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INTRODUCTION CHAPTER-1

Attitude:
The importance of attitude in understanding psychological phenomenon was given formal recognition early in the history of social psychology. From the time of the concepts entry in to the language of psychology until now, interest in attitude has been strong and growing. However, over the years attitudes have been studied with differing emphasis and methods.

Concept of Attitude:
It is necessary to be precise in defining attitudes, because the variety of published definitions and descriptions is almost endless. Like any other concept, attitude may also be defined in two ways, Conceptual and Operational. There is quite a difference in the conceptual definition of the term attitude, and divergent points of view regarding the concept of attitude have developed.

Major aspects:
When the term first entered the field of social phenomenon, it was natural to conceive of attitude as a tendency, set or readiness to respond to some social object. For the first time, ALLPORT noted the definition of attitude, which he had observed contained the words readiness, set or disposition to act. Even ALLPORT has used these terms in defining attitude.

He defines attitude as follows:


Attitude is a mental and neural state of readiness organized through experience, Exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individuals response to all Objects and situations with which it is related
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Features of Attitude:
Attitudes affect behavior of an individual by putting him ready to respond favorably to
things in his environment.

Attitudes are acquired through learning over a period of time. The process of learning
attitudes starts right from the childhood and continues throughout the life of a person.

Attitudes are invisible as they constitute a psychologies phenomenon which cannot be


observed directly. They can be observed by observing the behavior of an individual.

Attitudes are pervasive and every individual has some kind of attitude towards the objects
in his environment. In fact, attitudes are forced in relate to anything in the environment. the socialization process and may

Attitude, Opinion and Belief:


An opinion is generally the expression of ones judgment of a particular set of facts, an evaluation of the circumstances presented to him. Thurstone defines opinion as a response to a specifically limited stimulus, but the response is certainly influenced by the predisposition with, with the individuals operating, that is, the attitude structure. A difference can also be made between attitude and belief. A belief is an enduring organization of perceptions and cognitions about some aspects of individual world. Thus, belief is a hypothesis concerning the nature of objects, more particularly, concerning ones judgments of the probability regarding the nature. In this sense, belief is the cognitive component of attitude which reflects the manner in which an object is perceived. The difference between attitude, opinion, and belief exists on conceptual basis Most researchers believe that these three terms are so closely tied that it is difficult to separate them except on a limited conceptual basis.

In the literature, often, there is a considerable amount of overlapping in these three terms. Most psychologists, however, believe that attitudes are more fundamental to human behavior than are he related aspects. For this reason, more attempts have been made to analyze attitudes as compared to others. Obviously attitudes are an important consideration because of their central position in the process of transforming work requirements in to efforts. Attitude alone do not influence behavior but these acts with other factors in the individual influencing behavior, such as personality, perception, motivation, etc. Further, attitudes are also affected by the individual dimension as well as the objects, persons, and ideas. Attitudes have been through as serving four functions and there by influencing the behavior. These are instrumental, ego defensive, value orientation and knowledge. 1. Instrumental: Attitudes serve as a means to reach a desired goal or to avoid an undesired one. Instrumental attitude are aroused by the activation of a need or cues that are associated with the attitude object and arouse favorable or unfavorable feelings. 2. Ego-Defensive: The ego-defensive functions of attitude acknowledge their importance of psychological thought. Attitude may be acquired by facing threats in the external world or becoming aware of his own unacceptable impulses.

3. Value Orientation: The value-orientation function takes in to account attitudes that


are held because they express a persons self-image, or by cues that engage the persons values and make them salient to him. 4. Knowledge: The knowledge function of attitude is based on a persons need to maintain a stable, organized and meaningful structure of the world.

5. Attitude that provides a standard against which a person evaluates the aspects of his world and serve as the knowledge function too.

These functions of attitudes affect the individuals way of interpreting the information coming to him. Since attitudes intervene between work requirements and work responses, information about how people feel about their jobs can be quite useful in the predication about work response. Thus, these types of attitudes can portray areas of investigation for making the individual and the organization more compatible.

Factors in Attitude Formation:


The attitudes are learned. Though there are different approaches as how learning works and is acquired by an individual, generally it is held that individuals learn things from the environment in which they interact. Thus, for attitude formation, all these factors must be taken in to account from which people learn. Such factors may be analyzed in terms of groups starting from the family as a group, an individual moves in a close group, then to longer groups, and finally to the society as a whole. A part from these groups, the individuals psychology which makes up particularly his personality, is also responsible for behavior and attitudes.

Methods of Attitude Change:


There are various methods through which a positive change in attitudes may be brought. In the social context, Cohen has suggested four methods for attitude change. They are:

Communication of additional information. Approval and disapproval of a particular attitude. Group influence, and Inducing engagement in discrepant behavior.
In some or the other, all these methods involve introducing discrepancies among the elements making up the individuals attitudes in the hope that the elements will be rebalanced through the effective component of the attitudes. From the organization point of view, a Manager can take following actions in brining change in attitudes of its organizational members.

Group action Persuasion through leadership Persuasion through communication and Influence of total situation.
These actions involve the analysis of different variables affecting a particular action.

