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MEHB221

Thermofluids Lab

2012

Experiment No. 2 VENTURI METER

Objectives To measure the discharge and to investigate the characteristic of a Venturi Meter.

Apparatus Solteq Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration Unit, FM 24. TecQuipment Hydraulic Bench, H1.

Figure 1: Arrangement of Venturi meter apparatus.

Summary of Theory Consider the flow of an incompressible fluid through the convergent-divergent pipe shown in Fig.2. The cross-sectional area at the upstream section 1 is a1, at the throat section 2 is a2, and at any other arbitrary section n is an. Piezometer tubes at these sections register h1, h2, and hn as shown.

MEHB221

Thermofluids Lab

2012

Figure 2: Ideal conditions in a Venturi meter. Assuming that there is no loss of energy along the pipe, and that the velocity and piezometric heads are constant across each of the sections considered, then Bernoullis theorem states that u1 2 u22 un 2 + h1 = + h2 = + hn 2g 2g 2g 1 Where u1, u2 and un are the velocities of flow through section 1, 2, and n. The equation of continuity is u1a1 = u2a2 = unan = Q 2 Q denotes the volume flow or discharge rate. Substituting in equation (1) for u1 from equation (2)
u22 a2 u22 + h1 = + h2 2g a 1 2g
2

And solving this equation for u2 leads to

u2 =

2g ( h1 h 2 ) a2 1 a1
2

MEHB221

Thermofluids Lab

2012

So that the discharge rate, from equation becomes:

Q = a2

2g ( h1 h 2 ) a2 1 a1
2

3 In practice, there is some loss of energy between sections 1 and 2, and the velocity is not constant across either of these sections. Consequently, measured values of Q usually fall a little short of those calculated from equation (3) and it is customary to allow for this discrepancy by writing:

Q = Ca 2

2g ( h1 h 2 ) a2 1 a1
2

C is known as the coefficient of the meter, which may be established by experiment. Its value varies slightly from one meter to another and even for a give meter it may vary slightly with the discharge, but usually lies within the range of 0.92 to 0.99. The ideal pressure distribution along the convergent-divergent pipe may be seen from Bernoullis equation 1 to be given by hn h1 = u 1 2 un 2 2g

For the purpose of calculation and of comparison of experimental results with calculation, it is convenient to express (hn h1) as a fraction of the velocity head at the throat of the meter, that is:

hn h 1 a 2 a 2 = u22 a1 an 2g

MEHB221

Thermofluids Lab

2012

Procedures
1. Open fully the flow control valve (on the right side of the hydraulic bench). 2. Open fully the discharge valve. 3. Switch on the hydraulic bench pump by pressing the black button on the right side of the hydraulic bench. 4. Let the water flow through the system for a while. 5. Close the discharge valve. All manometer tubes will show the same water level reading. This is called the total head of the system. 6. Record the total head of the system in the result sheet. 7. Adjust the discharge valve to let the water flow through the venturi meter. Set the water level of manometer tube C at approximately 10mm. 8. Record the water levels of all manometer tubes in the result sheet (Table 2). 9. Place the PVC tubing into the drain hole. Using the stopwatch, measure and record the time it takes for the water to reach 5 litres. The volume of the water could be seen on the left side of the hydraulic bench. Record the time in Table 2. 10. Once it is done, open the drain and let the water flow into the tank. 11. Close the discharge valve slightly to obtain a different flow rate (increase the water level of manometer tube C by approximately 10mm). 12. Record the water level of the piezometer tubes labeled A and C in Table 3. 13. Place the PVC tubing into the drain hole. Using the stopwatch, measure and record the time it takes for the water to reach 5 litres. Record the time in Table 3. 14. Once it is done, open the drain and let the water flow into the sump tank. 15. Repeat steps (11) to (14) to obtain an additional 5 sets of water level reading (A and C) with different flow rates. 16. Switch off the hydraulic bench pump by pressing the red button on the right side of the hydraulic bench. 17. Close the flow control valve and discharge valve.

Data, Observation and Results


The dimensions of the meter and the position of the piezometer tappings are shown below.

MEHB221

Thermofluids Lab

2012

Complete Table 1 (ideal values). Complete Table 2 (experimental values). Plot the graph of (hn-h1)/(u22/2g) versus the distance (xn) for the ideal and experimental pressure distribution on the same graph (Graph 1). Calculate experimental and ideal (using equation 3) discharge flow rate in Table 3. Calculate the coefficient of Venturi meter using equation 4 in Table 4. Plot the graph of C versus ideal flow rate (Graph 2).

Analysis and Discussion


Describe what happen ideally to the flow as the water flow through the venturi meter. Comment on Graph 1. Define Coefficient of meter, C and state the theoretical value for venturi meter. Comment on Graph 2. List the possible sources of errors and safety precaution.

RESULT SHEET
Table 1: Ideal Pressure Distribution Piezometer tube Dia. of cross Distance from No. (n) section (dn) datum (xn) A (1) 26.0 B 21.6 C (2) 16.0 D 20.0 E 22.0 F 26.0

d2/dn

(a2/a1)2

(a2/a1)2 (a2/an)2

Table 2: Measured Pressure Distribution Q= m3/s Tube No. (u2)2/2g = hn A (1) B C (2) D E F mm hn h1 hn h1 (u2)2/2g

MEHB221

Thermofluids Lab

2012

Table 3: Water level of piezometer tubes A (1) and C (2) Volume (L) 5 5 5 5 5 5 t (sec) h1 (mm) h2 (mm) Qexp (m3/s) (h1-h2) (m) (h1-h2)1/2 (m1/2) Qideal (m3/s)

Table 4: Coefficient of Venturi meter Experimental Q (m3/s) Ideal Q (m3/s) C