linguistics. Moreover, a philological society should be formed to cope with the challenges related to historical, descriptive, sociolinguistic and language research. Similarly in the private sector, an association comprising all prominent linguists of Pakistan should be established. Pakistan is currently facing many serious problems like corruption and terrorism. Besides these are other problems that are just as intense but are somehow overlooked, such as the lack of respect for our regional languages. The debate on whether Urdu should be declared as the national language of Pakistan continues to this day. We should train our minds to accept Urdu as the national language since this step would promote national unity. In a country having a diversity of languages, there must be a common platform where people could stand united. Developed nations of the world respect their languages and take pride in using them. If we want Pakistan to become a developed country, we must respect Urdu and all our regional languages. We will have to come out of our inferiority complex regarding our own languages. Learning English might be an asset, but being good in Urdu and other regional languages of Pakistan is equally important.

Discussion

After Dr. Abdul Razzaq Sabirs presentation, Session Chair Dr. Sohail H. Naqvi opened the floor for discussion. The salient comments made by the participants are being summarized: Dr. Syed Jaffar Ahmed (Director, Pakistan Study Centre, University of Karachi) lamented that a lot of money was available with the HEC for social science research, but nobody was vying for it. A few years ago, the HEC sent me along with others to the University of Balochistan, Quetta, for conducting a workshop on how to write a research proposal for funding. At the end of the workshop, which was attended by about 35 faculty members, the Vice Chancellor asked the participants would they now be able to write research proposals. Most of them said yes and agreed that they would submit proposals to the HEC within the next 10 days. When some two months later I asked the concerned officers in the HEC how many proposals had been received so far from that university, they told me not even a single one, he enumerated. Dr. Ahmed believed that the core problem was the lack of capacity among the faculty and suggested that the HEC should focus on conducting field research, since understanding the real nature of Pakistans problems was impossible until one moved out of Islamabad. We need to visit educational institutions in remote areas to see what the critical mass of this country is? Who are the teachers? What is their capacity? Can they write research proposals? If the core problem is this, then the right strategy for the HEC would be to spend most of its budget in the next five to ten years on capacity building of the faculty, he stressed. Before giving his remarks as the Chair of Session III, Dr. Sohail H. Naqvi gave an opportunity to the panelists to answer any of the questions that they may feel was addressed to them or offer clarification on any of the issues raised by the participants:

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Dr. Ishrat Hussain suggested that a university should not start a program without the required number of faculty members having proper qualifications. Though the IBA is a business school, we have expanded the offerings in social science disciplines, and made them core courses and electives for the BBA program. As Dr. Pirzada Qasim Raza Siddiqui said in his presentation, we do not want the students to become robots who know how to do internal rate of returns and develop beautiful marketing plans, but who do not know how to relate to fellow humans or solve the societys problems. So IBA students get a heavy dose of the social sciences; for example, every BBA student has to learn one of these languages: Arabic, Chinese or French. This will help produce students who are both good humans and professionals, he elaborated. Dr. Hussain further said Pakistans research priorities should be determined by a combination of teachers and their students who were aware of the problems being faced by the country, as well as of their own interests and competencies, since nobody from outside is going to tell you what your research priorities should be. As concerns the salary of teachers, I have visited small villages where a teacher in the government primary school gets about Rs.10,000 but the school remains locked. I have also visited primary schools run by the community where a girl, who is just a Matriculate and gets only Rs.3,000 per month as salary, is teaching 20 girls who are then able to reproduce what they have learnt. So the way you govern your education system matters, not the money available. A lot of money is being spent on teachers in Pakistan without holding them accountable for results. A teacher in a remote area such as Khuzdar should get Rs.15,000 per month as salary, while a teacher in a big city such as Karachi should get only half of this because of the scarcity premier; nobody wants to work in a remote area and everyone wants to work in a big city. In essence, the local market conditions should determine the salary of teachers, not the national pay scales, he explained. Dr. Pirzada Qasim Raza Siddiqui viewed that our main problem with regard to higher education was that we had been living with a certain mindset. Due to the HECs intervention, the mindset is gradually changing. For instance, until a few years ago, the public sector universities in Pakistan never felt the need to do resource generation and management by themselves. Once the HEC motivated them, now every university is moving in that direction, he maintained. Dr. Siddiqui informed the audience that the University of Karachi had designed a 3-credit hour course on Community Development that was being offered to all the students. Soon more courses of general interest shall also be introduced to promote an interdisciplinary approach, he added.

Remarks by the Chair


[Dr. Sohail H. Naqvi]
Session III on the Challenges to Promotion of Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities and HECs Experience came to an end with remarks by Chair Dr. Sohail H. Naqvi (Executive Director, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad). This also marked the end of Day 1. Dr. Naqvis remarks as the Chair of Session III are being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: I would first like to make a few observations, which are not supported by data but are surely representative of the HECs work during the past eight years. When the HEC

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was formed, the realization that the higher education landscape in Pakistan was desolate and barren, with a few isolated oases here and there, was already there. At that time, the HEC did not have the luxury of evidence-based policymaking, but it wanted to get started in maximum areas at the earliest and that is exactly what it did. In retrospect, now we can give a little more structure to how the HEC went about. The basic idea was to change the ego system of higher education and I have used this term in its broadest possible context. Everything that constitutes what is a university had to be tackled and tackled simultaneously since the HEC were trying to catch up on more than 60 years of neglect. It made a lot of mistakes in this mad scramble. One of them, also mentioned by Dr. Saba Gul Khattak in her presentation, was the bias in favour of the basic sciences in the Fulbright scholarships. Another fundamental error made by the HEC in the beginning was to treat the social sciences like the basic sciences, though what the former needed to flourish was significantly different from what the latter needed. This explains the lopsided growth of the higher education sector in Pakistan; while research in the basic sciences, engineering, agriculture and medicine has already started to show sprouts, the same has not happened in the social sciences, humanities and arts. Research at the postgraduate level is based on good output from the undergraduate level, which in turn is based on good output from the school level. Unlike the social sciences, the undergraduate program in the basic sciences is solid, as evident from the quality of students applying for different scholarships. While high-calibre students fiercely compete for scholarships in the basic sciences, even enough good students do not apply to fill all scholarships in the social sciences. Still it took the HEC quite a while to realize that the prescription of awarding scholarships is not going to help in the promotion of social science research. In the undergraduate program, the HEC initially gave priority to the basic sciences, though the actual disaster was occurring in the social sciences. The BA and MA programs are just a rehash of what would be an equivalent international level of eight or ninth grade. This statement, though controversial, is fully based on facts. The problem actually starts at the school level, but it does not hamper the basic sciences as much as it does the social sciences. As concerns science subjects, the school level is quite alright due to the cultural pressures that the earlier speakers referred to and the fact that the societys attention is focused on them. But if we talk about the basics, such as reading, writing and comprehension, the situation at the school level is pathetic. In particular, the writing ability of a Pakistani school graduate is much lower than the counterpart international standard. This problem is further complicated and exacerbated by what Dr. Abdul Razzaq Sabir alluded to in his presentation the issue of language. English is not the mother tongue of Pakistanis who are good at neither speaking nor writing it. The difference in the ability of students to express themselves in Urdu or some regional language and English is huge. Even in the top elitist private universities of the country, the students are far more comfortable expressing themselves in Urdu than in English. We have stifled our people by not allowing Urdu to flourish. Combined with poor teaching of English and the lack of attention on the basics, this puts social science stu-

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dents at a phenomenal disadvantage when they reach the undergraduate level. Until we got the 4-year BS program going, we were not getting the students who could then go to the best universities of the world. Now that we have started to get that output, we are soon going to see the results. Another problem at the school level is that mathematics is not taught to social science students, though progressing without it these days is impossible. Without the quantitative ability, proper statistics and design of experiments across the board, progress will continue to elude us. That is why the HEC took a firm stand on the issue of including a component of mathematics in the NTS test despite taking a lot of flak for it. Furthermore, the HEC moved into the postgraduate program in the social sciences without the requisite number of faculty members having proper postgraduate qualifications. The HEC failed to convince the majority of social scientists working abroad to return to their own country because it seems that Pakistanis never went abroad to study the social sciences. Therefore, the program of postgraduate courses in the social sciences could not occur as envisaged by the HEC. When we combine all these factors, we will see where the core problem lies. If we want to promote social science research in Pakistan, we need to go back to the undergraduate level where we got to have a solid four-year program! The students in this part of the world used to receive a lot of classical education. When we stopped doing that, we had to bear the consequences and learn that all over again. Most importantly, we need to get rid of our hang up about Urdu. Strangely, no university in Pakistan offers a course in Iqbaliyat, so that a student in the basic sciences could study Iqbal or any other of our poets for that matter, yet when our people talk, poetry is the language that lights up the eye and gets the expression going. We certainly have a lot of challenges, but hopefully, with everyone putting his or her thought process together, we will soon be able to overcome these.

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SESSION IV New Developments in Social Science Research Techniques and Methodologies Keynote Address
[Dr. James C. Witte]

Day 2 started with Session IV on New Developments in Social Science Research Techniques and Methodologies. The Session Chair, Lt. Gen. (retired) Muhammad Asghar (Rector, National University of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad), invited Dr. James C. Witte (Professor, Department of Sociology; Director, Center for Social Science Research, George Mason University, USA) to deliver the keynote address, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: My presentation is divided into three parts. In the first, I will discuss why now is the right time for innovation in the social sciences, for not only Pakistan but also most countries around the world. In the second, I will share some examples of the work we are doing at the Center for Social Science Research, George Mason University, where I have been the director for almost a year-and-a-half now. In particular, I want to focus on some of the major organizational and institutional challenges we have to face in making the Centre successful in a time where innovation is the name of the game. In the third, I want to specifically talk about three techniques: 1) Interactional information system or model; 2) Community-based participatory research; and 3) Agent-based survey simulation. Before I conclude, I will briefly talk about the relevance of my presentation to Pakistan. My initial claim is that now is the time for innovation in the social sciences, since now social scientists have much more opportunities than ever before. For example, a friend of mine, who finished graduate school at the same time as I did and chose a business path, is now the Lead Sociologist at Microsoft. Hence the time is ripe to become a social scientist, especially with these fascinating developments in the digital data. Shaking people up and making them understand that is part of social scientists job. As I was beginning graduate school in the early 1990s, most social science faculty and students were being increasingly fascinated with new statistical techniques. That fascination exists to this day since many important developments are yet to be made in the social sciences. Once I had the privilege of dining with Prof. Norman Nie, the founder of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). As a young student, I felt compelled to ask him: Prof. Nie, what do you see as the new developments in statistical techniques and what can we be looking for with SPSS in future? I will never forget his response: In the future, issues of data collection and management will be more important that any of the new statistical techniques. We, as social scientists, must recognize the possibilities that existed until the early 1990s and think about the amount of data that have become suddenly available to us. More and more information, which we can easily integrate into our research, is becoming available to us in structured formats; and that is also largely responsible for the opportunity for innovation in the social sciences. Along with the opportunities, the other thing that makes it a time for innovation is the number of challenges we are currently facing. That is partly because of the new methods and techniques of analysis and sources of data,

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and partly the changing society. Therefore, we have to remind ourselves that not only the methods and techniques are changing, but also the society. Here I will give you three examples of the challenges: 1. The United States is facing a crisis in survey research, though a lot of people do not yet recognize this. Prof. Don A. Dillman, one of the top survey researchers of the world who has also written the leading textbook on survey research methods, is one of the few people who recognizes this and is becoming increasingly outspoken about it. In particular, he mentions survey fatigue and warns that as we need more and more data, which we can get through survey research, we are overwhelming our respondents. The survey fatigue also explains the increasing rates of non-response, which are undermining almost all of survey research. Traditional survey research is based on random samples. One can easily buy a random sample of telephone numbers in the United States, but then we only have a 25-30% response rate. Had that non-response been random, no big deal; the research would become expensive, but the statistical procedures and sampling methods that are the basis for survey research would not be undermined. But, nonresponse is not random, though we can model some of it based on certain characteristics. So the first challenge is that of staring to think creatively about survey research. 2. Starting in 1984, the German Socio-Economic Panel, a longitudinal panel dataset of the countrys population, tracks thousands of households annually and looks at individual change over time; and is very comparable to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics in the United States, which was started at the University of Michigan in 1968. As they began to work with panel datasets, which have made it possible to watch like a video the development of individuals and households, various disciplines realized that a whole host of statistical issues were involved, primarily associated with correlated error terms. So the second challenge is that of rethinking our approach to the statistical analysis of panel datasets. 3. Data-mining is an increasingly popular technique. Part of my excitement with being a sociologist right now is that most of our social interaction and what we do in our everyday life leaves electronic footprints; this means data for us. For better or worse, much of our behaviour online is being recorded and can be analyzed; this again means a source of data for us. I am not going to talk about data-mining very much, but I will caution data-miners that a problem exists and it goes back to survey research and why survey research is still going to be relevant. Famous American Sociologist Dr. Robert D. Putnam says that with survey research, social scientists gain control of the categories; they are able to question and get responses. So data-mining provides the perfect solution! We also need well-trained social scientists, the most essential resource for conducting quality research. But all over the world, the competition to acquire these resources is becoming increasingly fierce because of the lack of people who possess both sociological knowledge and research skills. So the third challenge is that of getting quality people as the most important resource for social science research. When I look at both the challenges and the opportunities, they call to mind an oft-quoted, yet much disputed proverb, which can be traced back to Plato: Necessity is the mother of invention! We have a situation where we need to be innovative and to think about new techniques. In the context of what we are facing right now in the social

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sciences, we may also consider what Thomas Addison, who invented electric bulb, had to say: I dont want to invent anything that wont sell. Its sale is proof of utility and utility is success. That is true for not only the more applied versions of the social sciences, but also the theoretical ones. For better or worse, we have to think about the structure of the academic market, as well as the demand and supply for certain types of knowledge. Particularly if you are a individual seller on the academic marketplace, you have to think about where you have a particular comparative advantage, what your competitors look like and what you are able to offer that will yield value. Now I will move to my experience in the past year-and-a-half at the Center for Social Science Research, George Mason University. First, I will touch on the opportunities and challenges with regard to organizational and institutional issues. I like to use a phrase promiscuous collaboration, which is a take on interdisciplinarism. We, as social scientists, should be open to collaboration with just about anyone, almost any of our academic partners. When I look at the work I have been doing for the past 15 years, my collaborators have included economists, architects, psychologists, political scientists, engineers, communication experts, educationists, and, in particular, computer scientists. I mentioned in my comments on Dr. Jochen Hipplers keynote address in Session II that, whether we like it or not, we are living in a digital world and that computers are a key part of our society today. Computer scientists and some psychologists too use a term human-computer interaction when they want to talk about the human element and factors in computational science. Every time I hear them use the term, I try to tell them that there is no such thing and only human-human interaction exists. Computational devices, hardware and software may be mediating the communication, but humans never interact with a computer; they interact with a device or software that represents a human. Since that is the purview of the social sciences, we have a key role to play in the development of computer science, especially applied computer science. I do not know that I can say much about computational algorithms, but we, as social scientists, have a great deal to offer to them in their application to things that affect an individuals life, as well as the corporate and organizational life. The first and foremost thing that we have to remind ourselves with all of these collaborators, not just the computer scientists, is what Addison told us: convince them of our utility. In terms of organizational issues, we should consider the supply side for our research. Let me share a proverb based on a statement supposedly by Slick Willy Sutton, an infamous bank robber in the United States in the 1930s. When, after being caught, Sutton was asked why he robbed banks, his reply was: Thats where the money is! We also need to think about this as we look for resources and design a research infrastructure that is capable of capturing resources in a scarce environment. Where is the money? Where are the opportunities for us to be successful? Researchers all over must be flexible in pursuit of funding and they should also think about the sources that match their project. The final organizational issue that I had to think about as the director of the Center for Social Science Research was where we have a comparative advantage. At Clemson University, South Carolina, where my previous position was, my comparative advantage

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was that the university is located in a small town and the only business in town or close by is the BWM North American production facility, which is about 35 minutes from the university campus. During that time, I did a lot of automobile oriented research. The dean of our graduate school used to say: Think about an environmental scam! Look around you and see what the situation is and where you can find the niche that may suit you! So we have to see what can we do that others cannot, as well as think about new settings. George Mason University is located close to Washington DC, which is obviously a good market for research but equally competitive too. The premier research program in the United States the Joint Program for Survey Methodology, managed by the University of Maryland and the University of Michigan is just 45 minutes away, so trying to crack the market for survey research did not make a lot of sense. Therefore, we had to think about alternative methods for survey research. We also had to think about the institutional setting. George Mason University is located in Fairfax County (Virginia), which has a population of about 1.1 million and is incredibly diverse by American standards; according to recent census data, one-third of the households speak a language other than English in the home and 27% of the countys residents are foreign born. In the past three moths, my team at the Center for Social Science Research has submitted $5 million worth of research projects to federal agencies and most of those are based on research within Fairfax County. Typically, a federal agency does not fund county-based research, but we tell them that Fairfax today is America in 25 years, that diversity is on the rise in the United States and here we have a place where it already exists, so let us think about how can we study social processes in a diverse setting to learn lessons for the whole country for the future. The interface with which we communicate with avatars is going to get much more realistic in future. Right now, to move an avatar, I have to use a cursor or a mouse, but that has to improve. To communicate, I used to have to type. Now avatars have voiceover internet protocols built into them, so that you can have real world voice communication many-way multiple-party conversations in real-time using your voices. In this environment, one area we are really interested in is agent-based interviewing. An agent is a computer script, but it looks like a human being. From survey research, we know about something called interviewer effects. For example, if I have a male interviewer speaking to a female respondent as compared with a female interviewer speaking to a female respondent, I will get different results. The same applies to race, ethnicity and age. Manipulating the interviewer with the field staff is very difficult; for instance, to suddenly say that we need a 45-year old Afro-American male interviewer in this city. But in a virtual world environment, that can happen automatically. Once I know the demographic characteristics of my respondents, I have an interviewer who is well-suited to get more accurate information. The other thing is that I work very hard with my interviewers to maintain consistency in the interview and ensure that they follow the script. My computer agents are very well-trained and I can make them pretty intelligent. With the right programming, they can

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be very responsive; they can follow branches and skip patterns. These agents are going to get better due to the advances in computer technology that you all know about. The way we are going to be able to script interviews through computer-assisted agent-based interviewing is going to be dramatic. We need to understand this for a lot of reasons. Let us suppose I have two agent-based interviewers with exactly the same face! One of them is dressed in a T-shirt and the other is wearing a clerical collar. If I am going to ask somebody that have you ever stolen anything, where am I likely to get a more accurate response? I can also change the race or gender of my interviewer with some off-the-shelf software like CrazyTalk, which you can buy for just $120. With CrazyTalk, I can not only change the features of the avatar, but also animate it or have it lip-sync almost perfectly. This software has Dr. Paul Ekmans Facial Action Coding System (FACE), which looks at the correlation between facial expression and emotions, programmed in the background. So I can bring up an interface that looks like GarageBand, where I have a track that is a statement and then another track that is an emotional expression. These tracks can also be layered. If I ask you that have you ever stolen anything and your reply is in the negative, I can get my avatar to provide the appropriate questioning response. So I am able to control not only verbal, but also non-verbal communication of the avatar. As we know though, in the real world, we are we just starting to understand that and trying to systematize it by building a science around it. We need to do that with the virtual world as well, to understand the extent to which we, using these tools, are able to control the interview situation. I did some experiments about four years ago, where I would walk my avatar very close to someone elses avatar. Guess what they do? They back up if their social space is violated. You may be fascinated to do cross-cultural comparisons, since very real differences exist in the real world, but that is already being done in a virtual world which is somewhat realistic. You can imagine what happens when it gets very realistic. Connect, which is a device for steering the Xbox, was launched by Microsoft in July 2005. Social scientists may look down on games, but because of the profit mode most of the innovation is happening there. Microsoft Connect is a variant on Wii, the game environment where you move around a stick to control the game, but here you are the controller. This device has a series of lights that look at your body and scan it. These lights locate your hands, knees, hips and eyes; and then you can control the game and your character in the game through your own bottled emotions. Connect, which is currently on sale for $400 including the Xbox, is soon going to become widely available and significantly improve the way we interact with devices. Those of us who are old enough, we used to interact with devices with computer cards; in my case, even with ticker-tape. Similarly, the mouse is just a temporary solution and we are soon going to develop new means to interact that are going to be much closer to the reality. One of the things very apparent right now as a social scientist is that the digital world or the cyber space and what we used to call the real world are merging and blending. In part, the new interfaces are responsible for that, as we are pulling so much of what used to be the real world into the digital world.

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One of the projects that we are undertaking at the Center for Social Science Research is a driving program. American teenagers start driving at the age of 16 and about 4,000 of them die every year on the roads. The instruction materials in driving are very poor because the efforts to improve them are expensive. Though we have gotten donors from the racing industry to provide some of those materials, if we can replicate the same in a digital environment, anyone would be able to access them. We have started to do just that. We have a setting where teenagers could go and learn about both driving and safety. One of the best things about these virtual worlds is that they are on round-theclock, 24/7; and that they support both synchronous and asynchronous interaction, so that we can leave artifacts for people to review. This takes data and does not give back much, may be just a $2 incentive. Instead, we can offer something of value; and in todays world, increasingly the most valuable commodity is information. If I can provide relevant information, since I have learnt something about the respondent in the course of the interview, then that may prompt him or her to respond and continue to participate in the interview. This back-and-forth exchange of information is the idea behind the interactional information system or model. My collaborator in computer science went to school with someone who is a highup in the United Nations World Health Organization (WHO). The two often talked about how they wish they could get better information, particularly regarding human resources for health. So we developed a system know as the Software Tool for Policy Diagnosis and Discussion (SoftPoDD) under a project that started in 2005, again from flexible funding sources, and tested it out with 14 South East Asian countries. SoftPoDD is a tool for people at the deputy level in a ministry of heath, for those who help in making decisions about doctors, nurses, midwives and allied health professionals. SoftPoDD, which is built on the OnQ Survey System, is what people today would call a contact management system a database-driven software tool for managing surveys. We are thinking about retiring this system, since now some commercial products on the market have the same functionality, but we are still kind of attached to it. SoftPoDD supports fairly complex branching using schematic nodes. One of the best things about the OnQ system is that it shows the complexity in a survey, so much so that you can easily get lost. We have a plug-in graphics tool that, based on the information which my students or I have programmed, provides an overview of the survey flow, so we can go back and check those nodes or circles on the graphs, which are not individual questions but clusters of questions. One of the important things here is that the OnQ system seems kind of complicated, but it also gives details on each of the nodes. Bringing that complexity is also possible in a paper-and-pencil survey, but it places an enormous cognitive burden on both the respondent and the interviewer to manage the correct path through that. Instead, we built the intelligence into the system and the particular respondent never sees that picture. Instead, they see the single path through the system that they happen to be on. So again the OnQ system is all about reducing respondent burden to get increased participation.

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The real goal of this complex survey was to not only gather information, but also give back information. At the very end, we had information from WHO labour experts about human resources for health. Based on an individual respondents replies, a particular policy would get a red light or a green light or some shade in between. We debuted SoftPoDD with representatives from the 14 South East Asian countries. We told them that we are not telling you the answer, since SoftPoDD is not an expert system that says do this; it only gives you recommendations. The second piece is also built around red and green lights, but it goes back to the individual questions. It documents what you told the system that supported a particular decision or spoke against it. The people working in ministries often disagree; though they know that they disagree, they do not know why they disagree. The idea here is to have multiple actors in a health ministry complete SoftPoDD and then compare notes why their assessment of the situation is so different from each other that they came up with contradictory recommendations. Most of you would be familiar with community-based participatory research, which is a collaborative process between the researchers and the community, with mutual benefits and reciprocal learning. At the same time, you begin to get buy in and engagement from the community; a way the policy may actually be implemented. Community-based participatory research affords many opportunities to both the university or the researchers and the community, especially in terms of building relationships, learning skills and having an impact. Most of us do not want to do social science that sits in a journal read by only 44 people. We want to have an impact; if we can get community buy-in, then we are more likely to have that impact. Bringing our research partners from the community into our lab and showing them what we do is one of the things that has really been fun in our efforts at the Center for Social Science Research in the past year-and-a-half. We get them involved, such as by teaching them how to make graphs in Excel, so that some transfer of skills happens at the same time where they begin to get ideas and possibilities they did not have before; and then they go back to their communities and have an impact. Now I will tell one quick story! Photovoice is a visual technique where you give cameras to people and have them take photographs of something that they think is good or bad in their community, and then use that as a framework for discussion. The county government asked us to organize something for the young people, so we decided to capture the reactions of immigrants about the Fourth of July, Americas Independence Day. Nine of the participants happened to be girls of Pakistani origin aged 13 to 15 years. We started with the idea that they could do whatever they wanted; if they had a good idea, we were more than willing to go with it. What these girls did? They said in the next meeting that they wanted to take pictures of the laundry room. When we asked the reason, they told us that they had to spend a lot of time there; they lived in a housing project with a communal laundry room and all the machines were broken. These girls made a presentation to the Board of Directors of the Fairfax County Department of Housing and Community Development and convinced the members to devote resources to improve the quality of the laundry room. That is a good example of

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community-based participatory research: not only did we learn something, but also these girls learnt some skills. They had to get together, make a presentation to a county board and give arguments in favour of what they were saying. So these girls had an impact and they got the results they were looking for. Following on this model, one of our new projects is on looking at ways to improve opportunities for underrepresented youth in a part of Fairfax County that is primarily African-American. Last year, the federal government invited proposals for an initiative called Promise Neighborhoods, which was first implemented with great success in Harlem, New York, and was now being replicated in other parts of the United States. We submitted a proposal that was turned down by the federal government, but then a local bank, which was trying to invest in the community and learn about the ways to build its reputation, agreed to fund it. We had a frank discussion with the high-ups of the bank that this was not just public relations and that we had an agenda of really improving opportunities for the community. We warned them that if we saw something about this program that was not working, that would come out in the research. So first and foremost, we, as social scientists, must stick with the goal of conducting quality research. The last topic of my presentation is agent-based survey simulation. This goes back actually to my German experience. I first worked in 1981 in Frankfurt on micro-simulation or ways to look at computer algorithms to monitor and model the German culture and society, particularly the economy. This did not work all that well since humans are not automatons and they respond to change. A lot of motivation for the German SocioEconomic Panel came from the realization that these micro-simulation models were too static; instead, you need a certain amount of dynamism. You need to be able to think how individuals respond to change and incorporate that into your model. I recently met three young researchers one each from Iran, Poland and Switzerland doing PhD in Computational Social Sciences from George Mason University. We talked a little bit about simulation and they were really impressive. Not only do they fully understand their work and know the mathematics and science behind it, but also they are adapted to modelling and are skilled programmers. These researchers are currently doing some interesting work in Afghanistan, trying to simulate the drug trade and the reactions to different policies to stop this illegal business. What they do is that the political scientist travels to Afghanistan. They lock him in a compound and bring in people involved in the drug trade. He interviews them and then uses that information to improve the quality of the simulation. As mentioned earlier, Fairfax County has one of the most diverse communities in the United States. We have fairly good census data, so we can make a baseline model. We can say that we know about a measurement error because the census is not capturing certain trends very accurately, such as the number of people living in a household. What adds to the problem is that the measurement error is not uniformly distributed: certain subpopulations are more likely to reveal the number of people in the household truthfully, while others are more likely to change the number of people in the household and hide the truth. How do we deal with the problem of uneven distribution of the measurement er-

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ror? What we do is that we create an initial model of what the census results should be, based on the distribution of immigrant groups within a particular area. Then we go back into targeted, specific neighbourhoods in which we have been working. We have helped these communities and they trust us. They know that if they tell us the truth, bad things are not going to happen. We work with them to get a more accurate assessment, which is then fed back into the model. This both enriches the model and makes it more accurate and realistic. We plan to go through a series of iterations to improve the model, and then go back and compare what we are getting from the model with the ongoing census collection. We, as social scientists, should start modelling things, just as economists do with income. They know what the error terms are, rather than asking people what their income is. This helps them understand the distribution of the error terms and that is why we are also thinking about doing the same with survey research. To conclude, I will briefly share my thoughts on the relevance of the social sciences to Pakistan. As concerns the interactional information systems, there may be room for decision-support systems within government agencies. Discussing how you coordinate policies between different provinces or within an agency is important and software tools can be used to facilitate that discussion. I know that community-based participatory research, which is a very promising technique to improve the quality of data, is being conducted in Pakistan. This type of research has the advantage of building civil society linkages, as well as trust between an outside policy research environment community and the people whose lives we are trying to improve, or to whom we are trying to offer benefits and services. Coming to agent-based survey simulation, I have been reading newspaper articles about issues related to the census in Pakistan for the past two days. An academic, Dr. Robert Groves, is heading the United States Census Bureau for the first time in its history. He was one of the founders of the Joint Program in Survey Methodology and is a fantastic survey researcher. The research initiatives we are undertaking at the Center for Social Science Research have come to the fore due to his leadership. We, as social scientists, really need to begin to think innovatively about how to do some of the tasks that we have been doing for decades, but now we have tools, techniques and a society that call for a different approach and some innovation. I would like to advise young researchers that do not be afraid to innovate! You only need to know the basic research methods since your dissertation advisor is going to look at your work. My first dissertation advisor was Dr. Daniel Bell, a noted sociologist at Harvard University. When I told him that I want to do my dissertation on personal technology, he threw me out of his office. In the end, I had to do a different dissertation. A part of it was that Dr. Bell really had some hard questions about why I thought these technologies were going to be important in the future and I did not have a good enough understanding of his ideas of post-industrial society. So if you want to propose new methods, do your homework in advance! I will end my presentation with three quotes by Addison. The first one is: Genius is 1 percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration. We do not have to tell this to the organizers of the Conference, especially the University of Gujrat. The second one is: I

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have not failed. I have just found 10,000 ways that wont work. What Addison is trying to say is that if it does not work, it does not work; and you move on and do something else. But what really matters is the persistence to try to make it work. The third one is: I have never done a days work in my life. Its all been fun! That is the other part. You are going to be successful only if you are engaged in what you are doing and you get excited about it. That is what makes it not only fun, but also I hope work.

Presentations

[Prof. Rehman Sobhan]

After Dr. James C. Wittes keynote address, the Session Chair invited first panelist Prof. Rehman Sobhan (Chairperson, Centre for Policy Dialogue, Bangladesh) to make his presentation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: In my presentation in the Inaugural Session, I talked about the crisis in the social sciences. My presentation now is on what we may actually do about this crisis. I will approach this issue under three broad heads: 1) Demand side for research; 2) Marketing of research; and 3) Accountability of researchers. The two principle sources for research outputs are the policymakers and the awam. In theory, the government needs a lot of research; but in practice, it adopts a much more casualized approach to how and from where to access research. A process of annual consultation between the concerned ministries and the relevant supply side agencies that are producing research can be a possible way of generating an appropriate demand for research. In that consultation, the concerned ministries can spell out their research needs: what are the problems they are facing in that sector for which they need solutions? This approach would force the policymakers to think because I am amazed at how many policy decisions are taken without thinking and apply their notions to the problems they are facing; and then see how the constituency of researchers could solve those problems. Moving from the government to the broader community of the awam, how do you reach out to the common people to find what do they really need? The primary market for research is the awam, but unfortunately the research community tends to see them as mere objects. We make our living out of asking them mostly irritating questions, but are oblivious to their sensitivities. Recognizing this problem, a new institution named Research Initiatives Bangladesh tries to motivate the people on whom research is being done to conduct their own research. The idea is to encourage the awam to reflect on their main problems and what they think should be done about them; and then, based on this, generate ideas that can be written down in a simple language to be communicated to the policy community. If we, as social scientists, want to conduct poverty-related research, we must spend considerable time in consultation with the common people; we should not only take into account their concerns, but also try to understand what we can do about addressing them. Moving on to the marketing of research, allow me to be a bit biographical! I first came to Islamabad around half a century ago in 1960, when I was just 25 years old as

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a Senior Lecturer in the Economics Department of the University of Dhaka. I had been invited along with a group of other academics to listen to the presentation of Pakistans 2nd Five-Year Plan. We got many opportunities to talk to the then-Finance Minister and the then-Deputy Chairperson of the Planning Commission. Since we, or at least some of us, were very irreverent, we could be extremely critical of the Plan. I am not sure that they took our criticism seriously, but at least they gave us an attentive hearing. Similarly, every year we used to be invited to Rawalpindi and later Islamabad for the presentation of the federal budget by the Finance Minister and then comment on it. This again tended invariably to be exceedingly critical. Here the important point is that you need to have a receptive market. My suspicion is that this receptivity to the opinion of the research community is a depreciating commodity in our policymaking circles today. To address this issue, I set up an institution named the Center for Policy Dialogue in 1993. The Centre was derived from my 20-year association with BIDS, the premier research institute of Bangladesh, which was the companion organization of PIDE. I headed BIDS for many years and my experience there was that we were producing, in a purely academic sense, excellent policy research, but no one paid attention to it. When the final product was ready, we used to hold a seminar where we would invite the minister; who would come, inaugurate the event and disappear at the first tea break. Thus, in essence, the intended market for research the policymakers tended to be a purely theoretical market. We also recognized that the policymakers were not the only market for research; we also had a wider constituency beyond the government of both the political community and civil society. After all, politicians sit in parliament that takes the final policy decisions. So I concluded that we needed an institution to bridge the gap between the research community and the stakeholders in policy, including the government, parliamentarians, civil society, the business community, and donor agencies. Over the past 16 years, the Center for Policy Dialogue has organized more than 400 dialogues in which invariably we bring in ministers and parliamentarians, particularly from the opposition, as well this broader community. We try to address policy-related research before this to then see if they will be responsive to this research and how they can make effective use of it. Over these years, the Center has become quite famous. Its annual budget dialogue between the Finance Minister and the Shadow Finance Minister from the Opposition is now a famous institution in Bangladesh the Opposition usually boycotts the budget session in the country and the only time it gets a chance to discuss the budget is in the Centres dialogue. We also need to recognize that, beyond this community, exists a much broader community, which is again the awam in terms of civil society. You have to get them engaged in whatever research is being conducted. This does not just mean organizing seminars in Islamabad or Karachi or Lahore; it means going out to the district headquarters and bringing broad members of civil society from there and presenting them with the outcomes of important policy-related research, so that they can not only understand what are the possible solutions, but also articulate their criticism and own understanding of the problem.

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Much more complex is the problem of reaching out to the common people, going out to the very villages where you are supposedly engaged in conducting research, since you need to develop a language of research to communicate with them. This does not mean English or Urdu or Punjabi, but the nature of a discourse that is easily comprehensible to the common people. This poses one of the biggest challenges to researchers: while they may be capable of producing ideas that can be published in academic journals, what can they do to simplify these ideas when presenting them before a broader community? Finally, let me address the issue of accountability! We tend to feel that we are only accountable to the people who pay the bills for our research, though usually they are the ones least interested in its outcome. The whole idea of public intellectuals is people who can deliver their brain power or research ability to a broader community of people. We are responsible for ensuring that our research performance and output remains accountable, but what can actually be done to make social science research accountable? Transparency is the most important issue in this connection. This essentially means that the common people should be made to know what research is being conducted. This applies to both domestic researchers and expatriate consultants. Similarly, this applies to both academic research and consultancy work. A possible way of doing this is to build a condition into all research and consultancy contacts that the product since research is a public good, not a private property must be presented at some public forum. What makes doing this even more important is that about 75-80% of the research mediated through the consultancy market is treated as a private good. If you go to the Library of Congress in Washington DC and look at the research on Bangladesh or Pakistan, you will be surprised to find that more than 80% of the listed topics are consultancy reports about which we have never heard. The government is responsible for building into the contractual obligation of all consultants that their product must be presented at some public forum. As members of the research community, you should articulate this demand publically and as loudly as possible. Secondly, there must be a mechanism where your research can be interrogated; the common people should be allowed to ask you whatever questions they want to. In this way, all researchers will be accountable for not only the quality of research but also what they are putting forward as conclusions. Finally, I would like to emphasize that publications in peer-reviewed journals should be mandatory for the professional advancement of the research community. This does not mean in-house journals set up by every university where any nonsense can be published without any questions being asked. In the case of Pakistan, all universities which want to be recognized by the HEC must demonstrate that they have a peer-reviewed journal. Similarly, people should not be allowed to academically advance in their respective institutions until they demonstrate that they have peer-reviewed publications in research journals. If such a discipline could be enforced within the wider academic community, not only the quality and relevance of research will improve, but also the professional integrity and quality of the institution itself.

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[Dr. Suresh Sharma]

After Prof. Rehman Sobhan, the Session Chair invited next panelist Dr. Suresh Sharma (Senior Fellow, Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, India) to make his presentation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: First, I want to make some remarks on the role of the social sciences and social scientists in policymaking, advising and addressing the society in which we are working. Even when governments are elected governments, even when elected governments are good governments, we must remember and remind ourselves constantly that a certain important distinction remains between the society and the state. The state in this part of the world is a very new kind of an artifact and it rests on very fragile foundations. Many people believe that in India the story of state-making has been much more successful than its neighbours. I am not in a position to judge that, but I do want to reiterate that the building of the state in India is still on a very fragile foundation. In this part of the world, the institutions of the society and family are very strong. In very adverse conditions, these institutions have come to the rescue of the state itself. Now that throws up an enormous problem: how to create a public realm in these conditions? Social scientists do engage with this problem, but from a threshold that creates further complications. As a teacher in a university, as a researcher in a research institute and as the director of the same institute for some years, I always insisted on and voted for two things. First, in dealing with the government or funding agencies, we do not take projects simply because they are on offer. A research proposal must be initiated from the research institution. The enterprise of research should never allow itself to degenerate or even unconsciously slip into a situation of becoming a servicing agency. That is a danger in terms of not only what you actually service, but also the way you think or the way you formulate what you ought to be doing. Second, very concretely, we encourage and nurture those researchers who are not interested in undertaking projects. Since how one recognizes something as a worthwhile social science pursuit is subjective, the facilities researchers get should not be linked with undertaking projects in any way. Moreover, in this kind of institutional space, certain uncomfortable questions can also be asked about the quality, relevance and importance of what is being attempted through projects. I have a few concerns related to Dr. James C. Wittes fascinating keynote address. The first I would like to convey in the form of an African proverb: If you do not know where you are going, you should be worried; but if you do not know where you are coming from, you should be worried even more because you are lost! So we need to ask: where do we come from, but not in the context of lineages and ethnicities alone. The great theorizers of the social sciences in Europe have reminded us at many levels and very acutely that we have had an ethnos, but the negotiation from the ethnos to the demos has not happened and perhaps cannot happen. Here demos is not just a particular political form that is being talked about; it represents the very idea of a tran-

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scending public realm. As I was listening to Dr. Wittes presentation, my mind raced back to a little over a decade ago. When we were ticking close to the year 2000, everybody seemed to be worried about the computers coming to a freeze. In fact, Indians spent a lot of money to avert the impeding disaster, because we have these chic resources to service that kind of a thing. This became a threshold for the take off of the Indian software industry. But the point I want to make here is that why these very sophisticated minds, which are given to the highest possible level of efficiency and vocational commitment, had not thought about things beyond the year 2000? Isnt this indicative of the kind of cognitive closure that lies, if not at the heart, close to the heart of the modern social science enterprise? I speak about it as one who is concerned, because that is where my vocation has let me down. When we look at a technique, however dazzling it may seem, we have to be able to ask two questions: 1) Is there a way we can assess its worth? and 2) Is there a way we can make some kind of a rough assessment of its possible implications? Here let me remind all of you that measuring is not peculiar to the human species! In essence, all known life forms deal with measuring, the very condition of survival, in some way or the other. But the real question is: is everything significant? Is everything measurable? And, most important, is everything being measured significant? I was struck when Dr. Witte used the term data-miners. What does it mean? When miners begin digging into a mine, they do not really know where they are going. This term is reminding us that we are up on a blind threshold where the primal question that social scientists need to ask is: what do we want to look for and why do we want to look for that? The cognitive closure in the social sciences is expressed these days in very dramatic terms by the enormous enterprise of studying climate change and its various dimensions. An example of the most fundamental definitive cognitive closure in the social sciences is that the idea that nature represents intrinsic value or the word ecology would have made no sense prior to the 1970s. On a concluding note, I would like to say that what I wish to interrogate here is the nature of social science memory.

[Dr. Wolfgang-Peter Zingel]

After Dr. Suresh Sharma, the Session Chair invited next panelist Dr. Wolfgang-Peter Zingel (National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad) to make his presentation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: This panel is supposed to deal with new developments in social science research techniques and methodologies, but my concern is that what has been researched on and how research is being pursued in the field of South Asian studies in general and Pakistan Studies in particular, inside and outside the country, rather than just what is new and trendy. As a member of the South Asia Institute (SAI) of the University of Heidelberg, which was set up half a century ago to study South Asia following an interdisciplinary

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approach, I feel tempted to do that. I am aware that, as an economist and as an outsider, my assessment may rightfully be considered as biased. The fields of academic interest to some extent depend on the economic and political environment of social scientists. In addition, career prospects determine the choice of the subject as well as the methods. The availability of generous research funds for certain topics and almost no money for others becomes more important in a country where the teaching load can be very heavy and where private means are almost lacking. Interdisciplinary research needs a deeper understanding of concepts, approaches and terminology of other disciplines; and the insight that we all need to learn from each other regardless of our disciplines. Methods also assume importance here. Having worked in an institute that has been dominated by humanities over the years, I have seen that different disciplines think differently. At times, by their very appearance and the way people speak you can distinguish and tell what subjects they are in. It took us great pains to understand each other since we used the same words, but often in very different connotations. The problem of hierarchical research, quite pronounced in developed countries, exists also in Pakistan. Too much insight is lost if field work, analysis and reporting is done by different people. This applies in particular to what Prof. Rehman Sobhan said in his keynote address about contract jobs and consultancy work: they are often not only hierarchical but also under heavy time constraints. So by the time information reaches the main reporter, most of the insights are lost. This also explains why the majority of such reports are not worth reading. During Allama Iqbals birth centenary preparations in 1977, the late Mr. Munir Ahmad, the then-Cultural Counsellor of the Pakistan Embassy in Bonn, proposed the establishment of a professorial fellowship, funded by the Government of Pakistan, in honour of Dr. Muhammad Iqbal. The Allama had spent some months in Heidelberg in 1907 when he was waiting to defend his doctoral thesis titled The Development of Metaphysics in Persia at the University of Munich. His letters are proof of his success in mastering the German language. Dr. Muhammad Ajmal Makhdum became the first Iqbal Professor at SAI of the University of Heidelberg in 1979. He was followed by Dr. Muhammad Siddique Khan Shibli, Prof. Fateh Muhammad Malik (who held the position twice), Dr. Hasan-Aksari Rizvi, Dr. Pervaiz Iqbal Cheema and Dr. Syed Wiqar Ali Shah (who currently holds the position). These academics came from different disciplines and blended in the interdisciplinary environment, setting fine examples of crossing the borders of disciplines in teaching and research. The Allama Iqbal Professorial Fellowship is just one example of the longstanding and close academic relations between Pakistan and Germany since the early 1950s. Pakistan sent promising young scholars to not only the United Kingdom but also countries of the non-English speaking world, so that they could learn more about systems different from that of its former mother country. At the same time, university teachers and students from all over the world came to Pakistan. We all learnt from each other how things can be done.