Values and Attitudes:


Some researchers see values as consisting of large sets of related attitudes. For example, Fishbein and Ajzen have included two components in attitudes-informational, emotional. Thus, they have taken values as a part of attitudes. However, some differences exist between values and attitudes. Attitudes are specific and related to distinct objects; people, or ideas. Values are more general than attitudes; values often contain statement of goodness or badness associated with the attitudes which people hold. Values are, then, beliefs about which attitudes we should have or how we should behave.

Values and Behaviour:


Behaviour of people is influenced by the values which they hold, particularly in terms of

those stimuli which have some value orientation in the organizational context, understanding the influence of individual value system on the behaviour of individuals in the following manner: Values influence an individual perception about the problems he faces and consequently the decision he makes to overcome those problems. Values influences the way in which an individual looks at the other individual and groups of individuals, that is, interpersonal relationship. Values become the basis of such interpersonal relationship interactions.

Individuals judge organizational success as well as its achievement of the basis of their value system. Thus, for some individuals, organizational success may be in the form of high profit earning irrespective of the means adopted whereas, this may be a mean thing for other individuals. Individuals set limit for the determination of what is ethical or unethical behaviour for themselves as well as for the others. Values determine the extent to which individuals accept organizational pressures and goals. If these do not match with the value held by them, they thwart the organizational pressures and goals, and even leave the organization.

Employees Attitudes towards the Organization:


Attitudes are not the same as values, but the two are interrelated. You can see this by looking at the three components of an attitude: cognition, affect and behavior. The belief that discrimination is wrong is a value statement.

Cognitive Component of an Attitude:


It sets the stage for the more critical part of an attitude and is reflected in the evaluative statements concerning objects, people or events. The behavioral component of an attitude refers to an intention to behave in a certain way towards someone or something. In organizations, attitudes are important because they affect job behaviour. If workers believe, for example, that superiors, auditors, bosses, and time-and motion engineers are all in conspiracy to make employees work harder for the same or less money, and then it makes sense to try to understand how these attitudes were formed, their relationship to actual job behaviour, and how they might be changed.

Types of Attitudes:
A person can have thousands of attitudes, but Organizational Behaviour focuses our attention on a very limited number of work-related attitudes. These work-related attitudes tap positive or negative evaluations that employees hold about aspects of their work environment. Most of the research in OB has been concerned with three attitudes: job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment.

Job Satisfaction:
The term job satisfaction to an individuals general attitude towards his or her job. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes about their job, while a person who is dissatisfied with his or her job holds negative attitudes about the job. When people speak of employee attitudes, more often mean job satisfaction.

Job Involvement:
The term job involvement is a more recent addition to the OB literature while there isnt complete agreement over what the tem means. A workable definition states that job involvement measures the degree to which a person identifies him with his or her job and considers his or her perceived performance level important to self-worth. Employees with a high level of job involvement strongly identify with and really care about the kind of work they do.

Organizational Commitment:
The third job attitude is organizational commitment, which is defined as a state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. So, high job involvement means identifying with ones specific job, while high organizational commitment means identifying with ones employing organization.

Attitudes and Consistency:


Research has generally concluded that people seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behaviour. This means that individuals seek to reconcile divergent attitudes and align their attitudes and behaviour so that they appear rational and consistent. When there is an in consistency, forces are initiated to return the individual to an equilibrium state.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory:


This theory sought to explain the linkage between attitudes and behaviour. Dissonance means an inconsistency. Cognitive dissonance refers to an incompatibility that an individual might perceive between two or more of his or her attitudes, or between his or her behaviour and attitudes.

Moderating Variables:
The most powerful moderates have been found to be the importance of the attitude specially its accessibility, whether there must exist social pressures, and whether a person has direct experience with the attitude. Important attitudes are ones that reflect fundamental values, self-interest, or identification with individuals or groups that a person values. Attitude that individuals consider important tend to show a strong relationship to behavior.

Attitude Survey:
The preceding review indicates that knowledge of employee attitudes can be helpful to managers in attempting to predict employee behaviour. But, how does management get information about employee attitudes. The most popular methods are through the use of attitude surveys.
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Attitude and Workforce Diversity:


Managers are increasingly concerned with changing employee attitude to reflect shifting perspectives on racial, gender, and other diversity issues. A comment to a co-worker of the opposite sex, which 20 years ago might have been taken as a complaint, can today become a career-limiting episode. The majority of large U.S. employees and a substantial proportion of medium sized and smaller ones sponsor some sort of diversity training. Some examples are, Police Officers in Escondido, California, receive 36 hours of diversity training for their 12,000 employees. The Federal Aviations Administration sponsors amendatory 8 hours diversity seminar for employees of its western pacific region.

Job Satisfaction:
Job satisfaction is one of the important factors which have drawn attention of managers in the organization as well as academicians Various studies have been conducted to find out the factors which determine job satisfaction and the way it influences productivity in the organization. Though, there is no conclusive evidence that job satisfaction affects productivity directly because productivity depends on so many variables, it is still a prime concern for managers. Job satisfaction is the mental feeling of favorableness which an individual has about his job. Dubrins has defined job satisfaction in terms of pleasure and contentment when he says that.