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As an outsider who comes regularly to South Asia, and has worked in different capacities in different institutions in different countries, I have been particularly fascinated by the opportunity of comparing different systems within the region, which shares so much of the history but still has very distinct societies. Some striking similarities exist between these societies, but not in all fields. Here I will mention the salient ones briefly: 1. Academic institutions all over South Asia focus more on teaching and less on research compared with those in my country Germany. A university should be universal. It should cover all type of disciplines and be a place where teachers and students learn from each other. 2. Teachers today are better qualified than they were until a few decades ago, at least in principle and going by formal qualifications. However, maintaining high standards was easier then due to the limited number of students. We heard some very convincing examples of this on Day 1. 3. The social sciences and humanities have to serve as a safety valve for students who cannot be accommodated in disciplines that promise higher salary and status, and that are also more expensive. When the number of seats in engineering or medicine is limited, there is a spill-over effect into the social sciences and humanities. 4. In South Asia, usually the size and openness of a country determine the value people attach to their institutions. Having taught in both India and Pakistan, I see a striking difference between the two countries in this regard. In India, people take great pride if they have a PhD degree from a top university within the country. The availability of plenty of scholarships for going abroad has prevented the Pakistanis from developing the same sort of pride in their own institutions, though this trend is fast changing. 5. The world over, the market for advanced studies in the social sciences seems to have become more and more degree-driven. Earlier people used to get diplomas in a subject for its very beauty, but now they go for degrees that provide the opening to all professional avenues. 6. In both Pakistan and Bangladesh, a huge market exists for doing consultancy work for the government and aid agencies. But such work is not strictly academic, as also underlined by both the keynote speakers on Day 1: Prof. Rehman Sobhan and Dr. Jochen Hippler. 7. Applications for projects and funds must be well-armed with statistical evidence and the expected outcome of research. It does not mater how good such research is if not conducted in a systematic way. 8. Since aid-related reports serve a specific purpose, their method and language do not necessarily reflect academic standards, even if the quality is excellent as measured by the requirements of the respective project or program. In particular, the jargon is at times simply not bearable. 9. Pakistan, in particular, has very few large social science research institutes. The limited studies available on the subject were quoted on Day 1 and I agree with them. 10. The economic and political conditions of a country have a direct bearing on social science research. The people who intend to find academic jobs outside their own

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country specialize in areas that have a market and that will increase their value. Therefore, they will try to get their research published in prestigious journals abroad, for which they better first find out what kind of articles these journals are interested in. So the selection of the research topic is very much determined by a job market that is often outside the country. These facts show that good economic and political explanations can be given for some of the research shortcomings in Pakistan. The result is that the choice of research methods reflects not only the state of research, but also the general environment for and perceptions of research. The last sentences have hopefully made it clear that pigeonholing in academics has to be avoided. As an economist, I have greatly benefited from working with academics and experts in other disciplines, not to forget that economists take a lot of pride in adapting research methods from other lead disciplines such as mathematics, physics and of lately life sciences. Importantly, research interests should not stop at the imagined boundaries of ones own subject. They should not stop at the national borders either. Water should serve as the perfect example. Pakistans main rivers originate from the neighbouring countries of Afghanistan, China and India. Studying the water needs of these countries should help us in understanding their policies. Similarly, you are supposed to look beyond the borders in economics. But Pakistan suffers from a general lack of interest in the economies of other countries, especially those that were on the same level in the early 1950s and have now surpassed it miles. Pakistan is being increasingly discussed as a failing state or even a failed state, which obviously makes it a relevant topic for research. One of the ways of doing this would be to compare Pakistans situation with that of other countries which have been in a similar situation. For instance, Thailand and Turkey have considerably large economies and have been under military rule off and on, just like Pakistan. It should be profitable to do more research on research itself; not only on who is doing what and how, but also on how research findings are being incorporated in the policymaking process and teaching. If it does not exist already, a website for social science research findings might be helpful. Such a website would be much cheaper than a printed journal and it would also be instantly accessible everywhere, including remote areas of the country. Short lectures or films on relevant research methods and their application could also be posted on this website. Given the language limitations of Pakistani students, explanations should be given in both English and Urdu. Quality control, which could be exacted by the HEC, might help in this connection. Making government funding for research conditional to meeting these two requirements will also help: 1) A part of the research grant will be spent on reviewing and editing the results to improve their readability and marketability; and 2) At least a summary of the findings will also be published in Urdu. This move would help students with a limited command over English to choose articles worth the effort of reading in a foreign language. Finally, the translation of selected

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research reports into Urdu would help in reaching a wider audience and teaching them good academic practices. Central to all these efforts should be this question: what do we want to know that we do not know already and why? Also, what would be the most suitable way of gaining this knowledge? Many years ago, Nobel Laureate Prof. Lawrence Klein let down his captive audience in Islamabad with this advice: In the long run, there is no substitute for hard labour and work ethos.

[Mr. Atle Hetland]

After Dr. Wolfgang-Peter Zingel, the Session Chair invited Mr. Atle Hetland (Former Head, Department of Development Studies, University of Oslo, Norway) for his presentation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: I recently had the opportunity to explore the possibility of setting up at the University of Gujrat a centre for the teaching of Norwegian language and social sciences. This initiative owes to the dedicated staff at the University, led by Vice Chancellor Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin, and the Norwegian Ambassador to Pakistan, Dr. Robert Kvile. All of them are very interested in the proposed Centre since Gujrat District is the main sending area for Pakistani emigrants to Norway; almost two-thirds of the 652 Pakistanis who legally emigrated to Norway in 2009 belonged to Gujrat. So the idea behind establishing the Centre is to help the future emigrants from the district learn Norwegian in advance. The University of Gujrat is also interested in teaching the social sciences from a Scandinavian and Norwegian perspective. In Scandinavia, the focus is generally on qualitative aspects of the social sciences, as compared with other developed countries where the focus is on their statistical and quantitative aspects. In Norway, however, the statistical and quantitative aspects are given importance too. The University of Gujrat decided to take into its fold a small country like Norway due to this very reason. Norwegian social anthropologist Prof. Friedrik Barth is quite well-known in Pakistan. He did field work for his PhD in Swat Valley in 1954 and has done a lot of work on Pakistan since then. We had hoped at one stage that Prof. Barth would be able to join us for this Conference, but he is not allowed long-distance travel because of old age. His book The Last Wali of Swat (1985) tells the valleys history in an unfussy manner through the eyes of its last ruler Miangul Jahanzeb. At the end, Prof. Barth presents his own analysis. Though the book is a bit too anthropological to my liking, still it qualifies as good research! I want to make an important point here: small, dedicated environments can be very good for research. In 1966, Prof. Barth established the Institute of Social Anthropology at the University of Bergen with just a handful of people. Then at the University of Oslo, when I was also teaching there in the 1970s, he helped us establish the Department of Development Studies, which also used to be fairly small until recently but has now been expanded and renamed as the Department of International Environment and Development Studies. Norway, with a population of just over five million, had only one university the

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University of Oslo, which celebrated its 200th anniversary this year until 1946, when the University of Bergen was established. The University of Troms, which is the worlds northernmost university, followed in 1968. Several new universities have been established, including one for science and technology, in the country since then. In 1950, Norway had only 7,000 university students, of whom 2,000 studied abroad; today, the country has more than 200,000 university students. The University of Oslo is now the largest university in Scandinavia and is also rated among the top universities in Europe. The regional university colleges were established in the late 1960s and the early 1970s in Norway. I studied at one such college at Lillehammer. Our courses were organized along five or six major problem areas and we worked in small groups. I want to mention an important aspect here: at that time, all students of university colleges were supposed to participate in a survey. I have also used surveys a lot to teach qualitative and quantitative methods to my students. We could do a lot of that instead of expecting students to read books they are least interested in. All Norwegian students now have to be exposed to some research-based knowledge. This means that teachers, also those who teach at the undergraduate level, must conduct their own research; and that some of the research they conduct must also be used in their teaching. This aspect is important in the context of Pakistan because people here generally think that research can wait until the students are at the masters or even higher level. As mentioned earlier, a research group can be very small. When I wrote my couple of books on Afghan refugees and spent time with the Hazara University in Mansehra, I worked alone or with at maximum one or two people. That was enough! Research can be conducted under such circumstances; you just need a few people around you who are interested in what you are doing. When we look at research in the context of Pakistan, we should focus very much on what the University of Gujrat is doing under Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddins leadership: encouraging the students to do their best. Finally, I would like to mention that higher education commission are very important in certain fields, but not so much in other fields. In Norway, we are doing the same kind of stuff regarding the higher education since we also want everything to be very organized and controlled. I was glad when I heard from Dr. James C. Witte that students choose their dissertation topics in the United States. We need a certain number of utilitarian programs that the governments are interested in, but we also need researchers to decide about the research that they want to conduct. Also, we should not let institutions make decisions about research, because power games are going on there too; instead, let individuals make decisions about research!

[Dr. Ashfaque Hasan Khan]

After Mr. Atle Hetland, the Session Chair invited Dr. Ashfaque Hasan Khan (Dean, NUST Business School, National University of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad) to make his presentation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: If social scientists want to make a positive contribution to the public policymaking process, they will have to enhance the quality of research, as well as promote the role of a researcher as an intermediary between research and public policymaking. But how can

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we enhance the quality of research? Some of the major components of quality research are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Quality of data. Timeliness of data. Researchers knowledge of social science theories. Researchers knowhow of applying research techniques. Researchers ability to interpret the results and findings in not only technical terms, but also a language that can be understood by the policymakers.

When I started my career as a Research Economist with PIDE in 1979, the conventional practice was to use time-series data for conducting research. If we were lucky, we would get data for 18 to 20 years; and then, using the standard econometric technique that was available at that time, we would measure the statistical relationship between economic variables and publish papers. The real question, however, even then was how to apply quantitative techniques to qualitative data; in other words, how to combine sociology or anthropology and household behaviour. You cannot find time-series data for such type of research, so the surveybased data or technique developed over the years. We are fortunate that some of the recent developments in the social sciences have made it possible to handle qualitative data with quantitative techniques. Social scientists are now doing research that combines economics, anthropology, sociology, psychology and so on. They undertake some survey to get the required information and then quantitative techniques are available. Also, statistical packages have now made the life of researchers much easier. So what do we basically need? We do have the techniques available, but we do not have teachers available in the universities to teach these techniques to their students. Pakistani universities lack good quality teachers of econometrics and statistics. Only a few university teachers use econometrics as a tool to conduct research in the areas of human resource, marketing, business, finance, etc. In fact, most of the universities do not teach econometrics to their MBA students. We are not arming or preparing our students to conduct quality social science research, without which they cannot make any contribution to public policymaking. So my recommendation from this forum is that courses in Econometrics and Statistics should be made compulsory for business, economics, sociology and even anthropology students, since these are the basic tools of conducting research. As Dr. Suresh Sharma pointed out earlier in this session, a research proposal must originate from a research institution. Unfortunately, however, we have very few research institutions in Pakistan: PIDE, the AERC, the Social Policy Development Centre and may be a few more. PIDE was once regarded as one of the best research institutions in South Asia and path-breaking research was conducted while leading scholars spent time here. For instance, Sir William Arthur Lewis completed his research on the surplus labour theory while he was working with PIDE in the 1960s, which was the glorious period of this institution.

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Over the years, under severe financial pressure and in the race to become rich in the shortest possible time, most of the Pakistani research institutions have become consultancy firms. One day you find their scholars working on the impact of iodine salt on human body and the other day on the feasibility report of whether trees can be grown in Islamabads Margalla hills. One of my classmates at the Johns Hopkins University used to describe this type of economists as potato economists. So these fine institutions have turned into consultancy firms and the economists who work there have become potato economists. But what are we doing to protect these institutions? Whatever I am today, I am due to my long affiliation with PIDE. We made it a pure research institution, but now it has become a teaching university; and just a few yards away from another public sector university (Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad). So we have set up a university within a university, which is only a waste of resources. In fact, by doing so, we have wreaked havoc on the best research institution of Pakistan. I wonder what the HEC can do in this connection at this moment in time when it faces a severe financial crunch, but the universities as a whole must think whether they need specialized research institutions for different social sciences disciplines, such as economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, political science and so on. Many research institutions exist in other areas as well, but they do not have money to even hold conferences or seminars to disseminate their findings. In short, these are very difficult times for social scientists in Pakistan. The HEC, as well as the vice chancellors, deans and professors of different universities present here, must think on the lines that we have destroyed our research institutions over the years and now they have to be rebuilt if we want to promote quality research and contribute to public policymaking. I had the opportunity to be first a researcher and then a public policy practitioner, so I know the importance of taking informed public policy decisions based on research findings. While such decisions mostly produce good results, public policy decisions not based on research findings almost always produce bad results.

[Dr. Iftikhar N. Hassan]

After Dr. Ashfaque Hasan Khan, the Chair invited Dr. Iftikhar N. Hassan (Chairperson, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Karakoram International University, Gilgit) for her presentation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: Being one of the last speakers on the panel, I will only share with you some of my experiences related to social science research. First, the findings of a research project that I undertook in 2002. I surveyed 33 public sector universities of Pakistan and asked them how many PhDs have they produced in the past five years and in which areas. The number was less than 50, but the more shocking information was that the PhDs produced by most of the universities, including the top ones, were in languages and not in the social sciences. So the picture was not only bleak, but also lopsided. Next, I want to share with you my detailed views on the current state of social science research in Pakistan, based on my experience of teaching post-graduate classes and supervising PhD students at the Fatima Jinnah Women University for the past eight years. Our first batch comprised of 14 students, of which nine were our own young faculty

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members. Most of them enrolled in the PhD program due to the incentives given by the HEC, financial as well as the facility to take leave from their job. When, after completing their course work, these scholars came to the stage of developing their research proposals, they lacked vision. The topics they chose were entirely disconnected from the reality of Pakistan at that time. But they could not be blamed for this, because the majority of the textbooks we used were foreign, and they talked about the problems that were not related to the indigenous environment. The only saving course was a compulsory course on Gender and Development, which was strongly based on local issues, problems and researches. Subsequently, most of the research proposals in different areas were related to womens issues either directly or indirectly. Coming to the PhD students, they lacked comprehension of the depth that is required by a doctoral scholar. They also did not know the library search methods or how to conduct advanced research in a library. And even worse than that, they thought that doctoral research was like masters level research. At the masters level, you take 100 subjects; perhaps at the PhD level, you take 200 or 300 subjects and you have the same kind of superficial arrangement for data collection. They hardly had any idea that they were supposed to make a contribution to the existing body of knowledge. Why? Because of a lack of research culture in the universities and because research is considered as an added-on ability in Pakistan! I want to reiterate that quality social science research will remain an elusive dream unless a genuine research culture prevails in our universities, unless our research scholars are willing to work hard and unless they have a direction. Many of them do not even know that research should be aimed at solving a problem or simplifying a complex issue. I also felt that most of the students were in a hurry to get the degree for the sake of incentives and were not interested in an in-depth study of the subject. Luckily, at the time, the Fatima Jinnah Women University happened to be developing linkages with the University of London. So I suggested that they plan an exclusive program for our advanced PhD students, who can go to London for four weeks and get grounding in three important areas: 1) Library research; 2) How to develop a research proposal; and 3) What type of proposal and what kind of methodology will suit a particular problem. Although I was very certain that the HEC would fund the activity, our request for funding was rejected. Perhaps that was too new an idea then. Because we had already committed with the University of London and had to pay them for the program, we collected money from other sources and managed to send nine of our PhD scholars those who were our faculty members to attend it. As the author of the idea, I went along with them and also attended all the classes. So it became a free refresher course for me in my capacity as the Research Supervisor. By the end of the program, each of the nine students developed her research proposal, and also presented it before the expert committees to get their feedback. Throughout this period, these students searched the library so diligently that when we were leaving for Pakistan, the librarian made a remark that the library would miss them. Seven of these students have already completed their PhD, three of them from universities in Paki-

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stan and the remaining four from universities in the United Kingdom. Interestingly, almost every university there was willing to accept them; generally Pakistani students have the ability to work hard and they only need right guidance. These days PhD scholars and other researchers are very fortunate to have free internet facilities and access to research journals from across the globe. These facilities have markedly improved the quality of our research studies. I also feel that SPSS has been very helpful in data analysis, but at the same time it has reduced the understanding of statistical procedures among the students. They put in data, take out tables and mostly they do not even know what data are telling them. Sometimes mean teachers like me make such students go through statistical procedures by hand, so they understand what they are talking about. We should also realize in this era of increasing computer facilities that many of our students have a tendency to copy or cheat. They download research proposals or studies from some website, change a few names here and there, and then bring out a research proposal of their own. This means that now the teachers have to be on their toes. In fact, now we have to learn software that can detect cheating from or duplicating of research studies or proposals and their findings. As regards new developments in social science research, generally we are moving towards qualitative studies and action research. Moreover, analysis of our own issues and problems is on the rise, but we still need more hard research. The problems are very obvious to most of us working in the universities, but hopefully they shall soon be overcome with many young scholars returning to Pakistan after completing their education abroad.

[Ms. Noor Amna Malik]

After Dr. Iftikhar N. Hassan, the Session Chair invited Ms. Noor Amna Malik (Director General, Learning Innovation, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad) to make her presentation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: I want to talk about the emerging problems that Pakistan is facing at the moment. Being in the HEC for the past five years, I consider my role as that of a matchmaker. Now what type of matchmaking am I talking about? We, in the HEC, make sure that all the academics who need a certain kind of knowledge are able to network with those academics who have that knowledge; and that they are brought together so that they could collectively work for the socioeconomic development of the country. I fully agree with what Dr. Nasser Ali khan said in his presentation in Session III on Day 1 regarding the inherent bias against the social sciences, but no one is responsible for this bias more than social scientists themselves. They can only blame themselves since nobody stopped them from doing research. In the past decade, so many new issues have come to the fore in our country, but we do not know what has happened and why. For instance, social scientists need to explore why we are killing each other despite the fact that the majority of us are Muslims. A couple of days ago, I did a workshop with a group of 16 advanced PhD scholars who are also attending this Conference. I asked them what they think happened when

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brothers Mughees and Muneeb were being lynched in Sialkot, and they had no clue. Social scientists should be able to put in black and white what to do with those people, including children, who were standing there and doing nothing about it. Moreover, social scientists should not be searching for ideas. Let me go back to the same group! Each one of them had a different research topic, but I found all of them extremely boring. I pointed out, as Dr. Rehman Sobhan did in his presentation earlier in this session, that what did they have for the awam? As Dr. Iftikhar N. Hassan also reiterated in her presentation just now, research should be aimed at solving some existing problem. Based on my experience of heading the HECs Learning Innovation Division, which takes care of the young faculty, for the past five years, I would like to say that a PhD should to be completed in 10 years, not five. When we talk to young faculty members, they know hardly anything about research. The main problem is that once they become PhDs, they think that work is over and nothing more could be done. I have never come across any indigenous post-doctoral program in Pakistan, because we believe in isolated research. If two people have similar research topics, they would rather stay away from each other. As a result, the research conducted in Pakistan is creating no impact. Dr. Muhammad Latif, the Director General of Research and Development Division, recently told me that the HEC is now focusing on promoting research through research institutions, instead of the universities. If we are going to induct teachers into research, how much will they require? Research is not something to be done just for an MPhil or a masters paper; it is an in-depth mechanism to solve the socioeconomic problems of the country. We have been told that the social sciences also comprise languages. Our society is disintegrating, stagnating and decaying, because we have not bothered to protect our national language Urdu. As social scientists, it is our utmost duty to make sure that these issues keep burning on the stove. Devolution is a beautiful thing since empowering people at the grassroots level is the real name of the game, but we should implement it after everything is integrated. Please remember that we need a binding force or a proper national check somewhere! We need sustainable, strategic and clever networks of the general public, academicians, and young researchers and their students to make everybody a source of information for the promotion of research. We need to have a touch with the general public instead of doing research in our air-conditioned rooms. I am not against external narratives or perspectives coming from the global market, but what about our indigenous narrative? Where has it been lost? I would once again vouchsafe to what Dr. Nasser said: the bias against the social sciences has been created by social scientists themselves, because they have started to think that they cannot contribute to public policy. To reverse this trend all the existing think-tanks would have to play a meaningful role. In my five years with the HEC, I have observed a self-oriented approach towards education among both teachers and students. But have we realized our role as social scientists? The country needs us now as never before, because nothing worst could happen to it. Social scientists need to understand their role and the importance of their constant

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contact with the youth. If all social scientists whether from the universities, think-tanks or the HEC devise a concerted policy and form a network that could inculcate such a mindset, socioeconomic development of the country is actually possible. Bringing over experts from India or Bangladesh makes a lot of sense since their grassroots problems are almost like us. Similarly, having people from other developing countries is also important since they can share with us how certain approaches worked for them. I remember that I recently went through some research papers in which words like many, most and few had been frequently used; while I kept looking for the actual numbers since a good research supposedly starts with accurate data. Social scientists must be jack of all trades, even if master of none. This means that they should be able to do anything and everything, rather than just sticking to their own discipline. In addition, they should talk about the society holistically. Last but not the least, for the past decade or so, the media in Pakistan is trying its level best to shift the focus on those social issues that are enamoured with scandals, scoops, breaking news, television rating points, etc. In this scenario, making sure that social issues remain on the forefront is the duty of social scientists.

Discussion

After Ms. Noor Amna Maliks presentation, the Session Chair opened the floor for discussion. The salient comments made by the participants are being summarized: Dr. Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Jadoon (Director, Institute of Administrative Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore) said that the real issue was how to promote indigenous research. He viewed that Ms. Noor Amna Malik should have been the first speaker; and then the others should have tried to answer how the new developments in social science research techniques and methodologies could help us in promoting indigenous research. The positivistic research paradigm was dominant until the late 1970s, but now many new and alternative research approaches and paradigms have emerged: the interpretive paradigm, critical science, post-modern research, etc. These new approaches and paradigms are gaining acceptability even in countries like the United States, which were known to be too much obsessed with the positivistic research paradigm. But the positivistic mode of research is still dominant in our country and universities. If it continues to be the only method of conducting research, then we will never be able to promote indigenous research, Dr. Jadoon warned. He also disagreed with Dr. Ashfaque Hasan Khan that quality data were the first component of good research. We need to have a relevant research question before anything else, even before quality data. Moreover, as concerns promoting indigenous research, what we need even more than quality data is a relevant research question and some baseline information, he explained. Dr. Jadoon further said that we need to look into why Ms. Malik found the research topics proposed by the PhD scholars boring. I have even heard professors asking their students to download a research article from some foreign website and then replicate its methodology. When you would ask these students about the significance of the research, they would say that no such research has yet been conducted in Pakistan. At the end, they would also say that their research supports the findings of an earlier study which was conducted in another country. With this approach, we will never to be able to promote indigenous

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research in Pakistan. Finally, the social science research that is being conducted in our country is contextually isolated. I can say this with complete confidence about especially the management sciences and the organizational behaviour research, he maintained. Dr. Rukhsana Kausar (Chairperson, Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore) agreed with Ms. Noor Amna Malik that Pakistani social scientists should collaborate more often with their counterparts in Bangladesh, India and other developing countries. Dr. Kausar believed that the collaboration with social scientists from other countries must be in the form of publications and sharing of research findings. We have been demanding this at different fora, but the problem is that the HEC does not recognize the publication of a research paper in most Bangladeshi, Indian or Malaysian journals as a publication in an approved journal. On the other hand, if we submit papers for publication in international journals, which are mostly western, more often than not the editors return them on the grounds that they are beyond the scope of their journal. This calls for the HEC to revisit some of its policies. For example, it should recognize as approved journals those Bangladeshi and India journals that are peer-reviewed and follow some criteria; otherwise, we will be unable to investigate our indigenous issues. Prof. Durriya Kazi (Head, Department of Visual Studies, University of Karachi) sought input of the scholars sitting on the stage and representing six different countries on how they asses creative works, art, music, literary writings and those things that are considered to be research in the sense of investigation of a certain nature. Many universities have now started to offer PhD by practice and I would like to know what recommendations you have in this connection, she said.

Remarks by the Chair

[Lt. Gen. Muhammad Asghar]

Session IV on New Developments in Social Science Research Techniques and Methodologies concluded with remarks by Chair Lt. Gen. (retired) Muhammad Asghar (Rector, National University of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad), which are being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: I would like to recap some of the important points raised by the keynote speaker and panelists. Keynote speaker Dr. James C. Witte talked about data support and management, and the use of new techniques and technologies in conducting social science research. I am sure that Pakistani social scientists will make full use of these techniques and technologies in the coming days. He viewed that the merging of the cyber space with the real world was becoming increasingly important. I am sure that our social scientists will continue to work on those lines. Dr. Witte also raised another very important point: we need to create a job market for social scientists if we want to have a greater focus on the social sciences. I recently read a survey on the choices of our students for various fields. The survey revealed that more than two-thirds of Pakistani students wanted to go in the basic sciences and adopt careers like engineering, medicine, etc. The primary reason for this is that the jobs offered to social scientists in Pakistan are not as attractive as those to engineers and doctors. So I fully agree with Dr. Witte that we need to create a job market for social scientists since that is how we can attract better quality people towards the social sciences in Pakistan.

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Dr. Wolfgang-Peter Zingel raised a very good point that social science research must contribute to public policymaking. Subsequently, Prof. Rehman Sobhan also emphasized the same. Dr. Suresh Sharma raised a very relevant point that research proposals must originate from research institutions. The talk of Mr. Atle Hetland gave us a clear indication of the importance of students choosing their own research topics. We can also focus on this aspect in our universities. Dr. Ashfaque Hasan Khan very rightly pointed out that we should develop our research institutions if we want to have the kind of research culture which contributes to policymaking in the long run. He also raised another important point: we are not giving as much importance to econometrics and statistics in our universities as to some other subjects, thus we need to introduce courses in Econometrics and Statistics. I think that all the major Pakistani universities should have modelling simulation centres, where you could combine the latest computing techniques with the research methodologies that we are using in different fields. These centres will also help us in integrating our resources in different fields, especially computing, statistics and mathematics. Dr. Iftikhar N. Hassan was actually trying to defend the existence of the HEC when she talked about the lack of focus on social science research in our country. In the first 55 years after Pakistans independence, we produced around 3,200 PhDs, of whom only 14 were in the field of engineering and technology. But in the past eight years alone, we have produced almost as many PhDs, of whom 140 were in engineering and technology. I am sure that this momentum will pick up further since another 4,000 indigenous PhD scholars are enrolled in our universities, besides thousands of others who are studying abroad on different scholarships and will soon return. I also appreciate Ms. Amna Noor Maliks criticism of the approach and attitudes towards research. We need to see how much distance have we travelled so far. In addition, we should give credit to our academicians and the HEC for taking on these issues in a comprehensive way. Just imagine those 20 million people who were displaced by the 2010 floods and who returned to their homes to find them absolutely devastated! Imagine the kind the trauma they must have gone through because of this experience! Social scientists need to study the way these people conducted themselves after returning to their devastated homes.

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WORKING GROUPS Identifying Social Science Research Priorities for Pakistan


The second half of Day 2 was devoted to the five parallel working groups. The Conference Organizing Committee finalized themes for the working groups following a lengthy consultative process; and after taking into account the existing and emerging trends in social science research in Pakistan. The participants were given a choice to join any one of these four working groups: 1. Sustainable Human Development, Poverty and Inequality. 2. Costs and Opportunities of Pakistans Rapidly Changing Age Structure: Demographic Dividend, Population Ageing and Urbanization. 3. The State in Pakistan: Internal and External Challenges. 4. The Role of Media and Civil Society in Ensuring Human Rights and Cultural Diversity. These working groups discussed at length those aspects of social science research, both quantitative and qualitative, that were related to their respective themes and Pakistan. They identified salient research priorities, including institutional and financial mechanisms for their implementation, for Pakistan in the next three to five years around their respective themes. Besides the chair/moderator and five lead speakers each, of the first four working groups had around 10-15 members. Besides the chair/moderator and seven lead speakers, the fifth working group on Problems of Conducting Dissertation Research in Pakistani Universities had 25-30 young faculty members and PhD scholars in different social science disciplines as members. These scholars had been selected on the basis of the abstracts submitted by them. This working group aimed at solving some of the practical problems being faced by them.

1. Sustainable Human Development, Poverty and Inequality


Rationale
Despite several public policy initiatives, poverty remains a major challenge in Pakistan: one-third of the countrys population lives below the poverty line (BPL) according to most estimates. There is growing evidence that the poor can solve their problems if they are given a fair access to financial services; the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh is a significant example in this regard. There is a pressing need to study the underlying factors contributing to poverty, besides bringing into focus the injustices and inequalities that result in lack of education, poor health, and low levels of skill development among the poor; and eventually perpetuate poverty from generation to generation.

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Moreover, there is a dire need to develop a participatory approach to understanding the perspectives of the poor and the voiceless. In particular, participatory research studies would help in exploring assets of the poor, their risk-management capacities, their support networks, their marginalization and vulnerability in adverse circumstances; as well as in studying opportunities available to them in the socioeconomic mainstream of life. The findings of these participatory research studies would provide an understanding of how the poor manage their meagre resources and face deprivations. This understanding would help the policymakers in devising strategies that reduce vulnerability of the poor, build their capacities, and optimize their capabilities and skills.

Challenges

Strengthening the capacity of our institutions, both public and private, to conduct meaningful social science research, which is not only low in cost but also high in quality, is the real challenge. Bringing about a paradigm shift in the higher education culture in Pakistani universities, so that national development issues can benefit from social science research, is another major challenge. Last but not the least, changing the mindset of our university faculty and students to a point that they start to see social science research as a nation-building exercise, rather than an academic chore, is also important.

Key Questions:

1. Is poverty the root cause of problems, because it reflects injustice in the society, or is it the apathy of the rich towards the poor? 2. How much are the poor themselves responsible for their plight and deprivation? 3. Are there any effective interventions that are proven in fighting poverty? 4. Is Pakistan not using them or are there no such solutions to this global phenomenon? 5. Because successive governments in Pakistan have failed to root out poverty, should people take charge of their situation, and use social science research to experiment and devise strategies that are not only feasible but also sustainable?

Chair/Moderator:

Dr. Hafiz A Pasha (Dean, School of Social Sciences, Beaconhouse National University, Lahore)

Lead Speakers:

1. Prof. Rehman Sobhan (Chairperson, Centre for Policy Dialogue, Bangladesh) 2. Dr. Wolfgang-Peter Zingel (Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad) 3. Dr. Ashfaque Hasan Khan (Dean/Principal, NUST Business School, National University of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad)

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4. Dr. Shahid Siddiqui (Director, Centre for Humanities and Social Sciences, Lahore School of Economics) 5. Dr. Maqbool H. Sial (HEC Foreign Professor; Dean, Faculty of Management and Administrative Sciences, University of Sargodha)

Recommendations:

1. Researchers and social scientists should try to find out: a. How the poor could become owners of resources? b. What are the effects and implications of secondary education in Pakistan? c. On what projects are billions of rupees earmarked for poverty alleviation being spent? d. Why isnt the government providing the poor with enough opportunities though they are continuously demanding them? 2. The root causes of poverty should be understood with a view to finding solutions to them, rather than wasting time on just measuring poverty. 3. The landless people, estimated to be about 40% of the population, should be given priority. 4. The role of livestock in ameliorating poverty should also be fully understood. 5. Researchers should now go to the next level of policy variables. 6. A comprehensive survey of the issues related to the social sciences should be carried out. 7. The methods adopted to reduce poverty should not be changed; rather, they should be improved. 8. The processes that link the finance with the micro world should be explored. 9. The lack of awareness on the federal budget, especially among the parliamentarians.

2. Costs and Opportunities of Pakistans Rapidly Changing Age Structure: Demographic Dividend, Population Ageing and Urbanization
Rationale
Pakistan is the worlds sixth most populous country. After hitting its peak, the population growth rate is now gradually declining. This demographic transition reflects a window of opportunity to convert the youth into an asset, instead of a liability. Pakistan is one of those few countries in the world that are rich in terms of not only natural resources, but also human resources. The young people those aged between 10 and 29 comprise 43% of countrys population. This demographic scenario demands immediate attention of the policymakers. Recent research shows that population growth rate is rapidly declining in many Western, as well as some East Asian, countries, reflecting a negative trend. Countries

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such as Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan have not only reduced their economic burden, but also gained financially by sending demand-specific, professionally-trained workforce to the Middle Eastern and European countries; and ensured their economic growth and social development. Many developing countries like Pakistan, having a high population growth rate and insufficient natural resources, have capitalized on this opportunity by successfully converting their population excess into profitable human capital. Unlike those countries that trained their youth in line with the emerging national, regional and global needs, Pakistan has not paid much attention to its young population. Moreover, the population of the elderly is growing rapidly and urbanization is taking place at a very high rate. These are major trends that bring with them associated demands and issues that can further exacerbate the situation.

Challenges

Awareness-raising among the policymakers and politicians about the significance of the demographic dividend, as well as the fast growing population of the elderly and high rate of urbanization, is a prerequisite for any meaningful action. Pakistan needs megaprojects based on future-oriented thinking to engage hundreds of millions of its youth in economically-productive activities.

Key Questions:

1. Can rapidly growing population of the elderly be used to help and guide the youth? 2. Are there any best practices to train the young people in marketable skills and gainfully employ them in industry? 3. Can peoples participation and engagement solve most or at least some of the problems related to urbanization?

Chair/Moderator: Lead

Dr. Zeba A. Sathar (Country Director, Population Council, Islamabad)

1. Dr. Grace C. Clark (Professor, Department of Sociology, Forman Christian College University, Lahore) 2. Dr. Mohamed Abdel Hamid NASR (HEC Foreign Professor, Department of Management and Business Studies, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad) 3. Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin (Chairperson, Organizing Committee; ViceChancellor, University of Gujrat) 4. Dr. Muhammad Hafeez (Director, Institute of Social and Cultural Studies, Department of Sociology, University of the Punjab, Lahore) 5. Dr. Rukhsana Kausar (Chairperson, Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore)

Speakers:

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Recommendations:

1. The government, apparently unaware of the emerging phenomenon of demographic dividend, is not taking any effective steps to benefit from the same. The universities and civil society should take the lead in bringing about the awareness required for changing the public policy, so that it may effectively respond to training and education needs of the youth. 2. Population ageing is an important area for research. The results and findings of research, particularly if they are properly disseminated, can help in changing the public policy by highlighting the issues of the elderly. Before finalizing topics, researchers should visit the common people to see what they actually want. 3. Funding of those research institutions that are working on urbanization issues should be given priority. 4. All the bottlenecks in existing HEC mechanisms that are clogging the financing of social science research should be removed. The HEC should establish an autonomous council empowered to take decisions on the funding of social science research projects. Successful models of such institutional mechanisms are available in India and other neighbouring countries.

3. The State in Pakistan: Internal and External Challenges


Rationale
Extremism and terrorism are on the rise, not only nationally but also globally. Pakistan is often criticized for being a host country to many of these negative manifestations. The Pakistani society is facing violence of many kinds: spousal, interpersonal, political, collective, etc. Violence is a source of violations of human rights, erosion of the rule of law and governance, and suppression of individual freedoms. There is a dire need to conduct research on how Pakistan could be made a peaceful society. Studies should be undertaken to identify the socioeconomic factors that give rise to ethnic and sectarian violence. This will help the policymakers in designing such interventions that may mitigate the impact of violence. In addition, social scientists should investigate those social factors that promote integration and cohesion.

Challenges

Social science research in Pakistan is still in infancy. To play an effective role in areas that are highly sensitive and charged-with-emotions, researchers will have to be extra careful. Therefore, an interdisciplinary or participatory approach, which makes use of assorted methodologies, may be needed.

Key Questions:

1. Is traditional neglect of education, particularly quality education, taking its toll on the society by promoting extremism and violence? 2. Is uneven distribution of resources between the rich and the poor manifesting tself in extremism and violence?

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3. Is there a cause-and-effect relationship between violence and absence of social justice, total disrespect for human rights and ever-growing poverty? 4. What is the driving force behind violence: religion or class structure? 5. To what extent are the negligence and ineptitude of the state and politicians responsible for the perpetuation of extremism and violence in the society?

Chair/Moderator:

Dr. Rasul Bakhsh Rais (Professor of Political Science, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities, Social Sciences and Law, Lahore University of Management Sciences)

Lead Speakers:

1. Dr. Suresh Sharma (Senior Fellow, Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, India) 2. Dr. Muhammad Nazrul Islam (HEC Foreign Professor; Dean, Faculty of Social Sciences, International Islamic University, Islamabad) 3. Dr. Mansoor Akbar Kundi (Vice Chancellor, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan) 4. Dr. Syed Jaffar Ahmed (Director, Pakistan Study Centre, University of Karachi) 5. Dr. Shuja Alhaq (HEC Foreign Professor, National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad)

Recommendations

The group recommended clusters for research under which a number of themes were subsumed. Though not exhaustive, this list can still serve as the basis for further deliberations in social science departments/faculties of the universities; annual social science conferences; and, if and when they are revived, fora of professional disciplinary associations. The group members believed that this was just the beginning of a dialogue on what needed to be the focus of research on the Pakistani state and society. The recommended clusters of themes are: 1. Theorizing about the Pakistani state: Bureaucratic authoritarianism; overdeveloped, weak and soft state. 2. Vision of the founders of Pakistan: Secular-modernist-democratic state or Islamic state; Pakistans contested identity; domestic and external factors responsible for the shift from the original idea of Pakistan to what has become its contested identity. 3. Feminism and the state: Gender issues; strands of local feminism; womens rights and empowerment; Islamic and liberal views regarding womens emancipation. 4. Authoritarianism: Social and political culture; social structures; feudalism; tribalism; caste system. 5. Elitism: Social structures of elites; elite networks; state-society disconnect. 6. Social values, attitudes and beliefs: Honour killings in name of religion; preference for male child; marriage of girls at young age.

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7. Social classes: Urban-rural divide; rise of middle class; ruling classes and subaltern classes. 8. Civil-military relations: Institutional imbalances; the character of political classes; hybrid political regimes. 9. Development and state security: Alternative security discourse; people-cen tred development; new liberal agenda; market economy; state-society relations. 10. 18th Constitutional Amendment: Federalism; provincial autonomy; changing structure of Pakistani state; devolution, empowerment and representation at local levels; redesigned federal institutions like Council of Common Interests, National Economic Council and National Finance Commission. 11. Pluralism and diversity: Ethnicity; ethno-nationalism; national integration; regional and folk cultures; rural-urban migration; issues related to Balochistan, such as diversity within the province, and rights of Balochs over their land, and coastal and natural resources. 12. State and political institutions: National Assembly, Senate and their Standing Committees; Supreme Court; lawyers bodies and bars; political parties, their internal structure and social base of support. 13. Rise of religious groups: Social base; role of biased national narrative in their rise; curricula of madrassas; rising intolerance, violence and extremism. 14. History: Local, regional and peoples histories. 15. Political violence: Ethnic violence; protest movements and riots; insurgency and terrorism. 16. Intelligentsia: Role and responsibilities of state, public and organic intellectuals, and their alignment with state or society; growing influence of madrassa intellectuals opposed to university intellectuals. 17. Democracy: Democratic movements; civil society; free and fair elections; media. 18. Economy: Poverty; inequality; concentration of wealth in a few hands and its implications; structural economic problems; dependence on foreign resources. 19. Foreign policy: American influence in Pakistan; peace with India; political approaches to conflict resolution; regional cooperation in South Asia.

4. The Role of Media and Civil Society in Ensuring Human Rights and Cultural Diversity
Rationale
Pakistan is, unfortunately, still to demonstrate respect for human rights at any level. The public is generally unaware of the human rights and understandably so because it was never told what they were and why they should be respected. NGOs play a symbolic role by raising their voice when gross violations of human rights take place and are reported in the media. Apparently, the powerful feudal lords, who have a strong influence on the mindset of the masses and the state apparatus, can completely disregard human rights at will.

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They can become spectators when mob or goons lynch someone, and be totally ruthless in punishing someone who committed a crime in their judgment. No one is safe, not even their sisters and daughters when the fury of revenge overtakes them, while the society is ever-ready to look the other way. The only watchdogs to protect the human rights are the media and civil society. When the media shares visual evidence, it usually brings fast reaction from the authorities. However, once the matter subsides, business-as-usual resumes. Only a few violators of human rights get caught or punished appropriately. Once in a while, a media entity may find a story worth following that can attract some attention and enact a resolution. In case a woman is involved, mostly women NGOs take it up and launch a campaign to get justice.

Challenges

The problem of non-observance of human rights in Pakistan is not limited to law and order forces, but to the entire society. This phenomenon requires a change in the moral and ethical fabric of the society. Unfortunately, people who should be educating others about human rights do not speak for fear of reprisals or out of loyalty to the powerful. Only a seachange in attitudes may be the answer. If there is one challenge for the social scientists in Pakistan for research, that is the human rights issue.

Key Question:

1. Can social science research suggest some approach or model that can be effective in positively changing the Pakistani society?

Chair/Moderator:

Dr. Tariq Rahman (HEC Distinguished National Professor; Professor Emeritus, National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad)

Lead Speakers:

1. Dr. Jochen Hippler (Political Scientist/Lecturer, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany) 2. Mr. Atle Hetland (Former Head, Department of Development Studies, University of Oslo, Norway) 3. Dr. Farzana Bari (Director, Center of Excellence in Gender Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad) 4. Mr. Zafarullah Khan (Executive Director, Centre for Civic Education, Islamabad) 5. Dr. Sajjad Ahmad Paracha (Assistant Professor, Department of Media Studies, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Pakistan) 1. Researchers should define the term civil society in the local context and map Pakistani civil society.

Recommendations:

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2. Attempts should be made to strengthen civil society through academic linkages and networking. 3. Systems, structures and laws of other countries that successively dealt with their human rights problems should be studied. 4. To understand the institution of the media, its content and impact should be analyzed. 5. Social science researchers, human rights activists and media personnel should focus on the rural population. 6. A code of conduct for the media should be devised after studying the medias code of conduct in other countries. 7. Campus radios should be activated and made functional.

5. Problems of Conducting Dissertation Research in Pakistani Universities


Rationale
One of the most important and significant sources of social science research in Pakistan is the requirement for PhD and MPhil students to write a dissertation or thesis after completing their course work. The quality of research is supposedly ensured at all stages of the process by qualified and experienced faculty. In the past, even MA students in some disciplines were required to write a thesis based on empirical research. However, with the passage of time, this requirement has almost been reduced to submission of a project or taking two additional courses.

Challenges

Many factors can motivate a student to pursue a doctoral degree: interest, availability of resources and time, proximity to a good university, interest in a particular subject, and persuasion by the faculty to name just a few.

Key Questions:

1. To what extent is dissertation research at the PhD level conducted in an acceptable manner? 2. What problems do the candidates for a doctoral degree face in conducting dissertation research and what are the possible solutions? 3. What constraints do the doctoral students face in terms of meeting the requirements for academic and financial support? 4. To what extent are resources books, research studies, journals and periodicals, dissertations and papers of previous PhD students, etc. and facilities such as data-processing and, most of all, timely technical advice and assistance available to doctoral students in the Pakistani universities? 5. What is the quality of these resources and facilities? 6. Do most candidates for a doctoral degree complete their requirements before the deadline? If not, where do the lacunae lie? 7. What are the recommendations and suggestions of the PhD students in this regard?

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Working Groups

Chair/Moderator:
Dr. Rubina Saigol (Independent Researcher, Lahore)

Lead Speakers:

1. Dr. Mehtab S. Karim (Distinguished Senior Fellow, School of Public Policy, George Mason University, USA) 2. Ms. Ursula Saarbeck (Director, German Academic Exchange Service, Islamabad) 3. Dr. Syed Mahmood Raza (Advisor, Quality Assurance and Learning Innovation, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad) 4. Dr. Talat Khurshid (Advisor, Planning and Development, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad) 5. Dr. Iftikhar N. Hassan (Chairperson, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Karakoram International University, Gilgit) 6. Dr. Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Jadoon (Director, Institute of Administrative Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore) 7. Dr. Yasmin Nilofer Farooqi (Professor, Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore) 1. Student-friendly textbooks should be used and student-friendly teacher handouts provided to doctoral students. 2. The examples used in textbooks should be relevant to the local context. 3. The focus must be on conducting longitudinal research. 4. Research grants should be awarded on merit. 5. Collaborative research agendas should be encouraged. 6. Instead of many low-quality journals, departments/ faculties of the universities should bring out only one quality journal. 7. Peer-review journals should be promoted. 8. Supervising committees should be interdisciplinary. 9. Supervisors should not be imposed on the students by the university. They should be allowed to select a supervisor of their choice. 10. A genuine research culture should be promoted in the universities.

Recommendations:

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SESSION V Sharing of Recommendations of Working Groups


Day 3 of the Conference started with Session V on Sharing of Recommendations of Working Groups. The presenters in this session comprised of the distinguished chairs/moderators (or their nominees) of the five parallel working groups on Day 2. Before inviting the presenters, to share with the audience the recommendations of their respective groups, Session Chair Dr. Sohail H. Naqvi (Executive Director, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad) said: If we are to progress as a nation, we must learn how to be involved in such activities over decades. Institutions may be destroyed overnight, but building them takes time. Through these activities of introspection, analysis and innovation, we learn from mistakes, improve and move forward.

1. Sustainable Human Development, Poverty and Inequality


[Dr. Hafiz A. Pasha]
Session Chair Dr. Sohail H. Naqvi invited the first presenter, Dr. Hafiz A. Pasha (Dean, School of Social Sciences, Beaconhouse National University, Lahore), to share the recommendations of Working Group 1. His presentation is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: It is extremely important at this very critical stage in the nations history that we focus increasingly on the social sciences. Somehow or the other, many of us have a sense that while the body of the country exists, we have lost its soul which comes from the social sciences and liberal arts. Therefore, we are indeed grateful to the HEC for recognizing the need for this priority and organizing this Conference. The area of Sustainable Human Development, Poverty and Inequality has a great deal of relevance in Pakistans current context. Over the last few years, we have seen rising poverty in the country, as a result of which people are committing suicide, children are being abandoned, women are being compelled to engage in illicit trade, etc. This problem has assumed alarming proportions. Coupled with this is a growing perception of rising inequality in Pakistan. On the one hand, sales of cars are on the rise; while, on the other, people are finding it difficult to achieve even a modicum of food security. This is indeed a very difficult time and along with that we have the long run developments with regard to depletion of our natural resources. Pakistan is increasingly a water-short country. We have seen vast land degradation, desertification, water logging, salinity and deforestation. So this theme is indeed extremely relevant in terms of research in our current context. Our group was very well-attended. I am indeed grateful to the lead speakers and members for their contribution. The discussion was led by a very incisive lecture by Prof. Rehman Sobhan from Bangladesh, who earlier in his life has conducted research in Pakistan also. Prof. Sobhan spoke to us about some of the emerging research priorities in the area of inequality and poverty. Based on the presentations made by the lead speakers and the subsequent discussion, the group identified six areas for interdisciplinary

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research considering Pakistans current context: First, the majority of the research in Pakistan has been statistical in nature and it has focused primarily on quantifying the incidence of poverty through simple incomebased measures like the poverty line. This is, in essence, the first generation of research; now we have to move to the second generation. The group members felt that research to the extent that it focuses on measurement issues should now have a multidimensional perspective to the measurement of poverty; focusing not only on income, but also access to basic services, quality of life and other related issues. Fortunately for us, this trend has been set by the latest global Human Development Report (HDR) of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), which has quantified a multidimensional index of poverty for different countries of the world. We would like to see the same methodology extended to Pakistan and applied to its different regions, like the provinces and possibly even the districts. Second, the group members were far more interested in trying to understand the root causes of poverty than measuring it. This is a whole new body of interdisciplinary research that involves looking at structural factors linked with political, social, cultural and economic sources of poverty. Prof. Sobhan identified the structural factors that have contributed to poverty in Pakistan and suggested that we focus on: 1. Access to assets: The implications of differential access to assets, particularly land ownership patterns, for poverty. Agrarian reforms, particularly in the context of the small farmers and the landless, are an important area from the viewpoint of alleviating rural poverty in Pakistan. 2. Access to markets: The operations of markets, especially the labour market; how people are denied access, and how work status and occupational characteristics decide the wage and working conditions of labourers. We also need to focus on product markets, particularly agriculture in terms of margins and the value change, and the capital market in terms of access to credit. 3. Access to basic services: We are currently experiencing a duality in the provision of basic services, particularly in terms of the differences in quality between public and private provision of services. We need to study how this asymmetric access defines life chances, especially how this dual structure of education places people at a huge disadvantage in their life opportunities. 4. Access to institutions of governance: How lack of access to institutions of governance creates a sense of injustice and deprivation among the public. In particular, the focus should be on political participation, and on access to the judiciary and the legal system. This is a vast area of research that has enormous potential in terms of both academic and policy-related work. Third, the implications of asymmetric globalization for poverty, particularly the impact of agricultural subsidies in the developed world on the living conditions and income levels of the farmers in poorer countries. Fourth, the impact of macroeconomic developments on unemployment and poverty, particularly the relationship between food crisis and poverty. Fifth, following diagnosis of the root causes of poverty, and accompanied by

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proper measurement techniques, this body of research needs to focus on pro-poor policies, institutional innovations, poverty elimination programs and social safety nets; in short, how we can go about tackling the problem of poverty. The universities are ideally placed to do third-party monitoring of different government programs. Independent monitoring by the universities can help improve the design and execution of government programs, including the more recent initiatives like the Benazir Income Support Program. So capacity development in the universities for research on monitoring and evaluation of innovations would be useful from a practical point of view. Sixth, the consequences of inequality and poverty. For instance, the tide of rebellion in the Middle East is probably the consequence more of relative deprivation and a sense of growing inequality that we have seen in the Arab states. That is why it is very important for us to begin to understand the implications of growing inequality and poverty for terrorism, violence, law and order, as well as potential breakdown of the society. This is a very comprehensive agenda. Let me suggest that, in the current context of Pakistan, conducting this kind of research is extremely important! We look forward to the support of the HEC and other institutions in commissioning research in these areas. I can assure you that our MPhil and PhD students are highly motivated to work in the area of sustainable human development, inequality and poverty; and motivation is the most important factor in influencing the quality of student research.

2. Costs and Opportunities of Pakistans Rapidly Changing Age Structure: Demographic Dividend, Population Ageing and Urbanization
[Dr. Mehtab S. Karim]
[Working Group 2 Chair/Moderator Dr. Zeba Sattar could not attend Session V because of some other engagement.] After Dr. Hafiz A. Pasha, the Session Chair invited Dr. Mehtab S. Karim (Distinguished Senior Fellow, School of Public Policy, George Mason University, USA) to share the recommendations of Working Group 2. Dr. Karims presentation is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: I am pleased that the Conference organizers tasked one of the five working groups to deliberate on the issues related to Pakistans rapidly changing age structure. Our group had five lead speakers and more than a dozen members, almost all of whom actively participated in a very candid discussion. I would like to discuss each of the issues the group deliberated on along with its recommendations in that area: Changing rapidly changing age structure: The body of research in the area of changing age structures has evoked little attention to Pakistans rapidly changing age structure, mainly its pronounced youth bulge. In Pakistan, 28% of the population is aged between 15 and 29 classified as the youth, so there are about 44 million young men and women in the country. These are guesstimates because the census has not been conducted in Pakistan since 1998, though it is known for sure that the number of young

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men alone in Pakistan is more than the total population of either Afghanistan or Iran. While the Planning Commissions Vision 2030 document, launched in 2005, identified the issues of a young age structure and made the potential for a demographic dividend one of its pillars, insufficient attention has been paid since then to the important investments required to channelize the vast potential of the youth in a productive way. The growing problems of a young population are well-documented in many countries. As Dr. Hafiz A. Pasha mentioned in his presentation, a young population has brought about a bloodless revolution in Egypt and Tunisia, though in both the countries a much larger percentage of the youth is studying in schools or colleges than in Pakistan. According to a recent Pew Research Center report, the youth comprises about 25-30% of the population in the Muslim countries and Pakistan has the largest percentage of the youth population among those. The same report mentions that in the next 20 years, Pakistan will have an additional 78 million people, while Indonesia that currently has 25 million more people than Pakistan will only add 35 million more people to its population. So by 2030, Pakistan will become the largest Muslim country in the world in terms of population. That should concern all of us. Demographic dividend: This idea was introduced by the Asian Tigers. These countries asked themselves how they could survive the economic depression that they were experiencing at the time. They analyzed and concluded that a large proportion of their population were young, so they invested in their education and skill training, and this fetched them handsome results. Such an approach also helps develop human resource, as it has done in the case of China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and Thailand. Of course, South Asia is still lagging behind, though almost 30% of the youth of the world lives in the three countries of Pakistan, India and Bangladesh. Unfortunately, Pakistan is already about to miss the boat because around a decade ago dependency ratio began declining in the country and the percentage of the youth population reached at its peak. Therefore, the research agenda clearly should be to find out as to how public policies could be restructured towards the youth in the shortest possible time. Demographic changes taking place in Pakistan at the moment require both investment and public policy directives; otherwise, they will become a burden or even a disaster in near future. A recent study conducted in Karachi showed that unemployment rate among the people who are between 20 and 35 years of age was about 30% and this figure may apply roughly to the whole country So the area of youth bulge is ideal for the researchers, economists, demographers, sociologists and psychologists to get together and come up with a national strategy and plan of action. Population ageing: Although Pakistan does not have a large percentage of the elderly population like many European countries or Japan, where about 25-30% of the population is classified as the elderly, there still are about 12 million elderly in the country and their number is estimated to grow to about 25 million by 2050. However, there is a dearth of research in this area too. The limited literature available on the subject clearly shows that the elderly are facing serious problems in Pakistan. The only large-scale study on the living and health conditions of the elderly in Pakistan was conducted by the University of Gujrat and that is a benchmark piece of information for the province of Punjab. Other studies show that there is an underlying belief that the cultural and religious norms support total care for the elderly so we do not need to take care of them, but this may

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not be true. A recent study conducted in Karachi by the Aga Khan University shows that about one-half of the elderly population of the city is suffering from clinical depression and about 10% of the elderly couples are living by themselves. The issue of crimes against the elderly even by their own children is a fact of life in Pakistan, as some of the studies have shown. We must also not forget that the elderly are facing numerous psychological problems; however, it again is a relatively neglected area. Very interestingly, the elderly are increasingly being considered as a burden by their children. Finally, there is a need to conduct research on the relationship between the elderly and the youth. They are going in different directions; especially the youth is getting away from the standard norms and practices of the Pakistani society. Urbanization: It is a very important phenomenon in the context of Pakistan, which has the largest proportion of urban population in South Asia. About 40% of the countrys population lives in urban areas. According to the World Bank, Pakistan not only is the most urbanized country in South Asia, but also has the highest rate of urbanization in the region. The consequences of rapid rural-urban migration, coupled with a high population growth rate, could make life difficult for millions of people living in big cities, mainly because of the increasing pressure on natural and economic resources. Therefore, urbanization is an important emerging area for researchers. Finally, the group members discussed the financing of social science research, and strongly recommended the removal of all the bottlenecks in the existing HEC mechanisms that are clogging the approval and financing of social science research projects. They also recommended that the HEC should establish an autonomous social science council that is empowered to take independent decisions on the approval and financing of social science research projects. Without expediting the availability of funds, social science research in Pakistan shall remain an unfulfilled dream.

3. The State in Pakistan: Internal and External Challenges


[Dr. Rasul Bakhsh Rais]
After Dr. Mehtab S. Karim, the Session Chair invited Dr. Rasul Bakhsh Rais (Professor of Political Science, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities, Social Sciences and Law, Lahore University of Management Sciences) to share the recommendations of Working Group 3. Dr. Rais presentation is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: Our group, comprising five lead speakers and about 20 members, tried to come up with clusters of research themes that could serve as the basis for dialogue, discussion and deliberations at different fora. We would like to suggest that social science and humanities departments/faculties of all the universities discuss this agenda and even go beyond that. This agenda is not binding and is just a starting point, to be discussed in not only all the universities but also annual social science conferences. The group also proposed that if and when professional disciplinary associations, such as the Pakistan Political Scientists Association or Pakistan Sociological Association, were revived and they need to be revived at the earliest then each of the social science dis-

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ciplines could finalize its specific agenda. Each of the research clusters recommended by the group, of which I will simply mention the important ones here because of time constraints, can be the theme of a major conference in Pakistan: 1. Theorizing about the Pakistani state: Not much work has been done in this area except some earlier efforts by political scientists like the late Khalid bin Sayeed and the late Hamza Alavi. Today, what type of state we live in has become a contested issue; therefore, understanding the structure of the state is extremely important. Senior scholars of different disciplines should take up this issue. 2. Vision of the founders of Pakistan: Their modernist, liberal, democratic vision has got lost somewhere. The group members deliberated on the social, regional and transnational factors that have contributed to this shift from the original vision of what Pakistan was supposed to be and what it is today. 3. Authoritarianism: This area basically belongs to studies on political culture and values, beliefs and attitudes, since they are the bases of what happens in politics, social relations and attitudes; and are reflected in the form of extremism, intolerance, and attitude towards the minorities and lower classes. 4. Elitism: This area is extremely important because the society in our part of the world has historically been elitist. Therefore, we need to understand and analyze the social structures of the elites, the elite networks and the state-society disconnect because of elitism that we see in Pakistan today. We also need to conduct studies on the social classes, the urban-rural divide and the imagined rise of the middle class in Pakistan, since these issues are directly linked with democracy, and the transformations and changes that have taken place in the country over the years. Moreover, we need to conduct studies on the rural and subaltern classes. 5. Civil-military relations: This important theme, which has not been explored from the point of interdisciplinary research, is at the root of defining what the Pakistani state has been. Institutional imbalances, the character of political classes and the hybrid political regimes that we have had in Pakistan are very much related to the civil-military relations. 6. Development and state security: Alternative security discourses are extremely important, as are debates on people-centred development, the new liberal agenda and how market economy defines the state-society relations. 7. Feminism and the Pakistani state: This area includes gender issues; strands of local feminism, and womens rights and empowerment. Of course, there are many alternative explorations of feminism in Pakistan; for example, from secular, liberal, Islamic and pluralistic points of view. 8. 18th Constitutional Amendment: Though a new area of intellectual and political concern, the 18th Constitutional Amendment is going to redefine federalism and all issues related to it. Sociologists, economists, political scientists and experts of constitutionalism should particularly look at the institutions that the new federalism has created. 9. Pluralism and diversity: Within this cluster, the group proposed a number of sub-themes such as ethnicity, ethno-nationalism, rural-urban migration, national integra-

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tion, and regional and folk cultures. Moreover, the Baloch issue was discussed at length, particularly the Baloch sense of being dispossessed from their natural resources and land. 10. State and political institutions: The parliament and what goes on within it needs to be studied. The judiciary and judicial politics are also important. The internal structure of the political parties and their social base of support are other related issues that need to be explored. 11. Intelligentsia: The group discussed in detail the different categories of intellectuals state, public and organic and what role they can play in reshaping the internal ethos and soul of the Pakistani society. The group also discussed whether intellectuals should align themselves with the state or the people. 12. Rise of religious groups: What is the social base of the religious groups? To what extent has the biased national narrative and network/curricula of madrassas played a part in their rise? Instead of taking a subjective view of the issues like extremism and intolerance, we need to explore what are the strengths of the religious groups are they simply a fad or do they have a social base that explains their rise? 13. Democracy: Within this cluster, the group discussed democratic movements and stressed the need to study them. When we talk about authoritarianism, we also have to study the democratic movements that challenged the authoritarian regimes at certain points in the history of Pakistan; for example, democratic movements against Generals Ayub Khan, Ziaul Haq and Pervez Musharraf. Civil society, the media, and free and fair elections are some of the other areas included within this cluster. 14. Foreign policy: Three countries are critical to Pakistans foreign policy: Afghanistan, India and the United States. Concerning relations with India, peace movement is very important, particularly what role it is playing or it can play. We need to focus on dispute resolution and regional cooperation in not only South Asia, but also Afghanistan and beyond. The real question is how can really Pakistan benefit from the regional connectivity? We also need to study political approaches to conflict resolution because peace research is still in its infancy in Pakistan. 15. Political violence: If you look at the past three decades, this region is infected with political, ethnic and sectarian violence. But do we have even a database on political violence in Pakistan? I am very glad to report that four universities Georgetown University, Lahore University of Management Sciences, the University of Chicago and Yale University are working together and are about to complete a database of the past 20 years on political violence that will be available to researchers not only in Pakistan but throughout the world. With that database, we will be able to know where and what type of violence has taken place. It will show the maps and give the dates of, as well as explain the factors responsible for, political violence. In that database, we are using only open and unclassified information; and documenting political violence from, at the moment, one newspaper. Also, we are simply developing a database and more research on political violence is still needed. Since we do not have a database on political violence in Pakistan, we can at best conduct subjective studies on the subject. 16. History: The majority of the countrys population is familiar with only a grand narrative about the creation of Pakistan. Therefore, the group recommended that local,

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regional and peoples histories should be written, with a focus on new methodologies like oral history.

4. The Role of Media and Civil Society in Ensuring Human Rights and Cultural Diversity
[Mr. Zafarullah Khan]
[Working Group 4 Chair/Moderator Dr. Tariq Rahman could not attend Session V because of some other engagement.] After Dr. Rasul Bakhsh Rais, Session Chair Dr. Sohail H. Naqvi invited Mr. Zafarullah Khan (Executive Director, Centre for Civic Education, Islamabad) to share the recommendations of Working Group 4. Mr. Zafarullah Khans presentation is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: The salient recommendations of our working group, which comprised of five lead speakers and about 15 members, have been summarized under the heads of civil society, media, and human rights and cultural diversity: Civil society: The group stretched the definition of civil society to include the Enlightenment Project, which brought in human rights and diversity discourse. It also classified the media and the universities spaces of academic freedom and inquiry as components of civil society. The group strongly recommended that the civil society in Pakistan must be mapped, because no serious studies on its size, scale and contribution are available. The Lahore University of Management Sciences has conducted a study on the management of the NGO sector, which is just an associational expression of the broader term civil society. The group noted with concern that mostly only the liberal groups are acknowledged as civil society; however, the traditional definition of the term includes all those organized on voluntary basis, so we also need to study and examine the role of religious civil society. Of course, money is a prerequisite for realizing all these research endeavours. The group also suggested the establishment of some kind of networking mechanism between the media, civil society and the academic community. Media: The group stressed the need for studying and understanding the institution of the media, which emerged in post-colonial states as part of the nationalism project but has since then graduated into a corporate entity. In particular, the institutional changes in the media need to be studied. The group also focused on the contents of the media, recalling the golden age of the Pakistan Television when teledramas communicated social messages and even broadened public understanding on controversial themes. The group suggested that the media should not be considered as a monolithic organization; rather, its genres and social impact should be examined. The group also discussed the cynicism and pessimism that the media sometimes promotes, and the need to study the audience impact. At least 24 Pakistani universities have campus radios, which can serve as agencies for linking the research community with the policy community. The impact of these campus radios in terms of societal contribution is also worth studying. The group believed that the media in Pakistan must be mapped, because no serious studies on its size, scale and contribution are available. The issue of code of conduct for the media

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also came under discussion, particularly how the universities could do a comparative analysis of other countries and help frame a code of conduct for the media in Pakistan; and may possibly also train journalist, so that they could make full use of their potential to contribute in the perspective of human rights and cultural diversity. The group also emphasized academic linkages and networking between the academia and the media, since that would help in communicating the research conducted by social science faculties of the universities to the public. Human rights and cultural diversity: The emerging topics like human rights and cultural diversity are not formally taught at the universities in Pakistan. The group was able to map only two available opportunities at the University of Peshawar and the International Islamic University, Islamabad for the students desirous of studying these subjects. The group members discussed that our society is plagued with a long list of human rights violations, thus it merits academic scrutiny how systems and structures perpetuate human rights violations and what fences can be erected to protect human rights. It figured quite prominently in the groups deliberations that because most of the research studies undertaken by the government or NGOs are urban-focused, they usually miss the rural reality. We need to address this issue urgently because the majority of Pakistans population lives in rural areas where human rights violations are rampant and avenues to participation are limited. The group felt that a comparative analysis of other societies how they dealt with similar problems would be of interest. Finally, the group also focused on the inclusion and exclusion debate.

5. Problems of Conducting Dissertation Research in Pakistan


[Dr. Rubina Saigol]
After Mr. Zafarullah Khan, the Session Chair invited Dr. Rubina Saigol (Independent Researcher and Social Scientist, Lahore) to share the recommendations of Working Group 5. Dr. Saigols presentation is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: The members of our group comprised of mostly students who were either PhD scholars or young faculty members of the public sector universities; while the lead speakers comprised of faculty members of the universities having vast experience of supervising PhD students, the advisors of concerned divisions in the HEC, and the head of an international organization who also offered financial support to the PhD scholars. The working group was divided in two sessions: in the first, the lead speakers identified the issues related to conducting social science research in Pakistan; while in the second, the PhD students shared the problems that they were facing in writing their dissertation. Broadly speaking, a major issue that surfaced during discussion in both the sessions or highlighted by both the lead speakers and the students was lack of resources. Similarly, both the groups complained about the lack of adequate and up-to-date libraries in the universities, as well as of access to international social science journals. The libraries of the public universities are not only stuffed with very old books, but also in a dilapidated condition. Most of the new books are not available and the ones available

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are in a very bad shape. The PhD scholars also complained that they cannot find books most of the time because the libraries are usually disorganized. Just like the libraries, the computer labs are also in an extremely dilapidated condition in the public universities. The textbooks and other supplementary materials used in teaching are also outdated to say the least. As a result, new ideas, theories and perspectives in a particular subject are not widely introduced in the universities; and the students are often studying something that was written many years ago and is not relevant any more. It is important to note that throughout the discussion there was considerable debate on the extent of each problem, and how each problem varied from department to department and from university to university. But before addressing these issues, there is an urgent need for an inventory of resources such as library, computers and faculty member expertise broken down by department and university. The group members stressed that particular urgency and priority be given to this task. Compiling such an inventory is relevant to not only the recommendations of this working group, but also all of the groups. An accurate inventory of assets and needs is an essential foundation for the development of strategic plan for research activities in each of the other four broad areas. While it may take some time to gather the information and resources needed for such an inventory, there were other crosscutting recommendations from this working group that could be implemented before such an inventory were completed. For example, the group recommended that the faculty needed training and professional development, including training in the use of those digital resources that were already available.

Discussion

After Dr. Rubina Saigols presentation, the Session Chair opened the floor for discussion. Most of the comments made by the participants pertained to the problems of conducting dissertation research in Pakistan. The salient ones are being summarized: Dr. Mehtab S. Karim (Distinguished Senior Fellow, School of Public Policy, George Mason University, USA) said that he had supervised Pakistani PhD scholars in the social sciences at many local and foreign universities; and had found that more often than not they lacked substantial knowledge of research methodology. Based on my related experience of over a decade, I can safely claim that this is the weakest area of Pakistani PhD scholars in the social sciences. I had the opportunity to teach at a business school in Karachi and I found that sampling was not taught in the research methodology course. Similarly, I had the opportunity to conduct a few courses on behalf of the HEC for young faculty members and I again found that the participants lacked substantial knowledge of research methodology. This is not something new and it must be recognized by this gathering that if we need to promote social science research in Pakistan, the best available option is to induct young people in the area of research methodology, he stressed. Lt. Gen. (retired) Muhammad Asghar (Rector, National University of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad) viewed that the universities needed to develop their curricula

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and program the subjects in such a way that the deficiencies of all the students were taken care of in the process. Some weak students may have to go through an extra year before they enter into the hardcore research area, he suggested. Concerning the issue of writing skills, Lt. Gen. (r) Asghar said that the PhD scholars should have the skills to access the sources of knowledge in English also, even if they were writing their dissertation in Urdu. The universities should now focus on collaborating in the area of social science research. If you do not have a supervisor in your university, one may be available in another university. Similarly, the universities should have a system of co-supervisors whereby they can have two or three additional faculty members assisting the students, the Rector of NUST recommended. Prof. Durriya Kazi (Head, Department of Visual Studies, University of Karachi) felt that the arts could not be properly catered to in this Conference; and hoped that in the future more space would be reserved for discussion on them. This should be done for many reasons: the arts are probably the first attempt by human beings to make sense of the world around them and this tradition has continued to this day. In the Pakistani context, the crafts are particularly relevant since they have been the most important conduits for cultural expression, she added. Dr. Iftikhar N. Hassan (Chairperson, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Karakoram International University, Gilgit) opined that the research in the universities had lost its direction because the supervisors were not reposing trust in the students. The need of the hour is to establish centres of research in selected Pakistani universities based on their expertise on the lines of top universities in the world, with experts coming in and imparting a new look to research, she suggested. Before giving his remarks as the Chair of Session V, Dr. Sohail H. Naqvi gave an opportunity to the presenters to answer any of the questions that they may feel was addressed to them or offer clarification on any of the issues raised by the participants: Dr. Rasul Bakhsh Rais said that though Pakistan had the Right to Information Act and the citizens were entitled under the constitution to access all unclassified official documents, we still needed to evolve the modalities and test if we really had access to information. We need to establish an archive like the American National Security Archives within some autonomous institution, government organization or university. The colonial documents are rotting and they need to be digitized without further delay. I know that the National Documentation Centre is doing this, but we have to assist its pace. Not just the colonial documents, but also the magazines and newspapers of the 19th and 20th centuries need to be digitized. Unfortunately, the complete files of not even a single Pakistani newspaper are available, he lamented. Mr. Zafarullah Khan disagreed with Dr. Rasul Bakhsh Rais views regarding the efficacy of the Right to Information Act. Pakistan was the first South Asian country to have this law back in 2002, but sadly it remains underutilized. The CCE recently conducted a study on how many of the 180 million people in this country have so far used this law. You will be surprised to know the number: only 79! The Right to Information Act is an effective mechanism, but you have to use it. This law has made it possible to access official documents of all types unless they have been specifically classified, he explained. Dr. Rubina Saigol said that the language of dissertation did not matter. You could

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write the dissertation in any language. The problems that the PhD scholars generally face are how to write a coherent piece, how to substantiate their arguments with data, and how to do sentencing and paragraphing. In short, they lack writing skills, which does not have much to do with lack of proficiency in English. For example, even if the students are very good in Urdu, they still may not know how to do sentencing or paragraphing, she elaborated.

Remarks by the Chair


[Dr. Sohail H. Naqvi]
Session V on the Challenges to Promotion of Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities and HECs Experience concluded with remarks by Chair Dr. Sohail H. Naqvi (Executive Director, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad), which are being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: The recommendations of the working groups certainly tell us from where to make a start. In particular, the HEC would like to explore the idea of commissioning research and figure out what exactly needs to be done in this connection. The practical recommendations can also be posted on the HEC website. Since almost all the recommendations are of multidimensional nature, this brings scholars of all disciplines on board. Moreover, the identification of these topics will certainly be useful to a whole body of researchers that we hope is growing in Pakistan. As concerns the sharing of resources, recommended by all the working groups, I would like to bring to the attention of the participants that the HEC has already established the Pakistan Research Repository with a view to collecting all the available reports, papers and dissertations. To date, we have been able to collect almost half of the about 5,400 dissertations on which PhDs have so far been awarded in Pakistan. The HEC has also digitized these dissertations and uploaded them on its website. In addition, researchers can upload to this repository any report that they want to share in the public domain. The issue of financial resources also came up time and again during the sharing of working group recommendations. Sitting at the other end of the fence in the HEC, I see this issue differently. In my view, the problem is that nobody is writing research proposals. Similarly, you can request for funds to host an international conference, but even the universities are not doing that since it requires a lot of hard work. Each discipline of the social sciences should hold at least one annual conference, which should be rotated across the country since now we have enough social science departments/faculties in the universities and the funding is also available. In short, funding is not the issue; money is available, but people are not asking for it. Another important issue I would like to address here is that who is going to take forward these recommendations. The fundamental thing one needs to understand in this regard is that the universities are the heart and soul of the higher education system. They are autonomous entities that do not operate under any control, administrative or otherwise. The job of the HEC is just to facilitate and build the capacity of the universities, and ultimately these recommendations have to be owned by them.

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Session VI Developing Institutional Capacity and Academic Integrity to Promote Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities Thematic Note
Institutional infrastructure and financial resources are two major elements that determine the institutional capacity to conduct social science research. The infrastructure includes qualified and capable faculty who is not only experienced and competent to guide students in how to conduct social science research, but also motivated and committed to encourage and support students in the accomplishment of this task. The second element is the financial support that should be adequate, timely and free from bureaucratic red tape. Since funds pass from one bureaucratic system (of the donor) to the other (of the recipient institution), delays and hiccups in their access to researchers can be inordinate and detrimental. Of course, financial support entails adequate accountability and assurance of judicious expenditures. For this purpose, simple yet proper bookkeeping by the project managers can go a long way in ensuring easy access of funds to the institution concerned. Flexibility in spending within justifiable limits and timely reporting of expenses should be the norm. The misuse of funds should have administrative and legal consequences for all those concerned. To promote social science research, we will need to look at both the elements and address all the related issues. Training of the competent research staff should go hand in hand with the provision of funds for research, which should encourage and facilitate the process rather than making it so difficult that users simply give up.

Keynote Address

[Dr. Mehtab S. Karim]

Session VI on Developing Institutional Capacity and Academic Integrity to Promote Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities started with Chair Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin (Chairperson, Conference Organizing Committee; Vice Chancellor, University of Gujrat) inviting Dr. Mehtab S. Karim (Distinguished Senior Fellow, School of Public Policy, George Mason University, USA) to deliver the keynote address, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: This is the first time an international conference is being organized on the promotion of social science research in Pakistan; hopefully, we will also conduct some social science research in the near future. In fact, for the first time an opportunity has been provided to the Pakistani social scientists to deliberate on the important issues concerning them and the country. During the past three days, almost all speakers have shown their concern over the state of social science research in Pakistan, so by now we all know that it is in a limbo and the less said about it the better.

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Before I come to the topic of this session Developing Institutional Capacity and Academic Integrity to Promote Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities let me share with you what Hazrat Ali Hajvery (RA), popularly known as Data Ganj Baksh, said almost one millennium ago: Some say knowledge is superior to action. Others say action is superior to knowledge. Both are wrong. Unless knowledge is tied to action, it does not deserve the recompense. We must use this saying as the guiding principle when trying to strategize about the way knowledge is to be acquired. The majority of Pakistanis acquire knowledge from: 1. Authority: Somebody told them something is correct, so it ought to be correct. 2. Media: They believe whatever is reported in the print or electronic media, even if it is a rumour, to be true. 3. Tradition: They consider information passed on to them by their elders as correct. Even the Holy Quran mentions that: Do you want to leave the traditions that our forefathers have been following? 4. Common sense: They consider information that makes sense as correct, though many things are common sense but not facts. 5. Personal experience: If they have experienced something about a group of people, they apply it to all the people in the country or the society. Since the abovementioned sources may have certain advantages and disadvantages, the emphasis is on scientific inquiry, which is based on facts and empirical observations and is thus considered as the best method of acquiring knowledge. Scientific inquiry emphasizes collecting information provably; and ensuring that the information thus collected is devoid of personal emotions and biases. This is a methodological approach to the acquisition of knowledge, as opposed to the knowledge gained through some biased approach. Now let me shift the focus to the education sector in Pakistan! According to a recent World Bank report, Education is important for Pakistans progress. Despite recent achievements, the country still faces numerous challenges to raise the education of its population to the standard of its South Asian neighbours, and to meet its own social and economic development needs. According to the same report, the education-related statistics of Pakistan are quite revealing: for example, only 22% of the girls, compared with 47% of the boys, complete primary education; or only 19% of the girls attend higher secondary schools. According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific, Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Pakistans tertiary enrolment rates for the eligible age cohort (17-23 years old) are much lower than that of its neighbours and most other Muslim countries: in Egypt 33%, in Turkey 28%, in Indonesia 16%, in India 15%, in Bangladesh 7% and in Pakistan only 3% of those aged 17-23 years are enrolled in universities. This means that there are about 12.6 million university students in India, 3.6 million in Indonesia, 2.1 million in Egypt, 1.7 million in Turkey, 0.8 million in Bangladesh and only 0.4 million in Pakistan. These figures speak for themselves. As compared with this, in Norway, which is a country of only five million people, 0.2 million students (almost 80% of those aged 1723 years) are studying in universities. No wonder the country has one of the highest per

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capita incomes in the world. Of the about 0.4 million students currently enrolled in the 131 public and private sector Pakistani universities, only one- fourth or roughly 0.1 million are studying the social sciences, humanities or business education. The role of an institution of higher learning is to not only teach but also explore new avenues of knowledge, which can only be done through research. The academic rating of universities worldwide is not done on the basis of the number of their faculty members or students, but research being conducted by their faculty members. In other words, a university gets recognition based on the research output by its faculty members. In this area too, the contribution of the Pakistani universities is below the mark, particularly in the social sciences and business education. A recent HEC report informs us that of the 131 public and private sector Pakistani universities, only 95 reported having any publication in 2010. The Quaid-i-Azam University was at the top by some margin, followed by the Aga Khan University, the University of Karachi and University of the Punjab, mainly due to their contributions in the sciences and medicine. Instead of giving my own views on the state of research in the Pakistani universities, please allow me share with you an extract from a letter published in daily Dawn on 19 March 2011 under the title of Pakistani universities lack research: The research output by the 131 Pakistan universities number of research publications against faculty members of the universities is less than 13%. The faculty of these universities published in all 5,013 papers in different research journals in 2010. Had each faculty member of the 131 universities published just one research paper in a year, there would have been at least 37,428 research papers. The IBA, Karachi, did not have a single research publication in 2010, though it has 78 teachers with high academic achievements, as well as successful, practical business management experience. Most of them have advanced degrees in their fields of specialization from foreign, reputed institutions, but the ground reality is that there was not even one research publication from the IBA in 2010. The nation expects Pakistani universities to contribute to basic, applied and/or action research to help minimize the problems of the country to meet its future targets. It will certainly accentuate the change from an input- to a productivity-driven growth economy and cause a quantum jump in the quality of all human life. Here I would like to draw an analogy between a factory and a university. Both receive different raw materials and try to ensure an output that is accepted in the market. If the product is good, it is accepted in the market and even exported; while if the product is bad, it is absorbed locally. In the case of a university, post-graduate students are the raw materials. It is the duty of the supervisors, just like engineers in a factory, to ensure a product that is accepted in the global market. In Pakistan, most of the products of the universities ultimately join their alma mater as faculty members, thus the learning process that requires you to go and explore the world is absent. The problem largely has to do with the PhD supervisors. We have inherited a system from Britain whereby the life of a PhD scholar depends on the supervisor. To add insult to injury, many of the PhDs supervisors are not even subject specialists. Pakistan has never had a dearth of social scientists, with the country producing some excellent scholars in every discipline of the social sciences. I could recall some of

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them from memory: Dr. Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi, Dr. K. K. Aziz, Dr. Akhter Hamid Khan, Dr. Mahbubul Haq, Dr. Anis Dani, Allama I. I. Kazi and Dr. Inayatullah. Then why is this dearth of research in Pakistan? It is because young people are supposed to be doing research. They have the stamina, urge and thrust to seek knowledge. Most of us have reached wherever we have due to the hard work we did in our youth. When I did my PhD, I had to go through a two-year post-doctoral program, which means that I had to do nothing else but conduct research. In Pakistan, once people have done their PhD, produced a few papers and become professors, they think that is the end of life. I have two brief recommendations regarding how to change this situation: 1. Before they are inducted as faculty members, fresh PhDs in the social sciences, humanities and business education should be required to go through a postdoctoral program at a different university from where they did their PhD, either in Pakistan or abroad, so that they could sharpen their research skills. 2. The Pakistani universities generally lack research centres in the social sciences whose staff are primarily engaged in conducting research. Centres of excellence have been established at many universities, but most of them are mainly teaching departments that just offer MA and, in some cases, PhD degrees. Therefore, dedicated social science research centres need to be established at some universities with the HECs support. The staff of these centres, including the director, should dedicate at least 70% of their time to research, not teaching. Before I conclude, I would like to leave you with these thoughts: All of history can be written in a simple formula: challenge leads to response. The challenge is created by the environment and then the individual. The institution and the society come up with a response. Those who respond to the challenge effectively make history; while those who do not rise up to the challenge become history.

Presentations

[Dr. Grace C. Clark]

After Dr. Mehtab S. Karims keynote address, Session Chair Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin invited Dr. Grace C. Clark (Professor, Department of Sociology, Forman Christian College University, Lahore) to make her presentation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: Intellectual integrity is the sine qua non of any science. All science is based on systematic and accurate documentation of observable phenomena. Any scientific endeavour must be carried through with integrity from beginning to end. From a clear conceptualization of an issue to be studied that takes into account the ethical principles of our discipline, to a literature review that builds on the ideas of others and credits them to the correct author, to the accurate and complete recording of ones own observations, to analyzing findings and discussing them, and then finally writing them up, following the ethical standards of our profession is of foremost importance. The HEC has taken the lead in trying to enforce the principles of academic integrity throughout the universities of Pakistan. It has provided guidelines and taken strong

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measures to ensure that plagiarism, especially, is dealt with seriously, since they know that without academic integrity, one is not building new knowledge, but only trying to scam others and fool oneself. Although addressing plagiarism is a part of the process, it deals with only one part of the issue after a problem has developed. Therefore, one of the most important things we need to do as social scientists is to design our teaching to inculcate these principles of academic integrity into our students, the next generation of social scientists and researchers, from the very beginning. It is also one of the most important challenges we face as academics, since unless we teach and model these concepts so well that students incorporate them into their very souls, they will never be able to conduct social science research, no matter how many computers they have, how big a library they have or how much research methodology they know. If students do not have academic integrity, they would not have anything! Too often we set up systems that concentrate on catching students or colleagues who committed plagiarism or falsification of data. It is certainly important to the integrity of the social sciences that these infractions do not go unnoticed. In the long run, however, it is far more important that we teach positively what we want students to do from day one of their academic careers the teaching of academic integrity needs to begin from a students very first day in university. In fact, the process of teaching both ethical values and the processes of academic integrity should begin before students even come to the university. When we send them information about what is expected of them as research scholars, we should provide them with some of the basic skills for studying the social sciences: reading and listening accurately, taking accurate notes for citations in the library or when they read online, thinking critically and analyzing what they have read, and synthesizing what they have read in their own words. We also need to lead students to the library and help them learn the search process. One of the things that we shall be doing at the Forman Christian College University from the next year is ensuring that all fresh students have extensive experiences in all these areas, not only in orientation but throughout a year that emphasizes the importance of research skills and academic integrity. As students come into classes in each of our disciplines, we need to begin with ethical principles of each of our professions. While they may differ slightly from one another, they are essentially the same and bear repeating in each class. We also need to help students understand why those ethical principles are important to the quality of research, and to them as students and researchers. For example, in sociology, students should understand the principle of confidentiality. We must ensure that confidentiality is kept not only directly but also in terms of the presentation of data. As we teach students in class, we should include some original materials, so that they have the experience of studying the works of others in original form. While it may seem obvious to us, we need to emphasize that some researcher worked hard to produce that paper and owns those ideas. We need to emphasize that when we borrow any of those ideas for our own use, giving credit to the person who has done that work is essential. Taking ideas without citation is stealing someone elses work product. While these things may seem obvious to us after long years in the social sciences, they are not always

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obvious to students; and while some students may understand the concept quickly, for others it needs to be repeated. Another important thing is our own academic integrity. We need to encourage students to challenge and test ideas, to use theoretical models to analyze the ideas that we present. We have to be a little thick-skinned about taking their comments since that is really a good sign in the academic world. Exercises should be included in foundation courses that provide students with the opportunity to collect observations directly from the society; not necessarily research, just collecting observations and thoughts, documenting them in some standard form, and interpreting them in the light of theories. Students should be taught that when they observe and record data which they did not expect, that is also an important finding. We need to help them understand that finding deviation from expected theory is an essential part of knowledge building; that is very important work since it represents their learning. I understand the importance of removing temptations during exams, but I also think that it is important to encourage students to use their intellectual capacities; to appeal to their better angels. Therefore, on every exam that I give, I have my students write the following sentence: I give my word of honour as a scholar that on this exam I have neither received nor given aid. Perhaps not all students can be appealed to in this way, but a lot of them can be. When students begin to write research papers, which I suggest should happen as early as possible and certainly during the undergraduate experience, we need to emphasize how all these things come together and why. Especially in introductory courses, we need to help students with the steps to a research paper in a time sequence. By expecting them to produce different stages of research, they are more likely to do it in a way that uses the principles we want. Then the temptation to plagiarize is much less strong than for students who leave their papers to the night before they are due. If we do these things from the initial stages of students in a discipline, it will be much easier to ensure academic integrity at the MPhil and PhD levels. The best way of teaching any skill and certainly any ethical principle is not just to talk about it, but to model it. As professors, we all need to follow and practice the ethical principles and academic integrity we talk about. While we need to follow the same steps and principles in our own work, academic integrity covers some additional areas for us. For example, we should be comfortable with having our students observe our research processes and read our publications. Our works may not be all academically brilliant, because it is not necessary to be academically brilliant all the time or even most of the time, but all of us should be able to meet the test that our works are products of academic integrity. We need to be careful about crediting the work of others, including students whose ideas may have prompted or improved our own work. More than the work itself matter the choices we make about our research and teaching. How do we choose our research topics? Do we just look at those things that are comfortable and safe? Do we just perpetuate messages society is comfortable with, even if they do not stand up to critical analysis or empirical testing? For most of the social sciences, the real and the most meaningful work is often done in areas at the margins of society, in areas that are controversial, in areas that deal

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with people and issues about which people have different opinions, in areas that make people uncomfortable. Our work will be better if we try to address these issues. Moreover, we need to support the academic freedom of others to explore controversial issues. At a more institutional level, we need to insist on merit-based processes for hiring, promotion and tenure. Very often people want to be promoted based on seniority, which is not congruent with the concept of academic integrity. I would like to maintain that an essential part of academic integrity is to support each other in this profession we have chosen. We need to support each others work, give generously our time to review the work of others, and comfort and sympathize when someones research takes a turn for the worse. We need to be careful to be accurate while questioning the integrity of a student or a colleague, so that the process of academic impeachment is never used unfairly. The universities need to have strong committees on all aspects of academic integrity, not just plagiarism. The HEC has produced a book that is helpful about plagiarism and is a good beginning, but we all need to adopt procedures and policies to ensure the concerns are investigated, not just sidetracked at the department level. There should be strong penalties associated with professional consequences. We should put clauses in hiring contracts that explicitly cite breaches of academic integrity as grounds for dismissal. Finally, I would like to say that there is a lot of discussion on the issue of failed academic integrity in Pakistan. This is a real issue that needs to be addressed and we all need to work for it. A reputation for plagiarism, which unfortunately prevails in places, impedes the work of all the good scholars who work in Pakistan, and makes it harder for them to obtain grants and scholarships.

[Dr. Ihsan Ali]

After Dr. Grace C. Clark, the Session Chair invited next panelist Dr. Ihsan Ali (Vice Chancellor, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan) to make his presentation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: I was looking at the audience and thinking that if we were in some city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Peshawar or Kohat or Hazara the hall would have been full. This attendance is not appropriate for the first international conference on the social science research in Pakistan, though we are all responsible for it, first me and later others. I will quickly share with you some examples of the work the universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa have done in the last few years. The people who have not visited the province think that the situation there is extremely bad and no research is being conducted. Despite that, the universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa have undertaken many important initiatives for the promotion of the social sciences. Just the publications by the Peshawar Museum and the Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, over the last few years will give you a fair idea of what we have done in the province for the promotion of the social sciences. But if we put a bar that a department or faculty cannot be established without required number of

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PhDs, then we will not be able to do anything for the promotion of the social sciences. I remember that when I was doing my PhD from the University College in London, most of the teachers were non-PhDs. So shall we not establish new departments? Shall we close down those existing departments where there are no PhDs? I remember that around a decade ago we were sitting in the same hall and discussing scholarships for university faculty members. Prof. Pareshan Khattak, the thenVice Chancellor of the Balochistan University, Quetta, complained that the policy was discriminatory. Most of the teachers from Balochistan could not apply for these scholarships because they got their degrees in the third division. If this bar still exists, we can imagine what will happen to Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa? If someone says that these provinces are not coming up to the standard, my answer is that we are not allowed to move forward only because we do not have the required number of PhDs in many subjects. For example, we can count on fingers the number of PhDs in the whole province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in subjects such as sociology, archaeology, social work and philosophy. So how will we make progress? I think that the HEC should first provide opportunities to the universities and then monitor their progress. Dr. Sohail H. Naqvi pointed out as the Chair of Session V that the universities are open spaces. My humble request is that they should be made open in the real sense of the word to promote a healthy competition. Keynote speaker Dr. Mehtab S. Karim referred to the recently released HEC data about the research ranking of the Pakistani universities. You will be surprised to know that the Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, which is just one-and-a-half years old, was at number 50. Even ahead of it, the Hazara University, Mansehra, which was established in 2006, was at number 23. I have the honour of being the first vice chancellor of both the universities. But just compare their performance with that of more established universities having hundreds of PhDs! Now let me come to some of the recent developments in the field of archaeological research in different parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa that have helped in the promotion of social science research! The contributions of the Department of Archaeology, University of Peshawar, in the field of exploration and excavation were published in 19 volumes of Ancient Pakistan. Similarly, the reports of explorations and excavations done by the Department of Archaeology, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, were published in four volumes of the journal Frontier Archaeology. The Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, established six museums at Pushkalawati (Charsadda), Hund (Swabi), Gor Khuttree (Peshawar), Bannu, Chitral and Mardan; and recorded 3,830 new archaeological sites. During my vice chancellorship, archaeologists at the Hazara University established two museums, documented 860 new archaeological sites, and started a research journal titled Pakistan Heritage. Also during my vice chancellorship, the Hazara University established the School of Cultural Heritage and Creative Technologies, comprising the Departments of Archaeology, Art and Design, Conservation and Architecture, and Tourism and Hospitality.

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The establishment of Gandhara Research Centre at the Abdul Wali Khan University can serve as the headquarters for the promotion of Pakistans cultural heritage. The Centre also plans to publish gazetteers based on surveys, explorations and excavations to be undertaken in all districts of the province. Besides, a museum will be established to preserve the tangible and intangible heritage of the province. The Centre will also offer MPhil and PhD degrees to those interested in the protection, preservation and promotion of the countrys cultural heritage.

[Dr. Aliya H. Khan]

After Dr. Ihsan Ali, the Session Chair invited Dr. Aliya H. Khan (Professor, Department of Economics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad) to make her presentation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: First, I will try to contextualize the issue of institutional capacity. After searching for a relevant theoretical framework within economics, my choice rested on the new institutional economics. Let me quickly introduce this concept! Dr. Douglass North, who won the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1993, made a demarcation between institutions and organizations. According to Dr. North institutions are the rules of the game, consisting of both the formal legal rules and the informal social norms that govern individual behaviour and structure social interactions (institutional frameworks); organizations, on the other hand, are those groups of people and the governance arrangements they create to coordinate their team action against other teams also performing as organizations. Universities, clubs, firms, medical associations and trade unions are all organizations; while, social science research is an institution since it represents rules of the game. The consensus of scientific methods sets the rules of the game within social science research. According to this type of rules of the game, the social scientists should have very close relationship with the society and they must not forget this even in the classroom or computer lab. Moreover, this relationship has to be maintained through a way of teaching and research. Here I want to make the point that very few university faculty members in Pakistan are linked with the very dynamic observation channels that may help them to understand and conceptualize the nature of social problems that we currently face as a society. The academia, politicians and public servants are all linked with those problems. An important question in this regard is how to build institutional capacity and who controls the institution of social science research? Briefly, one may say that the universities are very important players in this setup. Social science research has mechanisms and a specific arrangement coordinates the teams actions, so one cannot say that it is conducted in isolation. A major question is do you have the right composition of teams in the universities to conduct social science research? Previously, we talked about research only, but now we talk about interdisciplinary research. This calls for making dynamic teams in organizations, with those particular teams competing for efficiency and productivity in the area of social science research. Another point I would like to make here is that there may be different ways of conducting social science research, as is the case with research in the basic sciences.

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Another school of thought is that of experimental economics, which stresses trying to find out the impact of different social policies; for example, the introduction if education vouchers to increase enrolment. Very simple social experiments can be carried out to measure the impact of different social policies. To conclude, let me emphasize that the best way to develop institutional capacity for promoting social science research is to make dynamic teams with extensive knowledge of the methodologies used in social science research!