Determinants of Job Satisfaction:


While analyzing various determinants of job satisfaction, we have to keep in mind that all individuals do not receive the same degree of satisfaction though they perform the same job in the same job environment and at the same time. Therefore, it appears that besides the nature of job and job environment, there are individual variables which affect job satisfaction. Thus all those factors which provide a fit among individual variables, nature of job and situational variables determine the degree of job satisfaction. Let us see what these factors are:

Individual Factors:
Individuals have certain expectation from their jobs. If there expectations are met from the jobs, they feel satisfied. These expectations are based on an individuals level of education, age, and other factors. 1. Level of Education: Level of education of an individual is a factor which determines the degree of job satisfaction. For example, several studies have found the negative correlation between the level of education, particularly higher level of education and job satisfaction. 2. Age: Individuals experience different degrees of job satisfaction at different stages of their life. Job satisfaction is high at the initial stage, get gradually reduced, starts rising up to certain stage and finally dips to a low degree. 3. Other factors: Besides the above two factors, there are other individual factors which affect job satisfaction. If an individual does not have favorable social and family life, he may not feel happy at the work place. Similarly, other personal problems associated with him may affect his level of job satisfaction.

Effect of his Job Satisfaction:


Job satisfaction has a variety of effects. The effects may be seen in the context of an individuals physical and mental health, productivity, absenteeism, and turnover.

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Physical and Mental Health:


The degree of job satisfaction affects an individuals physical and mental health. Since, job satisfaction is a typed of mental feeling, its favorableness or unfavourableness affects the individual psychologically which for example, Lawler has pointed out that drug abuse, alcoholism, and mental and physical health results from psychologically harmful jobs.

Improving Job Satisfaction:


Job satisfaction plays a significant role in the organization. Therefore, Managers should take concrete steps to improve the level of job satisfaction. These steps may be in the form of job re-designing to make the job more interesting and challenging, improving quality of work life, linking rewards with performance, and improving overall organizational climate.

Attitude Measurement:
Attitudes are subjective attributes of people. They can be regarded as construct in the sense that they are conceptualizations of human qualities that are formed on the basis of either rational consideration or attitudinal dimensions. Keeping this measurement aspect in to consideration, the attitudes might be defined operationally by describing the measurement systems that psychologists use to measure attitudes. Attitude measurement, developed largely by social psychologists is concerned with the efforts to tap these attitudes as they are characteristics of individuals. There are many methods of attitude measurement. The Thurston type of scaling goes back to the early work of Thurston and Chive, which collected a large number of statements relating to the area in which attitudes were to be measured. This statement may be relating to any object about which attitudes were to be measured. The statements are both favorable and unfavorable and are placed in 11 piles, with most favorable one being placed in pile 11. Other statements are placed in between their position depending on the degree of favorability or unfavorability. The scale is then presented to the statistical evidence. Thus, people may vary along a number of

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respondents. Each respondent checks the statement in pulling together numerous methods dealings with attitude measurement. They are: Self-Report Indirect Tests Direct Observation Techniques Psychology Reaction Techniques However attitude measurement of employees in an organization is most commonly carried out with self-respect questionnaires uses several scaling methods. There are three types of attitude scaling which are commonly used in attitude measurement. They are Thurston type of scale, Liker scale, and semantic differential. With which he agrees his attitude score is then based on the average or the median scale of the statements that he has checked. Soon after Thurston scale, Likert experimented with certain other varieties of attitude scales. Likerts attitude scale uses five points. The statements relating to the measurement of attitude is given to the person concerned and he is asked to check one of the five points given for every statement. These points show the degree of agreement or disagreement with the statement. The Likert scale is considered better as compared to Thurston because of several positive facts. For example, in this scaling, there is no much problem in making numerous statements which will show both positive and negative degree. The semantic differential, an attitude scaling technique that lends itself to various applications, was developed by Orgood, Suci and Tannenbaum. Therefore, an employee who has a high level of job satisfaction tends to bear attitudes, which are favorable to the organization. Balancing the positives with the negatives is important so that the employees will not be disappointed and become a problem that would have been avoided from the beginning. Attitudes cannot be changed drastically or quickly. There is a reason why people have attitudes; it is a part of them. To change a person takes patience and lots and lots of stalls, especially in a boss-employee relationship where it is more formal. Sometimes, all it takes is a warning in simple words which is to change an unfavorable attitude.
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When an employee discloses a mental health problem, try to work out a reasonable accommodation. Give him/her time off from work or a modified work schedule, make physical changes to the work place, or adjust supervisory instructions or training. Many mental health problems are highly treatable and cause only temporary disruptions at work. If an employee with a chronically negative attitude suddenly claims a mental disability, employers have the right to ask for medical certification and/or, in some situations, a second opinion. However, credible testimony from a family member may be enough, and asking for more may be an invasion of privacy. Check with an attorney before requesting these. Strike before the iron gets hot by including conduct problems in your employee hand book. Develop a policy that clearly delineates the types of behavior which are not acceptable in your workplace. The above mentioned examples are some which can change unfavorable attitude to a favorable one.