[Dr. Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Jadoon]

After Dr. Aliya H. Khan, the Session Chair invited next panelist Dr. Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Jadoon (Director, Institute of Administrative Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore) to make his presentation, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: Institutional capacity refers to the ability of universities to conduct rigorous and relevant social science research ensuring academic integrity. The principal determinants of institutional capacity for research in any discipline are availability of research funds, trained faculty, strict observance of research ethics, and MPhil/PhD programs. The major question that needs to be asked is how to build such institutional capacity to strengthen social sciences research in Pakistan? Having observed for years the low institutional capacity for social science research in the country, my suggestion is that special emphasis should be laid on building collaborative capacity to conduct rigorous and relevant research with minimum available resources. The collaboration among social science departments within and across universities within the country and abroad for interdisciplinary research and joint PhD/MPhil programs is a possible mechanism for strengthening social science research on issues relevant to our socio-political and economic context. A two-pronged strategy is required to build collaborative research capacity. On the one hand, senior professors need to be proactive in establishing professional links with academics outside their respective departments/faculties and universities. On the other hand, a favourable institutional environment is to be created by offering incentives for collaborative research within and across universities within the country and abroad. Success stories and best practices of such collaborative research should be documented and widely disseminated among the public. Besides the development of collaborative capacity, several other institutional measures can be recommended, such as creating research endowment funds for the social sciences; constituting research ethics committees in all the universities; organizing research workshop; encouraging methodological pluralism; promoting and strengthening linkages between the universities, the community and the industry; and creating professional bodies in all disciplines of the social sciences.

Remarks by the Chair

[Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin]

Session VI on Developing Institutional Capacity and Academic Integrity to Promote Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities concluded with remarks by Chair Dr. Mo-

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hammad Nizamuddin (Chairperson, Conference Organizing Committee; Vice Chancellor, University of Gujrat), which are being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: Unless the policymakers understand the need to develop institutional capacity for promoting social science research, they will not support the HEC or university budgets. Let me clarify that the universities also get funding directly from the Planning Commission, which is the clearing house for all development projects, though mostly they apply for funds through the HEC! Therefore, without developing the institutional capacity of the universities, the HEC and even the Planning Commission, we cannot promote social science research. We need to know what are the major issues involved in developing the institutional capacity of the universities. Why is that we do not have social science institutions in the universities? We have area study centres in many universities, but somehow a coordinating institution has not been established in any of them. The universities should not be banking only on the HEC for small grants of Rs.1 million to support social science research. There are no exclusive funds for social science research even in the HEC despite the fact that more than eight years have passed since its establishment. The HEC established a committee to support and promote the social sciences, but funding mechanism was not there. You had to dip in the total budget for research under the NRPU and the majority of social scientists do not even know about it. Plagiarism is a worldwide issue, not specific to Pakistan only. Internet has increased the possibility of plagiarism. There have been historic cases of how professors even a century ago used to plagiarize. Plagiarism cannot be stopped or academic integrity cannot be developed by rules and regulations alone; the faculty with which the students work has to do this. Students have to learn that just degree is not enough. They need to learn marketable skills for which they need mentoring by supervisors. Unless such an atmosphere is created, we will not be able to stop plagiarism or develop academic integrity in our universities.

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Concluding Session
The Concluding Session of the 1st HEC International Social Science Conference on the Promotion of Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities: Prospects and Challenges was attended by a large number of guests, including vice chancellors/rectors/ directors of public and private sector universities and degree-awarding institutions; political leaders and workers; staff of the HEC, research institutes, NGOs and civil society organizations; senior government officials; young faculty members; graduate students; and media persons. Dr. Fauzia Maqsood (Associate Director, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Gujrat) fulfilled the responsibilities as the Master-of-Ceremonies in the Concluding Session, which started with recitation from the Holy Quran. Next, Concluding Session Chair Dr. Javaid R. Laghari (Chairman, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad) welcomed the Chief Guest Senator Jahangir Badar (Secretary General, Pakistan Peoples Party) to the Conference. Dr. Lag hari said that it was indeed a privilege and an honour for him to welcome Senator Jahangir Badar as the chief guest of the Concluding Session. Senator Badar is among the senior most politicians of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) and currently the partys general secretary. He has spent a very long career of roughly 45 years in politics and has also served as a federal minister more than once, he stated. The HEC Chairman further said that Senator Badar still considered himself a student of political science and history. He has rendered tremendous sacrifices for the establishment of democracy in the country and his political struggle needs to be written in golden words, he added. Dr. Laghari also welcomed the other panelists of the Concluding Session. Finally, the HEC Chairman hoped that the participants had wonderful two-and-a-half days of interaction at the Conference, which must have been an excellent learning opportunity for them. Summary of Major Recommendations and Interdisciplinary Social Science Research Priorities for Pakistan

[Dr. James C. Witte]

Master-of-Ceremonies Dr. Fauzia Maqsood invited Dr. James C. Witte (Professor, Department of Sociology; Director, Center for Social Science Research, George Mason University, USA) to make his presentation on Summary of Major Recommendations and Interdisciplinary Social Science Research Priorities for Pakistan, which is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: I would like to talk about what we all have learned over the past two-and-a-half days. It is the beginning of a dialogue that you will have for a while to keep the momentum going in the social sciences in Pakistan. I hope to be able to participate in that discussion

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and continue to learn. One of the things I have tried to stress in my discussions with you is that I am here not simply to give you ideas about what we are doing in the social sciences in the United States, but to learn from what you are doing; and also to think about some of the common problems and issues that we face as social scientists. I am going to highlight these problems as I go through what we have discussed over the past two-and-a-half days. These problems are not just specific to Pakistan; as social scientists, we face the same problems in the United States. I just came back from two weeks in Russia and many of the same issues came up there as well. Now I will summarize the recommendations of the five working groups, which were shared in detail by the respective moderators/chairs in Session V this morning: To begin with, stressing that these recommendations are ambitious and broad is extremely important. But ambition and breadth are needed in urgent times; and Pakistan and the world are currently facing wide-ranging challenges about which you all know. In the context of the breadth of the challenges, the range and ambition of the recommendations based on this Conference is not overly ambitious, simply because we have a lot to do. What we need to do as social scientists is appeal to the ears and the minds of the policymakers and the public based on what we know and what we are learning about social challenges and issues; and let them know that we can provide some valuable information in the form of our knowledge based on the social sciences. And that we want to do this not for self-gratification, but for the betterment of society. In part, what we need to do as social scientists is to get a voice in the public policy debate. To do this, we need to make a compelling case as social scientists. We cannot just blame others for not listening to us. We need to do a better job in demonstrating to the policymakers and the public what sorts of information and insights we have to offer. One of the main reasons for demanding more support for the social sciences in Pakistan as well as in other countries is that social scientists need the opportunity and resources to make these compelling arguments, based on empirical data and their theoretical background. Working Group 1 discussed the theme of Sustainable Human Development, Poverty and Inequality. As a sociologist myself, I know that inequality is at the core of that discipline. It is what we study in sociology and certainly other social science disciplines are equally concerned with this; they have to be, especially in todays context. One of the themes the group came up was that there are things to be done. There have been some limitations in the social sciences in Pakistan, like everywhere else. But do not be too hard on yourselves! There has also been some very good work that should be recalled and remembered. The group used a very nice way of stating that: there has been a first generation of research on poverty and inequality, but now is the time for the second generation. In the first generation, the focus was on income, which is relatively easy to measure; but now we want to tackle the hard part because income captures just one of the many dimensions of human wellbeing. The working group recommended that it is high time to start using a multidimensional measure of poverty. Many such measures have already been developed; for ex-

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ample, the United Nations has a very good working definition of poverty, which could form the basis of a definition that is particularly relevant to Pakistan. One of the things you should really think about and discuss is that this measure is going to and should be a core part of the social science infrastructure in Pakistan; it will give you a benchmark against which you can continue to conduct research. You can also start looking at the progress made, and evaluate very specifically the nature and returns from efforts at the policy level; otherwise, you are just guessing it whether or not a policy works. This broad, comprehensive and multidimensional measure of wellbeing will be the core of the means to evaluate what you are going to do in the future. For this reason, I find it a particularly good recommendation. My particular addition to this recommendation is that you should consider undertaking a longitudinal project; begin to think about studying change over time with the same of group of people. A panel study is interdisciplinary in nature and it may call for a consortium of universities, a creative way of bringing together the strengths of multiple universities. This also calls for simplifying the funding mechanism where you are not disbursing funds here and there but channelling them into a consortium, all for the means of providing the basic social science infrastructure. Another advantage of such a project, aimed at providing a benchmark for progress in addressing inequality, is that it will become the lab bench for the training of doctoral, masters and even undergraduate students in the social sciences, who will have the opportunity to be exposed to high-quality research and to learn from not only textbooks that may be out-of-date, but also hands-on participation in the creation of knowledge. Working Group 2 discussed the Costs and Opportunities of Pakistans Rapidly Changing Age Structure: Demographic Dividend, Population Ageing and Urbanization. In particular, the group highlighted Pakistans changing age structure and recommended that we focus on either end of the age distribution. Over one-half of Pakistans population is under the age of 30 and looking at what is going on with that part of the population is very important. In social science theory, the youth is considered to be the source of vitality and energy in a culture and an economy. Along with the youth, you also need to think about the elderly. As these young people age, what can you do to make sure that they have the services and support they need? For this, you need to conduct basic social science research. Working Group 3 discussed The State in Pakistan: Internal and External Challenges. The group came up with a comprehensive list of 19 recommendations that should be looked at. It made an important point: this is not a final list; and faculty members of the Pakistani universities should be involved in developing and refining it. Working Group 4 discussed The Role of Media and Civil Society in Ensuring Human Rights and Cultural Diversity. It recommended that, with the advent of the new media, people should study the impact of their work on different audiences. Working Group 5 discussed the Problems of Conducting Dissertation Research in Pakistan. There were conflicting reports from different universities, which seems to

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suggest that there are gaps and different things are going on at different places. Before you come up with a policy or some procedures to fill those gaps, an up-to-date inventory is needed to look at what you already have and then focus the limited resources where the needs are the greatest. It is also important to understand that you may not be able to cover all the needs. But the issues need to be addressed in a business-like manner where you think about the return on your investment in the social sciences. As I said in the beginning, it is an investment; an investment that if well done, and I am sure it will be well done in Pakistan will yield very positive and high returns in the future in addressing the urgent social issues.

Institutional and Financial Mechanisms for Implementation of Interdisciplinary Social Science Research Priorities
[Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin]
After Dr. James C. Witte, the Master-of-Ceremonies invited Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin (Chairperson Conference Organizing Committee; Vice Chancellor, University of Gujrat) to make his presentation on Institutional and Financial Mechanisms for Implementation of Interdisciplinary Social Science Research Priorities that is being reproduced verbatim with minor editing: This Conference has been a very rewarding experience for me professionally since I have learned many new ideas from here. For the past three days, we have been discussing what the issues are in the social sciences in Pakistan. Five working groups were formed to prioritize the research agenda for Pakistan and they came up with a long list of excellent recommendations. Dr. James C. Witte has already alluded to some of those, but I find three additional issues: Before I begin with that, I am very pleased to learn that University of the Punjab has already started doing what I was about to propose. The University has set aside an endowment fund of Rs.250 million from its own resources to support faculty development and research. There could be no better model than this of how a university should go about. A major issue that came up again and again during the Conference was why social science research does not get enough visibility in the public policymaking process. The reason is that we do not organize ourselves. We do have resources, but we are not rightly prioritizing them. The HEC formed the CDSSHP and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council with a budget of a few million rupees. So there have been institutional arrangements, but somehow this had not gelled together and the universities have not yet fully availed these opportunities. My first recommendation is that follow the model that we already have in University of the Punjab; and create an office of research in each university of the country. This research office, whatever it may be called, should be dedicated to promoting, supporting, coordinating and facilitating research. While each department/faculty will continue to conduct research; this office will draw resources from both within and outside the university. It will start using the intellectual capital of the university, as well as seek other

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resources. The HEC has already recommended to the universities to establish such an office and has also built an incentive into it: if a university establishes this office, it will get 15% as overhead charges from the HEC for each research project it undertakes. Without such an office, I very much doubt that the universities will ever be able to promote social science research on a sustained basis. We can have success stories of one or two departments/faculties, but we cannot have research collaboration among the universities without establishing such an office. My second recommendation is that the HEC should set up a council for social science research on a sound footing, not as just an isolated project. This council should be given autonomy, staff and, most important, resources. The HEC would not have been successful had it not been given autonomy and resources. Many commissions have been formed in Pakistan over the years, but they have mostly failed to achieve their goals because of lack of resources. The HEC should establish such a council with an endowment of at least Rs.100 million, to start the work right away in collaboration with the universities. As pointed out by Dr. Witte, many issues require a consortium of universities to work together, because you do not have all the capacity and capability in one university. So let us organize ourselves on a consortium-basis! This is one way to go about it instead of spending all the money in one university and then looking for good results. The idea of establishing such a council is not farfetched since it has already been successfully practiced in many countries, such as the United States, India, Bangladesh, etc. My third recommendation is that the universities should allocate a minimum of 10% of their development budget to social science research. The dependence on other sources like the HEC will serve no purpose in the long run. Instead, the universities need to focus on pooling their financial and human resources. To conclude, I would like to say that only an independent council for social science research, working closely with university research offices, can produce the desired results in Pakistan.

Address by the Chief Guest


[Senator Jahangir Badar]
After Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin, the Master-of-Ceremonies invited Chief Guest Senator Jahangir Badar (Secretary General, Pakistan Peoples Party) for his address, which is being produced verbatim with minor editing: I am humbled to address this august gathering with so many leading academics, social scientists, administrators and researchers in the audience. Education in general and higher education in particular has been a priority of the Pakistan Peoples Party since its inception. The first PPP government, led by its founding Chairman Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, established the University Grants Commission in 1974 realizing the importance of higher education for a developing country like Pakistan. Many of our top universities were established subsequently. Moreover, scholarships were provided to thousands of deserving students for higher studies abroad. In my view, the establishment of the Higher Education Commission (HEC) in 2002 was a continuation of this very idea originally floated by the PPP. Therefore, I can assure you that our government, while being truly committed to devolution, does not plan

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to undo the good work done by the HEC in the past eight years. Let me also assure you that no decision has been taken in this regard so far and the news items appearing in the media are mere figments of imagination! I firmly believe that the HEC should be protected in the best national interest, since it has achieved successes unheard of in the past. I would especially like to mention that the HEC is one of the few institutions in the country that have worked relatively independent of political influence, thus being able to maintain quality and ensure respect for merit. Once again, I assure you on behalf of the PPP government that no action will be taken against the institution whose creation is based on the idea floated by the Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. As a student of the social sciences myself, I would first like to congratulate the HEC Committee for Development of Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities in Pakistan (CDSSHP) for successfully organizing the 1st International Conference on the Promotion of Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities: Prospects and Challenges. It is especially pleasing to note that all the major public sector universities as well as geographic regions of the country have been represented in the Conference. I am delighted to see that the participants include vice chancellors on the one hand and young faculty and PhD scholars on the other. I fully endorse your concern for the promotion of social science research in the country. A peoples government must be aware of peoples needs and aspirations, which is only possible through empirical research that could inform the policymakers, the political leadership and the scientific community. To me, the focus of research should be peoples needs. In this context, I would like to congratulate you on holding discussion on some very relevant themes through the five working groups and then chalking out interdisciplinary research priorities for Pakistan. There should be permanent structures like the HEC, with all its affiliated committees, for sustained funding of social science research initiatives purely on merit. Let me emphasize that this needs to be done at the earliest! The interdisciplinary social science research priorities for Pakistan identified by the five working groups provide a solid basis for taking action. I assure you that the recommendations presented by Dr. James C. Witte and Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin will be taken up by the PPP government and will become the basis of public policymaking in the future. This will also help us in fulfilling a number of promises we have made with the people of Pakistan in our election manifesto. Taking this opportunity, I would like to emphasize that we need more universities to create the knowledge-based society envisioned in various policy documents of the Government of Pakistan. This also entails creating synergy between school or college and university education. To bring about any real change in the lives of the people of Pakistan, a uniform and synergized education system should be introduced at all levels, from school to university. I have no doubt that the HEC, under the leadership of Dr. Javaid R. Laghari, is best placed to play this role. Before I conclude, I thank the Conference organizers for inviting me to address this august gathering. Let me reiterate that the PPP government is fully committed to

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devolution, but it is not against the HEC or any other body that is contributing to the countrys development! There are many important reasons because of which the HEC should be safeguarded and allowed to work in its current shape. I assure you that the PPP government fully realizes these factors. The PPP is a party of the people of Pakistan and it will never take any step that puts their future at stake. This is my partys commitment with you.

Vote of Thanks

[Dr. Nasser Ali Khan]

After Senator Jahangir Badars address, Master-of-Ceremonies Dr. Fauzia Maqsood invited CDSSHP Chairperson Dr. Nasser Ali Khan (Director, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar) to deliver the vote of thanks, which is being produced verbatim with minor editing: It is a custom that we thank the chief guest, but I will start by thanking all those invisible hands that have worked with us for the past three months to make it possible for us to sit on the stage. I want to thank the Conference Organizing Committee under the able leadership of University of Gujrat Vice Chancellor Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin and the Conference Secretariat led by Coordinator Mr. Mustafa Nazir Ahmad, as well as the team deputed by the HEC, comprising Mr. Muhammad Murtaza Noor and Mr. Sulaiman Ahmad, to assist us. I also want to thank members of the CDSSHP for their continued support, as well as the vice chancellors, directors and rectors of many public and private sector universities from all over Pakistan who graced the Conference. Let me also thank our foreign delegates for their valuable input! The organization of the Conference owes a lot to the personal interest of HEC Chairman Dr. Javaid R. Laghari and Executive Director Dr. Sohail H. Naqvi. Finally, I thank Chief Guest Honourable Senator Jahangir Badar and hope that he will continue to support the cause of higher education in Pakistan.

Conference Resolution
[Dr. Nasir Jamal Khattak]
The 1st HEC International Social Science Conference formally concluded with Dr. Nasir Jamal Khattak (Vice Chancellor, Kohat University of Science & Technology) reading out a resolution that was unanimously adopted by the Conference participants. The resolution is being produced verbatim with minor editing: We, the participants of the First HEC International Conference on the Promotion of Social Sciences in Pakistani Universities: Prospects and Challenges, held in Islamabad from 18-20 April 2011, appreciate the efforts of the Higher Education Commission (HEC), Government of Pakistan, for the promotion of teaching and research in social sciences in particular and the higher education sector in general. We believe that the development of the social sciences is imperative for Paki-

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stans progress and development. Strong democracies and developed nations have a long history of social science research culture in their universities. The social scientists in Pakistan can also bring about a healthy change in the public policymaking process by conducting research on peoples real problems and proposing their solutions. We believe that, since its inception in 2002, the HEC has facilitated the Pakistani higher education institutions in meeting international standards, increasing enrolment, promoting human resource development, and devising mechanisms for improving quality of the higher education institutions. Mainly due to this facilitation in the past eight years, for the first time the Pakistani higher educational institutions have been included in top-ranked universities of the world. We also believe that the HEC has paid special attention to strengthening the social sciences through new programs; established the Committee for Development of Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities in Pakistan (CDSSHP); initiated thematic research grant in the social sciences; allocated special quota to the social sciences in human resource development programs; and strengthened institutional capacity through improving existing facilities in social science departments/faculties of the public sector universities. We, the participants of the First HEC International Conference on the Promotion of Social Sciences in Pakistani Universities: Prospects and Challenges, held in Islamabad from 18-20 April 2011, resolve that the existing status and functions of the Higher Education Commission be maintained as per the 18th Constitutional Amendment in the larger interest of the higher education in Pakistan.

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Appendices

A. Committee for Development of Humanities in Pakistan (CDSSHP)


Dr. Nasser Ali KHAN (Chairperson) Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar. Dr. Qalb-i-ABID
University of the Punjab, Lahore.

Social

Sciences

and

Dr. Moonis AHMAR

University of Karachi, Karachi.

Mr. Nasim AKHTAR Dr. Ihsan ALI

University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad. Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan.

Dr. Peter H. ARMACOST Dr. Qibla AYAZ

Forman Christian College University, Lahore. University of Peshawar, Peshawar.

Mrs. Sultana BALOCH Dr. Farzana BARI

Sardar Bahadur Khan Womens University, Quetta. Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad.

Dr. Qasim BUGHIO

University of Sindh, Jamshoro.

Dr. Muhammad Zafar Iqbal JADOON


University of the Punjab, Lahore.

Dr. Rukhsana KAUSAR

University of the Punjab, Lahore.

Prof. Durriya KAZI

University of Karachi, Karachi.

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Dr. Nasir Jamal KHATTAK

Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat.

Dr. Mohammad NIZAMUDDIN


University of Gujrat, Gujrat.

Mr. Rasool Bakhsh RAISANI Dr. Abdul Razzaq SABIR Dr. Sarah SAFDAR

University of Balochistan, Quetta. University of Balochistan, Quetta. University of Peshawar, Peshawar.

Mr. Nisar Ahmed SIDDIQUI Dr. Asad ZAMAN

Institute of Business Administration, Sukkur. International Islamic University, Islamabad.

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B. Conference Organizing Committee


Chairperson: Consultants:
Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin (Vice Chancellor, University of Gujrat, Gujrat)

1. Dr. James C. Witte (Director, Center for Social Science Research, George Mason University, USA) 2. Dr. Anita M. Weiss (Head, Department of International Studies, University of Oregon, USA) 3. Dr. Grace C. Clark (Professor, Department of Sociology, Forman Christian College University, Lahore) 1. Dr. Mehtab S. Karim (Distinguished Senior Fellow, School of Public Policy, George Mason University, USA) 2. Dr. Nasser Ali Khan (Director, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar) 3. Dr. Syed Jaffar Ahmed (Director, Pakistan Study Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi) 4. Dr. Rasul Bakhsh Rais (Professor, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities, Social Sciences and Law, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore) 5. Dr. Yasmin Nilofer Farooqi (Professor, Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore) 6. Mr. Fida Hussain (Director General, Quality Assurance Cell, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad). 7. Mr. Muhammad Anees Sadozai (Director General Services, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad) 8. Syed Wasim S. Hashmi (Project Director, FFHP-UESTP-Faculty Development Program, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad) 9. Mr. Mustafa Nazir Ahmad (Director, Press and Publications, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) 10. Mr. Muhammad Murtaza Noor (Project Manager, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Pakistan, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad) 11. Mr. Sulaiman Ahmad, (Deputy Director, Academics, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Pakistan, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad)

Members:

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C. Conference Secretariat
Coordinator: Members:
Mr. Mustafa Nazir Ahmad (Director, Press and Publications, University of Gujrat, Gujrat)

1. Dr. Fauzia Maqsood (Associate Director, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) 2. Mr. Muhammad Murtaza Noor (Project Manager, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Pakistan, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad) 3. Mr. Sulaiman Ahmad (Deputy Director, Academics, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Pakistan, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad) 4. Mr. Javed Sajjad Ahmad (Senior Consultant, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) 5. Sheikh Abdul Rashid (Additional Registrar, Press, Media and Publications, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) 6. Ms. Tanzila Qamar Gill (Deputy Registrar, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) 7. Ms. Afsheen Akhter (Program Manager, FFHP-UESTP-Faculty Development Program, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad) 8. Ms. Sidra Maqsood (Deputy Chief Semester System Implementation Cell, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) 9. Mr. Wajid Tahir (Lecturer, Department of Population Sciences, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) 10. Ms. Mehnaz Ali (Lecturer, Department of Economics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) 11. Mr. Hassan Raza Awan (Research Associate, Centre for Population, Urban and Environment Studies, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) 12. Ms. Saadia Dildar (Lecturer, Department of Psychology, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) 13. Mr. Muhammad Faisal Iqbal (Personal Staff Officer to Vice Chancellor, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) 14. Mr. Muhammad Masood Chipper (Press, Media and Publications Department, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) 15. Sheikh Hanif (Accounts Officer, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) 16. Mr. Muhammad Faisal (Accounts Officer, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) 17. Mr. Usman Ali (Accounts Officer, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) 18. Mr. Abdul Rauf (IT Officer, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) 19. Mr. Zubair Mir (Press, Media and Publications Department, University of Gujrat, Gujrat)

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D. Major Sponsors
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Higher Education Commission (HEC) United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)-Pakistan Country Office Centre for Civic Education (CCE) National Testing Service (NTS) University of Gujrat (UOG) National University of Science & Technology (NUST)

In addition, the following universities and degree awarding institutions contributed Rs. 100,000 each for the organization of the Conference: 1. Agricultural University Peshawar, Peshawar 2. Beaconhouse National University, Lahore 3. Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar 4. Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat 5. National University of Science & Technology, Islamabad 6. Sukkur Institute of Business Administration, Sukkur 7. University of Swat, Saidu Sharif 8. University of Gujrat, Gujrat 9. University of Karachi, Karachi

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E. Conference Program Day 1: Monday, 18 April 2011


0900-0930 0930-1100 Registration INAUGURAL SESSION Chair: Dr. Javaid R. Laghari (Executive Director, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad) Opening Remarks: Keynote Address: Address by the Chair Vote of Thanks: Dr. Nasser Ali Khan (Director, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar) Tea/Coffee Break Prof. Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin (Vice Chancellor, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) Prof. Rehman Sobhan (Chairperson, Centre for Policy Dialogue, Bangladesh)

1100-1130

1130-1300
Chair: Keynote Address:

SESSION II: Role of Social Science Research in Public Policymaking


Dr. Ishrat Hussain (Director, Institute of Business Administration, Karachi) Prof. Dr. Jochen Hippler (Political Scientist and Lecturer, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany)

Panelists:
1. Prof. Dr. James C. Witte (Director, Center for Social Science Research, George Mason University, USA) 2. Dr. Rashid Amjad (Vice Chancellor, Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad) 3. Dr. Saba Gul Khattak (Member, Social Sector, Planning Commission, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad) 4. Prof. Dr. Ashfaque Hasan Khan (Dean/Principal, NUST Business School, National University of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad) 5. Prof. Dr. Nasir Jamal Khattak (Vice Chancellor, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat)

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1300-1400

Lunch Break

1400-1530
Chair:

SESSION III: Challenges to Promotion of Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities and HECs Experience
Dr. Sohail H. Naqvi (Executive Director, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad)

Panelists:
1. Dr. Ishrat Hussain (Director, Institute of Business Administration, Karachi) 2. Prof. Dr. Pirzada Qasim Raza Siddiqui (Vice Chancellor, University of Karachi, Karachi) 3. Prof. Dr. Masoom Yasinzai (Vice Chancellor, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad) 4. Dr. Nasser Ali Khan (Director, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar) 5. Prof. Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin (Vice Chancellor, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) 6. Prof. Dr. Abdul Razzaq Sabir (Director, Balochistan Study Centre, University of Balochistan, Quetta) 1530-1545 1545-1700 1700-1900 1900-2100 Tea/Coffee Break SESSION III (Continued) Sightseeing (Shakkar Parian and Daman-i-Koh) Music Program and Dinner at HEC Auditorium

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Day 2: Tuesday, 19 April 2011


0900-1100
Chair: Keynote Address:

SESSION IV: New Developments in Social Science Research Techniques and Methodologies
Lt. Gen. (retd.) Muhammad Asghar (Rector, National University of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad) Prof. Dr. James C. Witte (Director, Center for Social Science Research, George Mason University, USA)

Panelists:
1. Prof. Rehman Sobhan (Chairperson, Centre for Policy Dialogue, Bangladesh) 2. Dr. Suresh Sharma (Senior Fellow, Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, India) 3. Prof. Dr. Wolfgang-Peter Zingel (Visiting Faculty, Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad) 4. Mr. Atle Hetland (Former Head, Department of Development Studies, University of Oslo, Norway; currently based in Islamabad) 5. Prof. Dr. Ashfaque Hasan Khan (Dean/Principal, NUST Business School, National University of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad) 6. Prof. Dr. Iftikhar N. Hassan (Chairperson, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Karakoram International University, Gilgit) 7. Ms. Noor Amna Malik (Director General, Learning Innovation, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad) 1100-1115 1115-1300 1300-1400 Tea/Coffee Break SESSION IV (Continued) Lunch Break

1400-1700

WORKING GROUPS: Identifying Social Science Research Priorities for Pakistan

1. Sustainable Human Development, Poverty and Inequality Chair/Moderator: Dr. Hafiz A Pasha (Dean, School of Social Sciences, Beaconhouse National University, Lahore)

Lead Speakers:

1. Prof. Rehman Sobhan (Chairperson, Centre for Policy Dialogue, Bangladesh) 2. Prof. Dr. Wolfgang-Peter Zingel (Visiting Faculty, Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad)

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3. Prof. Dr. Ashfaque Hasan Khan (Dean/Principal, NUST Business School, National University of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad) 4. Prof. Dr. Shahid Siddiqui (Director, Centre for Humanities and Social Sciences, Lahore School of Economics, Lahore) 5. Prof. Dr. Maqbool H. Sial (HEC Foreign Professor; Dean, Faculty of Management and Administrative Sciences, University of Sargodha, Sargodha)

Mr. Mustafa Nazir Ahmad (Director, Press and Publications, University of Gujrat, Gujrat)

Rapporteur:

2. Costs and Opportunities of Pakistans Changing Age Structure: Demographic Dividend, Population Ageing and Urbanization
Chair/Moderator: Dr. Zeba A. Sathar (Country Director, Population Council, Islamabad)

Lead Speakers:
1. Prof. Dr. Grace C. Clark (Department of Sociology, Forman Christian College University, Lahore) 2. Prof. Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin (Vice Chancellor, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) 3. Prof. Dr. Mohamed Abdel Hamid Nasr (HEC Foreign Professor; Department of Business Studies, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad) 4. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Hafeez (Director, Institute of Social and Cultural Studies, Department of Sociology, University of the Punjab, Lahore) 5. Prof. Dr. Rukhsana Kausar (Chairperson, Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore)

Rapporteurs:

Mr. Javed Sajjad Ahmad (Senior Consultant, University of Gujrat) and Mr. Wajid Tahir (Lecturer, Department of Population Sciences, University of Gujrat, Gujrat)

3. The State in Pakistan: Internal and External Challenges


Chair/Moderator: Prof. Dr. Rasul Bakhsh Rais (Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities, Social Sciences and Law, Lahore University of Management Sciences)

Lead Speakers:
1. Dr. Suresh Sharma (Senior Fellow, Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, India) 2. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Nazrul Islam (HEC Foreign Professor; Dean, Faculty of Social Sciences, International Islamic University, Islamabad)

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3. Prof. Dr. Mansoor Akbar Kundi (Vice Chancellor, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan) 4. Prof. Dr. Syed Jaffar Ahmed (Director, Pakistan Study Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi) 5. Prof. Dr. Shuja Alhaq (HEC Foreign Professor; National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad)

Rapporteurs:

Sheikh Abdul Rashid (Additional Registrar, Press, Media and Publications, University of Gujrat) and Mr. Muhammad Masood Chipper (Press, Media and Publications Department, University of Gujrat, Gujrat)

4. The Role of Media and Civil Society in Ensuring Human Rights and Cultural Diversity
Chair/Moderator: Prof. Dr. Tariq Rahman (HEC Distinguished National Professor; National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad)

Lead Speakers:
1. Prof. Dr. Jochen Hippler (Political Scientist/Lecturer, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany) 2. Mr. Atle Hetland (Former Head, Department of Development Studies, University of Oslo, Norway) 3. Dr. Farzana Bari (Director, Center of Excellence in Gender Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad) 4. Mr. Zafarullah Khan (Executive Director, Centre for Civic Education, Islamabad) 5. Dr. Sajjad Ahmad Paracha (Assistant Professor, Department of Media Studies, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Pakistan, Bahawalpur)

Rapporteurs:

Ms. Tanzila Qamar Gill (Deputy Registrar, University of Gujrat) and Ms. Mehnaz Ali (Lecturer, Department of Economics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat)

5. Problems of Conducting Dissertation Research in Pakistani Universities


Chair/Moderator: Dr. Rubina Saigol (Independent Researcher and Social Scientist, Lahore)

Lead Speakers:
1. Prof. Dr. Mehtab S. Karim (Distinguished Senior Fellow, School of Public Policy, George Mason University, USA) 2. Ms. Ursula Saarbeck (Director, German Academic Exchange Service, Islamabad)

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3. Dr. Syed Mahmood Raza (Advisor, Quality Assurance and Learning Innovation, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad) 4. Mr. Talat Khurshid (Advisor, Planning and Development, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad) 5. Prof. Dr. Iftikhar N. Hassan (Chairperson, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Karakoram International University, Gilgit) 6. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Jadoon (Director, Institute of Administrative Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore) 7. Prof. Dr. Yasmin Nilofer Farooqi (Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore)

Rapporteurs:

Ms. Sidra Maqsood (Lecturer, Department of Sociology, University of Gujrat) and Ms. Saadia Dildar (Lecturer, Department of Psychology, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) [1530: Working tea/coffee] 1700-2000 2000-2100 Free time for shopping and sightseeing Dinner at Islamabad Club, Islamabad

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Day 3: Wednesday, 20 April 2011


0900-1100
Chair:

SESSION V: Sharing of Recommendations of Working Groups


Dr. Sohail H. Naqvi (Executive Director, Higher Education Commission, Islamabad)

Presenters:
1. Dr. Hafiz A. Pasha (Dean, School of Social Sciences, Beaconhouse National University, Lahore) 2. Prof. Dr. Mehtab S. Karim (Distinguished Senior Fellow, School of Public Policy, George Mason University, USA) 3. Prof. Dr. Rasul Bakhsh Rais (Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities, Social Sciences and Law, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore) 4. Mr. Zafarullah Khan (Executive Director, Centre for Civic Education, Islamabad) 5. Dr. Rubina Saigol (Independent Researcher and Social Scientist, Lahore) 1100-1115 Tea/Coffee Break

1115-1300

SESSION VI: Developing Institutional Capacity and Academic Integrity to Promote Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities
Dr. Muhammad Nizamuddin (Vice Chancellor, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) Prof. Dr. Mehtab S. Karim (Distinguished Senior Fellow, School of Public Policy, George Mason University)

Chair: Prof. Keynote Address:

Panelists:
1. Prof. Dr. Grace C. Clark (Department of Sociology, Forman Christian College University, Lahore) 2. Prof. Dr. Ihsan Ali (Vice Chancellor, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan) 3. Prof. Dr. Aliya H. Khan (Department of Economics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad) 4. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Jadoon (Director, Institute of Administrative Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore) 1300-1400 Lunch Break

1400-1530
Chair: Islamabad)

CONCLUDING SESSION
Dr. Javaid R. Laghari (Chairman, Higher Education Commission,

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Speakers:
1. Summary of Major Recommendations and Interdisciplinary Social Science Research Priorities for Pakistan: Prof. Dr. James C. Witte (Director, Center for Social Science Research, George Mason University, USA) 2. Institutional and Financial Mechanisms for Implementation of Interdisciplinary Social Science Research Priorities: Prof. Dr. Mohammad Nizamuddin (Vice Chancellor, University of Gujrat, Gujrat) Address by Chief Guest: Vote of Thanks: Conference Resolution: Senator Jahangir Badar (Secretary General, Pakistan Peoples Party) Dr. Nasser Ali Khan (Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar) Prof. Dr. Nasir Jamal Khattak (Vice Chancellor, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat)

1530-1600 1930-2030

Hi-Tea Dinner at National University of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad

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F. List of Participants Foreign Participants


Political Scientist/Lecturer University of Duisburg-Essen Duisburg, Germany. hippler@o2online.de

Prof. Dr. Jochen HIPPLER (Keynote Speaker in Session II)

Prof. Dr. Mehtab S. KARIM (Keynote Speaker in Session VI) Distinguished Senior Fellow School of Public Policy George Mason University Fairfax, Virginia, United States of America. mehtabkarim@gmail.com Dr. Suresh SHARMA
Senior Fellow Centre for the Study of Developing Societies Delhi, India. suresh_sharma@csds.in

Prof. Rehman SOBHAN (Keynote Speaker in Session I)


Chairperson Centre for Policy Dialogue Dhaka, Bangladesh. rehman@citechco.net

Prof. Dr. James C. WITTE (Keynote Speaker in Session IV) Director Center for Social Science Research George Mason University Fairfax, Virginia United States of America. jwitte@gmu.edu

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Foreign Participants Currently in Pakistan


Prof. Dr. Grace C. CLARK
Department of Sociology Forman Christian College University Lahore. forsting@aol.com

Prof. Dr. Brady Steele COLEMAN


HEC Foreign Professor Department of Law International Islamic University Islamabad. bradysteelecoleman@yahoo.com

Mr. Atle HETLAND

Former Head Department of Development Studies University of Oslo, Norway Islamabad. atlehetland@yahoo.com

Prof. Dr. Muhammad Nazrul ISLAM


HEC Foreign Professor Dean, Faculty of Social Sciences International Islamic University Islamabad. nazrul_islam_dr@yahoo.co.in

Prof. Dr. Mohamed Abdel Hamid NASR

HEC Foreign Professor Department of Management and Business Studies COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Islamabad. mnasr_nasr44@hotmail.com

Ms. Ursula SAARBECK

Director German Academic Exchange Service Islamabad. saarbeck@daad.de

Prof. Dr. Wolfgang-Peter ZINGEL

National Institute of Pakistan Studies Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad. h93@ix.urz.uni-heidelberg.de

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Session Chairs
Lt. Gen. (retd.) Muhammad ASGHAR
Rector National University of Sciences & Technology Islamabad. rector@nust.edu.pk

Dr. Ishrat HUSSAIN

Director Institute of Business Administration Karachi. ihusain@iba.edu.pk

Dr. Javaid R. LAGHARI

Chairman Higher Education Commission Islamabad. jlaghari@hec.gov.pk

Dr. Syed Sohail H. NAQVI

Executive Director Higher Education Commission Islamabad. snaqvi@hec.gov.pk

Prof. Dr. Mohammad NIZAMUDDIN


Vice Chancellor University of Gujrat Gujrat, Punjab. drmnizamuddin@gmail.com

Working Group Chairs/Moderators


Dr. Hafiz A. PASHA
Dean, School of Social sciences Beaconhouse National University Lahore. hafiz.pasha@tribune.com.pk

Prof. Dr. Tariq RAHMAN

HEC Distinguished National Professor National Institute of Pakistan Studies Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad. drtariqr8@gmail.com

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Prof. Dr. Rasul Bakhsh RAIS

School of Humanities, Social Sciences and Law Lahore University of Management Sciences Lahore. rasul@lums.edu.pk

Dr. Rubina SAIGOL

Independent Researcher/Social Scientist Lahore. rubinasaigol@hotmail.com

Dr. Zeba A. SATHAR


Country Director Population Council Islamabad. zsathar@yahoo.com

Panelists and Lead Speakers


Prof. Dr. Syed Jaffar AHMED
Director Pakistan Study Centre University of Karachi Karachi. pscuok@yahoo.com

Prof. Dr. Shuja ALHAQ

HEC Foreign Professor National Institute of Pakistan Studies Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad. salhaq@hotmail.co.uk

Prof. Dr. Ihsan ALI

Vice Chancellor Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. ihsanali55@ymail.com

Dr. Rashid AMJAD

Vice Chancellor Pakistan Institute of Development Economics Islamabad. rashidamjad@pide.org.pk

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Dr. Farzana BARI

Director Center of Excellence in Gender Studies Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad. farzana@comsats.net.pk

Prof. Dr. Yasmin Nilofer FAROOQI


Department of Applied Psychology University of the Punjab Lahore. dryasminfarooqi@yahoo.com

Prof. Dr. Muhammad HAFEEZ

Director Institute of Social and Cultural Studies Department of Sociology University of the Punjab Lahore. drmhafeez@wol.net.pk

Prof. Dr. Iftikhar N. HASSAN

Chairperson Department of Behavioural Sciences Karakoram International University Gilgit Gilgit-Baltistan inhassandr@gmail.com

Prof. Dr. Muhammad Zafar Iqbal JADOON


Director Institute of Administrative Sciences University of the Punjab Lahore. zijadoon@gmail.com

Prof. Dr. Rukhsana KAUSAR

Chairperson Department of Applied Psychology University of the Punjab Lahore. rukhsana.saddul@gmail.com

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Prof. Dr. Aliya H. KHAN

Department of Economics Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad. ahkhan@qau.edu.pk

Prof. Dr. Ashfaque Hassan KHAN

Dean/Principal NUST Business School National University of Sciences & Technology Islamabad. ahkhan@nbs.edu.pk

Dr. Nasser Ali KHAN

Director Institute of Management Sciences Peshawar. nasserali@imsciences.edu.pk

Mr. Zafarullah KHAN

Executive Director Centre for Civic Education Islamabad. xupher@hotmail.com

Prof. Dr. Nasir Jamal KHATTAK

Vice Chancellor Kohat University of Science & Technology Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. khattaknasirj@yahoo.co.uk

Dr. Saba Gul KHATTAK


Member (Social Sector) Planning Commission Islamabad. saba@sdpi.org

Dr. Talat KHURSHID

Advisor (Planning and Development) Higher Education Commission Islamabad. tkhurshid@hec.gov.pk

Prof. Dr. Mansoor Akbar KUNDI

Vice Chancellor Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. dera1955@yahoo.com

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Ms. Noor Amna MALIK

Director General (Learning Innovation) Higher Education Commission Islamabad. namalik@hec.gov.pk

Dr. Sajjad Ahmad PARACHA

Assistant Professor Department of Media Studies The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Pakistan Bahawalpur, Punjab. drparacha_mediastudies@iub.edu.pk

Dr. Syed Mahmood RAZA

Advisor (Quality Assurance & Learning Innovation) Higher Education Commission Islamabad. smraza@hec.gov.pk

Prof. Dr. Abdul Razzaq SABIR

Director, Balochistan Study Centre University of Balochistan Quetta. arazzaqsabir@yahoo.com

Prof. Dr. Maqbool H. SIAL

HEC Foreign Professor Dean Faculty of Management & Administrative Sciences University of Sargodha Sargodha, Punjab. maqsial@yahoo.com

Prof. Dr. Pirzada Qasim Raza SIDDIQUI


Vice Chancellor University of Karachi Karachi. vc@uok.edu.pk

Prof. Dr. Shahid SIDDIQUI

Director Centre for Humanities and Social Sciences Lahore School of Economics Lahore. shahidksiddiqui@yahoo.com

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Prof. Dr. Masoom YASINZAI


Vice Chancellor Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad. vco@qau.edu.pk

Working Group Members


Dr. Jahangir ACHAKZAI
Associate Dean Management Sciences University of Balochistan Quetta. jachakzai@yahoo.com

Mr. Mustafa Nazir AHMAD

Director Press and Publications University of Gujrat Gujrat, Punjab. mna7@hotmail.com [Conference Coordinator; Rapporteur of Working Group 1; Master-of-Ceremonies in Inaugural Session]

Mr. Javed Sajjad AHMAD

Senior Consultant University of Gujrat Gujrat, Punjab. javedsahmad@gmail.com [Rapporteur of Working Group 2]

Prof. Nasreen Mujahida AHSAN

Chairperson Department of Humanities NED University of Engineering & Technology Karachi. nmahsan@neduet@edu.pk

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Ms. Mehnaz ALI

Lecturer Department of Economics University of Gujrat Gujrat, Punjab. mehnaz.muhammad@uog.edu.pk [Rapporteur of Working Group 4]

Dr. Muhammad ALI

Coordinator (ORIC & CEIT) Institute of Management Sciences Peshawar. muhammad.ali@imsciences.edu.pk

Mr. Amanullah AWAN

Director Institute of Management Sciences University of Science and Technology Bannu Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. amanullah.awan@hotmail.com

Mr. Jamshed Baloch CHANDIO


Assistant Professor Department of Social Work University of Sindh Jamshoro, Sindh. jamshedchandio@hotmail.com

Dr. M. Azam CHAUDHARY

Associate Professor National Institute of Pakistan Studies Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad. azamchaudhary59@yahoo.de

Mr. Muhammad Masood CHIPPER

Press, Media and Publications Department University of Gujrat Gujrat, Punjab. masood.rahman@uog.edu.pk [Rapporteur of Working Group 3]

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Ms. Saadia DILDAR

Lecturer Department of Psychology University of Gujrat Gujrat, Punjab. saadia.dildar@uog.edu.pk [Rapporteur of Working Group 4]

Mrs. Nargis Naheed DURRANI


Chairperson Department of Sociology University of Balochistan Quetta. nndzarghoon@hotmail.com

Ms. Tanzila Qamar GILL

Deputy Registrar University of Gujrat Gujrat, Punjab. tanzila.qamar@uog.edu.pk [Rapporteur of Working Group 4]

Ms. Sabeen GUL

Assistant Professor Department of Economics Institute of Management Sciences Peshawar. s.gul@imsciences.edu.pk

Dr. Musarrat JABEEN

Associate Professor NUST Business School National University of Sciences & Technology Islamabad. musarratjabeen7@nbs.edu.pk

Dr. Atif Ali JAFFRI

Associate Director Faculty of Social Sciences University of Gujrat Gujrat, Punajb. atif.ali@uog.edu.pk

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Prof. Durriya KAZI

Head Department of Visual Studies University of Karachi Karachi. meethapani@yahoo.co.uk

Dr. Izhar Ahmad KHAN

Associate Professor Department of Rural Sociology University Of Agriculture Faisalabad, Punjab. izhark99@yahoo.com

Prof. Dr. Masrur Alam KHAN

Head Department of Mass Communication, International Business and Marketing NUST Business School National University of Sciences & Technology Islamabad. masrurk@nbs.edu.pk

Prof. Dr. Rashid Ahmad KHAN

Dean Faculty of Arts, Social Sciences and Law University of Sargodha Sargodha, Punjab. rashid_khan192@yahoo.com

Prof. Dr. Shadiullah KHAN

Dean Faculty of Arts Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. drshadiullah@yahoo.com

Dr. Abdul MAJID

Assistant Professor Department of Management Sciences Hazara University Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. abdulmajid@hu.edu.pk

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Dr. Fauzia MAQSOOD

Associate Director Faculty of Social Sciences University of Gujrat Gujrat, Punjab. fauziamaqsood@gmail.com [Master-of-Ceremonies in Concluding Session]

Ms. Sidra MAQSOOD

Deputy Chief Semester System Implementation Cell University of Gujrat Gujrat, Punjab. sidramaqsood@gmail.com [Rapporteur of Working Group 5]

Dr. Hussain MUHAMMAD

Head Department of Islamic Studies and Research University of Science and Technology Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. drhussain6110@yahoo.com

Dr. Muhammad RAFIQ

Assistant Professor Department of Economics Institute of Management Sciences Peshawar. muhammad.rafiq@imsciences.edu.pk

Dr. Attaur RAHMAN

Assistant Professor Department of Statistics Institute of Management Sciences Peshawar. attaurrahman@imsciences.edu.pk

Sheikh Abdul RASHID

Additional Registrar Press, Media and Publications University of Gujrat Gujrat, Punjab. sheikhrashid.uog@gmail.com [Rapporteur of Working Group 3]

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Dr. Zarina SALAMAT

Vice President Council of Social Sciences Islamabad. zarina.salamat@gmail.com

Prof. Dr. Bahadar SHAH

Dean Department of Law and Administrative Sciences Hazara University Mansehra Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. bahadarshah@gmail.com

Syed Shabbir Hussain SHAH

Director Centre for History, IR and Political Science University of Gujrat Gujrat, Punjab. syed.shabbir@uog.edu.pk

Prof. Dr. Gheyas Uddin SIDDIQUI


Dean Faculty of Social Sciences University of Balochistan Quetta. gheyasdsidd@gmail.com

Mr. Wajid TAHIR

Lecturer Department of Population Sciences University of Gujrat Gujrat, Punjab. wajid.tahir@uog.edu.pk [Rapporteur of Working Group 2]

Dr. Muhammad YASIR

Assistant Professor Faculty of Management Sciences Hazara University Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. muhammadyasir@hu.edu.pk

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Dr. Sajida ZAKI

Associate Professor Department of Humanities NED University of Engineering & Technology Karachi. drzaki@neduet@edu.pk

Young Faculty Members


Ms. Aliyah ALI
Cooperative Lecturer Centre of Excellence in Womens Studies University of Karachi Karachi. cewsku@yahoo.com

Ms. Shazia Safdar ALI

Lecturer Department of Social Work Sardar Bahadur Khan Womens University Quetta. shaziaali49@yahoo.com

Ms. Beenish ASMATULLAH

Lecturer Department of English Frontier Women University Peshawar. beeenishasmatullah@yahoo.com

Ms. Farrukh HABIB

Lecturer Department of Psychology Frontier Women University Peshawar. farrukh.habib@fwu.edu.pk

Ms. Gulnaz HAMEED

Lecturer Department of Economics and Agriculture-Economics Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi. gulnazhameed@yahoo.com

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Mr. Jawad HUSSAIN

Lecturer Department of Management Sciences University of Malakand Chakdara, Dir Lower Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. jawad_hussain79@gmail.com

Mr. IMDADULLAH

Lecturer Department of English University of Malakand Chakdara, Dir Lower Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. imdadullahk@gmail.com

Mr. Nadeem IQBAL

Lecturer Department of Economics Institute of Management Sciences Peshawar. nadeem.iqbal@imsciences.edu.pk

Ms. Sidra IQBAL

Lecturer Department of Economics Frontier Women University Peshawar. sidraiqbal@fwu.edu.pk

Ms. Maria ISHTIAQ

Lecturer Department of Management Sciences Institute of Management Sciences Peshawar. maria.ishtiaq@imsciences.edu.pk

Ms. Farkhanda JABEEN

Lecturer Department of Statistics Frontier Women University Peshawar. farkhanda_ansari@yahoo.com

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Mr. Riaz Ahmed JAKHRANI

Lecturer Department of Political Science Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur, Sindh. jakhrani.riaz@usindh.edu.pk

Shah KHALID

Lecturer Department of Computer Science & IT University of Malakand Chakdara, Dir Lower Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. shahkhalid@uom.edu.pk

Mr. Aftab KHAN

Lecturer Institute of Management Sciences University of Science and Technology Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. aftabroidar@hotmail.com

Ms. Anoosh KHAN

Lecturer Department of Gender Studies Institute of Social Work, Sociology and Gender Studies University of Peshawar Peshawar. anooshkhan@upesh.edu.pk

Mr. Habib Nawaz KHAN

Lecturer Institute of Management Sciences University of Science and Technology Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. habib_nawaz73@yahoo.com Mr. Ikramullah KHAN Lecturer Institute of Management Sciences University of Science and Technology Bannu Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. loyalmba@hotmail.com

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Mr. Khurram KHAN

Lecturer Department of Management Sciences Institute of Management Sciences Peshawar. khurran.khan@imsciences.edu.pk

Ms. Sumera KHAN

Lecturer Department of Management Sciences Institute of Management Sciences Peshawar. sumera.khan@imsciences.edu.pk

Mr. Shahid Ali KHATTAK

Lecturer Department of International Relations University of Peshawar Peshawar. shahidalikhattak@gmail.com

Ms. Faria Ibad MIRZA

Lecture Department of Sociology and Anthropology Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi. fariaibadmirza@uaar.edu.pk

Mr. Muhammad NADEEMULLAH

Cooperative Lecturer Centre of Excellence in Womens Studies University of Karachi Karachi. cews@uok.edu.pk

Ms. Agha NADIA

Lecturer Department of Sociology Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur, Sindh. nadia.pathan@salu.edu.pk

Mr. Sohail REHMAN

Lecturer Institute of Management Sciences University of Science and Technology Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. sohailaormarh@hotmail.com

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Syed Akmal Hussain SHAH

Lecturer Department of History and Pakistan Studies International Islamic University Islamabad. akmal_qau@yahoo.com

Syed Faisal Haider SHAH


Lecturer Department of Social Work University of Sindh Jamshoro Sindh. faisalhaider.sw@gmail.com

Mr. Qasim SHAHZAD

Lecturer Department of Management Sciences Hazara University Mansehra Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. kasimswati@hu.edu.pk

Ms. Mehwish SHEHZAD

Lecturer Department of Economics Sardar Bahadur Khan Womens University Quetta. shahzadmehwish@yahoo.com

Mr. Sikandar TANGI

Lecturer Department of Development Studies Institute of Management Sciences Peshawar. sikandartangi@yahoo.com

Ms. Asma ZAFAR

Lecturer Department of Sociology and Anthropology Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi. asmazafar2003@yahoo.com

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Ms. Maira ZEB

Lecturer Department of Management Sciences Institute of Management Sciences Peshawar. maira.zeb@imsciences.edu.pk

Ms. Mahwish ZEESHAN

Lecturer Department of Sociology and Anthropology Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi. mahwish.zeeshan@uaar.edu.pk

PhD Scholars
Mr. Mazhar Hussain BHUTTA
Department of Sociology University of the Punjab Lahore. bhuttamazhar@yahoo.com

Ms. Riffat JABEEN

Institute of Social and Cultural Studies University of the Punjab Lahore. riffatjabeen@hotmail.com

Mr. Yousaf JAMAL

Department of Applied Psychology University of the Punjab Lahore. yousafjamal@hotmail.com

Ms. Sadia MALIK

Department of Applied Psychology University of the Punjab Lahore. sadiamalik0454@yahoo.com

Mr. Khalid MAHMOOD


Pakistan Study Centre University of Karachi Karachi.

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Ms. Amani Moazzam Baig MIRZA


Institute of Administrative Sciences University of the Punjab Lahore. amanimoazzam@yahoo.com

Mr. Sher MUHAMMAD

Department of Political Science and IR Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Punjab. phdscholer2010@gmail.com

Mr. Rahmatullah SHAH

Institute of Education and Research Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. rahmatullahshah@gmail.com

Ms. Bushra YASMEEN

Institute of Social and Cultural Studies University of the Punjab Lahore. bushrayasmeen@gmail.com

Others
Dr. Ayesha-Siddiqa AGHA
Council of Social Sciences Islamabad. ayesha.siddiqa@tribune.com.pk

Dr. Ashfaq AHMAD

Assistant Professor Department of Business Administration University of Sargodha Sargodha, Punjab. directorqec@kmu.edu.pk

Dr. Jamil AHMAD

Director, Quality Enhancement Cell Khyber Medical University Peshawar. drashfaq@uos.edu.pk

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Prof. Dr. Sarfaraz AHMAD

Department of Economics and Agriculture Economics Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi. sardr94@Yahoo.com

Mr. Khadim HUSSAIN

Council of Social Sciences Islamabad. khadim.2005@gmail.com

Ms. Humera IQBAL

Research Scholar Institute of Regional Studies Islamabad. irspak@comsats.net.pk

Syed Mohsin JALIL

Deputy Director Coordination National University of Sciences & Technology Islamabad. ddcoord@nust.edu.pk

Mr. Nasir JAMAL

Assistant Professor Department of Mathematics and Statistics Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi. nasir_jamal11@hotmail.com

Mr. Abdul Khaliq JAN

Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Dir Upper, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. abdukhaliq@gmail.com

Prof. Dr. Iqrar Ahmad KHAN


Vice Chancellor University Of Agriculture Faisalabad, Punjab. vc@uaf.edu.pk

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Prof. Dr. Muhammad Jahanzeb KHAN


Vice Chancellor University of Swat Saidu Sharif, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. vc@swatuniversity.edu.pk

Dr. Muhammad Farooq LODHI


Registrar National Defence University Islamabad. registrar@ndu.edu.pk

Dr. A. Q. MUGHAL

Vice Chancellor Sindh Agriculture University Tando Jam, Sindh. vc@usindh.edu.pk

Prof. Dr. Nazir Ahmed MUGHAL


Vice Chancellor University of Sindh Jamshoro, Sindh. vc@usindh.edu.pk

Abdul Basit MUJAHID

Assistant Professor Department of History Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad. ab_m2004@hotmail.com

Prof. Dr. Muhammad MUKHTAR

Vice Chancellor The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Pakistan Bahawalpur Punjab. vc@iub.edu.pk

Ms. Nasreen NAQVI

Collation Officer Institute of Regional Studies Islamabad. naintara05@yahoo.com

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Dr. Asaf NIWAZ

Assistant Professor Department of Education Hazara University Haripur Campus Haripur Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. asif_satti123@hotmail.com

Dr. Abdul SABOOR

Chairperson Department of Economics and Agriculture Economics Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi. sabdul65@yahoo.com

Mr. Abdush SHAKOOR

Assistant Professor Department of Mathematics and Statistics Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi. gotoshakor@gmail.com

Dr. Nisar Ahmed SIDDIQUI

Director Sukkur Institute of Business Administration Sukkur, Sindh. director@iba-suk.edu.pk

Prof. Akbar Haider SOOMRO

Vice Chancellor Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University Larkana, Sindh. vc@smbbmu.edu.pk

Ms. Sidra TARIQ

Research Scholar Institute of Regional Studies Islamabad. irspak@comsats.net.pk

Dr. Syed Muhammad Junaid ZAIDI

Rector COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Islamabad rector@comsats.edu.pk

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G. Summary of Recommendations
This document summarizes the recommendations of the five working groups formed for the 1st HEC International Conference on the Promotion of Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities: Prospects and Challenges. These recommendations are ambitious and broad, but ambition and breadth are needed in urgent times. Given the wideranging challenges facing Pakistan and the world, these are, indeed, urgent times. The task before the working groups was to identify what the social sciences can and must do to help the society in addressing these challenges. We, as social scientists, need to appeal to the ears and minds of both the policymakers and the public. The need to find our voices as social scientists for not only our self-gratification, but also the betterment of the society is an issue facing social scientists globally, not just in Pakistan. To reclaim our voices and have our empirically-based, scientific findings heard, as social scientists we need to make a compelling case. To do this, there is an urgent need to produce research results of the highest quality and to train the next generation of social scientists, who will carry forward this habit of excellence into the future. Even if this means cutting back on quantity, our first concern should be quality. Let me reiterate here that most of these research priorities are not specific to just Pakistan! The same issues are faced by socials scientists in the United States, as well as in other countries around the globe. In a time of resource constraints not just financial resources, but also the attention of the policymakers and the public as limited resources it is incumbent on the social sciences to collect quality data, conduct sound analyses, and provide data-driven interpretations and conclusions. In such times, we cannot ramble, speak unclearly or offer half-baked arguments based on weak data. We, as social scientists, need to bring our best and offer cogent arguments based on solid data. To guide this effort, the participants of the 1st HEC International Social Science Conference framed a comprehensive set of recommendations based around five broad themes. The recommendations provided below are not comprehensive, but a summary intended to highlight the key ideas under each theme:

1. Sustainable Human Development, Poverty and Inequality


The first working group noted that most of the existing research in this area had been statistical in nature and it had emphasized the quantification of poverty as measured by income. The group felt that it was now time to move on to a second generation of research that considered the multidimensional nature of poverty. The group members also recommended that researchers should rely on broader quality of life indicators. They emphasized that there was no need to start from scratch.

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The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has developed a multidimensional index of poverty that can be modified and extended to Pakistan. The working group stressed that after such a measure was developed, next data for Pakistan be collected in a rigorous fashion, so that this knowledge may serve as a benchmark for progress in efforts to address the issues of poverty and inequality. The group members recommended that the data ought to be collected consistent with the highest scientific standards. Moreover, this data collection effort should, if possible, include a longitudinal component. In the United States and Germany, we can see the policy relevance of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Socio-Economic Panel, respectively. In both cases, the value of the data sources comes from the fact that they are able to capture change at the individual and household level. Other recommendations from this working group called for research into the structural causes of poverty; and into differential and unequal access to markets, basic services, institutions of governance, and political participation. Equally important recommendations from this group included looking at the asymmetric impact of globalization, the relationship between food prices and poverty, and the design and evaluation of various policies intended to counter the causes of poverty. In its recommendations, the working group members also emphasized that the universities are ideally placed to design and implement primary data resources related to poverty, as well as coordinate the use of these data resources for the independent monitoring of federal programs. Moreover, locating a research program emphasizing sustainable human development, poverty and inequality at the universities has a secondary advantage too. University students, particularly graduate students, are highly motivated to work in this area. In a research program focusing on sustainable human development, poverty and inequality in Pakistan, one may find out a wealth of PhD topics for the next generation of social scientists. Also, the multidimensional aspects of these research questions create a great potential for interdisciplinary research. Analogous to the basic sciences, locating a comprehensive research program at one or more universities the possibility of creating an interuniversity consortium for research on human development, poverty and inequality was also discussed could create a productive research community that can also serve as a fertile intellectual training ground.

2. Costs and Opportunities of Pakistans Rapidly Changing Age Structure: Demographic Dividend, Population Ageing and Urbanization
The second working group focused its recommendations on two important features of the Pakistani age structure. The first major feature of Pakistans age structure is its pronounced youth bulge: by one estimate 43.4% of Pakistans population is aged 14 or younger, an estimated 73.8 million young people. The working group saw an urgent need for research on the youth and the potential to capture a related demographic dividend.

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In theory, a young society should be the basis for a vibrant culture and economic vitality. However, if the youth are not integrated into the society, if they do not have the training and education to be contributing members of society, then they may be a liability rather than an asset. The group members stressed that Pakistan was facing a critical demographic moment in the light of ongoing economic and social issues. The United Nations projects that, by 2050, Pakistan will be the fourth populous country in the world with an estimated population of more than 300 million. The working group emphasized the need for sound social science research, which is needed by the country to prosper in the face of profound demographic change. The group members recommended that research should place a premium on higher education and the training of youth. Without appropriate policy actions, actions well-guided by social science research, Pakistan may miss the boat on benefiting from this demographic dividend. They underscored the need for undertaking immediate research initiatives in this area, so that timely workforce development policies may be devised and implemented in the country. The working group suggested that there was a need for social science research at the other end of the age distribution as well. While Pakistan does not have a relatively large percentage of elderly residents (currently estimated at just under 4%) like for instance Japan (where this percentage is already approaching 20% and may grow to 25% by 2020), the absolute size of the nations population means that there are already nearly 7 million elderly and this number could grow to 10-12 million by the middle of the century. At this time, however, there is only one large-scale study of the elderly in Pakistan and this leaves many important policy questions unanswered. For example, it is hard to know how much family support is provided to the elderly, but this is critical to determine what degree of state support is required. Similarly, while there is anecdotal evidence that depression is common among the elderly, particularly in big cities, there are no solid data regarding its causes or even its exact incidence rate. Another issue brought up by the group members was crime against the elderly, including domestic violence. This issue is particularly important because it highlights the fact that survey research is not the only type of social science research needed. The recommendations by the working group demonstrate a dire need for research on the elderly. More importantly, some of this research, especially when the topic is sensitive, will require both qualitative and interpretive approaches. Finally, it should be noted that there is imprecision with basic population data in many countries, as particular subgroups are more or less difficult to enumerate. This is also the case in Pakistan, as young men, minorities and refugees are certainly undercounted. As a result, there are widely varying estimates for some basic statistics in Pakistan. For example, the Pakistan Census Organization reports an age dependency ratio of 88.3% based on the 1998 census data, while the World Bank estimates from 2006 place this number at 72%. The shortcomings in Pakistans population and housing cen-

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sus need to be urgently addressed, since any sampling based data collection strategy will depend on a more accurate census as a benchmark.

3. The State in Pakistan: Internal and External Challenges


The third working group, the largest, brought forth a detailed set of 19 recommendations. Moreover, the group emphasized that this list be thought of as a starting point. It strongly encouraged faculty members of social science departments/faculties of the Pakistani universities to critically review these recommendations and address any shortcomings. Starting this conversation is an important step toward engaging the research community in the revitalization of the social sciences in Pakistan. In this context, Working Group 3 also called for a revival of professional social science associations in the country. This initial list of recommendations would surely provide professional associations of social scientists with a rationale and a motivation for revival. Of the 19, the four most important broad areas for research recommended by the third working group included: 1. Theorizing about the state: A number of themes were subsumed under this topic, such as bureaucratic authoritarianism, the overdeveloped state, the weak state, the soft state, the Islamic state. With this recommendation, the working group illustrated that social science research was not simply a matter of getting more and better data; social science research required significant development and clarification of theory too. 2. Vision of the founders of Pakistan: The working group raised the question of how the identity of Pakistan may have become contested over time. The members called for research into whether there is a sense of national identity, whether it has changed over time, and whether any change is specific to, or more intense in, particular segments of the society. 3. Elitism, social structure of elites and elite networks: This theme would be ideal for sociological research. Given the interest in networks of elites among social scientists, this would be an ideal way for Pakistani social scientists to make an important contribution to an issue of international interest. 4. Feminism and the state: The working group strongly recommended that there is a need for social science research focusing on gender, feminism, cultural diversity and universal human rights. Obviously, here too is an opportunity for Pakistani social scientists to make an important contribution to research questions that are of not only national but also regional and international significance.

4. The Role of Media and Civil Society in Ensuring Human Rights and Cultural Diversity
The fourth working group sought to be inclusive, and stretched the definition of civil society in Pakistans context to include the media as a significant participant. In particular, the members recommended that the universities be recognized as spaces of intellectual

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freedom. In fact, this very recommendation could be treated as an empirical research question. The group made a number of recommendations, some of which were important: To begin with, the group strongly emphasized the need for social science research on the role that the media plays in civil society. Recent global events have shown the significant role that the media can play in civil society. But in Pakistan as in many other developing countries the media, in particular new media is not recognized as a constituent element of civil society or as an essential topic for social science education and research. The working group emphasized that there was a need for social scientists to look at the media as a social institution. While it is important to consider the content delivered by the media, especially its impact on specific audiences, it is also important to go beyond content and consider structural aspects of the media. We may think of the media as a corporate entity, but it is equally important to consider the significance of the new forms of the media, such as Facebook and Twitter, which offer information in a style that clearly departs from the corporate model. With the increasing significance of the new forms of the media, it has become particularly important that we stopped considering the media as a monolithic institution. The group members echoed the importance of research into the structural aspects of the media, but they also warned that, in this effort, we should not ignore the medias content and its impact on different audiences. In fact, this is one area where science and technology provide the social sciences with a host of new opportunities. As the use of decentralized, electronic media expands, so do the opportunities for social scientists to study the discourse through and around the media. For example, letters to the editor have been one way in the past that social scientists have studied audience impact. However, today we have comments on web pages and Twitter feeds, which leave electronic footprints as digital data on the way that the media affects civil society. The working group also made another very important recommendation with regard to the media. As part of a focused effort to understand the role that the media plays in civil society, social scientists will necessarily find themselves in close contact with journalists of all types. This could provide social scientists with an excellent opportunity to work with journalists and reflect on the role they play as civil society and on their activities that contribute to the public discourse. At the same time, due to their interaction with journalists, social scientists would have occasion to communicate their research findings through the media. The second important topic discussed by the working group was that of human rights and diversity. Here, the groups recommendations focused on research that identified who was excluded from particular human rights. Diversity also played into this discussion, since the characteristics used in discussions of diversity are often the same that define inclusion or exclusion. The group also noted that discussions of civil society often focused only on liberal groups and their representatives; however, all voices, particularly those representing

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religious interests, ought to be included in the research on civil society. As part of this effort, the working group called for a mapping civil society to identify the diverse groups and individuals that make up Pakistans civil society. The group members also recommended that there was a dire need to look at those structural factors that result in human rights violations. Rather than linking these violations with the actions of bad people, a structural approach would consider the economic, political and social features that incline people to do bad things. For example, while most studies of human rights and diversity focus on the urban areas, many of the violations of human rights take place in the rural areas. Related to this theme, the working group stressed the need for comparative analysis at the international level.

5. Problems of Conducting Dissertation Research in Pakistan


The members of the fifth working group comprised of either PhD scholars or young faculty members of the public universities. The discussion was initially framed by the panel of lead speakers, one of whom was the head of an international organization who also offered financial support to the Pakistani doctoral students. The discussion was focused on the problems and issues related to conducting social science research in the Pakistani universities, particularly with regard to resource constraints. Some of the salient concerns of the group were: 1. Lack of adequate and up-to-date libraries. 2. Computer labs in the public sector universities are a problem for both the faculty and students because Internet connections are too slow. 3. Lack of access to international social science journals. 4. Poor training in research methods. 5. Weak writing skills not only language, but also organization and argumentation 6. Arbitrary assignment of doctoral supervisors and dissertation topics. 7. Creation of PhD programs without the resources to support and sustain them. Once again, only the most important concerns have been listed here. It is important to note that throughout the discussion there was considerable debate on the extent of each problem, and how each problem varied from department to department and from university to university. But before addressing these issues, there is an urgent need for an inventory of resources such as library, computers and faculty member expertise broken down by department and university. The group members stressed that particular urgency and priority be given to this task. Compiling such an inventory is relevant not only to the recommendations of this working group, but also all of the groups. An accurate inventory of assets and needs is an essential foundation for the development of strategic plan for research activities in each of the other four broad areas. While it may take some time to gather the information and resources needed for such an inventory, there were other crosscutting recommendations from this working group that could be implemented before such an inventory were completed. For example, the group recommended that the faculty needed training and professional develop-

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ment, including training in the use of those digital resources that were already available. This is a big issue in the United States and in European countries as well, thus new online library and data resources are becoming available at an increasingly fast pace. Even young faculty and those with a strong interest in technology will benefit from training to keep them apace with new developments. As a second example, the group members recommended that mechanisms ought to be urgently developed to encourage and promote collaboration across the universities to provide relevant doctoral supervisors if they were not available locally. This, too, is an issue facing social scientists in other countries and universities; and it may be addressed by exploring market-like mechanisms to compensate and incentivize participation across the universities and departments/faculties.

Conclusion

The five working groups have provided a comprehensive and thoughtful list of recommendations for the social sciences in Pakistan. From their discussions, it is apparent that the social sciences are in the position to play a key role in Pakistans future, but this can only happen if individuals and organizations agree to provide the leadership and resources needed to address the issues raised by the working groups established for the 1st HEC International Conference on the Promotion of Social Science Research in Pakistani Universities: Prospects and Challenges. The challenges are great, but so are the potential benefits. The agenda laid out by the working groups will certainly be modified and extended as other social scientists join the discussion. During this process, it will be important to recognize that the responsibility for this effort cannot be assumed without the financial support of the state. Moreover, it is also important to emphasize the need to develop partnerships with the private sector for the promotion of the social sciences in Pakistan.

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H. Research Topics for Future 1. Sustainable Human Development, Poverty and Inequality:
a. What are the structural, political, social, cultural and economic sources of poverty? b. Why does the gap between the rich and the poor increase even when Pakistans economy experiences high growth? c. What are the implications of globalization for poverty? d. What are the consequences of inequality and poverty on terrorism, violence and law and order?

2. Costs and Opportunities of Pakistans Rapidly Changing Age Structure Demographic Dividend, Population Ageing and Urbanization:
a. What policy-level changes are needed to realize the full potential of the youth? b. What changes has our society experienced because of the increasing urbanization? c. What steps are needed to manage the increasing population in cities? d. What motivates people to migrate from rural to urban areas? How can this trend be arrested?

3. The State in Pakistan Internal and External Challenges:


a. Why has the identity of Pakistan as a modern, democratic state become contested? b. What are the social structures of authoritarianism in Pakistan? c. How has the 18th Constitutional Amendment changed the character of the Pakistani federation? d. What are the social bases of power of elites in Pakistan? e. What is the root cause of political violence in Pakistan? f. What are the dynamics of civil-military relations in Pakistan? g. What are the prospects of peace process between India and Pakistan?

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4. The Role of Media and Civil Society in Ensuring Human Rights and Cultural Diversity:
a. What are the dynamics of the institution of the media in Pakistan and what has been the impact of its contents? b. How Pakistan can deal with its human rights problems? c. What is the definition of civil society in Pakistans context and which institutions comprise Pakistans civil society? d. What should be ideal code of conduct for the Pakistani media?

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I. Abstracts of Lead Speakers


The presentations made by the lead speakers and members of the working groups on Day 2 of the Conference provided the basis for thorough discussion around which these groups drafted their recommendations, which were later presented by their respective chairs/moderators (or someone nominated by them) in Session V on Day 3. The summary of recommendations and the research questions for future based on it have already been presented as Appendix G and Appendix H, respectively. Besides the abstracts presented by the lead speakers and members in the five parallel working groups, those abstracts have also been included here whose contributors could not make it to the Conference or that working group (an asterisk follows their name and position); since these abstracts had already been published and were made use of in the related group discussions:

1. Sustainable Human Development, Poverty and Inequality


i) Educational Marginalization and Issue of Equity [Prof. Dr. Shahid Siddiqui]
Experts agree that education is a tool of power that can play a crucial role in enhancing the life chances of learners. One of the important objectives of education is to reduce the economic inequalities in a society. This objective, however, can only be met through provision of equal educational opportunities to diffident strata of society. Realizing the potential linkages between education and life chances, the dominant groups in society have always tried to deprive the marginalized groups of education. Historically, education as a right was denied to certain groups on the pretext of race, gender, class, location or religion. This denial resulted in economic deprivation of these groups and also adversely impacted their image in the society. It is important to bear in mind that the impact of education is not just limited to an individuals job; it also leads to ones recognition, respect and ultimately influence in society. Thus, less economic resources may result in educational marginalization, which in turn may result in less life chances. In the current educational scenario, where the rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer, it is important that we focus on the question of equity equal opportunities for everyone to pursue a life of his or her choice and be spared from extreme deprivation in outcomes. There is a need to reduce the physical and academic differences between the elite schools and the mainstream public schools. Enhanced funding, more physical facilities, better management and effective accountability are some areas that need attention

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in the case of public schools. This means giving extra help, facilities and encouragement to the downtrodden so that they could enhance their life chances. It is only through quality education that the have-nots can get recognition, respect and power to influence the decision-making process.

ii) Sustainable Human Development, Poverty and Inequality [Dr. Atif Ali Jaffri]
A statement in the first UNDP Human Development Report (HDR) people are the real wealth of a nation inspired the policymakers, the academia, politicians, international donors, NGOs and study circles, leading to immense research largely focusing on measurability of development with human face. Since then, the tradition of measurement innovation continues with recent focus on issues of sustainability, gender, inequality, empowerment and environment. The UNDP HDR 2010 shows that Pakistans position on the basis of Human Development Index (HDI) is 125th of the selected 169 countries. The official estimates based on threshold caloric intake requirement of 2,350 calories per person per day show that poverty declined from 34.5% in 2001-02 to 22.3% in 2005-06; however, consumption Gini coefficient gradually increased from 0.27 to 0.30 during the same period. Estimates based on the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey (PSLM) 2007-08 showing further decline in poverty have resulted in a number of conflicting estimates by domestic and external sources. Independent estimates suggest that between 2005 and 2009, poverty in Pakistan increased from 22.3% to between 30% and 35%. Available data on the quality of human development indicates that poor, vulnerable, illiterate and weak people of Pakistan are not the real wealth of the country, as desired by the late Dr. Mahbubul Haq in the first HDR in 1990 170 million people have just $1,068 per capita; one-third of the population is poor; refined activity rate is just 45.7%; unemployment rate is 5.5%; the agriculture sector employs 45.0% of the labour force and contributes only 20.0% to GDP; 43.0% of the population aged above 10 years cannot read and write with understanding in any language; Gender Parity Index (GPI) is just 0.65; 37.7% of the schools up to elementary level are without boundary walls, 33.9% without drinking water, 37.0% without latrines and 60.0% without electricity; infant mortality rate is 73.5 per thousand; fertility rate is 3.56 per woman; and public expenditure on education and health is the lowest in the South Asian region. In my opinion, the future research agenda on human development should be compatible with the national growth strategy envisaged in the 10th Five-Year Plan (2010-15), which emphasizes the pivotal role of the market, realization of the demographic dividend, innovation and entrepreneurship, and role of dynamic cities for high and sustainable growth based on economic inclusion leading to poverty reduction and fair distribution of resources. In this regard, research should be conducted on the relevance of the existing education system and the need for the private sector; womens participation in the job market and the socioeconomic hurdles in their economic participation; social protection of the poor and vulnerable population by state and non-state institutions; the financial

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needs of small and medium enterprises; the promotion of entrepreneurship through sustainable microfinance; urbanization and other issues of big cities; and the development of financial products based on worker remittances inflows in Pakistan.

2. Costs and Opportunities of Pakistans Rapidly Changing Age Structure: Demographic Dividend, Population Ageing and Urbanization
i) The Importance of Research on Ageing [Prof. Dr. Grace C. Clark]
While research is needed on all aspects of the age spectrum in Pakistan, there is a special dearth of research on ageing in the country. Although Clark, Haider, Ghafoor and Nizamuddin have done some work, most of this is benchmarking to establish what is actually happening with older people in Pakistan. One reason research on older persons is most needed is to dispel popular myths that tend to impede realistic assessment of the situation of older persons or of any government policy. For example, though many people in Pakistan believe that all older persons take care of their ageing parents, Clark, Ghafoor and Haider found out that the majority of people aged 60 and older support themselves, and often support their children as well. Also, in contrast to the perception that all older persons are loved and respected by their families, they found out that while the majority of older persons feel that this is the case, there is a sizable minority who feel that they are not respected, included or cared for, even when sick. One big question needing attention is why there are so many more older men than older women in Pakistan, in contrast to the rest of the world, where there are more older women. Not only are there more older men, but the proportion of older men increases with each age cohort. Beginning at age 45 (to control for maternal mortality), the proportion of men increases with every five year age cohort up to age 75. Why? Why is it that a disproportionate number of older women are dying? Do they not get enough to eat? Do they lack needed access to medical care? Your mothers life may depend on our finding this out. While many studies have been conducted in the United States that have helped to change attitudes about older workers, there are no comparable studies in Pakistan, even though a larger proportion of older persons support themselves. Other than mandatory retirement for a few, when and why do people stop working? Preliminary evidence suggests that Pakistanis who have a pension survive longer. Is this because of a regular source of income? Is it because of the free medical care that is often a benefit that goes with a pension? Something else? While many physicians that specialize in diseases that typically affect older persons (diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, COPD, etc.), there is still very little research about these play out in Pakistan. How do these diseases or their treatments need to differ for older men in Pakistan? Should they be different for older women?

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Perhaps most important, what gives life meaning to older persons in Pakistan? People assume grandchildren, but to what extent is this correct? What else? To paraphrase another writer, what do older persons want? Ageing in Pakistan is an area desperately in need of research. Previous research has only begun to explore it. As with all research, what has been done has led to even more questions. For researchers in the social sciences looking for a new field to explore, what could be better than working on the questions of ageing in Pakistan?

ii) Coping Strategies and Life Satisfaction Among Older Adults in Pakistan [Prof. Dr. Rukhsana Kausar]
Ageing has been defined as progressive changes during the adult years that do not necessarily reduce an individuals viability. In the context of positive ageing, ones coping and satisfaction with life holds significant importance. The ways of coping and life satisfaction have been recognized as important facets of positive ageing. In Pakistan, older adults and elderly people are the most neglected ones among researchers. With increased awareness, however, the recognition of physical, psychological and social needs of the elderly in Pakistan has begun. I carried out a study designed to examine older adults coping with their ongoing stresses and its relationship with life satisfaction. I hypothesized that the use of active practical and religious coping are likely to have positive relationship with life satisfaction; and the use of active distractive and avoidance focused coping are likely to have negative relationship with life satisfaction. The sample comprised of 50 male older adults who were leading a retired life. The sample was recruited from twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad through snowball and convenient sampling procedures. Coping strategies questionnaire and satisfaction with life scale were used for assessment. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics: multivariate analysis of variance, paired sample t-test, and correlation and regression analyses. Active practical and religious coping were used more than active-distractive and avoidance-focused coping. Moreover, active practical coping had significant positive relationship with life satisfaction, while other coping strategies did not show significant relationship with life satisfaction. Regression analysis revealed that practical coping was a significant predictor of older adults satisfaction with life. The findings of the study emphasized the importance of coping strategies used by older adults, and they have implications for older adults adjustment to the ageing process and retirement. The fact that Pakistan is a patriarchal society, where mostly a man is the head of the family and he is one who takes most of the family decisions, could have necessitated use of active practical coping strategies by older adults. Moreover, in the socio-cultural and religious context, retired parents are given a lot of respect and their decisions are honoured, particularly in case of those parents who provide monetary assistance to their families through gratuity, pension and savings. Another important finding of the study was the use of religious-focused coping. People

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reportedly turn to religion in times of adversity. Moreover, the study found out that inclination towards religion increased in old age. In the study, problem-focused strategies showed positive relationship with life satisfaction. Problem-focused coping has been reported as an important determinant of an individuals subjective wellbeing. The findings of the study also warrant the need for geriatric counselling to help them cope more effectively, which in turn is expected to enhance their satisfaction with life.

3. The State in Pakistan: Internal and External Challenges


i) Social Scientists as Public Intellectuals [Prof. Dr. Shuja Alhaq]
The Background Note of this conference presents a damning critique of Pakistani social scientists. In no uncertain terms, it holds them responsible not only for the dismal state of social sciences in Pakistan, and lack of such empirical data that truly analyze the Pakistani society, but also for declining status of institutions, particularly academic institutions, while continuing to apply borrowed theoretical constructs and arguments to Pakistani conditions without questioning, commenting or debating on the relevance and validity of the theory itself. And yet it would be hard for any social scientist in this Conference to dispute any of these indictments. Perhaps the most powerful indicator of the failure of our social scientific community in carrying out their professional responsibility is the decline of the culture of critical, scientific discourse to which the Background Note again refers. It has resulted in such rise of intolerance and extremism in our society that it threatens the very fabric of the polity or social structure in which scientific discourse can take place. To put it in stark terms, the last few decades have seen a steady increase in the power of the religious intelligentsia, which openly professes its hostility to the scientific perspective, in almost all of our social institutions. It would be no exaggeration to suggest that it is the single most internal challenge that the Pakistani state as a modern democratic institution faces at the moment, since every social scientist knows, or is supposed to know, that democracy or pluralism and science are historically the two sides of the same coin. I will make an attempt to locate the sources of this predicament while suggesting the means and measures to overcome it. Perhaps one of the most pervasive attitudes among the social scientific community in this country is to place the whole responsibility of creating a progressive, enlightened polity on the shoulders of the state and the government. But what we fail to see is that the very functioning of the state or government in advanced Western societies assumes a broad public consensus created by the social scientific community over some core values. Some of the most fundamental of these values, we may remember, derive from the faith that science enables man not only to bring natural forces at his service but also to regulate social forces according to his will. What I am suggesting, in other words, is

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that even though most of the social scientific community in Pakistan and in the Islamic world in general may believe in the power of natural science to harness natural forces for human benefit, it remains deeply ambivalent towards social sciences claim to govern society in the interests of all round development of its members. Such ambivalence, it would be easier to see, has steadily led to the rise of the religious intelligentsia as the chief public intellectuals of our country, which in its turn has made us a laughing stock of the world. Still, as a member of the social scientific community of this country and of the Islamic world, I want to establish the hypothesis that all the blame for such ambivalence may not rest entirely on the Pakistani and Islamic social scientific community. For it equally rests on the conception, or as the historian of science Thomas Kuhn put it, the established image of science itself that emerged after the Enlightenment. This conception, to which modern Western academy adheres, and dogmatically expounded by the physicists like Dr. Pervez Hoodbhoy in our midst and biologists like Richard Dawkins in the West, stands, in a word, on an irreconcilable conflict between science and religion, or between man and God. It is for this very reason that the Islamic social scientific community is reluctant to consider science as instrumental in all round development of human individual. For religion might have become irrelevant in the trajectory of Western history, it has by no means become irrelevant in the trajectory of the history of the Islamic and of the non-Western peoples in general. Now one of the most important empirical facts of our times of which most social scientists in this part of the world seem unaware is what is known as crisis in social sciences born chiefly from the awareness within the Western scientific community during the later half of the last century that science has indeed failed to deliver all that it promised when it rejected religion as a relic of mans primeval ignorance. While examining the nature of this crisis, we will also endeavour to show the developments within science, chiefly in physics with the scientific revolution of the early 20th century, and which have largely remained unnoticed to this date. These developments enable us, the social scientific community of Pakistan and of the Islamic world in general, to draw a new image of science, especially in the light of the anthropological theory, which overcomes the presumed antithesis between science and religion. To sum up, only through the fulfilment of such critical, historical task, the social scientific community in Pakistan will overcome its ambivalence towards science and become a potent social force, both locally and globally.

ii) Martyrs of Humanity: The Defenders of Jinnahs Pakistan [Prof. Dr. Hugh van Skyhawk, Taxila Institute of Asian Civilizations, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad]*
Since the assassination of Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto in Liaquat Bagh on 27 December 2007, again and again death has cast its fearsome shadow over the promised land of

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the Indian Muslims. Media reports of target killings, suicide bombings, beheadings, and death and destruction by intercontinental remote control roll over us every day like garish billboard advertising: irreligious deeds in the name of religion, brutality and barbarism in the name of democracy, national dishonour in the name of political expediency, all beamed out in high definition, all available for replay at the push of a button day or night. Caught in the visegrips of enemies whose names and faces they will never know the people, the sovereigns of the democratic state, take to the streets in the futile rage of a wounded beast, throwing stones, smashing car windows, burning tyres, and bashing the heads of their fellow countrymen whose duty it is to keep public order. But pictures of bloodsplattered casualties can distract attention from the all important fact that victims of terrorist attacks are often martyrs of the Idea of Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azams vision of Pakistan as the homeland of the Indian Muslims in which every citizen, regardless of his personal faith, is an equal shareholder in the state and has equal freedoms of religion and expression. This social contract of Pakistan has been underwritten again and again in the blood of these martyrs of humanity. They are heroes whose names will be remembered with pride by the children of the children of Pakistan, while the names of their murderers, if remembered at all, will be accursed.

iii) The State in Pakistan: Internal and External Challenges [Prof. Dr. S. Qalb-i-Abid, Dean, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, University of the Punjab, Lahore]*
Pakistan is facing many challenges and is fighting on many fronts at the same time. These challenges include economic and energy crises, civil-military relations, corruption, bad governance, rising food prices and inflation, poverty, unemployment, and powersharing tussle between state institutions. The most serious challenge for the countrys leadership, however, is to prove that all negative predictions about Pakistans future are ill-conceived. The leadership must address all the challenges, debate these issues at various levels in order to come up with the answers to demonstrate that Pakistan has got potential to meet the challenges successfully in order to become a reasonably doing-well and functional state. A united, comprehensive and disciplined response will definitely shape Pakistans future. In some recent studies a very bleak picture of Pakistans future has been painted concluding that it is a failed state or a state that is very close to failure; that it is one of the weakest states in the world; that it will collapse in near future and its nuclear assets will go under the control of the extremists within its Islamized Army. Some other extreme scenarios for Pakistan are that it is going to become a fragmented state with minimum chances of survival, that there would be a rise of nationalism in Pushtoon, Baloch and Saraiki areas resulting in the countrys Lebanonization.

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The other major concern for Pakistan is to appropriately manage its foreign relations with the United States, India and China. There is a great deal of mistrust between Pakistan and the United States because of a number of reasons. For example, the growing strategic and nuclear partnership between India and the United States is having a negative impact on Pakistan. Similarly, the American reluctance to upgrade its relationship with Pakistan like its nuclear deal with India is also creating mistrust. Allegations and counter allegations by the CIA and the ISI against each other are also a source of mutual mistrust. The United States blames the ISI of cooperating with the Taliban in Afghanistan and creating safe havens for them in Pakistan; while the ISI accuses the CIA of cooperating with those terrorists who are working on the agenda of destabilizing the Pakistan state. Pakistan has also been threatened that it will be punished if Faisal Shahzad-like case happens again in the United States. The shocking data demonstrate that, from a layperson to the top Pakistani leader, everyone believes that the ultimate aim of the United States is to destabilize Pakistan and take control of its nuclear assets. Most recently, CIA operatives were denied free-roaming access, especially in Balochistan. Furthermore, it is reported that the ISI and the CIA are reviewing their rules of cooperation with each other after the Raymond Davis case. Pakistans relations with India have become more complicated because of the Indo-Israeli strategic partnership and intelligence-sharing, coupled with the deepening cooperation between the United States and India. There is a long history of animosity between India and Pakistan, including many wars and mini-wars, exchange of nuclear threats, the Kashmir issue, water-resource rivalries, and, most recently, India-Pakistan rivalry for influence in Afghanistan. India has threatened Pakistan that a Mumbai-like attack in India will invite massive/disproportionate action against Pakistan. Some think-tanks have even predicted possibility of a war between India and Pakistan in the next 10-15 years. In the meantime, India is on its way to become a great power by 2025, also demanding a permanent seat on the Security Council. These are some major issues for Pakistan to address. Pakistan needs to have deeper ties with China, since the China factor in Pakistans foreign policy has always been a source of comfort and relief. China-Pakistan friendship is the worlds most enduring relationship for the past half a century. The commonly-used phrases are that China is a natural ally of Pakistan, that China is an all-weather friend of Pakistan, and that Chinas friendship with Pakistan is time-tested and higher than mountains and deeper than the oceans. China is the largest investor in Pakistan extending cooperation in all areas, including energy. Though so far China has proved to be a guarantor of Pakistans security against India, now it is also showing greater flexibility in conducting its international relations. For example, China has upgraded its relationship with the United States and India. This has to be studied by the policymakers to be in our best interests. Pakistan needs to have a creative, innovative and incorruptible leadership, with a vision to respond to all internal threats and external challenges. The country needs to utilize all the potential and resources to achieve its goals as envisioned by its founding father Quaid-i-

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Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

iv) How to Improve Research on Foreign Policy in Pakistan? [Dr. Ilhan Niaz, Assistant Professor, Department of History, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad]*
Foreign policy seems to be one of Pakistans favourite subjects. At the Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, for instance, the Department of International Relations is one of the most popular in the Faculty of Social Sciences. The newspapers regularly feature articles and comments on foreign policy since many retired practitioners from the civilian and military sides have committed their experiences to paper for the sake of posterity. From a social science and research methodological perspective, however, the study of foreign policy in Pakistan leaves much to be desired. There is room for improvement in the realm of theory, as well as in terms of the documentation and sources of foreign policy research. There is also a need to effectively link Pakistans domestic issues, such as its woeful record on governance, with impact on overall national power and the implications for foreign policy. Practitioners and academics in the field of foreign policy co-opt ideas and perspectives from Western sources. That in itself is not negative. The problem lies in the tendency to ignore or marginalize the study of the history and geography of South Asia and its impact on the evolution of states in this part of the world. There also seems to be little emphasis on writings by Chinese academics and the East Asian perspective though, in many respects, it is more relevant and analogous to our own. To the best of my knowledge, no Pakistani scholar or practitioner has attempted to develop a theory of international relations based on empirical appreciation of South Asian history. Debates about the clash of civilizations and the uni-polar moment are all well and good, but without a rigorous tradition of indigenous theorization, our forays in the study of foreign policy are perhaps doomed to remain underdeveloped. Pakistans archives are inadequate when it comes to documentation pertaining to major foreign policy decisions. Declassification of papers relevant to foreign policy is practically non-existent. Unlike other countries, which practice the selective declassification of files more than 20 or 30 years, Pakistan, while having such rules in place, does not implement them in the area of foreign policy. This results in a number of problems for Pakistani researchers. The first is that the Pakistani side of the story, the thought process of Pakistans leaders and practitioners, is not properly documented. This places a premium on memoirs and reminiscences by retired diplomats and generals, but as memory is a selective medium, the accounts are not necessarily reliable. The second is that even Pakistani authors are compelled to rely on documents declassified by other countries. And the third is that without adequate documentation, authentic histories of the Pakistani states foreign policy are few and far between. Assuming that declassification was taken up seriously, the problem of access to

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the archives would remain. A foreign policy archive separate from existing archives or the National Documentation Centre may be the best way forward and this could be taken up by the HEC as a major initiative. In Arthasastra, the ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, Kautilya makes the case that domestic stability and strength are essential to the pursuit of a vigorous foreign policy. There does not seem to be much appreciation of this among foreign policy practitioners and experts even though Pakistans domestic vulnerability has repeatedly circumscribed or determined its foreign policy decision-making in some areas. In others, Pakistans foreign policy has exacerbated the countrys internal problems, thus weakening the state it is supposed to strengthen. A number of steps can be taken to improve foreign policy research in Pakistan and relate it effectively to the countrys problems and interests: first, a greater historical emphasis on foreign policy-related courses intended to sensitize graduate students to the patterns and exigencies of South Asian history; second, more effective declassification of archival sources on foreign policy at the institutional level; third, better coordination between foreign policy institutions and the academia; fourth, award of competitive research grants for public sector academics working on foreign policy through the universities or directly by the HEC; and fifth, a greater emphasis on language learning for areas such as the Middle East or the former Soviet Union.