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PRISIDENCY KID LEATHER LIMITED


COMPANY PROFILE
This closely held leather company in existence since 1972 consists of a leather division, a shoe upper division and a full shoe division. The company derives enormous pride and satisfaction from the fact that the customer relationships are everlasting due to the consistency maintained in its very high quality standard of leathers, shoe uppers and shoes. Elegance and finesse is the hallmark of the glazed kid leathers. Beautifully crafted from a variety of leathers, the Shoe Uppers & Shoes are based on detailed information gathered from the clients. The company's policy is to understand the requirements of its customers accurately and come up with the right product, in the right leather at an attractive price. Customer profile of the company includes the best factories in Germany, Holland, England, Italy, France, U.S.A and the Far East. The company's management board consists of a chairman and 5 directors

INFRASTRUCTURE
The state-of-the-art manufacturing facility of PKL is located at a place that is well connected, and easily accessible. The area is renowned for leather and shoe manufacturing; hence skilled labour is available in abundance. Captive power and generating sets ensure uninterrupted production. Modern communication facilities like Internet, E-mail link to all the manufacturing facilities and Head Office

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MANPOWER
The tannery employs 300 workers and 100 trained technical staff with an annual production capacity of Fifteen million square feet of Kid, Sheep and Calf Leathers in a built up area of 16,000 square meters. Renowned for its glazed kid leathers using the best Indian Raw Material, the Tannery is equipped with a modern Effluent Treatment Plant. The shoe division of the company employs around 1200 workers, 40 technical personnel, executives and managers to ensure that quality requirements and delivery schedules are met. The fully automated plant is managed by highly skilled staff, right from cutting to final production to meet the global demand of increasingly high standards with an annual manufacturing capacity of 1.2 million pairs of shoe uppers and 3,00,000 pairs of shoes.

Shoe Upper Division:


Customer satisfaction is extremely important to us. Hence, we place great emphasis on research, design and quality to ensure their total satisfaction. We use the best and most appropriate leathers. Production Capacity: Two units with a total capacity of 12,00,000 pairs a year making both Ladies and Gents uppers.

Tannery & Finished Leather Division


The tannery, with an annual production capacity of fifteen million square feet of kid, sheep and calf leathers in a buildup area of 16,000 square meters, employs 300 workers and 100 trained technical personnel. Renowned for its glazed kid leathers, produced by using the best Indian raw material, the tannery is equipped with a modern effluent treatment plant.

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Finished Leather 1) Kid Leathers: Glazed and Polished Finishes Chrome and Vegetable Re-tanned 2) Sheep and Lamb Cabrettas 3) Calf Leathers: Glazed and Polished Leathers

Full Shoes division


With constant technical inputs and access to the latest technology our products are in a class by themselves. Total commitment to quality, service and delivery schedule is to the total satisfaction of our valued clients. Our exotic collection of leather shoes reflects a contemporary trend in fashion worldwide. Each one is subtly handcrafted by skilled artisans and custom-made to impress the most fastidious buyers. Production capacity of 3, 00,000 pairs a year.

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PRODUCT PROFILE PKL Leather Industry


The Presidency kids Limited industry occupies a place of prominence in the Indian economy in view of its massive potential for employment, growth and exports. There has been an increasing emphasis on its planned development, aimed at optimum utilization of available raw materials for maximizing the returns, particularly from exports. The exports of leather and leather products gained momentum during the past two decades. There has been a phenomenal growth in exports from Rs.320 million in the year 1965-66 to Rs.69558 million in 1996-97. Indian leather industry today has attained well merited recognition in international markets besides occupying a prominent place among the top seven foreign exchange earners of the country.

The leather industry has undergone a dramatic transformation from a mere exporter of raw materials in the sixties to that of value added finished products in the nineties. Policy initiatives taken by the Government of India since 1973 have been instrumental to such a transformation. In the wake of globalization of Indian economy supported with liberalized economic and trade policies since 1991, the industry is poised for further growth to achieve greater share in the global trade.

Apart from a significant foreign exchange earner, leather industry has tremendous potential for employment generation. Direct and indirect employment of the industry is around 2 million. The skilled and semi-skilled workers constitute nearly 50% of the total work force. The estimated employment in different sectors of leather industry is as follows:

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Structure of the industry


The leather industry is spread in different segments, namely, tanning & finishing, footwear & footwear components, leather garments, leather goods including saddler & harness, etc. The estimated production capacity in different segments is as under

Product
Leather Hides Skins Footwear & Footwear Components a) Shoes b) Leather shoe uppers c) Non-leather shoes/Chappals etc. Leather Garments Leather Products Industrial Gloves Saddlery

Capacity
64 million pieces 166 million pieces

100 million pairs 78 million pairs 125 million pairs 6 million pieces 70 million pieces 40 million pairs 6000 pieces

The major production centers for leather and leather products are located at Chennai, Ambur, Ranipet, Vaniyambadi, Trichi, Dindigul in Tamil Nadu, Calcutta in West Bengal, Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh, Jalandhar in Punjab, Bangalore in Karnataka, Delhi and Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh.

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Raw material supplies


There exists a large raw material base. This is on account of population of 194 million cattle, 70 million buffaloes, and 95 million goats. According to the latest census, India ranks first among the major livestock holding countries in the world. In respect of sheep with 48 million sheeps, it claims the sixth position. These four species provide the basic raw material for the leather industry. The annual availability of 166 million pieces of hides and skins is the main strength of the industry. This is expected to go up to 218 million pieces by the end of year 2000. Some of the goat/calf/sheep skins available in India are regarded as specialty products commanding a good market. Abundance of traditional skills in training, finishing and manufacturing downstream products and relatively low wage rates are the two other factors of comparative advantage for India.

Tanning and finishing capacity


With tanning and finishing capacity for processing 1192 million pieces of hides and skins per annum spread over different parts of the country, most of which is organized along modern lives, the capability of India to sustain a much larger industry with its raw material resource is evident. In order to augment the domestic raw material availability, the Government of India has allowed duty free import of hides and skins from anywhere in the world. It is an attraction for any foreign manufacturer who intends to shift his production base from a high cost location to low cost base.

Export Potential
The leather industry, one of the major foreign exchange earners of the country recorded significant growth since the beginning of the decade. Today the share of the value added finished products in the total exports from leather sector are 80% as against 20% in 1970s.

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Top ten Indian leather exporters


Tata International Ltd. Florind Shoes Ltd. Punihani International Farida Shoes Ltd. Mirza Tanners Ltd. T. Abdul Wahid & Company Hindustan Lever Ltd. Super House Leather Ltd. RSL Industries Ltd. Presidency Kid Leather Ltd.

Pkl Leather Footwear Industry


India is the world's second largest producer of footwear; its production estimated over 700 million pairs per annum. At about US $ 300 million per year, footwear accounts for 18 percent share of total exports of leather exports. Various types of shoes produced and exported from India include dress shoes, casuals, moccasins, sports shoes, horacchis, sandals, ballerinas, and booties. Major production centers are Chennai (Madras), Delhi, Agra, Kanpur, Mumbai (Bombay), Calcutta and Jalandhar. Most of the modern footwear manufacturers in India are already supplying to well establish brands in Europe and USA. The large domestic market and the opportunity to cater to world markets make India an attractive destination for technology and investments. Equally relevant is it for the footwear components industry, at this juncture, it is posed for real growth and diversification.

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PKL Leather Goods Industry


Items produced by this sector include, in addition to bags, handbags, hand gloves and industrial gloves, wallets, ruck sacks, folios, brief cases, travel ware, belts, sports goods, upholstery and saddlery goods.

A surfeit of modern units in Chennai, Kanpur and Calcutta employing skilled human resources and equipped with modern and sophisticated machinery account for a diversified range of superlative small leather goods including bags, purses, wallets, industrial gloves etc. made of quality leathers of cows, sheep, goats and buffaloes. The products meet the requirement of bulk buyers and consumers in Europe, USA and Australia. The major market for Indian leather goods is Germany, with an off take of about 25 per cent of the leather goods produced in India followed by USA, UK, France and Italy. With products ranging from designer collections to personal leather accessories, this sector has a share of 20.53 per cent in the leather industry, while maintaining an average growth rate of 11 per cent recorded in the last five years.

PKL Leather Garments Industry


The Leather Garment Industry occupies a place of prominence in the Indian leather sector. The product classification of leather garments comprise of jackets, long coats, waist coats, shirts, pant/short, children garments, motorbike jackets, aprons and industrial leather garments. Indian leather garments, which entered the world market only in the mid-eighties with exports of Rs. 15 crores in 1997-98, account for about Rs. 1530 crore in 1997-98. The major export destination of leather garments from India is Germany. In 1997, German imports of leather garments aggregated DM 1786 million of which DM 304 million worth of imports went from India. India, China and Turkey were the major suppliers of leather garments for the German market, as they accounted for about 78% of the market share.

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Among the three major exporting nations of leather garments, India maintains a similar level of market share of about 20%, in both German and EU markets. Other markets for India include Italy, U.K., U.S.A. France, Spain and Netherlands. Recently, successful attempt had been made for exports to Denmark, Switzerland and Canada.

PKL Leather Industry - Investment & Sales


The ratio of investment: sales value is 1: 2.25, which is very low when compared to other industries. This is mainly due to low capacity utilization of the units. The capacity utilisation of units in respect of hides converting raw into unfinished leathers is estimated at 49%, raw to finished 60% and unfinished to finished 70%. In the case of skin based tanneries, the respective percentages are 64, 67 and 70. The main reasons reported for under utilisation of capacity are raw material shortage, high price of raw materials, and lack of modernization, financial constraints, power constraints and stringent environmental regulations.

Marketing of leather and leather products in Germany & the EU

The leather sector offers a good potential which Indian entrepreneurs can exploit in Germany and other EU markets characterised by ever growing competitiveness in terms of price and quality, on one hand, and the environmental considerations, on the other. With a strong foothold that the Indian leather industry has had for long in these markets, and its advantage of raw material and labour resources, Indian leather exporters can, and should, mount a concerted marketing campaign to wrest a share consistent with their inherent strength and potential. This has to be done against the background of the well-known salient features of the German market:

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The world's second largest import and export market A difficult buyers' market with hyper competition and high expectations A dynamic multi-faceted market with rapid technological development and innovations A market where a considerable amount of buying power is devoted to satisfying individual needs

A market influenced by the rising average age of the population and low birth rate A market where environment awareness and eco-friendly production becomes more and more a pre-requisite for successful marketing of products

Marketing channels
The emerging trend in Germany has been towards direct imports. The other noteworthy feature is the integration of retailing and manufacturing, particularly for the footwear sector. This has led to increased emphasis on distribution aspects of business. Other distributors, like departmental stores, mail order houses, super markets and non-leather shops have also gained importance. Many outlets get direct supplies either from the manufacturers and importers or from wholesalers and buying associations (Einkaufs- Verband, e.V.).

These developments necessitate the marketing strategies to be attuned to the specifics of the different channels, keeping in sharp focus the changes taking place in the distribution pattern of chain stores, retailers, discounters, etc.