4. The Role of Media and Civil Society in Ensuring Human Rights and Cultural Diversity
i) Perspectives on Human Rights and Diversity [Prof. Dr. Tariq Rahman]
1. The concepts of human rights and diversity are part of the 18th century European history. 2. The shift from theocentrism to anthropocentrism was the basic change that came from the 14th century to the 18th century. From gods and goddesses, the centre of the universe shifted to human beings. All the explanations diverted from blind belief to investigation by the five senses and by logic. 3. Theocentrism actively impinges upon four broad areas: i) Economy the end of feudalism and the emergence of individualism; ii) Politics the shift from the rights of the king to the rights of the people; iii) Philosophy the shift of focus on human science and positivism; and iv) Human Rights rights that can be, and also have been, translated into laws and obligations. 4. We inherited these concepts from the British. We feel shame in admitting that we were civilized by them. While this may not be fully true, the thoroughness with which the laws were applied was inherited by post-colonial states from their colonial masters. Before that, there were no institutions in most of the colonial states, especially in our part of the world, to enforce laws.

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5. After the ideas of justice and rights were sanctioned by both the church and the state, they won the major spaces such as the university, the media and civil society. 6. The universities are privileged in the sense that they ought to have liberty in teaching. The University of Paris was teaching Aristotle in the 13th century, while the church had banned his works. 7. The function of the university is to create knowledge, to explain different phenomena. Whether that knowledge or explanation is used by the state and the policymakers is a different story. So two groups emerge: one creates knowledge and the other implements that knowledge or at least tries to get it implemented. 8. The role of the media is to cover every news and crisis, but sometimes it slants certain stories for particular reasons. The public intellectuals can step in such situations to correct the biases. 9. Diversity is a taught value. Human beings are generally not soft-hearted. They are cruel and feel threatened of diversity. Therefore, they have to be controlled by not only moral values, but also institutions.

ii) Ensuring Human Rights and Cultural Diversity: Some Research Priorities [Mr. Atle Hetland]
I have identified five priority project themes for research and opinion-building. All of these have comparative components, in particular related to learning from the Western development history of relevance to Pakistan; vice-versa, some outcomes may be of relevance to the West. Whereas the projects have been proposed to seek substantive knowledge, attention should also be given to gaining methodological experience and qualifying young researchers on practical aspects related to developing dynamic research environments. Moreover, university students should be exposed to research-based knowledge. The project themes have been given the following preliminary titles: 1. Womens emancipation in the West and the East: Lessons from the past to help shape Pakistans future. 2. Organizing the poor for better living and working conditions, and inclusion in society: Labour unions, interest groups, political parties, literacy and skills training, etc. 3. Cultural and religious freedom and diversity in the West and the East: How can Pakistan become a more open and diverse Muslim society, recognizing freedom of worship and equality of all faiths? 4. Social and Economic Development: Advantages and disadvantages of the extended family system. 5. Social and political participation and leadership: Developing citizens who are secular and religious, self-confident and understanding, forceful and cautious, determined and tolerant, and local and global.

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iii) Perspectives on the Media and Civil Society [Dr. Farzana Bari]
1. It is important to understand the nature of the media and civil society and their role in promoting human rights, essentially through lobbying and advocacy. We should also remember that civil society is neither capable of nor it has the capacity to conduct academic research. 2. Civil society is not about NGOs only; the academicians, the media and politicians are also part of it. At the end of the day, it is the academia and universities that conduct research. They can collaborate with the media and other sections of the society since networking between different segments of the society is essential. 3. The electronic media in Pakistan is owned mostly by private business groups that have their own vested interests to serve, thus very few television programs take up social or human right issues seriously and only after thorough research. Despite this, the media is the best forum to create awareness about different issues and problems facing our society.

iv) The Media and Civil Society in Pakistan [Mr. Zafarullah Khan]
1. The social science research being conducted on issues related to the media, human rights and civil society in Pakistan is very limited in scope and mostly based on historical topics, examining and exploring the past. The need of the hour is to connect the research and policy domains of Pakistan, but for this research should be conducted on the contemporary and emerging issues. 2. The research conducted by civil society is generally impressionistic, not grounded on any theoretical framework or established methodology. The analysis on how to develop the society and its structure is mostly missing in NGO, civil society and media reports. 3. The freedom to do academic research is the need of the hour. The Zia regime restricted the free-flying academics and stopped them from asking sensitive questions. Thus, we need to revive the culture of academic freedom. 4. The recent and emerging trends should be examined for future researches. Scenario-based choices and topics must be adopted. Foreign researches and methods should be studies and indigenous ideas should be built around them. 5. Pakistan is a museum of social attitudes, an amazing mix of competing cultures with a lot of human rights abuses and violations. A positive development is that Pakistan is a signatory to almost all the international conventions on human rights. But we still have to study if Pakistan has adhered to its international obligations?

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6. Pakistan is a very diverse country in terms of culture, ethnicity, religious beliefs, etc. Since diversity is divine, the real challenge is to adjust and negotiate with its different manifestations. Unfortunately, our official agenda after independence discouraged diversity and tried to enforce a single ideology for nation-building purposes. Therefore, it is high time to focus on religious and cultural diversity. 7. The curriculum of media-related subjects taught in the universities is based on theoretical framework of the 1950s and the 1960s. First of all, we need to update ourselves. Studies should be focused on if the media in Pakistan is plural and if it is raising the right questions? 8. The concept of civil society has been narrowed down to the NGO sector in Pakistan. In this regard, the mapping of civil society and its impact, and questions of media ownership should be focused. Most important, a linkage should be established between the academia and civil society for jointly conducting research.

v) The Role of Media and Civil Society in Ensuring Human Rights and Cultural Diversity [Dr. Sajjad Ahmad Paracha]
The concepts of human rights and cultural diversity are deeply rooted in the history of human civilization. To understand the role of the media, we need to study its relationship with the society because the media always takes the form and coloration of those social and political structures within which it operates. In particular, the media reflects the system of social control whereby the relations of individual and institutions are adjusted. In short, to discuss the role of the media in its true perspective, one must look at the social systems in which the media functions. In authoritarian societies, the mass media was assigned a specific role and subjected to controls such as licensing, censorship and persecution to ensure that it does not interfere with the achievement of ultimate ends by the state. Under the libertarian concept, the functions of the mass media are to inform, educate and entertain, as well as provide the basis for economic support through sales and advertising. Basically, the underlying purpose of the media was to help discover the truth, to assist in the process of solving political and social problems by presenting all manner of evidence and opinion as the basis for decisions. The essential characteristic of the media was its freedom from government control, thus it was charged with the responsibility of keeping the government from overstepping its limits. So the duty of the media in a democratic society was to serve as a check on the government; it was supposed to stop state functionaries from abusing power or exceeding their authority. To play this role satisfactorily, the media had to be completely free from government control or domination by those elements that it was supposed to guard against, especially religious and sectarian. Because liberalism struggled for several cen-

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turies against authoritarianism directly or indirectly, it considered the established government as its greatest enemy. Government authority, however, could be made to serve the interests of liberalism if strong and effective checks on its use could be ensured. The media along with other institutions such as the judiciary, the opposition and civil society could play this role. The 20th century brought a gradual shift away from pure libertarianism to the social responsibility theory of the media. Though an independent media is essential for ensuring human rights in Pakistan, unfortunately it is often complicit in covering up human rights abuses by the government and spy agencies. There is a need that the media promotes awareness among the masses about their rights as well as concomitant responsibilities. Pakistan is a multicultural state. These cultures must be promoted in a way that leads to harmony, peace and solidarity. Therefore, it is suggested that the higher education institutions should be strengthened to produce such media professionals who could fulfil their responsibility of coping with the challenge of ensuring human rights and cultural diversity.

vi) The Role of Media and Civil Society in Ensuring Human Rights and Cultural Diversity [Prof. Dr. Muhammad Qasim Bughio, Pro Vice Chancellor, Mirpur Khas Campus, University of Sindh, Jamshoro]*
As variety adds spice to human life, so does cultural diversity and guarantee of human rights to the splendour of any society. Pakistan is among those blessed countries where an abundant flush of different cultures could be found, but regrettably human rights and cultural diversity could not flourish here because of several social and political reasons, as well as rapidly increasing religious bigotry. Even globally, people belonging to different cultures are not liked and treated with indifference and disdain. Every civilization values its culture; therefore, it should not be ignored at any cost. Cultural values are the identity of a civilization, so they should find expression in life. Human beings, the crown of creation, are free to live according to their customs and traditions. Rousseau, years ago, successfully raised the slogan: Man is born free, but he is in chains everywhere. He, thus, attempted to liberate humans from shackles of exploitation. It is important to explore different human rights issues in a society, and explicate how the media and civil society could collectively work for promoting human rights in accordance with Rousseaus propounding. The media is a channel of information and communication. It plays significant role in raising awareness among the masses about different issues. The media works in two ways: it entertains and adds to public knowledge. In the modern era, it has emerged as a major force in the society. What is global civil society? It is a society that works at the global level to defend the rights of human beings. Hundreds are killed everyday in the name of religion or poli-

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tics but such brutality is going unnoticed. States are considered all in all. The formation of global civil society is an answer to all those who forget the value of human life. Prof. Mary Kaldor, who is among the chief exponents of individual security, has expounded on this theme in her book titled Global Civil Society: An Answer to War. She underlines the urgent need for promoting cooperation. While advocating the rights of individuals, Prof. Kaldor says: We have to think about the security of individuals rather than the protection of borders.

vii) Ensuring Human Rights and Cultural Diversity: The Relevance of Anthropological Research [Dr. M. Azam Chaudhary, Associate Professor, National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad]*
Let me start with a very provocative statement: Culture is the biggest barrier in ensuring human rights. Human rights have an inherent characteristic of being uniform and universal. The basic requirement for ensuring human rights is the enforcement of the rule of law. It is important for achieving rule of law that laws are codified and well-known. Cultures are characterized by diversity. Anthropologists believe that every society has its own distinct culture, but also that cultures are equal every culture has its own inherent logic. Anthropological research aims at finding out this logic. There is a close link between culture and law. Law, in its practiced form, reflects the values and customs of a society. Anthropologists, therefore, often compare courts to the market places. The laws adverse to the culture often become difficult, if not impossible, to implement. The law of Pakistan provides many examples of this, such as marriage of women to the Holy Quran, daughters share in the patrimony, honour killings, etc. This should not be misunderstood to mean that I endorse any of these customs. In my opinion, one major reason for the gap between codified law and un-codified practices is the absence of legal anthropological research aimed at understanding the logic in local culture. I will show by way of examples from my own research about the daughters share in the patrimony and the marriage of a woman to the Holy Quran that these customs are generally misunderstood. The common perception is that fathers/brothers do not give their daughters/sisters their due share in property. It is generally argued that to block the transfer of property, girls are given in marriage only to their cousins, particularly sons of fathers brothers. A girl is said not to be married if a husband could not be found for her in close family, especially among the feudal lords and the people belonging to the higher, at least highest, social hierarchies. Such women may even be married to the Holy Quran for keeping the property in the family. Watta satta (exchange marriage) is said to be another way to block the transfer of the landed property. My view is that women do not claim their official share of inheritance since the traditional share is more than the official half share. The traditional share of women in the patrimony is a very complex phenomenon embedded in the kinship and social structures, and it needs to be analyzed in that context.

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Similarly, against what is generally believed, a girl is not married to the Holy Quran to stop the transfer of property; it is a by-product of the marriage system practiced over centuries in some parts of Southern Punjab and many parts of Sindh. Cousin marriage and even marriage to the Holy Quran, in my view, are not arranged to block the claims of women in the property of their fathers. This is also evident from the fact that most of the conflicts related to land take place between cousins, especially patrilateral parallel cousins. According to the findings of my research, the first concern in all such marriages, including the watta satta, is the welfare of the girl and old age insurance.

5. Problems of Conducting Dissertation Research in Pakistani Universities


i) The State of Social Sciences in Pakistan [Dr. Rubina Saigol]
The social sciences and humanities have witnessed a global decline. In the past two decades, many departments of social sciences and humanities have been closed down because of a shortage of funds and dearth of student interest in the disciplines such as sociology, psychology, anthropology, history, literature and philosophy. In Pakistan, the interest in the social disciplines has waned concomitant with the rise of an overwhelming focus on information technology, and business and management sciences. There are many reasons for the decline; however, the three salient ones are: one, the ascendancy of neo-liberal capitalism with its tendency to promote managerial thinking, consumerism and market domination; two, the authoritarian states nationalist ideologies that inherently prefer a monolithic and fixed view of reality which is amenable to control; three, the rise of religious fundamentalism that seeks to impose one truth while erasing alternative explanations of social phenomena. The result of the decay in the social sciences is that the capacity for producing alternative versions of social existence has been greatly reduced. The social sciences have the potential to produce critical thinking based on analyses, and an understanding of the competing and multiple paradigms invoked to explain human behaviour and social relations. Contrary to popular thinking, the basic sciences do not have an inherent ability to produce critical thinking and bring about intellectual challenge. Scientists, engineers and doctors who are thoroughly grounded in the basic sciences have, with increasing frequency, been observed to develop a tendency towards fundamentalist thought and action. The challenge to a singular worldview based on religion, nationalism or neoliberalism must arise from social thought that is allowed to flourish freely. A study of a cross-spectrum of the social sciences and humanities revealed the dismal state of the social disciplines. First, there is a severe dearth of funding for social research and academic activities. Second, there are limited fora for cross-fertilization

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of ideas because of a lack of interaction among social scientists through conferences, meetings and seminars. Third, there are hardly any professional social science associations that promote these disciplines. Fourth, there are a few academically sound and respected journals in which research may be shared. Fifth, the research paradigms and methods used are outdated. As a result of these and many other factors, the research produced for MA, MPhil and even PhD degrees is of a low quality and does not meet the international criteria for publication. The teaching is based on outmoded models and perspectives with few opportunities for the germination of new ideas and philosophies. There are very few jobs in the market for social science students who end up with low-paying teaching jobs in schools, colleges or universities. A few manage to get research positions in the development sector, but they lack even the basic skills and knowledge to conduct meaningful research. The overall impact of the abysmal state of the social sciences is that society is deprived of new ideas and fresh perspectives, and it fails to challenge the dominant paradigms that order social existence.

ii) Solutions to Problems of Conducting Research in Pakistani Universities [Prof. Dr. Yasmin Nilofer Farooqi]
Unfortunately, our doctoral scholars lack the basic research skills and hands-on training regarding how to conduct research within the boundaries of code of ethics, and in the context of diverse psychological, sociological, cultural and religious backgrounds; how to analyze data statistically or qualitatively; and how to apply research findings to solve our own unique and indigenous psychological, sociological, political and economic problems using an interdisciplinary approach. Ironically, our universities fail to promote development of critical thinking, creativity, freedom of expression, analytical reasoning and interdisciplinary problem-solving approach among the students, probably because of lack of research culture; limited financial resources; an acute shortage of well-trained and competent faculty; ill-equipped laboratories; dismal state of libraries; and outdated computer labs even in this age of rapid advancement of science and information technology. Our libraries lack the financial resources required to purchase the authentic latest books/journals on social science research methods, so that our students are fully aware of the new trends in research methods as a result of a paradigm shift towards interdisciplinary holistic approach in the field of social sciences. Moreover, a general lack of interest and non-conducive environment for social science research in our universities has resulted in woefully inadequate theoretical and empirical research in the social sciences, which fails to truly analyze and address the unique Pakistani problems. It is sad that our universities are facing an alarming shortage of social science researchers who are thoroughly trained and fully competent in research methods. Consequently, the Pakistani social science researchers often lack qualitative and quantitative measurement skills that are necessary to conduct indigenous research, and

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interpret research findings in the context of our rapidly changing society with multiple psychosocial, economic, political, cultural and religious conflicts. It may be argued that lack of research culture and freedom of expression have further reinforced the bad habit of borrowing theories, constructs, instruments and testing and training materials from the advanced countries without even questioning, debating or commenting on their reliability and validity for the Pakistani population. Remember, it is not just memorizing formulas and doing cook-booking, which is what our doctoral students in the fields of psychology, economics, social work, sociology, education, media, history, anthropology, public administration and international relation normally do in their research and statistics classes! In fact, there is more to critically analyzing data than just plugging them into a software package. We have to teach our students how to interpret what comes out and do a careful check about whether or not the results make sense in our own unique socio-cultural context. Therefore, it is imperative that doctoral teaching and training in qualitative and quantitative methods for conducting research in the social sciences make our students think with a really creative mindset about the indigenous data, and learn the necessary skills that they will need to collect, analyze and understand data, as well as report their research findings honestly.

iii) Problems of Conducting Dissertation Research in Pakistan [Dr Nadia Saleem, Associate Professor, Department of Economics, University of Lahore, Lahore]*
Conducting research is not an easy task; one has to bear the pangs of creativity. The problems related to conducting research vary from the emotional and psychological trauma to scarcity of resources. Then there are issues of accessibility and reliability of data. A recent HEC report suggests that research degrees are being offered without the required PhDs on the strength of departments/faculties. Let us investigate the roles of the key players in research the supervisor, the student and the peers and explore the environment of research, and issues of resources and incentives! Starting from the selection of topic for writing a research proposal to critically evaluating the performance of the student, the role of the supervisor is crucial. Poor skills of the supervisor or lack of interest in and inadequate knowledge of the subject make it very difficult for the student to conduct research. The research scholars generally have very low interest and motivation, as well as poor writing and analytical skills, thus involving them in the research activity, which is mandatory, is a tedious exercise in itself. The supervisor has to introduce the research students to various networks, but this is again difficult because the academics in Pakistan are themselves not affiliated with networks. So how they do this for their research students becomes problematic. The supervisors are mostly unaware of issue-based research. Coupled with their limited vision and exposure, they are simply unable to guide their students. Moreover, re-

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search is an unrewarding and a thankless activity, and is considered as an extra burden. Providing a productive feedback to the students and convincing them to adopt researchbased careers, and making them aware of their future responsibilities, is again a difficult job. Sometimes the supervisory authority is also misused, especially where gender awareness is lacking. I carried out a small, rapid survey in several social science departments/faculties across public sector universities of Pakistan a few years ago. The respondents comprised of research students and supervisors. Purposive sampling frame was used for collecting the data and analyzing the research problems in the area of the social sciences. The survey highlighted many issues, including emotional and attitudinal problems; maintenance of the motivation level; interaction and involvement with the students; social issues in supervision; the knowledge gap; spoon feeding of the students; issue-based research versus methodology-driven research; access to research journals and books; reward of research; networking; feedback; poor analytical skills; time management; poor citation skills and record of activities; conceptualization problems; and ethical values of research. The survey findings showed that a proper incentive system could play an important role in encouraging issue-based research. There is a need for putting in place social networks where the supervisors and students can interact with each other. Administrative support is necessary, but it is a secondary issue; emotional and professional support and environment have the primary role in any research activity.

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J. Abstracts of Young Faculty Members and PhD Scholars


While members of the first four working groups comprised of top social scientists and researchers of the country, members of the fifth working group on the Problems of Conducting Dissertation Research in Pakistani Universities comprised of PhD scholars and young faculty members in some of the major social science disciplines. These faculty members and scholars had been chosen for participation in the Conference on the basis of abstracts submitted by them. Considering their shortcomings in the area, the HEC organized a National Workshop on Writing Research Grant Proposal for these young faculty members and PhD scholars on 16-17 April 2011. Moreover, all of them were supposed to make poster presentations on the topics of their doctoral dissertation on the sidelines of the Conference. Unfortunately, because of more urgent reasons, very few of PhD scholars could stay on to participate in the Conference. Abstracts of those young faculty members and PhD scholars have also been included here who could not make it to the Conference (an asterisk follows their name and position):

1. Correctional Treatment of Offenders in Pakistan


[Mr. Mazhar Hussain Bhutta]
Community-based rehabilitation of offenders has got tremendous significance in criminal justice system as the world moved away from retributive to rehabilitative justice. It offers an effective strategy for achieving the expected aim of justice that it is best achieved by a constructive community correctional program. The concept of offender treatment in community maintains that if the offender is to change, a comprehensive effort must be employed that addresses the individual, his or her family and the influences that are directed towards that family. On moral grounds, rehabilitation is the only justification of punishment that obligates the state to care for an offenders needs. In this regard, probation and parole systems have been devised to meet the requirements of community-based rehabilitation system. The philosophy behind probation and parole systems is that punishment alone does not and cannot correct the criminals or protect the community. According to the Probation of Offenders Ordinance (1960), probation is the postponement of final judgment or sentence in a criminal case, giving the offender an opportunity to improve his or her conduct to readjust in the community, on conditions imposed by the court and under the guidance and supervision of an officer of the court.

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The parole is the early release of good conduct prisoners and offenders who have completed mandatory period of substantive sentence as required under the Good Conduct Prisoners Probation Release Act (1926) and Rules (1927) that provide for release of good prisoners on the conditions imposed by the government. This is commonly known as conditional release or parole release. The community-based justice has many benefits: it reduces overcrowding in prisons and prevents escalation of detention costs; it ensures public safety and security through effective supervision and control over offenders who serve their sentences in the community, to enhance rehabilitation and reintegration of offenders into the community to strengthen their ability to live peacefully with others in a community setting; and it avoids an escalation in deviant behaviour as a result of new offenders mixing with hardened criminals. The probationer/parolees must be linked with a range of services in the community, and tied to the family and other social institutions. The goal is to morally strengthen the individual, the family and the community. Communities must be stable and offer a decent and dignified existence as the fruits of respectable and cooperative behaviour. The Probation of Offenders Ordinance (1960) was promulgated by the then President of Pakistan for correctional treatment of offenders. The task of supervision and treatment of offenders on probation/parole has been assigned to Reclamation and Probation Departments in all the provinces of Pakistan. Unfortunately, these departments are facing legal, financial, professional and technical problems in realization of goals of rehabilitative justice. As a result, probation/parole officers lack professional orientation, conceptual clarity, motivational work environment, innovative correctional skills and training. The researcher has tried to explore the gaps between the theory and what works situation of probation and parole systems in Pakistan. The findings show that probation and parole systems have been a most neglected area of criminal justice system in Pakistan.

2. Nature, Sources, Consequences and Remedies of Marital Conflict


[Ms. Riffat Jabeen]
The study explores marital conflict among couples married for different time periods. While studying the marital relations between spouses, the nature, sources, and personal and social consequences of the conflict have been studied in the societal context. The objective of the study was to find out the deep rooted causes of conflict between spouses and to discover the contribution of growing materialism towards generating marital conflict. Moreover, remedies are also suggested to address the growing conflict between spouses in Pakistani society. A survey of married people was conducted. The universe comprised of married people residents in Lahore District in Punjab. A systematically stratified random sampling procedure was adopted to draw a sample of respondents, with equal number of married men and women. Several data collection tools were used to gather quantitative data and information. The secondary sources of data such as libraries were also explored.

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The qualitative data (in the form of in-depth interviews) were gathered from: i) Couples experiencing conflict; ii) Divorced couples; iii) Academics and researchers of relevant fields; iv) Religious scholars; and (v) Other relevant people. Focus group discussions were also conducted with a number of couples experiencing conflict. The topics including the nature, sources, consequences and possible remedies of matrimonial conflicts were covered. An effort was also made to explore preventive strategies to promote the conditions that enhance harmony and unity among recentlywedded couples. The data were analyzed with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).

3. The Impact of Optimism and Hardiness on Coping with Professional Life Stress Among House-Job Doctors
[Mr. Yousaf Jamal]
The current research was conducted to investigate the impact of optimism and hardiness on coping with professional life stress among house-job doctors. A survey research design was used and a purposive sample of 200 (118 male and 82 female) house-job doctors was taken from five different public hospitals (Ganga Ram Hospital, Jinnah Hospital, Mayo Hospital, Services Hospital and Sheikh Zayed Hospital) of Lahore City. The house-job duration was from six to 12 months. A written informed consent was obtained from each of the participants. Personal Views Survey, Third Edition (PVS III) by Maddi (2003); Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) by Scheier, Carver and Bridges (1994); Professional Life Stress Scale (PLSS) by Fontana (1989); and Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced (COPE) by Carver, Scheier and Weintraub (1989) were individually administered to the participants to determine their coping with the professional life stress. Written permission was granted to the researcher for use of PVS III (2003); LOT-R (1994); COPE (1989) and PLSS (1989) in the current research. SPSS (version 15.0) was used to perform hierarchical multiple regression analysis in order to determine the impact of hardiness, optimism, demographic variables (age, marital status, gender, dependent children, monthly income and house-job duration) and coping strategies on professional life stress as reported by the doctors. According to the results, there was significant negative relationship between hardiness, professional life stress and denial; and positive relationship existed between positive personal growth, focus on venting emotions, mental disengagement and coping with professional life stress. Independent sample t-tests were also performed in order to determine gender differences in optimism, hardiness, coping strategies and professional life stress as reported by the doctors. There were no significant gender differences between hardiness, optimism, coping strategies and professional life stress. The findings have implications for promoting understanding of the organizations about relationship between optimism, hardiness, coping strategies and professional life

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stress, so that gender-sensitive growth-enhancing faculty development and human resource development programs could be introduced in the health care system, and other public and private organizations.

4. Gender and Organizational Practices in Public Organizations: A Case of University of the Punjab, Lahore
[Ms. Amani Moazzam Baig Mirza]

Sector

The thesis presents the finding of a case study conducted to explore the gendered organizational practices in Pakistan using University of the Punjab as a case in point. Taking organizational practices prevailing in the University and using a gender lens, a comprehensive analysis was conducted. University of the Punjab, the oldest seat of learning in the province, was selected as a case study to analyze the organizational practices in a public sector organization with 70% female representation. Drawing on the concept of the Gender Organization System and conceptual framework offered by Camilleri, the study discusses the implementation of an indigenous model specially developed for Pakistani organizations. The study utilized both quantitative and qualitative measures for data collection and analysis. In all, 280 respondents comprising the faculty of the University, both male and female, completed the questionnaires. The survey was also supported by semi structured interviews of the faculty, as well as by other secondary sources of data. The study explored and analyzed the reasons why there were so few women in the top echelons of higher education, particularly when the number of female faculty is on the rise. All the data collected provided a holistic view of the human resource practices of the University with the results pointing at three levels organizational, individual and societal with the societal factors being one of the top reasons for the lack of female representation at the top levels of the academia. The findings revealed that the major organizational practices of organizational commitment, motivating factors, promotion opportunities, equal representation, political skills, diversity management and networking are all affected by gender. It was also observed that meritocracy was an issue irrespective of gender; however, subtle biases existed towards representation of women, though overt discrimination was not observed, at least not in major cases. At the individual level, the self-perception of an individual and the academia was one of the major factors that resulted in the lack of female representation in public sector universities. Familial support has also been recognized as an important factor for possible female progression in careers of their choice. At the societal level, local culture and values have been recognized as a main contributor to underrepresentation of women in the academia. Even though the government has initiated programs and passed legislations to make the workplace harassment-free, their implementation is yet to be seen. The study presents useful recommendations to combat covert forms of discrimination, such as greater number of female administrative staff, increase in representation

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of women in different bodies, and gender sensitization of major educational departments as well as of students, in view of equitable gender participation in the academia.

5. Relationship Between Workplace Harassment and Posttraumatic Stress Syndrome Among Pakistani Female Health Care Professionals
[Ms. Sadia Malik]
This research was conducted to investigate the relationship between workplace harassment and posttraumatic stress syndrome among Pakistani female health care professionals. Survey research design was used. The convenient sample was composed of 300 female health care professionals within age range from 20 to 59 years (100 doctors, 100 doctors on house job and 100 certified nurses). The sample was drawn from five different public hospitals (Mayo Hospital, Ganga Ram Hospital, Jinnah Hospital, Lady Willington Hospital and Sheikh Zayed Hospital) of Lahore City. Written consent was individually obtained from all the participants. Bjrkquist and Ostermans (1992) Work Harassment Scale (WHS), Kamal and Tariqs (1997) Sexual Harassment Experience Questionnaire (SHEQ) and Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska and Keanes (1993) PTSD Civilian Checklist (PCL-C) were individually administered to the participants to determine their reported workplace harassment and posttraumatic stress syndrome. Written permission was granted by the authors to the researchers for use of WHS (1992); SHEQ (1997) and PCL-C (1993) in the current research project. SPSS (version 16.0) was used. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was performed to determine the relationship between workplace harassment and posttraumatic stress syndrome reported by the female health care professionals. The findings of the research suggested significant positive relationship between general workplace harassment and posttraumatic stress syndrome; and between sexual harassment and posttraumatic stress syndrome. Moreover, Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the impact of demographic variables and workplace harassment on posttraumatic stress syndrome. Furthermore, independent sample t-test was performed to determine differences in reported workplace harassment and posttraumatic stress syndrome among female doctors, house-job doctors and nurses. The findings of the research would promote our understanding of the relationship among workplace harassment, posttraumatic stress syndrome and the demographic variables such as age, education, marital status, job status of the female doctors, housejob doctors and nurses in the Pakistani health care system. These findings have implications for the prevention of workplace harassment and posttraumatic stress syndrome, as well as the introduction of timely interventions for the promotion of mental health of the victims of workplace harassment in the Pakistani health care system.

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6. Linking Descriptive and Substantive Representation: Impact of Gender Quota on Public Policy in Pakistan
[Mr. Sher Muhammad]
The research on gender differences in legislative policy priorities has been limited to a small number of industrialized democracies in the West, where women have achieved, in politics as well as other fields, high levels of representation at different levels. The findings of these studies have been mixed and their lessons are not very helpful for developing countries such as Pakistan, since a huge gape exists between democratic experiences, level of economic development, status of women and cultural values. The case of Asia, where womens political empowerment and representation have been slow, is totally different. There has been nominal research on womens political representation and its impact on public policy. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to investigate if quotas are an effective tool for ending gender inequality in politics and if it is really possible for the policymakers to engineer equality? This study will also analyze the ways electoral and party systems influence the issues female legislatures support in the parliament. It is also important to assess how the procedure adopted by political parties to select candidates shape womens legislative autonomy. Whether women elected on reserved seats are able to substantively represent women? The study will analyze all key aspects of womens political participation. Its focus will be on women in the National assembly and the Senate, since these are the institutions where women can begin to play a key role as public representatives. The research examines the impact that female legislators have on the formulation of public policy, and how gender quotas affect womens political attitude and behaviour. The focus is on variations in the number of women elected to the parliament and the impact of their presence in the parliament. Do women in public office make a difference? If yes, of what kind and under what specific circumstances? The study offers preliminary answers to these questions by examining the relationship between the percentage of women in state legislatures and their policy priorities. It also examines the impact female legislators have on the overall legislative policy. The driving question of this research, however, is whether quotas are an effective tool for reducing gender inequality in the political sphere. The following hypotheses were formulated to determine this: 1. The women elected on reserved seats are more likely to suffer from institutional constraints in the legislature; and, therefore, have tougher time working on womens issues than the women elected on general seats. 2. Legislatures with a critical mass of women (20% or more) are more likely to adopt women-friendly policies. The study uses the case of two legislative terms (2002-2010) of the National Assembly of Pakistan. It uses data from interviews with 50 female and 15 male members of the National Assembly; bibliographical information about 145 female parliamentarians from 2002-2010, and content analysis of party manifestos and parliamentary debate transcripts from the two abovementioned legislative terms (2002-2010). The study uses both qualitative and quantitative data.

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There is a paucity of research in Pakistan in this area and this study will illustrate a new strategy for theorizing and testing the link between descriptive and substantive representation. The research will also be useful for the policymakers working for the promotion of equality and affirmative action in favour of women. It will try to answer under what conditions do quotas contribute to womens empowerment and when they result in stagnation?

7. Comparison of Views of University Teaching Department Heads Regarding Their Role in the Promotion of Communication
[Mr. Rahmatullah Shah]
Communication plays a very important role in the management of an educational institution. It is the soul of an organization. An institution cannot be run without proper communication. The purpose of this study was to explore views of university teaching department heads regarding their role in the promotion of communication in the universities. The study compares the views of university teaching departments heads regarding their role in the promotion of communication by educational qualification, age, total length of service and experience as chairperson. Its population consisted of all public sector universities teaching departments heads in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The researcher randomly selected eight of the 10 universities in the province. A questionnaire comprising 27 items was completed by 124 respondents. ANOVA was used as a statistical technique for data analysis. There was no significant difference between the views of the university teaching departments heads by qualification, age and total length of service; however, there were significant differences between their views by experience as chairperson. Thus, the results show that demographic variables such as qualification, age and total length of service do not affect their role in the promotion of communication, while experience as chairperson does. To make university teaching departments heads effective communicators, training in communication skills may be imparted to them. For this purpose, a communication training institute may be set up. To generalize the results across the country, this study may be replicated in the other provinces of Pakistan.

8. The Role of Social Support in Coping with Chronic Illness


[Ms. Bushra Yasmeen]
The purpose of this study is to explore the role of social support (emotional, informational, material and instrumental) in coping (physical, psychological and behavioural), and the subjective feeling of wellbeing during chronic illness. It is focused on two chronic diseases: heart and kidney. The study was conducted on those chronic patients who were being treated at government hospitals in Lahore City. The respondents comprised of 275 patients of both sexes (131 of heart and 144 of kidney).

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The main objective of the study was to examine the role of social support in coping and subjective feeling of wellbeing. Interviews were conducted with the patients to provide context to findings from the survey data. The results of this study showed that age and gender, among socio-demographic variables, had significant effect on all facets of social support; while education significantly affected coping strategies. The male and female respondents differed in received support, but not in their coping strategies. Correlation analysis suggested a positive strong relationship among all four facets of social support. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that emotional and informational social support work well in behavioural coping. All four facets of social support showed positive influence on the psychological coping while instrumental social support influenced the physical coping. Overall, the study findings suggested that behavioural coping has direct strong influence on the subjective feeling of wellbeing, as compared with physical and psychological coping. Behavioural coping directly influenced physical coping too. Subjective feeling of wellbeing was significantly associated with behavioural coping, but there was no significant relationship between subjective feeling of wellbeing, and physical coping and psychological coping.

9. Public Debt and Pro-Poor Economic Growth: Cross Country Analysis with Special Reference to Pakistan
[Mr. Naeem Akram, School of Economic Sciences, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad]*
Over the years, most of the developing countries have failed to collect enough revenues to finance their budgets. As a result of this, they have to face the problem of twin deficits, and must rely on both external and domestic debt to finance their development budget. The old view about debt-financed growth, however, has now been replaced by a more balanced view about how it affects economic growth, employment, inequality of income and wealth, and the incidence of poverty. The positive effects relate to the fact that in resource-starved economies, debtfinancing if done properly leads to higher growth; and adds to their capacity to service and repay external and internal debt. The negative effects work through two main channels: debt-overhang and crowding-out effects. Civil society and anti-globalization movements have propagated the view that, instead of reducing, the poverty public debt has increased the miseries of the poor. The present study examines the consequences of public debt for economic growth, investment and income inequality (pro-poor growth), as well as poverty regarding selected South Asian and East Asian countries: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, the Philippines and Sri Lanka, for the period 1975-2006. The present study develops a hybrid model that explicitly incorporates the role of public debt in the budget constraint and growth equations. This model has been extended to incorporate the effects of debt on income inequality and poverty. Using these

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models, two separate types of analyses have been conducted: the first based on panel data and the second on time-series data of individual country. The estimation based on panel data shows that public external debt negatively affects per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and investment, which points to the existence of the debt-overhang effect. Contrary to this, public external debt-servicing did not have significant relationship with per capita GDP and investment, which confirms the non-existence of the crowding-out effect. Domestic debt has a positive and significant relationship with per capita GDP and negative relationship with investment. Neither public external debt nor external debtservicing has significant relationship with income inequality, suggesting that public external debt is as good/bad for the poor as it is for the rich. Domestic debt, however, has a negative relationship with the Gini coefficient, indicating that domestic debt is helpful in reducing income inequality. To strengthen these results, the time series estimation of the individual countries of the sample has also been conducted. In the case of Bangladesh, public external debt along with debt-servicing has a negative relationship with per capita GDP and investment, which confirms the debt-overhang effect and shows that the crowding-out effect has adversely affected growth. Domestic debt has a negative impact on the investment but positive impact on per capita GDP, which suggests that domestic debt enhances public investment but it crowds out the private investment, so that the net effect on the investment is negative. Public external debt does not have any distributional effects; however, domestic debt certainly helps in reducing income inequality. For India, external debt-servicing and domestic debt have had a negative relationship with per capita GDP. But for reasons explained above, estimation results of the relationship of public external debt and per capita GDP are ambiguous. As for income inequality, the estimation results are spurious so that we cannot infer any firm conclusions from them. In Pakistan and the Philippines, public external debt has negative relationship with per capita GDP and investment, which confirming the debt-overhang effect. But due to lack of significant relationship between debt-servicing and investment and per capita GDP, the existence of the crowding-out hypothesis could not be confirmed. Similarly, domestic debt has a negative, though not very significant, relationship with investment and per capita GDP. In other words, it seems to have crowded out private investment. In Pakistan, public external debt and debt-servicing have no significant relationship with Gini coefficient, though domestic debt tends to enhance income inequality. But, in the Philippines, external debt tends to raise the level of income inequality; but domestic debt remains neutral, mainly due to its distributional effects. In Sri Lanka, public external debt has helped the process of economic growth, but debt-servicing has negative relationship with per capita GDP and investment. Although external debt has played a crucial role in the development of this civil war-hit country, debt-servicing is still a major concern there. Domestic debt has no significant relationship with per capita GDP. Also unlike other countries in the model, public external debt has reduced income inequality and has proved to be beneficial for the poor. However, domestic debt remains neutral, mainly due

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to its distributional effects.

10.

Statistical Modelling For Determining the Risk Factors of Hepatitis C in Punjab

[Mr. Muhammad Ghias, Department of Statistics, Government College University, Lahore]*


Statistics plays a pivotal role in every field of human activity, either it is from the social sciences or the basic sciences. Data-based quantitative research cannot be conducted without the application of appropriate statistical tools. In this study, we aimed at finding out the statistically significantly risk factors associated with hepatitis C and their predictive strength by using the statistical models in Punjab. Hepatitis C is a worldwide viral disease caused by HCV virus. It is common all over the world, but more so in Pakistan. hepatitis C is a slowly developing blood-borne disease that severely affects liver cells and may result in a number of health complications. It was estimated that about 200 million people are infected with HCV virus worldwide. Pakistan is a developing country of 180 million people with low health and educational standards. In Pakistan, about 10 million people are presumed to be infected with HCV. The prevalence of HCV in the country is estimated to be between 4% and 6%. A community-based study conducted in Hafizabad District of Punjab estimated this figure to be 6.5%, while another study showed seroprevalence of hepatitis C to be between 5% and 8%. This case-control study will be done to evaluate the current status of risk factors for acquisition in patients having a positive serological evidence of HCV in the general population of Punjab. In the absence of a vaccine, the only valuable option is the development of a well-built prevention program, which can address the increasing burden of HCV in developing countries such as Pakistan. It can only be implemented if accurate risk factor assessment is done satisfactorily in these countries. Hence, after the completion of this study, a comprehensive knowledge and awareness can be provided to the people of our society, so that we can save hundreds of thousands of important lives.

11. Emigration, Trade and Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from Pakistan
[Mr. Shabbir Haider, School of Economic Sciences, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad]*
The primary focus of this study is on investigating the impact of population emigration from Pakistan on its economy. For this purpose, the impact of emigration on the volume of Pakistans international trade and on the inflow of foreign direct investment into Pakistan are analyzed by estimating gravity models using data from nine selected countries of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The study also makes an attempt to investigate how various economic and noneconomic factors affect popula-

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tion emigration from Pakistan. The period of analysis is from 1990 to 2003. Past studies on emigration from Pakistan have mainly focused on factors affecting emigration of workers to the Middle Eastern countries. This study expands their focus by including data on some major OECD countries and by analyzing the effects of Pakistani migrant networks on Pakistans trade and foreign direct investment. About 240,000 Pakistanis leave the country each year to call a foreign country their home; however, they maintain their economic and social ties with Pakistan. In their new countries of residence, they form social and information networks which can help in many ways to reduce the transaction costs for residence of that country who wish to trade with and invest in Pakistan. In turn, this can help in boosting the volume of international trade and of foreign direct investment in Pakistan, both of which contribute to a countrys economic development. So far, academic and policy circles have ignored this role that expatriates can play in Pakistans development. The findings of the study confirm that Pakistani migrant networks in foreign countries have statistically significant impact on the volume of Pakistans international trade with their host countries and also on the inflow of foreign direct investment to Pakistan from them. Hence, developing a formal relationship with Pakistani migrant resident in OECD countries can be an important step towards aiding the future development of Pakistans economy. This relationship can be developed by the government as well as the private sector. The impacts of various push and pull factors, identified by previous literature, are also confirmed by the findings of this study. By providing quantitative estimates of the contribution that the Pakistani expatriates make towards Pakistans international trade and foreign direct investment, the present study is likely to generate a new debate on their potential role in the countrys economic development.

12.

The Impact of Public Expenditure on Economic Growth: An Empirical Evidence from Selected South Asian Countries with special reference to Pakistan

[Mr. Muhammad Iftikharul Hasnain, School of Economic Sciences, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad]*
In South Asia, like many other developing regions of the world, the role of public expenditure, despite its relatively high share, has not been satisfactory in addressing a number of social and economic issues over the years. Rising deficits, widening income inequality, mounting debts and low revenue earnings in South Asian countries demand deeper analysis of the issue. The direction of influence between public expenditure and economic activity, relative importance of the financing source of public expenditure, and the optimal size of government needs to be investigated. This study targets expenditure-growth nexus in selected South Asian countries Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka and Nepal for the period 1975-2008.

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The study finds out that public expenditure neither follows Wagners law nor Keynes hypothesis in Pakistan, India and Nepal. This also means that economic development and public expenditure do not affect each other and are determined by some other factors. However, in Sri Lanka, public expenditure and per capita gross domestic product (GDP) are linked with each other in the long run. The study also finds out that, at disaggregated level, various components of public expenditure do not show any long run relationship with per capita GDP in all of the countries. This also shows that existing structure of government expenditure is not conducive to economic growth and some other structure of government expenditure may be more efficient in stimulating economic growth. This can be achieved by reorganizing, restructuring and redefining the role of public expenditure. The study concludes that source of finance does matter in determining the impact of public expenditure on economic growth. Public expenditure financed through any source hurts growth in the region. However, seigniorage-financed public expenditure has the greatest negative effect on growth, followed by debt-financed and tax-financed public expenditure. Therefore, it may be suggested that reduction in public expenditure could boost growth in the South Asian region. In the current scenario, however, the financing of public expenditure through taxes is the least costly option. The study also finds out that, assuming balanced budget, the current size of governments in these countries is higher than the estimated optimal size. The difference between current and optimal size, however, is very small. This shows a very narrow scope for reduction in government size. Government size is optimized when public expenditure ranges from 18-28% of GDP. Under the unbalanced budget scenario, it is found out that the current tax-to-GDP ratio is below the estimated growth maximizing tax rate. A wide scope (10-30%) exists to increase tax-to-GDP ratio to attain the optimal level of taxes. Strict fiscal discipline through cuts in public spending, restructuring and reorganization of the tax regime to mobilize more domestic resources is the suggested panacea for major economic concerns of the South Asian region.

13.

Party Politics in Pakistan: A Case Study of Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (1993-2008)

[Mr. Amjad Abbas Khan, Pakistan Study Centre, University of the Punjab, Lahore]*
The success of democratic institutions relies on the ability and performance of political parties, thus the institutionalization of political parties is necessary for the political stability of a society. There is an urgent need to analyze the form and substance of Pakistans political parties, especially those that have the ability to influence the countrys politics. It seems important to analyze the past, present and the future roles of these political parties. In Pakistan, unfortunately, political institutions have not been fully institutionalized.