The strategy should focus on a structural approach to the promotion of export of leather products from India. This must include market information for exploring new markets, participation in different international trade fairs, organizing trade delegations, organizing buyerseller meets, liaising with the representatives of the buying houses, etc.

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OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
To know the employees attitude towards the organization To know the reasons for the employees positive attitude To know the reasons for the employees negative attitude To know the employees expectations from the organization To make suggestions to improve the attitude of the employees to the management.

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SCOPE OF STUDY

Monitor transition from a previously owned proprietorial business to a subsidiary business. Measure the effects of company management over the previous two years. Monitor the organizations current state of maturity. Monitor the effects of personnel, policy, and strategy changes. Monitor the effects of market changes.

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LIMITATION
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Only 100sample size has been taken for this study. So, if this study is maximum persons, it may give accurate overall attitude of the employees. It is done in PKL LEATHER LIMITED, so it cannot resemble the entire population working in the whole industry. Time was a major limitation for our study. Some people did not respond properly for the questionnaire clearly. conducted to

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
RESEACH METHODOLOY
Four types of studies can be called research namely reporting, description, explanation and prediction can be called research. Cooper and Emory (1995:21) define research as a systematic enquiry aimed at providing information to solve problems. Organization normally support business research for one research ie is to obtain competitive advantage.

SAMPLE SIZE:
Population : Unit Sample size : : 500 Management 100

RESEARCH STUDY:
In this study EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE the design chosen for the study is descriptive in nature. As the study is find out the employees opinion about the training programs and their views and ideas to improve the training facilities.

SAMPLING
The technique adapted for the sample was disproportionate stratified sampling. From the universe, selected samples from various departments are chosen. Thus, samples were selected for study and hence the sampling technique used was disproportionate stratified technique.

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SOURCES OF DATA:
PRIMARY DATA
The primary source include the actual information received directly concerned with the problem of study. The researcher primarily collected the data about the employee attitude towards the organization. The primary sources are mainly the general knowledge that research knows about the topic and the respondents who provide sufficient information about the topic.

SECONDARY DATA:
Secondary data are the information, which are attained indirectly. Its not attained directly from the employees. The secondary sources of information include the publicized, unpublished documents and other such types of information. The public document such as books, manuscripts, reports, records, papers and magazines are for secondary data collection.

DATA COLLECTION TOOLS:


The tools needed for the data collection was questionnaire. The questionnaire containing 20 questions was used to collect data from the employees. The resources for choosing the questionnaire collection of data is the respondents will easy to answer the questions which choice rather than asking them to write own. Every lesser time is required for answering the questions. The respondents express their views in a clear manner by the survey.

PERIOD OF THE STUDY


The study was conducted from 1 December to 30 December which altogether comprises of one month.

RESEARCH DESIGN
The research carried out the study with the descriptive type of research.
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TARGET STUDY
The target study confined to the researcher is PRISIDENCY KID LEATHER LTD, GUDUVANCHERRY Works employees based on their evaluation of Employee attitude

Though EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE is given in almost all the organization, but only a few organizations such as ltd takes its priority in organizing attitude programs & evaluating the programs with continuous analysis for the development & upliftment of the employees skills & attitudes

SAMPLE DESIGN
For this study two different types on non probability sample design were used.

CONVENIENCE SAMPLING
This designs aims at the collection of information from any convenient group whose views are relevant to the subject of study.

JUDGEMENT SAMPLING
The second sampling used was the judgment technique, Where the group to be interviewed was selected in advance by the judgment of the experts, within the organization

TOOLS USED FOR THE DATA ANALYSIS


For the purpose of analysis and interpretation certain common methods were used through diagrammatic representation like pie diagram and data collected by the questionnaire method and data analysis in percentage analysis. It is a descriptive type of study .

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RESEARCH DESIGN
It is the specification of the methods and procedures for acquiring the information needed to structure or to solve problems. It stands for advance planning of the methods to be adopted for collecting relevant date and the techniques to be used in their analysis, keeping in view the objectives of the research. Two types of research design were used for this study:-

3.12.1 EXPLORATIVE STUDY


First an explorative study was undertaken, with an aim at gaining familiarity, or with an aim at achieving insights into the study, which dealt with the formulation of a more precise research problem . it was basically a pilot study which was undertaken before actual research.

The aims of this design was limited to 1 2 Gathering the various secondary sources of information. Interview schedules with experts, to gather their insights and views about the study 3 Analysis of the various causes related to their study

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DESCRIPTIVE STUDY
The second design used for this study was the descriptive study; the reason for using this design was to acquire knowledge in a detailed manner. This study basically aims at portraying the characteristics of the individuals and firms in a detailed manner, to find out the root cause analysis for the employee attitude evaluation and development in creating knowledge skills for the employees.

ORGANISING AND CONSTRUCTING THE FIELD STUDY


The next stage, was to carry out a field survey, for this the personal interview method was undertaken so the necessary information could be collected from the respondents.

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TABLE - 8.1 SKILL DETAILS


S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

Agree

74

74

Disagree

Partially agree

20

20

Total

100

100

INFERENCE:
From the above the 74% of the respondents are Agree that the job is enables them to develop their skills .20% of the respondents Partially Agree that the job enables them to develop their skills, but remaining 6% of respondents Disagree that the job is not helpful to develop their skills.