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The civil-military establishment is more organized and institutionalized than the political parties. The long stay in power of military dictators like Generals Ayub Khan, Yahya Khan, Ziaul Haq and Pervez Musharraf has also affected the growth and development of political parties in an institutionalize manner. Moreover, the leadership has a final say regarding the ideologies in the political parties. The present study is an attempt to analyze the Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N) as a political party and its role in the national party politics. The PML-N is one of the leading political parties of Pakistan. The partys critics take exception to its status as a national party with a mass following and its role in the party politics, so it is necessary to analyze the dynamics of the PML-N with an objective angle to get a clear picture of its potential as a national party on the basis of its past achievements and its present role in the politics of Pakistan. The rise of the PML-N requires scholarly research. Until 1993, the party was a favourite of the establishment, but after that, under the leadership of Mian Nawaz Sharif, it adopted an anti-establishment stance. Pakistani political parties, including the PML-N, are not well-organized because they revolve around leaders, not workers. The absence of internal elections in these parties has weakened the overall party politics in Pakistan. Although still not an institutionalized political party, the PML-N now has a mass following after passing through various phases. Initially, the PML-N capitalized on the anti-Bhutto vote bank, but later it emerged as having its own following in the conservative middle class. This was an outcome of some of the partys policies and measures it adopted. The leadership of Mian Nawaz Sharif has also been a key factor in extending its support base. The present study focuses on analyzing the PML-Ns role in the national party politics of Pakistan from 1993 to 2008. The current grave situation in Pakistan may also be attributed to the failure of political parties that never delivered. The political parties in the past succumbed to narrow interests of power game. They looked up to the civil-military bureaucracy to reach the corridors of power. That resulted in the weakening of the democratic institutions in the polity of Pakistan. The stability of that polity is directly related to the strengthening of the party system in Pakistan. Corruption, division, instability and susceptibility to outside influence are all symptoms of a weak party system. The political parties should work for the strengthening of the democratic institutions and values. The leaders are responsible for the democratization of the parties. They must recognize their earnest duty to take Pakistan out of the current precarious situation.

14.

Adverse Health Experiences, Risk Perception and Pesticide-Use Behaviour

[Mr. Muhammad Khan, School of Economic Sciences, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad]*
Agriculture is the most important sector for Pakistans economy, since it contributes 22% to gross domestic product (GDP) and employs 45% of the national labour force. The ag-

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riculture sector supports directly or indirectly about 65% of the population living in rural areas. Furthermore, this sector contributes about 65% to the countrys total export earnings, through raw and processed agricultural commodities. It is evident that pesticides are used for certain benefits; however, the use of pesticides also has negative effects on the farmers and the society. Negative externalities may include such as effects on human health, loss of bio-diversity, degradation of natural ecosystems and irreversible changes in the environment. Various kinds of pesticides have been used on a large scale in Pakistan since the early 1950s to protect crops from damages inflicted by insects and diseases. After liberalization of pesticides in 1980, pesticide use increased dramatically in Pakistan reaching 117,513 metric tons in 2005, compared with only 12,530 metric tons in 1985. The massive increase in pesticide consumption is not translated into productivity improvements, rather accompanied by a huge cost in terms of human health and degradation of the environment. It is a well-established fact that the use of pesticides on the farm is largely governed by voluntary behaviour. Therefore, it is important to understand what drives farmers behaviour of pesticide use. Such information is also critical to identify the prospects and constraints to the adoption of alternative crop protection policy. According to microeconomic consumer theory, individuals make choices following their preferences. The economic theory, however, does not focus on the processes of individuals reasoning behind choices. Cognitive models in public health and social psychology argue that persons who have had adverse health experiences are likely to undertake greater preventive behaviour. The present study combines an approach from social psychology with micro economic consumer theory to understand individuals reasoning behind their decisions. Furthermore, the study examines the health implications of pesticide use as caused by behaviour of farmers. This will help in informing the policymakers about the productivityreducing effects of pesticide use. A sample of 318 farmers in Vehari and Lodhran Districts of Southern Punjab was drawn. The results indicate that farmers are frequently exposed to pesticides. More than 90% of the farmers reported at least one health problem in Lodhran District, while almost 80% in Vehari District reported the same. These farmers, however, gave low priority to their health and grossly underestimated the risks of pesticides; none of the respondents visited hospital or doctor for proper medication. This misperception is translated into practical behaviour where farmers were found heavily skewed towards pesticide use for pest management and the use of protective measures to avoid direct exposure of pesticides is not sufficient. The low level of education combined with cultural/local beliefs regarding health effects of pesticide use is the main reason of this comportment. Moreover, about 80% pesticides used in the study area are highly or moderately hazardous. Among crops, cotton alone received over 70% of the total quantity of pesticides. A similar pattern was observed with regard to toxicity, where cotton consumed over 88% of highly and moderately hazardous pesticides. Farmers were also found to

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be overusing pesticides. Moreover, they were found applying pesticides very frequently. During the survey, 73% of them reported that they applied pesticide more than 10 times on cotton in a season. The spray frequency is as high as 16 times on cotton crop in one season. There is a dearth of formal training and information on proper use and safe handling of pesticides. Most of the farmers did not know about integrated pest management (IPM) and very few of them were practicing it. The analysis also supports the hypothesis that farmers who have had negative health experiences related to pesticide use are more likely to have heightened risk perceptions than farmers who have not had such problems. Education and training are important determinants of risk perception. Association existed between the experience of health problems and use of protective measures. The results, however, do not support the hypothesis that the farmers who have had negative health effects from pesticide use are more likely to adopt the alternative pest management practices. This, however, does not mean that farmers who have had such experiences do not care about the effects of pesticide use. The most likely reason is the lack of information or access to alternative pest management practices. The contingent valuation analysis also shows that farmers are willing to pay premium for safe alternatives of pesticides. Finally, the research findings and results have some very important implications; for example, the empirical relation that appears to exist between training of safe handling and alternative pest management suggests that trained farmers significantly and effectively substitute IPM for pesticide use. Hence, to improve awareness among the farmers, necessary for better choices of pesticide use, specific and relevant information regarding the health effects and environmental risks of using pesticide should be provided to them through training programs. For this, the government should restructure current propesticide extension system and design effective outreach programs, such as farmer field schools which deal specifically with health risk of pesticide use, averting behaviour and better management of pests. One such major initiative the National IPM Program is already in place but with limited coverage, which needs to be broadened through increased efforts by the government and NGOs to educate farmers. This may help reduce dependency on pesticides, while at the same time maintaining or even improving production. Furthermore, policy interventions should include the restructuring of incentives and punishment to reduce availability of highly toxic insecticides.

15. Socio-Cultural Determinants of Womens Empowerment in Punjab


[Dr. Tariq Mahmood Khan, Assistant Professor, Department of Statistics, Govt. Postgraduate College Jaranwala, Jaranwala]*
Pakistan is among the countries where gender discrimination is apparent in all fields of life. Womens rights are violated and exploited. More important, women do not have their voice or independent opinion; even they are not given the right to decide about their life. Persisting socio-cultural norms and patriarchal structure of the Pakistani society restricts

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womens mobility and their participation in paid job, as well as deprives them of their inherited property. It is common perception that nations cannot progress in any field until their women continue to be exploited and discriminated against. Therefore, there is a dire need to empower women and uplift their status. This study was conducted considering the significance of this issue for Pakistan. Its main objectives were to measure the empowerment level of women in study area and to identify the socio-cultural factors that influence womens empowerment, especially in domestic sphere. For this purpose, a sample of 550 married women of reproductive age (15-49), excluding widows and divorced, were taken from two randomly selected districts (Faisalabad and Rawalpindi) of Punjab. Information regarding demography, household, locality and other socio-cultural variables was collected through a structured interview schedule. In order to understand the complexity of the phenomenon of womens empowerment, key informant interviews were also conducted by using semi-structured interview schedule. Different statistical tools mean, standard deviation, bar charts, t-distribution, chi square test for association, gamma statistic, Somers d statistic, correlation coefficient, one way analysis of variance technique and multiple regression analysis were employed to systematically present the information, and to develop the relationship between different explanatory variables and the dependent variable (womens empowerment). In order to observe the causality of relationship between the variables, a multiple linear regression model was developed. The univariate/descriptive analysis indicated that the majority of women faced lack of resources, their job involvement was negligible, they were less educated as compared with their husbands, and they had low level of awareness regarding their rights. The political interest and group participation of women were not encouraging either. They had lesser decision-making ability, control over resources, mobility and participation in family discussions than their husbands. In contrast, they had moderate level of social networking and received cooperation of their husbands in daily affairs. The analysis based on key informant interviews revealed that safe and secure future of women means empowerment for them. The inference based on bivariate analysis showed that the majority of variables included in this study were statistically associated with womens empowerment. However, regression analysis identified 13 variables based on their impact on womens empowerment. Of these, type of family, family headship, number of brothers, observance of veil, paid job involvement, awareness about rights, social networking, husbands cooperation, political participation, conjugal age and education had highly significant influence on womens empowerment. The variables of local level facilities and amount of dowry and property received by the respondent from her parents had significant influence on womens empowerment. The study suggests that female education can lead to greater knowledge and self-esteem among them. The study highlights the need for active participation of the government and NGOs in mobilizing and organizing women groups, and thereby raising awareness and political interest among them.

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16.

Theoretical Perspective for Researching a University Research Culture

[Mr. Ahmad Sohail Lodhi, Lecturer, University of the Punjab, Lahore]*


This paper presents the theoretical perspectives on university research culture. The study aims to understand precisely and conceptualize clearly the meaning of the term research culture. Moreover, it presents a theoretical framework that has the ability to investigate and explain the interplay of different aspects individual, social and environmental dimensions of university research culture. A vibrant and sustained research culture is one of the common characteristics of all prestigious and highly-reputed universities in the contemporary world of knowledge. Despite its importance, the notion of research culture seems to be a vaguely defined and an under-examined area in the existing academic literature. The concept of organizational culture offers two broad approaches variable and root metaphoric that may be used to study a university research culture. On the one hand, the adoption of culture-as-a-variable approach to investigate the phenomenon may neglect the context specific stimuli, because it only considers the objective opinions of the academics about predefined elements of research culture. Almost similarly, the root metaphoric traditions to examine the organizational culture overemphasize the individual component and undermine the importance of social demotion. Therefore, they are also unable to provide sold theoretical foundations for conceptualization the concept of university research culture. In this scenario, Archers morphogenetic approach and her recent work seems a suitable option to investigate the notion of research culture. This approach was originally developed in the context of sociology to offer an explanatory framework for cultural analysis. Unlike other approaches for social analysis, it gives equal prominence to individual, social and environmental dimensions of a social event. By re-contextualizing the morphogenetic approach, this paper will propose a framework that will not only conceptualize the notion of research culture, but also provide a template to examine the interplay between different domains of research culture. Moreover, Evans researcher development model will guide the process of re-contextualization of the morphogenetic approach. The study will help understand the research culture in universities. By understanding the factors affecting the research culture, the management of a university can refine its strategies to positively develop it. Finally, the study will contribute to the limited body of knowledge on this topic.

17.

Role of Human Resource Development in Industrial Development: A Case Study of Pakistan Telecommunication Industry

[Mr. Nadeem Malik, Lecturer, Department of Commerce, University of Balochistan Quetta]*


The telecommunication sector is rapidly growing in Pakistan and substantially contribut-

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ing to countrys GDP. Telecom industry services promote economic and human resource development (HRD) by serving as a medium that facilitates the acquisition and transportation of information in cost-effective ways, while minimizing the obstacles of distance and time. The telecom industry in Pakistan is currently going through a period of transition, as technological advances and liberalization of the economy move the industry into a position to compete in an increasingly competitive world and regional environment. Pakistan opened up the telecom market to the private operators for fixed line and the cellular mobile sector in 2003. Resultantly, the telecom sector has emerged as one of the fastest growing sectors in the region. The intense competition has led to lowering of tariffs and other costs. The number of telephone users has multiplied rapidly in the country. Fair implementation of the telecom deregulation policy has shown positive impact on foreign direct investment in the sector, number of subscribers, employment creation, teledensity and total revenue of the sector. The trends in and means of telecommunications are rapidly changing, bringing improvement in the overall economy of the country. The telecom industry is booming throughout the country; two million mobile subscribers were added every month throughout 2010. The telecommunication sector has significantly contributed towards stable national economy, thus allowing its benefits to reach every part of the country. Communication has become the name of the game in this millennium. De-regulation of the telecom sector has led to a chain reaction of economic prosperity and innovation in new communication technologies, uplifting the society both at the government and the public level. This study was conducted on two perspectives: macro and micro. In macro perspective, the study measured the impact of the telecom industry on the economy: inflow of foreign direct investment, share in the GDP, employment opportunities created and revenue contributed to the national exchequer. Specifically, the impact of the telecom industry on people of different income groups was measured through questionnaire survey technique. In micro-perspective, the study investigated the impact of HRD practices on perceived organizational performance. Six practices of training and development, succession planning, performance management and development, selection, career and development, and compensation were independent variables while perceived organizational performance dependent variable. Through questionnaire survey, responses of a total of 223 employees of different telecom organizations were collected. The results showed that HRD practices were being implemented and they were the key contributor to the enhanced organizational performance in the telecom sector, while training and selection were significantly related to organizational performance. The conclusion, which is based on the findings and objectives of the study, highlights the importance of the telecom sector in the economic growth of the country.

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18.

School Textbooks and Gender Socialization: Problems and Challenges

[Mr. Arab Naz, Lecturer, Department of Sociology, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Dir Lower]*
In the recent past, gender development and empowerment has emerged as a key issue for social scientists since no society can progress and prosper without it. Different agencies are working to attain gender balance and allow reasonable space to women to play their due role in the society. Among them, the importance of schools is pivotal in bridging the gender gap. This paper argues that school education mainly relies on prescribed textbooks to train and educate the masses. This paper analyzes the language and content of these books to explore the pattern of gender socialization. The study is based on qualitative analysis of 42 textbooks of English, Urdu and Pashto taught from Grade-I to Grade-X at state-owned and privaterun schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The analysis of the data collected through library method contends that textbooks, mainly vehicled by language and contextualized pictures, try to portray gender roles and identities, and socialize students in their respective gender roles. The paper highlights the inadequacies and deficiencies of the textbooks in truly portraying and projecting gender roles. It goes on to argue that, on the one hand, the text is predominantly masculine; and, on the other, it is strongly in the grip of the local patriarchal culture. Consequently, the textbooks are marked by gender disparities and underrepresentation of feminine gender. With reference to the words and labels incorporated in the textbooks, it is viewed that they serve as means to preserve age-old gender inequalities, manipulated and exploited by vested interest groups to impose a predefined gender biased social structure. Last but not the least, the paper explores the challenge faced by our policymakers to bring the textbooks on par with global gender expectations.

19.

Family Systems as Determinants of Self-Esteem in Patients of Hepatitis B and C

[Mr. Sultan Shujja, Lecturer, Department of Psychology, Government College University, Lahore]*
The study investigated the relationship between family system (joint and nuclear) and the level of self-esteem. The sample of the study comprised of 105 patients of hepatitis B and C, 52 from joint and 53 from nuclear family system with age range 25-45 years (M = 35.5, SD = 7.7). All the participants were conveniently drawn from different hospitals of Sargodha District in Punjab. An indigenously developed scale, named as Farida Rifais Self-Esteem Scale, was used to measure self-esteem of the patients. Urdu version of the scale was used, since most of the participants were not highly educated. A demographic form was used to obtain information about variables of interest

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like age, type of family system (joint/nuclear), gender (woman/man) and type of hepatitis (B/C). Statistical analyses suggest that there was no significant correlation between family system and self-esteem in the patients of hepatitis B and C. On the other hand, male patients of hepatitis had higher self-esteem than their female counterparts. Similarly, patients of hepatitis C scored higher on the Self-Esteem Scale than patients of hepatitis B. The findings of the present study can help health professionals in giving attention to the psychological aspects of life-threatening diseases like hepatitis, and developing insights about the cognitive functioning of hepatitis patients. The results were discussed in the light of Pakistans specific cultural context.

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K. Academic Papers by Participants 1. Strengthening Pakistani-German Academic Cooperation in the Social Sciences
[Prof. Dr. Jochen Hippler]
To strengthen cooperation between Pakistani and German scholars, research institutes and universities, a double approach would be advisable. On the one hand, cooperation will only flourish if it includes specific common research interests. Those should be leading to joint projects in research and publications, as well as joint conferences to discuss them. At the same time, common projects need institutional and personal exchange and cooperation in order to be fruitful and sustainable. Both aspects should be closely interconnected. With regard to common research and publication topics, as well as conference and workshop themes, the following three major possibilities stand out: 1. Intercultural dialogue: This would include Muslim-Western Dialogue, which means possibilities and limits of dialogue between Western and Muslim societies. It also would include dialogue and cooperation inside our societies; between ethnic or religious groups, or between the original societies and immigrants. 2. Political violence: This theme includes the problems of insurgency and counterinsurgency, terrorism, foreign military interventionism, and other forms of violence; as well as causes, forms and effects, and possibilities of finding ways to peaceful resolution, of conflict. 3. Governance and political stability: The role of rule of law, responsive party system and political legitimacy in developing stability and cooperation in a given society; as well as the need for and ways of reform in this regard. At least two, if possible all three, of those topics should be dealt with in joint research groups of three researchers from each country. They would cooperate with additional colleagues in both the countries. These groups should produce a book each, presenting their research results and findings. Organizationally and institutionally, it would be essential to establish a framework for sustained cooperation. This should include: 1. Two Pakistani and two German participating academics should visit the partners in the other country every year, individually. On this occasion, they would also give lectures at their host universities or at other venues. 2. For each research group, there should be at least one, if possible, two informal workshops per year, to discuss the common work, with 10-12 participants.

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3. At the end of the project, each of them should present the findings at a public conference of medium size. In addition to these measures, it would be useful to combine these researchers with activities that would strengthen Pakistani-Germany academic cooperation in the social sciences in general. Those should be technically independent from, but connected with, the ones mentioned above. They should include: 1. Exchange of academic teachers: In addition to the current level of exchange, at least two more academic teachers should be sent to Germany from Pakistan, and two from Germany to Pakistan, for at least six months, but preferably longer. One of the two should be of senior rank or experience, the other one a promising younger colleague. Preference should be given to those who are participating in the programs mentioned above. 2. Exchange of Students: In addition, it would be useful to start exchange of students. The students should be interested in the topics above and might be preparing theses on related topics. 3. Common PhD programs: Doctoral students should be systematically encouraged to study in the respective partner country Pakistan or Germany. As a further step, it would be possible to develop common PhD programs for students of the two countries. In the long run, this intensification of this cooperation should hopefully lead to the establishment of permanent organizational structures, for example, formal contracts of cooperation between institutions and universities from both countries, the setting up of a common social science institute or a common peace research institute. In this perspective, it might be discussed if academics from other countries should be brought in to develop even more common research and teaching activities.

2. Academic Cooperation Between Pakistan and Germany in Social Science Research


[Prof. Dr. Wolfgang-Peter Zingel]
During the preparations for Allama Iqbals birth centenary in 1977, the late Mr. Munir Ahmad, the then-cultural counsellor of the Pakistan Embassy in Bonn, suggested the establishing of a professorial fellowship, funded by the Government of Pakistan, in honour of Dr. Muhammad Iqbal. The Allama had spent some months in Heidelberg in 1907 when he was waiting to defend his doctoral thesis titled The Development of Metaphysics in Persia at the University of Munich. His letters are proof of his success in mastering the German language. Dr. Muhammad Ajmal Makhdum became the first Iqbal Professor at the University of Heidelbergs South Asia Institute (SAI) in 1979. He was followed by Dr. Muhammad Siddique Khan Shibli, Prof. Fateh Muhammad Malik (who held the post twice), Dr. HasanAksari Rizvi, Dr. Pervaiz Iqbal Cheema and Dr. Syed Wiqar Ali Shah (who currently holds the post). They came

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from different disciplines and blended in the interdisciplinary environment, setting fine examples of crossing the borders of disciplines in teaching and research. The Allama Iqbal Professorial Fellowship at the SAI is just one example of the longstanding academic relations between Pakistan and Germany since the early 1950s. Pakistan sent young scholars to not only the United Kingdom, but also countries of the non-English speaking world, to learn more about systems different from that of its former mother country. At the same time, university teachers and students from all over the world came to Pakistan. Pakistan was among the first batch of colonies that were released into independence, but for years to come they remained dependent politically, economically and culturally. To lessen the influence of their former masters, they sent their young scholars to developed countries, where they could learn novel ways of organizing the state, economy and society. A large number of Pakistani students came to my country Germany and I am particularly indebted to all those who helped when I first came to Pakistan. They used to regret that the interest in studying in the continental Europe had become less. Instead, English-speaking countries in general and the United States in particular had become much more attractive. Today, English-speaking countries attract almost all interested in pursuing higher studies abroad, but language may not be the real cause. The first generation of Pakistani students who went to non-English speaking countries had little difficulty learning another foreign language. The fact that South Asia is so rich in languages and that South Asians often speak more than one language must be the reason that people of the subcontinent pick up languages easily. English-speaking countries have an attraction beyond the familiar language, and that is the prospect of an international labour market. English has become the working language also of countries that have their own native language, but use English in business and, especially, in education and research. Countries that promise employment and career after higher studies are most sought after. A higher degree is considered an entry card to academic positions abroad. This, indeed, has impact on research. As an outsider who comes regularly to South Asia, and has worked in different capacities in different institutions in different countries, I have been particularly fascinated by the opportunity of comparing different systems within the region, which shares so much of the history but still has very distinct societies. Some striking similarities exist between these societies, but not in all fields. Here I will mention the salient ones only: 1. Academic institutions all over South Asia focus much more on teaching and less on research as compared with academic institutions in my country Germany. Teaching in South Asia is more ex cathedra: teacher talks, student listens. There is less interaction. The Bachelors and Masters degrees do not necessarily require dissertation. The students are used to rote learning and do not know how to express themselves in discussions, seminars and oral examinations. Where teaching and discussion is not in the mother tongue, students face difficulty expressing themselves and seek help from model answers available from books and magazines that promise shortcuts to knowledge and success. External evaluation in principle should guarantee certain minimum

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standards, but often leads to highly predictable standard questions. In short, the system is least suited to develop independent and novel thinking as is required in research. 2. Teachers are better qualified than decades ago, at least in principle and going by formal qualifications. It was still easier to maintain high standards as long as the number of students was small. The students came from families that gave value to education rather than to degrees. The leading institutions of learning on all levels had a large number of teachers from outside the country or having been trained abroad. After completing their studies, students could expect to find a job according to their training, preferably in government. With the expansion of education and little emphasis on teachers training, such privileged education can no longer be guaranteed. Government also no longer provides enough positions for graduates and postgraduates after completing their education. Employability more and more depends on grades. Teachers attempts at trying to be helpful and giving better marks devalue the whole grading system. Students try to cope by copying from the internet, which often is tolerated and even encouraged, and therefore remains undetected and unpunished. The easy way out for the teachers is to avoid assignments and wholly to rely on written tests, which is unhelpful, if the students writing and analyzing skills are to be improved. 3. The social sciences and humanities have to serve as a safety valve for students who cannot be accommodated in disciplines that promise higher pay and status, and that are also more expensive. To allow as many students to take up higher studies in the face of limited funds available for education, students have to be herded into disciplines where costs per student are less than in the sciences and medicine. We can also observe a tendency to go for postgraduate or other advanced studies as an alternative to unemployment or to taking up low-status employment. Theoretically, the market would be cleared by lower wages and, subsequently, less demand for social science training. Instead unemployed academics enjoy financial and moral support of their families. 4. In South Asia, usually the size and openness of a country determine the value people attach to their institutions. India, the most populous South Asian country, could never expect to have the growing number of university teachers educated abroad. A policy of swaraj and self- reliance, the erosion of wealth of the traditional elite and repeated depreciations of the rupee meant that only few advanced students could afford higher studies abroad, particularly during the years of the licence raj, from the 1960s to the 1980s. The number of scholarships and fellowships did not increase at the same speed as the number of prospective applicants. Moreover, large-scale nationalization meant that the number of lucrative posts outside the government sector remained limited; an ambitious industrialization and arms program created jobs in science and technology. As a result, the academia became fairly competitive, including in the arts and the social sciences. Under these conditions, most degrees come from Indias own academic institutions. To have an Indian PhD is totally acceptable. On the contrary, the academics returning to India with foreign degrees find it difficult to get a proper position because they lose their contacts over the years of absence from the country or they face difficulty having their foreign degrees accepted. The situation is very different in Pakistan, where foreign scholarships were widely available whenever the country enjoyed good relations with the major donors. More than once I did experience that local PhDs were treated with suspicion, if not contempt. Still the number of qualified persons is limited, as those who

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obtained their degrees from outside often decide to leave the country and take up a job abroad. The situation in the other South Asian countries is different in that their own capacities are much more limited and their relations with India are better. As a result, you may find many senior university teachers in Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka who have obtained their higher degrees from India, as these are more prestigious than their own degrees. 5. The world over, the market for advanced studies in the social sciences seems to have become more and more degree-driven. The degree, however, is not an end in itself. In principle, it should be a yardstick for employers. The number of posts for qualified academics, sadly, is restricted. Especially in research, there are only a few attractive permanent positions. 6. In both Pakistan and Bangladesh, a huge market exists for doing consultancy work for the government, aid and donor agencies. The role of NGOs in Pakistan is less of an alternative to the government organizations than of a complement. This is because smaller action-oriented private initiatives aimed at cultural or social tasks needs little research. Most people know the problems they are dealing with and try to keep their overhead costs as low and the number of personnel as small as possible, but as NGOs grow in size and their work becomes complex, the task of gathering information and making decisions becomes even more difficult. In principle, the necessary analysis can be done in-house by own staff instead of being outsourced to consultancy firms that are often quite confusingly labelled as NGOs. Since few NGOs can raise their funds themselves, they apply to other NGOs or to national and international governments and donor organizations. For example, the latest American support package for Pakistan, under the PEACE Act, demands that assistance has to be channelled through NGOs wherever possible. Private donations in many countries are tax exempt, which simply means that the taxpayers are refunding private donors. 7. Applications for projects and funding have to be well- armed with statistical evidence, besides the expected outcome of research. It is irrespective how good such research is if it is not conducted in a systematic way, such as being part of a larger research agenda, as would be required in social science research. Moreover, it is not easily available to the public or the research community. An enormous amount of knowledge should be available in the form of reports and papers. Due to the Internet, much of this material is available now, but probably not in all institutions. 8. Since aid-related reports serve a particular purpose, their method and language do not necessarily reflect academic standards, even if the quality is excellent as measured by the requirements of the respective project or program. Their language and style often address only an inside group. Jargon may be used in these reports just out of carelessness; in many cases, it reflects the wish to address an in-group and to make it sound professional. Too much referencing is not required in such reports and, under certain conditions, cut-and-paste helps to reduce costs. It also reduces, however, the value of such studies for research. 9. Pakistan, in particular, has very few large social science research institutes. In 1998. Dr. Nadeem-ul-Haq and Dr. Mahmood Hasan Khan wrote an excellent analysis of the economics discipline in Pakistan, but the situation does not seem to have changed

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much. This might be because of the fact that the underlying conditions for research have remained more or less the same. In particular, this applies to the labour market. As one professor of physics of Quaid-i-Azam University explained to me after just handing in his resignation: It is not just that I would be able to earn much more abroad; it is even more that I do not feel that I am taken seriously as an academic in my own country. 10. The economic and political conditions of a country have a direct impact on social science research. The people who plan to find academic jobs outside their country specialize in areas that have a market and that increase their value. Therefore, they will try to get their research published in prestigious journals abroad, for which they better first find out what kind of articles these journals are interested in. So the selection of the research topic is very much determined by a job market which is often outside the country. The 1980s and 1990s were the high time of econometrics. Given the scarcity and lack of accuracy, if not unreliability, of data available in the country, and the high cost of collecting data of a large sample, less econometric refinement might have done to analyse the burning social issues of Pakistan. The main question, however, would be if such studies would have helped to find a teaching position outside the country. Quantitative studies with a few and cautiously-worded conclusions did save one also from the risks that a more outspoken critique of government policies might have posed, especially in times of military rule and repression. I remember having been initially encouraged to translate into English my PhD thesis on regional developments in Pakistan and publish it from here. However, when my colleagues at the Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE), Islamabad, came to know what it was about, they told me that they would be interested only in the methodological part, so I decided to publish it from outside Pakistan. It turned out that a parallel study had also been done by another foreigner who was asked to hand in his manuscript for publication and then never heard again from the same Pakistani host institute. These facts show that good economic and political explanations can be given for some of the research shortcomings in Pakistan. As a result of these, the choice of research methods reflects not only the state of research, but also the general environment for and perceptions of research. About a century ago, the motto of the Bauhaus movement was that less is more and that form follows function. The state of social science research, and the choice of topics and methods, reflects the general climate for research. In line with Says Law that every supply creates its own demand, one can observe in Pakistan that research follows data availability. In the social sciences, this would explain the large number of quantitative studies in demography and foreign trade. If research would follow research needs, perhaps other topics would capture more attention, but this depends on who is determining the needs. Dr. Nadeem-ul-Haq and Dr. Mahmood Hasan Khan, in their research mentioned earlier also, deplore the lack of studies on the impact of adjustment programs on Pakistans economy. Looking back at the 2010 floods, one would see the need for a major endeavour to study Pakistans ability to absorb external shocks, and to prevent and manage natural disasters. Traditional systems of self-help and assistance are still intact, so why is it so difficult to organize things on a large scale? The solutions to these problems need an interdisciplinary, integrated approach.

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Take the example of water! As we know, water is not a homogenous good. Its physical, chemical and other qualities vary over space and time. As a flow resource, water is subject to both formal and informal regulation. Water is a scarce resource rarely allowed to develop its own price. Also, water is a transnational resource. Pakistan is the lower riparian of most of its rivers and, as such, subject to the dealings of upper riparians. In a country which depends so much on irrigation, certainly one would expect more research on this precious item. Many aspects do not fall under socioeconomic disciplines, but that is the whole point! All aspects are interlinked and have socioeconomic implications; if not directly, then indirectly. From the last sentences, it should have hopefully become clear that pigeonholing in academics has to be avoided. As an economist, I have greatly benefited from working together with experts in other disciplines, not to forget that economists take great pride in adapting research methods from other disciplines such as mathematics, physics and of lately life sciences. Most importantly, research interests should not stop at the imagined boundaries of ones own subject. The research interests should not stop at the national borders either. Water should serve as the perfect example of this. Pakistans main rivers originate from the neighbouring countries of Afghanistan, China and India. Studying the water needs of these countries should help us in understanding their policies. The management of the waters of the Indus River Basin has to be compared to the management of other major river systems, like those of the Ganges/Brahmaputra, the Euphrates/Tigris or the Mekong River. Similarly, the environment has its transnational and global aspects. Similarly, you are supposed to look beyond the borders in economics. But Pakistan suffers from a general lack of interest in the economies of other countries, especially those that were on the same level in the early 1950s and have now surpassed it by miles. In particular, one is reminded of Pakistans failed attempts at recapturing the European textile market or how the country lost its initial edge in the ship-breaking industry. Similarly, the country has been surpassed by Bangladesh as an exporter of readymade garments, which again provides stuff for analysis. Pakistan is being increasingly discussed as a failing state or even a failed state, which obviously makes it a relevant topic for research. One of the ways of doing this would be to compare Pakistans situation with that of other countries which have been in a similar situation. Two countries that immediately come to mind are Thailand and Turkey. Just like Pakistan, they managed to escape the foreign rule, but have been highly dependent on richer, developed countries. Both have very distinct cultures and have also been under military rule directly or indirectly for much of their recent history. Area-wise, both are of a similar size as Pakistan. Their populations are lesser than that of Pakistan, but they still count among the more populous countries in Asia. In both, a dominant metropolis (Istanbul in Turkey and Bangkok in Thailand) towers over the rest of the country. Both performed much better than Pakistan economically and socially, though they are also faced with the challenge of integrating their minorities (the Kurds in Turkey; the Malay in Thailand). Both are almost monolingual, but still have an increasing percentage of people who know English. Having a closer look at countries like Turkey and Thailand would be impossible without knowing their languages. That

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would be an option only for a small number of students, but it would be interesting to see the outcome of a direct comparison rather than rely on research done on Thailand and Turkey by Western scholars. The world economy is constantly undergoing drastic changes. In the last few years, we have seen a major crisis of the world financial markets; the rise of China as the second largest economy and the largest holder of foreign exchange reserves in the world; rising prices of natural resources, especially oil, gas and edibles; rising scepticism regarding nuclear power; global climate change; etc. All these have very serious implications for Pakistan. To understand the actions of the leading players, one has to study their economic system, policy, history and society. The research on trade has to be more demand-oriented and less supply-oriented. For instance, Bangladesh has already surpassed Pakistan as an exporter of readymade garments and knitwear though hardly any cotton is produced there. When in the 1980s, I told a Pakistani minister how impressed I was by the emerging ship-breaking industry at Gaddani, he told me that there was no future in this business. Without the much needed government support, Pakistan lost its initial advantage and the industry ship-breaking shifted to India and Bangladesh. I have not yet seen a single study on such missed opportunities. There are some interesting examples of international cooperation in the face of nuclear threat that are worth studying. In the 1970s, the Soviet Union and Germany agreed to exchange natural gas for steel pipes. The USSR laid a pipeline from Siberia to Germany with steel pipes delivered by Germany. Even during the coldest days of the Cold War, the gas supply functioned with perfection. Going by our experience, it should be possible to trade oil, gas and electric power across Asia. Pakistan, sitting at the crossroads, could benefit from such a transfer. Therefore, research on the experience of other countries would be worthwhile. It should also be profitable to do more research on research itself; not only on who is doing what and how, but also on how research results are being incorporated in the policymaking process and teaching. If it does not exist already, a website for social science research findings might be helpful. Such a website would be much cheaper than a printed journal and it would also be instantly accessible everywhere, including remote areas of the country. Short lectures or films on relevant research methods and their application could also be posted on this website as well as YouTube. Given the language limitations of Pakistani students, explanations should be given in both English and Urdu. Quality control, which could be exacted by the HEC, might help in this connection. Making government funding for research conditional to meeting these two requirements will also help: 1) A part of the research grant will be spend on reviewing and editing the results to improve their readability and marketability; and 2) At least a summary of the findings will also be published in Urdu. This move would help students with limited command over English to choose articles worth the effort of reading in a foreign language. Finally, the translation of selected research reports into Urdu would help in reaching a wider audience and teaching them good academic practices. Central to all these efforts should be this question: what do we want to know that we do not know already and why? Also, what would be the most suitable way of gain-

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ing this knowledge? Many years ago, Nobel Laureate Prof. Lawrence Klein let down his captive audience in Islamabad with this advice: In the long run, there is no substitute for hard labour and work ethos. Now a few words about international collaboration may be appropriate. I mentioned the academic contacts between Pakistan and Germany. Pakistan has such contacts with other countries too. Today the majority of social scientists in Pakistan with foreign training have been to the United States, but not so many to China and still fewer to other Islamic countries or the successful tiger economies. Foreigners have come as teachers and advisors. Students from industrialized countries are not too many; those who come often have South Asian roots. Academic exchange with India will probably be more intensive, if allowed. The countries of the European Union are just finishing a process of bringing their national educational systems in line. Countries like France and Germany had very different systems of higher education as compared, for example, with the United Kingdom. Switching over to a BA/MA-system has been a sea change for us. We joined the Bologna process in order to make it easier for students to change universities within Europe at any stage of their studies. But if a student wants to spend a semester or a year at a Pakistan university, that is still almost impossible. There are no general rules as such. German students, for example, have to hope to be accommodated in Pakistan and have their own universities to acknowledge whatever proof of studying here they can bring home. Most of these students later engage in some joint research project in Pakistan. The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) is supporting such sandwich courses/ studies where students go for a PhD in one country, spend a year or so in another country, and finish their thesis and get their degree from their own university. Long absence from home and problems of re-integration are thus avoided. It is also much more economical. At the cost of spending years to obtain a degree abroad, several students can be exposed. It should also facilitate close collaboration between the teachers and researchers from the two countries. The academic collaboration between Pakistan and Germany in the field of the social sciences has an impressive history. Now I will list some names that will be familiar to most researchers in Pakistan: Among the Germans, Prof. Otto Schiller advised the Government of Pakistans Agricultural Commission. Later, when he became head of the Institute of International Comparative Agricultural Policy and Rural Sociology at the SAI, he guided a number of doctoral students from both Pakistan and Germany working on the agricultural systems of Pakistan in cooperation with the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. His successor Prof. Winfried von Urff assigned a group of young German economists, which also included me, to study Pakistans development in cooperation with the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad; the University of Peshawar; the Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad; and PIDE, Islamabad. The group maintained close contacts with Prof. Mahmood Khan and Prof. Dilawar Ali Khan (University of Agriculture); Prof. Abdul Matin (University of Peshawar); Prof. Hussein Mullick (Quaid-i-Azam University); and

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Syed Nawab Haider Naqvi (PIDE). Prof. Frithjof Kuhnen and Prof. Manig guided a series of studies carried out mainly in the Peshawar Valley. Among the political scientists, Prof. Karl E. Newman and Dr. Hans Frey taught at the Quaid-i-Azam University. Prof. Karl-Heinz Pfeiffer taught at University of the Punjab and started its Social Science Research Centre; while his son Prof. Georg Pfeiffer started the Department of Anthropology at the Quaid-i-Azam University, where renowned scholars like Dr. Naved-e-Rahat and Dr. Muhammad Azam Chaudhary (Quaid-i-Azam University), the late Dr. Adam Nayyar (Lok Virsa, Islamabad), Dr. Anis Dani (the World Bank), and Ms. Naghma Imdad were among his very first students. Dr. Doris Buddenberg taught anthropology at the Quaid-i-Azam University, while Prof. Jrgen Wasim Frembgen and Dr. Jochen Hippler frequently visit Pakistan to deliver lectures and conduct research. Among the historians, Prof. Gita Dharampal-Frick was recently teaching at the Quaid-i-Azam University. Prof. Jamal Malik, a Pakistan national who grew up in Germany, is one of the leading experts on religion and society in Pakistan. East Germany had a different approach to South Asian studies than West Germany, with emphasis on the languages. Prominent among those still active are Dr. Christina sterheld, who teaches Urdu at the SAI; Dr. Bettina Robotka, who works in Karachi; political scientist Dr. Dietrich Reetz; and Dr. Michael Schied, who is a specialist on Sindh. Anthropologist Prof. Karl Jettmar shared a fascination in the rock carvings in the Upper Indus with Prof. Ahmad Hassan Dani (Quaid-i-Azam University). Every year he would come with a Pakistan-German expedition to study those manifestations of change and exchange of cultures in Northern Pakistan. His work was continued by a group of researchers of the Pak-German Karakoram Project, led by Prof. Irmtraud Stellrecht. The work on the rock inscriptions went on under Prof. Harald Hauptmann. Prof. Hugh van Skyhawk is currently a Professor at the Taxila Institute of Asian Civilizations, Quaid-i-Azam University. Among the geographers, Prof. Fred Scholz stands out with his study on the tribes of Balochistan. Prof. Hans-Georg Bohle worked on the local peoples ability to cope with disasters. Prof. Hermann Kreutzmann comes with a group of students to Pakistan every year. Prof. Matthias Wineger and Prof. Marcus Nsser have been studying glacial movements in the Karakorum and the Western Himalayas an important topic with relevance to the social sciences in the times of climate change. Prof. Michael Jansen reconstructed the findings of the excavations in Moenjodaro and taught us what to make out of those archaeological findings. We still need to know more about the reasons of decline and erosion of such a great civilization. The puzzle obviously is more complex than commonly assumed. More insight is especially sought on the social organization of the early societies of this country. Maybe we can draw lessons from Pakistans past for how to react to catastrophes. Not a social scientist in the strict sense, but a person with wide-ranging knowledge and interests, Prof. Annemarie Schimmel has become the personification of German scholarship in Pakistan. The famous orientalist has been coming to Pakistan for decades now. Nobody in Germany could develop so much interest in Pakistan, its culture and society as she did. The list is far from complete. The Quaid-i-Azam University, University of

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the Punjab, the University of Peshawar and the University of Agriculture in Pakistan; and the Universities of Berlin, Tbingen, Heidelberg and Gttingen in Germany see a steady exchange of social scientists. If the reader is surprised that I have not mentioned the finances, though I am an economist, it is on purpose. I am very sure that there is a positive correlation between money spent on research and the outcome, quantitatively and qualitatively, but it is matter of political will how much importance a society gives to research. The quality of research also depends on qualification and mindset of future researchers; therefore, the foundations have to be laid in school. For all practical purposes, this means more emphasis on English and, at least in economics, mathematics. Students have also to be encouraged and trained to express themselves and to give reason for their judgement. Academic exchange can also help in disseminating research methodology and quantitative and qualitative techniques of analysis. A steady exchange of ideas and people, rather than short briefings and updates, helps in improving the quality of social science research with mutual benefits; but such an exchange should not be one-way.

3. Public Policy and Social Sciences in Pakistan


[Dr. Ishrat Husain]
I could have taken the easy way out and deplored the dismal state of the social sciences in Pakistan or the lack of resources devoted to them, but these protestations and lamentations have become part of the common folklore and I could not add much to that. I have, therefore, taken the liberty of taking a different slant on this topic and decided to address the following issues: 1) What are the main public policy challenges facing Pakistan and are likely to be confronted in the future too? 2) Why have the social scientists in Pakistan not been able to contribute to discourse on these challenges in an informed manner? 3) What can be done to promote social science research on public policy issues? I would submit that Pakistan faces at least eight challenges that are likely to persist in the future also. It believe that social scientists can make a difference by enhancing our understanding of these issues, analyzing them systematically and suggesting possible solutions. These challenges are: 1. Governance Deficit. 2. Trust Deficit. 3. Distributional Inequities. 4. Underdeveloped Human Resources. 5. Competitiveness Lag. 6. Identity Crisis.

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7. Self-Confidence Deficit. 8. Food-Water-Energy Crisis.

1. Governance Deficit
There is little disagreement that governance broadly defined as the right balance between the legislature, the executive and the judiciary; the nature of civil-military relationship; the interface between the state and the society; and the delivery of basic social services to the citizens in Pakistan suffers from a number of serious weaknesses and structural deficiencies. The leakage, waste, corruption and inefficiency rampant in the production and distribution of public goods or public sector managed goods and services have lowered the potential economic output and skewed the distribution of benefits from growth. This governance deficit is not limited to the economy and extends to other spheres of activity also. Weiss and Gilani (2001) put it succinctly: The traditional centres of powers and authority within the social fabric of society are eroding seemingly without any coherent alternatives. What results are social breakdowns and random acts of violence coupled with institutional inefficiency and corruption? These are unanticipated every day responses to thus unparalleled institutional malaise. The loss of a social contract between Pakistanis seems to have wreaked havoc not only in the economy, but also throughout the countrys infrastructure, in the education system, the government bureaucracy, the economy and even in the arts. Although these observations applied to a pre-2001 period, the breakdown in the law and order and security conditions, and the recent confrontation between the judiciary and the executive, seems to have aggravated the situation. The states inability to establish the rule of law, and secure property and lives of the citizens, shows the depth of governance problems facing the country. The insensitivity of the administrative system to the needs of the poor is well-known and has been depicted in these excerpts from the Human Development in South Asia reports: South Asia presents a fascinating combination of many contradictions. It has governments that are high on governing and low on serving; it has parliaments that are elected by the poor but aid the rich; and society that asserts the rights of some but perpetuates exclusion for others. Despite a marked improvement in the lives of a few, many in South Asia have been forgotten by formal institutions of governance. These are the poor, the downtrodden and the most vulnerable of the society, suffering from acute deprivation on account of their income, caste, creed, gender or religion. Their fortunes have not moved with those of the privileged few and this in itself is a deprivation (MHCHD, 1999). Governance constitutes for (the common people) a daily struggle for survival and dignity. Ordinary people are too often humiliated at the hands of public institutions. For them, lack of good governance means police brutality, corruption in accessing basic public services, ghost schools, teachers absenteeism, missing medicines, high cost of and low access to justice, criminalization of politics, and lack of social justice. These are just a few shades of the crisis of governance (MHCHD, 2005).

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Some of the important questions that need to be answered are: How can the institutions of governance be strengthened? How can the devolution of power to local tiers be made more effective? How can the interface between common people and government functionaries be improved?

2. Trust Deficit
Why is trust among people, communities and regions living in a society or nation important? Because trust reduces transaction costs, avoids future disputes and litigation, eases settlement of contracts and acts as a lubricant for facilitating businesses and economic activity. Unlike China, Pakistan is one of the countries which suffer from Trust Deficit or low social capital. The reasons for this phenomenon are historical and structural. The Punjabis and Mohajirs have always been over represented in bureaucracy and the army the two traditional bastions of power in Pakistan. The demographic balance in the United Pakistan, which was in favour of East Pakistan, got heavily tilted towards Punjab in the post-1971 Pakistan because the representation in political institutions exercising state authority was rigged on the basis of population. With 56% of the population, the national finances also got distributed using population as the only variable for resource allocation. It is perceived by the smaller provinces in Pakistan that, being upper riparian on the Indus River system and holding large underground water resources, Punjab gets disproportionate benefits from reservoirs and storage dams for its already fertile lands. The fierce opposition to the Kalabagh Dam, technically and financially a worthwhile investment, by the smaller provinces is a clear manifestation of this trust deficit. The over-centralized nature of the federal government, which is taking over even those responsibilities that rightly belong to the provinces and pre-empting bulk share in the divisible pool of the national finances, has further intensified the disharmonious character of social order in the country. The ethnocentrism within the country as well as ethnic tensions within the provincial boundaries; for example, Mohajir versus Sindhi, Baloch versus Pakhtoon, Saraiki versus Punjabi and Pakhtoon versus non-Pakhtoon are all derived from the larger struggle for autonomy and just allocation of the national resources. Sensible win-win solutions are shelved because of mistrust, suspicion and a perception of unjust outcome likely to hurt the communitys interests. According to the World Bank (2005), Fairer Societies offer their citizens more public goods, more social support and more social capital. Hence they are more capable of sharing the costs and benefits of improving economic policies and in turn facilitating consensus building and decision making. What are the causes of this lack of trust and how can trust be restored are ripe issues for social scientists to analyze systematically. Social capital theory can perhaps shed some light on this topic.