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CHART-8.1 SKILL DETAILS

74 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 AGREE DISAGREE PARTIALLY AGREE 6

20

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TABLE-8.2 LENGTH OF SERVICE


S.NO 1 2 3 4 OPINION 0-2 years 3-4 years 4-5 years more than 10 years Total NO.OF.RESPONDENTS 30 40 14 16 100 PERCENTAGE 30 40 14 16 100

INFERENCE:
From the above it is clear that 40% of the Respondents says that they are working around 3-4 years in the company .30% of Respondents are working between 0-2 years in the company.16% of the Respondents are senior of the company .14% of the respondents says that 5-10 years they are working in a company.

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CHART-8.2 LENGTH OF SERVICE


40

40
35 30 25 16 30

14
20

15
10 5 0 0-2 years 3-4 years 4-5 years more than 10 years

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TABLE -8.3 FAMILY DETAILS


S.NO 1 2 3 4 OPINION 1 2 3 Above 3 Total NO.OF.RESPONDENTS 20 40 24 16 100 PERCENTAGE 20 40 24 16 100

INFERENCE:
From the above table it is clear that 40% of the respondents says that 2 members of their family depend on them .24% of the respondents says 3 members of their family depend on them . 20% of the respondents says 1 member of their family depend on them. Only 16% of members says above 4 members of their family depend on them.

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CHART-8.3 FAMILY DETAILS

45 40 35 30 25

40

24 20 16

20 15
10 5 0 1 2 3

Above 3

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TABLE -8.4 ACCEPTANCE OF CHANGING CONDITION


S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

Yes

80

80

No

20

20

Total

100

100

INFERENCE:
From the above that it is clear that 80% of the respondents have said YES because they are able to adapt to themself to the changing conditions or unexpected obstacles in the organization. But 20% of respondents said NO for that they are not able to adapt to themself to the changing conditions or unexpected obstacles in the organization.

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CHART-8.4 ACCEPTANCE OF CHANGING CONDITION

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TABLE-8.5 STRESS DETAILS

S.NO

OPINION

NO.OF.RESPONDENTS

PERCENTAGE

Agree

30

30

Disagree

70

70

Total

100

100

INFERENCE:
From the above table it is clear that 70% of the respondents Disagree that they do not undergo stress when changes are preferred. 30% of the respondents agree that they undergo stress when change are preferred .

40

CHART-8.5
STRESS DETAILS

80 70 70 60 50 40 30 30 20 10 0 Agree 1 disagree 2

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TABLE-8.6 OPTIMISTIC BEHAVIOUR

S.NO

OPINION

NO.OF.RESPONDENTS

PERCENTAGE

Yes

66

66

No

34

34

Total

100

100

INFERENCE:
From the above table 66% of respondents says Yes that they are able maintain intensity and remain optimistic and persistent even under adversity . 34% of respondents says No for they are not maintain intensity and remain optimistic and persistent under adversity.

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CHART-8.6 OPTIMISTIC BEHAVIOUR

66

70
60

50
34 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No

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TABLE-8.7 ABILITY IS SET PRIORITIES AND ANTICIPATE PONTENTIAL THERATS OR OPPORTUNITIES S.NO 1 2 OPINION Yes No Total NO.OF.RESPONDENTS 74 26 100 PERCENTAGE 74 26 100

INFERENCE:
From the above table 74% of respondents says Yes as they are ready to give priorities and anticipate potential threats or opportunities in an organisation. But remaining 26% says No as they are not able to adapt set priorities and anticipate potential threats or opportunities.

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CHART-8.7 ABILITY IS SET PRIORITIES AND ANTICIPATE PONTENTIAL THERATS OR OPPORTUNITIES

80 70 60 50 40 30 20

74

26

10
0 Yes No

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TABLE-8.8 VISION SHARING DETAILS

S.NO

OPINION

NO.OF.RESPONDENTS

PERCENTAGE

Yes

76

76

No

24

24

Total

100

100

INFERENCE:
From the above table 76% of respondents says Yes for they are share

vision with others influences other to translate vision into action but remaining 24% have reject the statement.

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CHART -8.8
VISION SHARING DETAILS

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TABLE-8.9 ABILITY TO RESLOVE CONFLICT

S.NO

OPINION

NO.OF.RESPONDENTS

PERCENTAGE

Strongly disagree

10

10

disagree

20

20

Agree

40

40

Strongly agree

30

30

Total

100

100

INFERENCE: From the above table 40% of respondents Agree to resolves Conflicts in a positive manner. Remaining 30% of respondents Strongly agree to resolves in positive manner. 20% of respondents Disagree with this statement.10% respondents strongly disagree that conflicts of positive and constructive manner to minimize negative impact.

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CHART-8.9
ABILITY TO RESLOVE CONFLICT

40 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly disagree disagree Agree Strongly agree 10 20 30

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TABLE-8.10 GOAL ACCOMPLISHMENT


S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

Strongly Disagree

16

16

Disagree

14

14

Agree

20

20

Strongly agree

50

50

Total

100

100

INFERENCE:
From the above table 50% of respondents Strongly agree. That the company Agree with this statement inspire/motivate & guide others towards goal. Remaining 20%

.16% have Strongly Disagree statement .Remaining14% of respondents Disagree with this statement.