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3. Distributional Inequities
Pakistan has, since the 1960s, successfully practised the capitalist model of development excepting a reversal to socialist model in the 1970s. There is a broad-based consensus among the major political parties that the policies of deregulation, liberalization and privatization ought to be pursued for achieving economic growth by relying on the private sector. Where there is difference of opinion is on the role the state should play in steering the economy. The capitalist model is quite efficient as concerns accumulation and growth, because the market mechanism produces relatively better allocation and utilization of resources. What is missing, however, is that the markets reward only those who are well endowed with physical or human capital and therefore those who lack endowments other than unskilled labour get by passed by this process. The state, therefore, has to step in with taxation and expenditure policy, agriculture and industrial policies, education and health policies, social safety nets, and transfers to improve the wellbeing of the poor and vulnerable segments of the society. When inter-personal income distribution is accompanied by regional, gender or ethnic inequities the temperature for social conflict and tension rises high. In Pakistan, there is a common believed perception that the rich and middle classes are the main beneficiaries of high economic growth while the poor and fixed income groups have become relatively worse off. Behavioural economists have demonstrated in recent years that it is the relative income that ignites an individuals response. While absolute poverty may have declined the fact that the bottom 20% of the households earns only 6% of the national income, while almost 50% of national income accrues to top 20% is a matter of serious concern. If these top 20% households are concentrated in urban areas of Punjab and are headed by males, the feeling of exasperation among the deprived communities is further accentuated, adding fuel to the existing ethnic tensions. What insights from sociology, political science, Islamic studies and economics can be brought together to bear upon the distributional issues? How can the political economy be realigned with the goal of better distribution? Economists have failed to find out a satisfactory answer so far. Perhaps political scientists and sociologists can be a better job.

4. Underdeveloped Human Resources


Despite an impressive record of high economic growth over a 60 year period that is matched by only a few developing countries, Pakistan suffers from weak human indicators in relation to the countries in the same income group. Pakistan is currently ranked 134th (of 177 countries) on the Human Development Index; about one-half of the adult population is illiterate; enrolment ratios at all levels primary, secondary and tertiary are dismally low; tertiary education ratio is only 4%; a few thousand professionals are produced every year and this dearth of skilled workforce cuts across all sectors of the economy oil, gas, telecommunications, IT, financial services, electronic media, etc.

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5. Competitiveness Lag
Some of the common ingredients that are found among almost all the countries that have risen on the competitiveness ladder in the recent years include: sanctity of property rights, rule of law, independent courts, modern education, sound macro-economic management, political stability, openness to foreign trade and investment, and freedom of thought and scientific inquiry. Pakistan is still stuck with a low-technology production structure in agriculture and industry. The reliance on four major crops in agriculture and low value added textiles have relegated Pakistan to the bottom rung of competitiveness. Innovation, enterprise and risk taking are conspicuously missing among Pakistani businesses. Scientific research and development efforts by either public or private sector organizations are almost non-existent. Institutions of higher education produce a low quality professional and a managerial workforce that possesses little employable skills. Vocational and technical training that supports high level workforce in the industry is inadequate both in terms of numbers of technicians produced and in the acquisition of skills. The average years of schooling completed by an average labour force worker is only three to four years. More than 80% of the female population does not participate in the labour force and those who do are mainly unpaid family workers engaged on their farms in the rural areas. Pakistans exports are largely textiles, which is not a dynamic product category for expansion in world markets. This competitiveness lag places Pakistan in a highly precarious position regarding other developing countries in Asia in this globalized economy. Pakistan is currently ranked 91st (of 125 countries) on the Global Competitiveness Index. Competitiveness has enabled countries like South Korea and Taiwan to move so fast into newly created jobs in electronics, computers and memory chips that lost jobs barely register in the unemployment statistics. The unemployment rates in South Korea and Taiwan are 2.6% and 1.4%, respectively. China has been snapping up 20% of South Koreas auto exports in recent years. How can the business culture be altered and invigorated so that they can identify and seize upon the emerging opportunities in the world market? What are the measures that can promote risk taking and innovation among the businesses? What are the ways to revamp and propel to action research and development (R&D) organizations in the country?

6. Identity Crisis
Jaffrelot (2002) makes an observation that aptly sums up the identity crisis faced by Pakistan: Since its inception, Pakistan has faced the monumental task of spelling out an identity different from the Indian identity. Born from the division of the old civilization of India, Pakistan has struggled to construct its own culture, a culture that not only would be different from the Indian culture but also the whole world would acknowledge.

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Those who propound the national security state thesis believe that the security establishment has purposely kept the fear of India trying to break up Pakistan alive in order to perpetuate its ascendancy. In response, the Indian intrusion in 1971 and its efforts to play up the sentiments of minority ethnic groups in Pakistan against the established state are cited as examples of Indias nefarious design on Pakistan. Jalal (1994) argues that Jinnah was a nationalist in quest of his nation. She asserts that Islam provided him the cultural basis for an ideology of ethnic nationalism that was intended to mobilize the Muslim community to defend the minoritarian Muslims. Zias Islamization policy; his proactive support and nurturing of Afghan mujahideen for jihad against the Soviets; the growing ascendancy of violent sectarian organizations fuelling unrest in Kashmir; the emergence of the Taliban in the late 1990s in Afghanistan with strong links with the ISI; and Pakistans participation in the war on terror post-9/11 have led to a thinking of Islam as the bedrock for building the nation. How can these conflicting orientations be reconciled? What is the true identity of the Pakistani nation? These questions require in-depth historical research combined with Islamic studies, sociology and political science.

7. Self-Confidence Deficit
The majority of Pakistanis have developed a highly cynical and negative psyche. Insecurity of the state (the fear of re-absorption by India), the experience of separation of East Pakistan and the poor track record of the credibility of our successive leaders have all contributed to this psyche. But this is harmful in the long run since lack of national selfesteem becomes a hurdle in the way of the countrys development. Qadeer (2006) has very ably described the Pakistani mindset, which truly reflects the insecurity and deficit of self- confidence. According to him, we blame someone malevolent who is thought to be pulling strings or presume that conspiracy is the driving force behind many events. It is not only the default explanation in personal matters, but also often the first cause presumed in national and international events. Therefore, lack of acknowledgment of ones own impotence and a justification for inaction have become the mainstream thinking in Pakistan, and a barrier to objective and inductive thinking. This mindset largely explains the highly cynical and negative reactions and responses of most Pakistanis. We as a nation cannot do anything good ourselves and all the good that happens is because of others goodwill or charity. If the economy has turned around, it is due to post-9/11 events and has nothing to do with the efforts of millions of Pakistani workers, farmers or businesspeople who contributed to it. Wheat and sugar shortages occur mainly because of the mafias and cartels that hoard the commodities, but not because of imbalances in domestic demand and supply and consequent mismanagement. The phobia and excessive preoccupation with the United States dominate our national psyche. Governments in Pakistan are widely believed to be formed and removed by the United States. The common Pakistanis, though they have exercised their voting rights seven times in the past 23 years, have nothing to do with the changes in govern-

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ment. If Pakistan records growth rate of 7% or decline in poverty rate, these outcomes are attributed to fudging of figures; but if the same official data shows inflation rate of 10-12%, these figures are readily believed and used as a stick to beat the government in power. We have developed a unique tendency to disbelieve and discount any good news about our country or our people, and to exaggerate the negatives beyond any proportions. This is evident in the popularity of newspaper columnists, television anchors and discussants who are highly negative and pessimistic in their comments and paint doomand-gloom day scenario. Those who present a more balanced and even-handed picture do not find any space in the newspapers. Nor are they invited to television talk shows. But why have we developed such a deep sense of insecurity and lack of self-esteem? What can be done to overcome this malaise? Psychologists, sociologists and journalists have to put their brains together to find out answers to these questions.

8. Food-Water-Energy Crisis
The recent hike in international prices of food and commodities, the stress on dwindling water resources in the country, and the energy shortages have deeper implications for the sustenance of the common Pakistanis and the competitiveness of Pakistans businesses. The higher profitability in food production would induce the agrarian structure to continue to move towards owner self cultivation with the marginalization of the landless poor in the agrarian economy. The shortfall in irrigation water supply would make agriculture output move volatile making earnings unstable for the small farmers. The rising cost of inputs deters the small and subsistence farmers from increasing their yields and sharing the gains from high food prices. Small tube-well owners are hit by the rising prices of fuel. The demand-supply imbalances of energy in Pakistan are currently being met through recourse to highly expensive thermal power generation. This is an unsustainable situation both from public finances viewpoint and the cost of doing business. Other cheaper sources such as hydro-electricity are no longer being tapped because of the trust deficit between the upper and lower riparian provinces, in particular Punjab and Sindh. The energy crisis may erode the competitiveness of Pakistan products in the world markets and reduce the quantum of foreign exchange earnings, putting pressure on the countrys balance of payments. How can alternative energy sources be developed? What can be done to forge a consensus for tapping the hydro-electric potential? What are the efficient ways in which water and energy resources can be conserved?

The Response of Social Scientists


Why have the social scientists not been able to contribute to the discourse on these challenges when it is quite clear from the above cataloguing that this is a fertile ground for research in sociology, anthropology, political science, history, philosophy, psychology, public administration, organizational development, law, etc.? Such a daunting agenda would provoke and excite any set of academics and researchers in investigating and

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producing plethora of interesting and useful work that can form the basis of discourse and discussion and influence policy outcomes both directly and indirectly. In any other country, there would be hundreds of books titles, thousands of journal articles and popular commentaries flowing out of this work. But this is not happening in Pakistan. Instead of pinning the blame on the usual suspects, it would be illuminating to ponder over those factors that are intervening between this agenda of researchable questions and the lack of response by the academic community. There may be many other factors, but I have chosen only a few that seems to be playing a very significant role. First, it must be conceded that at present there are a lot of misgivings and reservations on the part of both social scientists and public policy practitioners. Social scientists believe that the bureaucrats do not care and attach any importance to scientific studies, that they only act on intuition, gut feelings, experiential learning and that is why the quality of decision-making by the government is so poor. The anti-intellectual bias of the policymakers is obvious in the low value they accord to any intellectual work, the low status given to intellectuals in the society and the capture of the policymaking by feudal elites and other powerful interest groups. The result is across the board ad hocism. The nature of the state, and the restraining influences imposed by the state in teaching religion, Pakistan studies and history are also seen as the reasons for the aversion and indifference exhibited by social scientists with regard to participating in public policy research. The volumes produced by Zaidi (2003) and Inayatullah, Saigol and Tahir (2005) have cogent arguments by many authors dwelling on this point. The public policy practitioners, on the other hand, argue that there are very few sound empirical studies by Pakistani social scientists that are of some relevance, that are pragmatic and feasible for the solution of the problems at hand. The public policy practitioners contend that the studies by Pakistani social scientists are either too narrow in scope, and cannot be used for drawing broad generalizations, or they lack rigorous approach. Moreover, some of them are too abstract and theoretical in nature or technical in their presentations that they do not make much sense in policy work. Other public policy practitioners point out that mostly the academics are too lax in meeting the deadlines. Since the policymakers work under pressures of deadlines, these studies are of no use to them if they are made available after the deadline has passed. Another complaint against social scientists is that their recommendations are not implementable because they do not take cognizance of the constraints faced by the policymakers. The above viewpoints betray a lack of communication between the academics and the policymakers. In my experience, a few researchers and academics work diligently and respond to the felt needs of the policymakers. They keep their feet on the ground, produce their reports on time and engage in a continuous dialogue with the policymakers. They are always sought after and are in high demand. The danger is that they start over extending themselves and their reputation for good quality begins to suffer.

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Second, associated with the above trend is the problem of limited pool of good researchers in Pakistan and the competing demand for their services by the donors, as well as by the media. The financial incentives offered by the donors for consultancy work, and the name and recognition gained by exposure to the popular electronic media are distracting efforts from serious research work. Instant experts with little or no reservoir of new knowledge are often found recycling their views in talk shows and newspaper columns. Had the opinions and comments of these experts rooted in a continuous flow of research findings, as happens elsewhere in the world, the level of debate and discourse would be quite meaningful and not rhetorical. But off-the-cuff and seat-of-the pants comments unsubstantiated by either logic or evidence have become the common staple in this game. The more venom you exhibit against the establishment and the more critical you are of the regime in power, the more fans you add to your list and the more accolades you win at public places. This vicious cycle whereby you do not have to produce any original work, and rest on the laurels of the past, and win public recognition and money is a serious impediment to applied research. The public policy practitioners can neither pay as much as the donors nor they can make our instant television experts a household name. Haque and Khan (1998) have dwelt at length on the issue of donor intrusion in the academic in Pakistan. The phenomenon of media intrusion is of more recent origin, and it needs to be monitored and documented. The third inhibiting factor is the fast growth of private universities and their incessant appetite for PhDs serving as part-time faculty members. The briefcase professors who make regular visits to different private universities resuscitate their notes and deliver the same material to all the classes they teach. They do not have any time for interaction with the students to respond to their questions or to provide clarifications they seek. The opportunity cost of doing slogging, careful, time-consuming research work therefore becomes quite high. After all promotion in a public sector university is not a function of how prolific you are in research publications. So part-time teaching in addition to the regular job is a low risk high return endeavour. Last but not the least; the fourth important factor is the lack of adequate capacity within our universities and research institutes to cope up with this highly demanding work. I am not talking about the numbers here, because as a member of the search committees of many research institutes and the State Bank of Pakistan, I am struck by the non-availability of well-trained social scientists of Pakistani origin all over the world. I am concerned more with the analytical capacity to organize and lead research on the issues that I have identified above. In his evaluation, Inayatullah (2003) characterizes the social sciences moving in two broad directions in Pakistan: 1) Superficial speculative analysis; and 2) Hyper factualism or abstracted empiricism. He notes that social scientists adopt a journalistic style of analysis of political events, of foreign policy approaches and indulge in narrative and descriptive history and other disciplines. There is a tendency to explain events in terms of personalities and their particular attributes. Scientific analysis in terms of fundamental social processes, dynamic movements of history, the inter relationship between social parts and social wholes is less frequently undertaken.

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Analyzing the study of history in Pakistan, Qureshi (1989) comments on the belief that the countrys foundation lies in religion and not in other factors. According to him, such an attitude does not inculcate objectivity in viewing different social phenomena; rather it creates a closed and an unthinking mind incapable of scientific inquiry. Haque and Khan (1998) analyzed the economics teaching and research in Pakistan more than a decade ago, but their findings are valid even today: Reflecting the pathology of larger feudal bureaucratic social order in Pakistan, the senior management in the academia follows the national model of centralized power without consultation and participation. A high proportion of the junior research and teaching staff finds itself in a patron-client relationship, in which the patron has considerable power to punish and reward. The personalized nature of power breeds mediocrity because salary, scholarship and promotion are rarely based or merit and personal achievement. Some of the senior research staff and faculty have achieved their positions through this system and suffer from insecurity. Similarly, Naseem, Qureshi and Siddiqui (1998) have viewed that there is a lack of academic leadership (research credentials) to inspire the confidence of younger colleagues. My own opinion, as the first chairperson of the CDSSHP, is that Pakistans public sector universities have become bureaucratic organizations with inflexible status system that rewards non-academic assignments rather than excellence in teaching and research. The constant battles for capturing prize posts such as registrar, controller of examinations, dean, director or chairperson of a department testify to this observation. In such an environment, it is hard to find the requisite analytical capacity to address the kind of issues that we have flagged.

What can be done to Promote Social Science Research on Public Policy Issues?
The agenda for reforming social science teaching and research is so long and formidable that I do not know from where to begin. But let me share with all humility my own thoughts as to the direction we should adopt! This is more in the spirit of provoking a debate, rather than offering definitive answers. My suggestions and recommendations are: 1. The lack of solid empirical research based on primary data collection, surveys, structured interviews, field visits and observations can be largely overcome by requiring Masters, MPhil and PhD students to actively participate in these activities. This will have two main advantages: the students will dirty their hands with the real world problems, and the empirical foundations of their theses and dissertations will be strong. Also, the prospective bright candidates, who cannot afford higher studies because of financial constraints, could be offered grants and fellowships under different HEC programs. The funding constraints at the HEC have become serious in the last two or three years, but before that a lot more money was available for research fellowships and grants, though very few research proposals met the peer review standards and were accepted. Even with the limited resources, we should focus on conducting solid empirical research on the issues which all of us agree are relevant to Pakistan.

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2. We should try to establish the tradition of open seminars in which all the professionals working in the same field in one city should be invited to present their research proposals and preliminary results, and obtain feedback and critique before the papers are finalized. Recognizing that a critical minimum mass in missing in most of our university social science departments/faculties, involving professionals drawn from other universities, research institutes, think-tanks, public and private sector, NGOs, etc., would not only improve the quality of research but also sharpen the policy relevance of the findings. Lahore, Islamabad and Karachi offer excellent opportunities for such collaborative efforts in the first instance, with other big cities like Hyderabad, Peshawar and Quetta to follow. 3. Social science research students seem to get stuck after completing their course work. They would be at a loss to identify the research questions, formulate the hypotheses, choose the appropriate testing tools to apply to the data collected, and arrive at inferences and conclusions. This deficiency can be overcome if there is greater interaction between the supervisor and research students, and the latter are offered workshops on research methodologies and writing research proposals. As I pointed out, there is a whole range of public policy questions that can benefit from systematic empirical research. For example, Social Policy and Development Centres reports on Devolution and Trade Liberalization are very good examples of policy-based research that be used by the policymakers. 4. Social science journals should be upgraded by making them regular in frequency of publication, insisting on stringent peer review system, abstracting and indexing them and broadening the editorial boards. The CDSSHP has outlined the parameters for journals and is ready to support all such endeavours. There is no reason as to why Pakistani journals should not be treated on par with foreign journals with the passage of time. It should be equally difficult to get published in them as in the latter. 5. The professional associations in different social science disciplines should be revived and strengthened. Besides organizing annual conferences, seminars and workshops, they should act as informal networks for collaborative research. In todays world, with ease of connectivity and accessibility to the Internet, it should be quite possible to have research papers jointly authored by professors in different universities. These conferences should invite leading scholars from outside Pakistan to keep abreast of what is happening globally in their respective fields. The policymakers should also be invited to participate in roundtable discussions on important issues. 6. The narrow boundaries created by segmentation and specialization should be broken by multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary studies. Saigol (2005) rightly says that most researchers, though not all, seem to think that multidisciplinary means simply adding on material from another discipline or producing some perspective from another subject. Multidisciplinary studies between psychology and economics, now also called behavioural economics, have provided new insights on the rationality theorem underpinning the neoclassical economic model. Similarly, political economy and institutional economics literature has benefited from the involvement of political scientists and public administration experts. Most public policy issues in Pakistan can be solved only if we dissect them under a multidisciplinary microscope, rather than a single lens prism of a particular discipline.

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7. The restrictions on the universities and the academia in general to subscribe to or follow a particular school of thought about religious thinking, ideology of Pakistan, history of independence from the British, etc. should be lifted. Competing or alternative ways of thinking lead to debate, discussion, discourse and further inquiry that challenge conventional wisdom and generate knowledge. Hostility towards other viewpoints and defensiveness are not the right attributes for an academic community these are the attributes of an intellectual graveyard. At least some of the challenges facing Pakistan today would have been addressed had there been freedom to pursue independent thinking on some of these issues. Before I conclude, I want to discuss another very important issue related to the demand for disciplines within the social sciences. Saigol (2005) believes that disciplines like history, philosophy and political science have seen a fall, and there has been a rise in business and administration studies in their place. She attributes this change to be in keeping with the rise of neo-liberal thinking, and increasing authoritarianism and control, even as the state withdraws from the provision of basic needs. This statement appears to me self contradictory. The so-called neoliberal thinking is associated with greater reliance on the private sector for production, distribution and exchange of goods and services; and aims at weakening the control and the authority of the state. Both the phenomena she has pointed out cannot take place simultaneously. My own reading is that the study of economics and business management appears to be motivated by financial returns. The implication of this trend is that the study of other disciplines that in fact are public goods should be undertaken by public sector universities that are heavily subsidized by the state. These other disciplines may have little market value, but they generate externalities and lay the foundation for a socially and morally conscientious citizenship; and humanistic understanding of the state, society, culture and institutions. These social science courses should be mandatory for all students irrespective of their discipline from the undergraduate level.

References
Haque, N., and Khan, M. H. (1998). The economics profession in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, 37(4). Inayatullah. (2003). The social sciences in Pakistan: An evaluation. In S. Akbar Zaidi (Ed.), Social Science in Pakistan in the 1990s. Islamabad: Council of Social Sciences. Inayatullah, Saigol, R., and Tahir, P. (Eds.). (2005). Social Sciences in Pakistan: A Profile. Islamabad: Council of Social Sciences. Jaffrelot, C. (Ed.). (2002). Pakistan: Nation, Nationalism and the State. Lahore, Vanguard Press. Jalal, A. (1994). The Sole Spokesman. Karachi: Oxford University Press. MHCHD. (1999). Human Development in South Asia. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

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MHCHD. (2005). Human Development in South Asia. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Naseem, S. M., Qureshi, S. K., and Siddiqui, R. (1998). Conditions of teaching and research in economics. Pakistan Development Review, 37(4). Qadeer, M. A. (2006). Pakistan: Social and Cultural Transformation in a Muslim Nation. London: Routledge. Qureshi, M. N. (1989). Whither history? In S. A. Hashmi (Ed.), The State of Social Sciences in Pakistan. Islamabad: Council of Social Sciences. Saigol, R. (2005). Conclusion. In Inayatullah, Rubina Saigol and Pervez Tahir (Eds.), Social Sciences in Pakistan: A Profile. Islamabad: Council of Social Sciences. Weiss, A. M., and Gilani, S. Z. (Eds.). (2001). Power and Civil Society in Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press. World Bank. (2005). Economic Growth in the 1990s. Washington, DC: Author. Zaidi, S. A. (Ed.). (2003). Social Science in Pakistan in the 1990s. Islamabad: Council of Social Sciences.

4. Social Sciences for Scientists and Technologists


[Prof. Dr. Tariq Rahman]
Islamic militancy is going on in many parts of the world, notable among which are Afghanistan, Chechnya, Palestine, Kashmir, the Philippines and parts of Central Asia (Rashid, 2002). However, what is surprising to many people is that secular institutions and Western countries also produce Islamic militants. Roy (2004) points out that most of the young Islamic militants are trained in secular institutions. He cites the example of 9/11 militants to conclude that: None (except for the Saudis) was educated in a Muslim religious school and one of them even attended a Lebanese Christian school. Most of them studied technology, computing, or town planning, as the World Trade Center pilots had done. Bergen and Pandey (2005) examined the educational backgrounds of 75 terrorists behind some of the most significant recent terrorist attacks against Westerners. They found out that the majority of them were college-educated, often in technical subjects like engineering. About 53% of the terrorists had been to college. In comparison, 52% American had been to college. This also seems to be true about the angry young British Muslims who struck on 7 July 2005, as well as the cadres of the Jamaat-i-Islami who support fighting in Kashmir, though most of them come from the state education system and not the madrassas. A psychologist who interviewed many jihadis, who were incarcerated in Pakistani jails after having been jailed and then deported to Pakistan from Afghanistan, where they had gone to fight the United States in defence of the Taliban in 2001, also corroborates this finding. Abbas (2006) contends:

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What we can say is that 232 jihadis out of the 319 in the Haripur group had attended school for at least five years or more. That means that most of the jihadis were, in fact, educated, and that too in the mainstream education system. In the Haripur group, only 22.3% had attended a madrassa; while in the Peshawar group, only 35.5% (70 of 198) had been to a madrassa. But even in the latter case, most (61.2%) had attended [a madrassa] for only one to three months. In short, mainstream education is no guarantee of preventing a person from joining militant groups. In this context, the influence of Islamists, whether out of the peer group, family or teachers, is crucial. Roy (2004) points out that deterritorialized Muslims in Western countries, being overwhelmed by the dominant culture around them, fall back on the Islamic identity. They are not guided by traditional texts or the ulema; they find out their own meanings from the fundamental texts of the faith. Their neo-colonial reaction to the injustice of the world order, the irresistible globalization that seems to inundate all civilizations under the banner of Mickey Mouse, is to lash out in fury against Western targets and elites in Muslim countries who support Western policies. They use the idiom of Islam but the anger that motivates them comes from a sense of being cheated. There are, of course, convenient pegs to hang this anger on: Afghanistan, Chechnya, Iran, Iraq, Kashmir, Palestine and the list can go on. But essentially, Muslim militancy is a reaction to Western injustice, violence, and a history of exploitation and domination over Muslims. This trend can only be reversed by genuinely reversing Western militant policies, besides a more equitable distribution of global wealth.

Social Science Books as Tools of Propaganda


The Pakistani state uses education to create a cohesive national identity transcending ethnic identities, in which Urdu and Islam are used as unifying symbols. Though this has been touched on in passing earlier, it may be mentioned that the textbooks of social studies, history and languages are informed by this theme. The other major theme informing them is that of creating support for the garrison state, which involves glorification of war and the military. Islam, the history of Muslim conquests and rulers, and the Pakistan movement, are pressed into legitimating these concerns. Though General Ziaul Haqs 11-year rule strengthened Islamization of the curricula, these trends were first manifested in the early 1950s when the first educational policy was drafted. The textbooks, especially of the Pakistan Studies, taught in government schools carry the major part of the ideological burden as leading writers such as Aziz (1993), Saigol (1995), Nayyar and Salim (2003), etc. have pointed out. Urdu, which is taught to all students, is the main ideology-carrying language of Pakistan (Rahman, 2002). The countrys armed forces are also indirectly implicated in this because they have been supporting the religious lobby since the early 1950s in their own interest, as well as perceived national interest (Haqqani, 2005). The main targets of this ideological impact are the public schools and colleges, or in other words students from working and lower-middle class families. The students

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of elitist English-medium schools and private colleges do not follow the same curricula, except in the case of Pakistan Studies, Islamic Studies and Urdu. Therefore, both through the government-controlled education and the media, the masses are being exposed to anti-India, pro-military and militant values that are not conducive to creating permanent peace in South Asia or the world.

Quality Education in the Social Sciences


Quality normally refers to the end-product of the educational process, the educated person acquiring information and skills corresponding to those available in the most powerful countries in the world. This, in the words of Paulo Friere, is banking of education (you put concepts in an account and draw them out, generally in exchange for money and prestige). This view links education with power and the prevailing trends. What counts as knowledge is that which certifying bodies, such as the universities working for the ruling elite, consider knowledge. Similarly, what counts as skills are those that help in acquiring lucrative and powerful jobs in service of the elite. This paper tries to modify the meanings of these words. Quality education in the social sciences refers to certain acquisitions that are conducive to a peaceful and fulfilling life, such as: 1. Values leading to peace, egalitarianism and tolerance; sensitivity to human rights, womens rights and animal rights; and the preservation of biological, linguistic and cultural diversity in Pakistan and the world. 2. Technical skills commensurate with sustainable human development of the Pakistani society. 3. Information, ideas and analytical skills commensurate with those acquired by the most educated members of highly developed post-industrial societies. While the first two are in line with views of progressive thinkers on education, the third refers to the social sciences, as well as science and technology. Giroux (2003), for example, defines good education as: If schools are to fulfil their obligations to educate students to assume the demands of social citizenship and democratic leadership while living in a global economy, educators need to redefine the meaning and purpose of schooling in ways that strengthen the practice of critical education and energize representative democracy.

What is to be done?
If quality is defined in normative terms (bullets 1 and 2 above), we are committing ourselves to a moral slant in our education. The social sciences are taught to science students to create this moral slant. Normativism is not ideally taught in the sciences, but it is necessary to make people use science and technology for the good of the human race. The kind of normativism proposed here will strengthen the people, and preserve our societies and the world, which conflict and the plundering of resources will destroy. The

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following measures are suggested about teaching of the social sciences in the universities: 1. The textbooks should emphasize the necessity of peace, tolerance, human rights, womens rights, animal rights, etc. This means that the present text books should be replaced by new ones. 2. The curriculum of social science subjects should include films, games, songs, role-playing, drama, etc. 3. The students should be sensitized to injustices and inequalities in our society through documentaries, dramas on social themes and presentations by human rights activists. The social sciences should be taught by progressive academics in the universities, especially to students of science and technology. In this context, let me quote what Giroux (2003) writes about school teachers, since it is also relevant to social science faculty of technical universities and colleges: Progressive educators must strongly oppose those approaches to teachers education and practice that regard teachers as merely technicians, and reinforce a technical, caste and gendered division of labour. It is crucial that educators collectively organize and oppose current efforts throughout the world to deskill teachers through the proliferation of management by objective schemes, testing schemes and bureaucratic forms of accountability.

Conclusion
While it is necessary that the students of science and technology be taught the social sciences in order to humanize them, it is also imperative that they are not taught propagandist textbooks by incompetent and reactionary teachers. One obvious example of how not to do things is the teaching of Pakistan Studies in our engineering and medical colleges. The subject is taught in order to support the states policy of maintaining a garrison state in which peace with India remains difficult, because history is distorted to ignore the faults of the ruling elite and create the perception that India is responsible for all out problems. This kind of social science education feeds our students on half truths, conspiracy theories and myths that prevent them from thinking clearly and in unbiased ways. If the social sciences are taught in depth and in an unbiased manner, our students will develop an understanding of the world that will allow them to use their knowledge and skills for creating a just and peaceful society and world. This is now more important than ever before because science has the capacity to both create a beautiful new world and destroy the existing world.

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References
Abbas, S. (2006). Probing the Jihadi Mindset. Islamabad: National Book Foundation. Aziz, K. K. (1993). The Murder of History in Pakistan. Lahore: Vanguard Press. Bergen, P., and Pandey, S. (15 March 2005). The Madrassa Myth. The New York Times (Op-Ed). Giroux, H. (2003). Redefining the purpose and meaning of schooling. EDucate, 2(2). Haqqani, H. (2005). Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military. Lahore: Vanguard Press. Nayyar, A. H., and Ahmed, S. (2003). The Subtle Subversion: The State of Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan. Islamabad: Sustainable Development Policy Institute. Rahman, T. (2002). Language, Ideology and Power: Language Learning Among the Muslims of Pakistan and North India. Karachi: Oxford University Press. Rashid, A. (2002). Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia. Lahore: Vanguard Press. Roy, O. (2004). Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Ummah. New York: Columbia University Press. Saigol, R. (1995). Knowledge and Identity: Articulation of Gender in Educational Discourse in Pakistan. Lahore: ASR Publications.

5. When its too Live for Comfort


[Mr. Mustafa Nazir Ahmad] Overview of the Media
The period 2006-08 was significant for the Pakistani media due to several reasons: it not only registered phenomenal growth, but also played a much more proactive role in shaping public opinion than in the past. However, the electronic media stole the show mainly because of the mushroom growth of cable networks and the increased popularity of FM radio channels. In addition, the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) awarded licenses to a record number of new television and radio channels. On the other hand, the number of daily newspapers and other periodicals decreased considerably, despite the fact that their circulation increased manifold over the past decade, as a result of improved literacy in the country. The increase in the number of viewers and listeners has meant an enhanced, if superficial, awareness among the common citizens regarding political, social and economic issues. Because sensationalism and one-upmanship often overtake accuracy or authenticity in the electronic media, the impact of events at times takes a grave turn. For instance, live coverage of the Karachi visit of Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry on 9 March 2007 resulted in ethnic and sectarian riots.

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Content and approach to coverage are one aspect of it, but televisions reach has also generated enormous revenues too. Newspapers also profited through circulation, availability of newsprint on subsidized rates and ads, whose inflow has slowed because of the global economic meltdown and reduced marketing budgets of most big companies. A new trend was especially significant during the past two years: many influential groups such as politicians, business tycoons and land developers launched television channels and newspapers with a view to saving the expenses incurred on ads and using their own media outlets to swing policy in their favour. However, the traditionally family-held media houses continued to dominate the scene, with the owners of major newspapers also owning successful television channels: the Jang group owns Geo TV, the Dawn group owns Dawn News, the Nawa-i-Waqt group owns Waqt TV, etc. The increased influence of private television and radio channels resulted in loss of viewership for the state-owned Pakistan Television (PTV) and Radio Pakistan, which then brought about some positive changes. The media reflected the overall status of governance in the country during the period under review, with most of the television and radio channels and newspapers too being mediocre at best. Perhaps the only positive was that the salaries of journalists increased, mainly because of the lack of human resources and increased competition among television channels. Moreover, unlike in the past, it was not the English media alone that benefited. On the negative side, many people with no experience of journalism and no commitment to the profession made their way into different newspapers and television channels. This was the outcome of the medias increased influence and the opportunities created by its rapid growth. However, the media bubble appeared to be bursting, just like the economic one, as evident from the closure towards the end of 2008 of some major upcoming media ventures like Geo English.

Space for the Media


Due to a record increase in the number of listeners and readers, the Pakistani media assumed a major role in politics and public policymaking. Within the media, television channels and English newspapers had the most influence. In particular, the electronic media transformed the political landscape in Pakistan, a country where illiteracy bars the majority of the population from reading newspapers, thus influencing public policy more. The medias increased influence became evident at the peak of the lawyers movement, which started with the removal of Justice Chaudhry by then-President General Pervez Musharraf on 9 March 2007. The success of the movement was largely due to the media coverage it received. Despite getting unprecedented freedom in the recent past to report on hitherto taboo issues, such as HIV/AIDS or the defence budget, or telecast talk shows wherein every institution of the state is taken to task, including the military, the Pakistani media was not wholly free yet. For example, the government can take off the air any television

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channel put out through the cable networks, besides imposing restrictions on the media through the introduction of ordinances, as happened after the imposition of emergency on 3 November 2007 (Appendix A). Similarly, the government can withdraw advertisements from newspapers and reduce their newsprint quota if they adopt too hostile a stance. The major problem, however, continued to be the army. On many occasions, during 2006-08, the Inter-Services Public Relations (ISPR) advised media outlets against publishing or airing certain news items. It is important to mention here that the Pakistani media mostly exercised restraint, or what can be very aptly termed self-censorship, when it came to reporting of issues/events concerning the so-called national interest, such as Kashmir or the recent Mumbai attacks. Presumably, the media complied out of a fear of reprisal. At times, the English media crossed the line, but only because limited audiences and readers do not force the government to resort to extreme measures. The media also came under increased corporate pressure because of its expanding role. As a result, glamour and showbiz gained prominence at the cost of real issues. This resulted in a situation where not much space remained for reporting and analysis of serious issues; thus, the media very rarely stimulated any meaningful debate on important policy matters. Even more negatively, because it was fast becoming an industry, the media resorted to unethical practices that militated against the spirit of journalism for example, publishing paid-for news or giving out of proportion space to big business. Increased corporate influence also limited the autonomy and freedom available to professional journalists. The focus on celebrities and stars sidelined coverage of issues relating to the marginalized and the poor. Investigative journalism also suffered because of this phenomenon and the increasing facility available to reporters, courtesy the Internet and mobile phones, to file desk stories. Largely, the journalists also lacked skills to report on economic or developmental issues, or to do investigative stories that rose above the level of what the sources said.

Media Interests and Inclinations


Although the media was relatively free compared with the past commercial interests dominated during the period 2006-08. Events sponsored by big business companies the major sources of revenue got excessive coverage. For example, events like the Lux Style Awards or Rafi Peer festivals received disproportionate coverage, while many newsworthy items failed to make it to the headlines. However, the Pakistani media overall could not be accused of working under any political influence, though there might be journalists supporting certain political parties or groups to seek benefits at the personal level. Due to increased globalization and availability of time on television channels, the scope of media coverage also broadened considerably during the last two years. It is for this reason that international events, like the 2008 presidential elections in the United States, were reported with diligence. This trend helped average Pakistanis become a part of the global village, and they then developed an increased liking for international

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and regional news. However, the content of programs on international and regional affairs was generally pathetic; the experts invited to share their opinions, seemed to excel in generalizations alone. Besides international and regional events, some of the remote areas within Pakistan also received increased attention, again mainly because of the paucity of news for the electronic media. Importantly, using its increased influence, the media brought almost every issue into the public sphere, from the jacked up marks of the chief justices daughter to Ajmal Kasabs nationality. The popularity of some of the talk shows, which helped politics enter the drawing rooms of the common people, was so immense that the government had to impose a ban on them. However, unlike in the past, the owners of media groups stood behind their staff when faced with government pressure. Geo TV resisted when the government urged that popular talk shows, such as Capital Talk and Meray Mutabiq, be taken off the air. Other major channels, like Aaj TV and ARYONE World, too followed its example. Similarly, the English daily, The News, stood behind its Editor (Investigations), Ansar Abbasi, who broke the story of the chief justices daughters marks. It is important to remember that only a few years ago, the Jang group which owns both Geo TV and The News had fired its group editor Shaheen Shehbai since reinstated upon government pressure. Despite this, the media continued to face restrictions on freedom of expression and many journalists lost their lives in the line of duty, especially in the violence-hit FATA and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. In other parts of Pakistan, the post-emergency period was the worst for the media, with banning of television channels and pressure being put on journalists not to do anti-government stories.

Space in the Media


Despite its rapid expansion in the last couple of years, the media continued to ignore issues that affected the marginalized sections of the society, especially women, minorities and the rural poor. For example, the media gave little coverage to tropical cyclone Yemyin that struck parts of Balochistan and Sindh on 23 June 2008 (Appendix B); while a tragedy of similar, or even smaller, magnitude in Punjab would have been in the headlines for months. More importantly, the media continued to cast women in submissive roles, thus reinforcing stereotypical images. Similarly, though almost a quarter of Pakistans economy depends on agriculture, the media completely ignored this and other rural issues. In addition, media coverage of most issues lacked depth and quality. For example, the country faced the worst energy crisis of its history in the period under review, but the media not only failed to apprise the common people of the pros and cons of the issue, but also did not suggest any solutions. What it did instead was publish or air generalized comments of people none of whom could be termed an authority on the issue. Another major problem with this approach was that the views of marginalized communities were not widely covered by the media. Thus, for example, the views of Sindhi nationalist leaders on Kalabagh Dam or those of Baloch nationalist leaders on

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provincial autonomy were largely blocked by the media. Similarly, the media addressed the preoccupations of the urban elite and neglected the needs of the majority in the countryside. Interestingly, besides English, Urdu newspapers in particular, eveningers also started devoting full pages to celebrity news and pictures. True, the solution to most problems was beyond the medias mandate or capacity; however, it could have spread information and awareness on issues like energy conservation. At times, editorials and opinion pieces raised vital questions, but the lack follow-up ensured that nothing concrete was done to address the issue, by either the government or the private sector. A major case in point is that of farmers and labourers, an increasing number of whom were rendered jobless during the past two years after privatization of state-owned enterprises. The situation,, however, was not so bleak when it came to media coverage of civil societys policy positions on the issues related especially to governance. The way the media highlighted the sacking of Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry and covered his rallies showed that it was willing to pay a proactive role in the countrys governance. However, many analysts also opined that the media created unnecessary hype about an issue with which the common people had nothing to do.

Key Challenges
It is interesting to note that during the past two years, the media showed an increased inclination to report on those who wielded power, rather than issues of the common people. Weddings of film stars received live telecast; while sugarcane growers, who could not get their dues from mill owners on time, did not fit into any time slot. This trend was so obvious that many a time one was at a loss to understand who really controlled the media. Some of the key challenges journalists faced during the period under review included lack of professionalism and job security, and respect for merit and quality. A few worthwhile issues barring the political merited investigation. Similarly, it became increasingly difficult to criticise corporate interests. In this scenario, the culture of seeking favours from those who wielded power thrived. Another visible trend during the last couple of years was the use of the media by NGOs, which to be in the news extended journalists all sorts of cooperation, such as lavish field visits and workshops and conferences abroad. On a positive note, the alternate online media, fulfilling the information gap from a peoples perspective, thrived during the period under review. When the Musharraf regime unplugged the television channels and radio stations in November 2007 to disrupt real time news and information flow, the countrys 20 million Internet users turned to the Internet where these social media channels continued to remain operational. Blogs and social networking sites managed to organize protest rallies, start international petitions and plan strategies for opposing military rule. As a result, a symbiotic relationship evolved between the media and civil society. When emergency was imposed, web news became increasingly available in both English and Urdu, and even in Sindhi, to satiate the growing hunger for information. However, this form of the media

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could benefit only the urban elites because of the low literacy rate in the countrys rural areas. In another positive development, an increasing number of academics and development practitioners Dr. Anwar H. Syed, Mr. Aasim Sajjad Akhtar, Dr. Pervez Tahir, Dr. Shahid Siddiqui, Mr. Rafay Alam, Dr. Mubarik Ali and Dr. Rasul Baksh Rais, to name just a few contributed regularly to both English and Urdu newspapers. The country, however, did not benefit from this interface between the media, the academia and civil society. Unfortunately, efforts of the organizations that work on promoting interface between the media and development, such as the South Asia Free Media Association (SAFMA) or Aman ki Asha, also largely failed to bear fruit. The Pakistani media began to realize its potential in the period under review, but it still has a long way to go before it can play any meaningful role in the countrys development. Skill development of journalists, more freedom of expression, and respect for merit and professionalism can go a long way towards achieving this end.

Appendix A: How to Practice Self-Censorship


The Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) (Third Amendment) Ordinance, 2007, enacted on 3 November 2007 by President General Musharraf, notified at least seven new violations that were not part of the version of the law that existed before the state of emergency. For each of these newly-notified violations, as well as any old violation under the preceding law, the penalties were enhanced to: jail term up to three years; fine up to Rs.10 million (increased from Rs.1 million); suspension of broadcast for an indefinite period or its seizure; and sealing of licensee office without advance notice. The offences were made cognizable and compoundable. The newly notified violations that would trigger these dramatically enhanced punishments include: 1. Terrorism-related coverage: Media will not broadcast video footage of suicide bombers, terrorists, bodies of victims of terrorism, statements and pronouncements of militants and extremist elements, and any other act which may in any way promote and/or abet terrorist activities or terrorism. 2. Liberal interpretation of political history: Media will ensure that no anchorperson or host propagates any opinion or acts in any manner prejudicial to the ideology of Pakistan, or sovereignty or security of Pakistan. 3. Passionate discourse and debate: Media will not broad-cast any program inciting violence or hatred, or any action prejudicial to maintenance of law and order. 4. Criticism of Musharraf, armed forces, parliament and judges: Media will not broadcast anything which defames or brings into ridicule the Head of State, or member of the armed forces, or executive, legislative or judicial organs of the state. 5. Discussion on court proceedings on Musharrafs eligibility for re-election as president and challenging of PCO and judges sacking: Media will not broadcast any program or discussion on a matter which is sub-judice.

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6. Free speech: Media will not broadcast anything which is known to be false or baseless or is mala fide, or for which there exist sufficient reasons to believe that the same may be false, baseless or mala fide. 7. Live coverage: Notwithstanding anything contained in this Ordinance, the live coverage of incidents of violence and conflict shall not be broadcast. A licensee or permission-holder shall ensure nothing is transmitted or broad cast in violation of the provisions of this Ordinance, rules and regulations and Code of Conduct (as drafted by PEMRA), and for this purpose shall install time delay equipments within its system to prevent any such violation.

Appendix B: Slow Death is not News (Case Study)


The media is not very interested in human suffering where the process of death is slow, lashes out Sadiqa Salahuddin, director of the Indus Resource Centre, an NGO working in flood-affected areas of Sindh. Bomb blasts and suicide bombings keep the media riveted, not stories about the poor. The death toll was 319, with 2.5 million people affected and 367,394 displaced when a tropical cyclone, Yemyin, struck Balochistan and Sindh on 23 June 2008. The havoc caused by these floods did not make it to the headlines of a single national newspaper, laments Zubair Murshid of the state-run National Disaster Management Authority. Lacklustre coverage in the media meant that national and international aid organizations did not respond in time, relief workers lament. Fund-raising became difficult, points out Salahuddin. We needed urgent supplies of medicines, but those sitting in Karachi did not know the scale of the devastation and were not mobilized enough to support us. Three weeks later, an appeal for $38 million in relief aid, issued by the United Nations, realized barely 14% of what was required, a large chunk of which came from the United Nations own Central Emergency Response Fund. In 2005, when a quake measuring 6.7 on the Richter scale devastated parts of Azad Kashmir and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, even the remotest villages were teeming with reporters for months. As a result, Pakistan was the recipient of unprecedented philanthropy. Loss of life is always big for the media, but loss of livelihood and suffering do not add up to much sensation, says Harris Khalique, the director of Strengthening Participatory Organization, an NGO that worked in both the quake-affected provinces. From the medias point of view, says Salahuddin, the poor are already suffering, so there is nothing newsworthy there, but the suffering caused by a flood cannot be undermined. With the flood-hit areas being so remote geographically, relief work was slow, says Masood Ahmed Lohar, the coordinator for UNDPs Small Grants Programme. Kashmir, on the other hand, has a good road network. The devastation of the beautiful valleys added further drama to the tragedy. In Sindh and Balochistan, all there is to see is desert. The political situation in the country is so distracting at the moment that natural calamities take a back seat, admits Khawer Khan, a reporter with a private TV channel, Dawn News, who covered the floods two days after the cyclones fury and didnt bump into any journalists in Jhal Magsi, a district in Balochistan that was completely inundated.
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