50

CHART-8.10 GOAL ACCOMPLISHMENT

Strongly agree 50

Agree 20

disagree

14

Strongly disagree 16 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

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TABLE-8.11 DETAILS OF PERSON TO BE RELIED

S.NO

OPINION

NO.OF.RESPONDENTS

PERCENTAGE

Yes

60

60

No

40

40

Total

100

100

INFERENCE:
From the table indicates that 60% respondents says Yes for they are person on whom someone can rely to carry out tasks effectively . Remaining 40% respondents says No for this statement

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CHART-8.11 DETAILS OF PERSON TO BE RELIED

60

60
40

50

40

30

20

10

0 Yes No

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TABLE-8.12 ABILITY TO TAKES UP RESPONSIBILITY

S.NO 1 2

OPINION Yes No Total

NO.OF.RESPONDENTS 56 44 100

PERCENTAGE 56 44 100

INFERENCE
From the above table 56% of the respondents says yes for they are satisfied that responsibility are complete in a timely manner and within budget . Remaining 40% of respondents say No.

54

CHART- 8.12 ABILITY TO TAKES UP RESPONSIBILITY

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TABLE-8.13 ABILITY TO SATISFY NEEDS OF CLIENTS

S.NO

OPINION

NO.OF.RESPONDENTS

PERCENTAGE

Yes

82

82

No

18

18

Total

100

100

INFERENCE:
From the table indicates that 82% of respondents are says Yes for they are able to the clients needs necessary to develop the business. Remaining 18% of respondents say that it is not

56

CHART-8.13
ABILITY TO SATISFY NEEDS OF CLIENTS

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TABLE-8.14 ABILITY TO TAKE TIMELY DECISIONS


S.NO OPINION NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

Strongly disagree

disagree

12

12

Agree

56

56

Strongly agree

24

24

Total

100

100

INFERENCE:
From the above table it is inferred that 56% of the respondents Agree that the company makes effective and timely decisions , even the data is limited the solutions produce un pleasant consequences. 24%of the respondents Strongly agree the company makes effectives and timely decisions , even the data is limited the solutions produce un pleasant consequences.12% of the respondents Disagree that the company does not make effective and timely decision even data is limited or solutions produce un pleasant consequences. 8% of the respondents Strongly disagree that the company make effective and timely decision even data is limited or solutions produce un pleasant consequences.

58

CHART-8.14
ABILITY TO TAKE TIMELY DECISIONS

56 60 50 40

30
20 8 12

24

10
0 Strongly disagree disagree Agree Strongly agree

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TABlE-8.15 ABILITY TO DISTINGUISH RELEVANT AND IRRELEVANT


S.NO 1 2 3 4 OPINION Strongly disagree disagree Agree Strongly agree Total NO.OF.RESPONDENTS 16 12 48 24 100 PERCENTAGE 16 12 48 24 100

INFERENCE:
From the above table it is clear that 48% of the respondents Agree that they are able to make logical decisions relevant & irrelevant information. 24% of the respondents Strongly agree that they are able to make logical decisions on relevant & irrelevant information. 16% of the respondents Strongly disagree that they are not able to make logical decisions and irrelevant.12% the respondents Strongly disagree that they are not able to make logical decisions and irrelevant.

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CHART-8.15 ABILITY TO DISTINGUISH RELEVANT AND IRRELEVANT

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TABLE-8.16 REWARD FOR HARDWORK DETAILS

S.NO 1 2

OPINION Yes No Total

NO.OF.RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 70 30 100 70 30 100

INFERENCE: From the above table 70% of the respondents says Yes that they are rewarded for that hard work .Remaining 30% says No for this statement

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CHART- 8.16
REWARD FOR HARDWORK DETAILS

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TABLE- 8.17 PROMOTION DETAILS


S.NO 1 2 3 4 OPINION Strongly disagree disagree Agree Strongly agree Total NO.OF.RESPONDENTS 6 14 46 34 100 PERCENTAGE 6 14 46 34 100

INFERENCE:
From the above table 46% of the respondents Agree that job promotions with in the company fair and reasonable. 34% of the respondents Strongly agree that job promotions with in the company is not fair and reasonable. 14% of the respondents disagree that job promotions with in the company is not fair and reasonable. 6% of the respondents Strongly disagree that job promotions with in the company fair and reasonable.

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CHART-8.17 PROMOTION DETAILS

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TABLE- 8.18 DEMOTION /INCREMENT DETAILS


S.NO 1 2 OPINION Yes No Total NO.OF.RESPONDENTS 72 28 100 PERCENTAGE 72 28 100

INFERENCE:
From the above table it is clear that 72% of the respondents says Yes for the increment on letter performance and demotion on job improper performance. Remaining 28% say No for this statement .

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CHART-8.18
DEMOTION /INCREMENT DETAILS

72
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No 28

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TABLE -8.19 ABILITY TO DEVLOP NEW AND MAN EFFICIENCY S.NO 1 2 3 4 OPINION Strongly disagree disagree Agree Strongly agree Total NO.OF.RESPONDENTS 20 12 48 20 100 PERCENTAGE 20 12 48 20 100

INFERENCE:
From the above table 48% of people Agree that they are encouraged to develop new and more efficient ways to do their work 26% of respondent Disagree says that they are not encouraged to develop new and More efficient ways to do their work .20% of peoples Strongly agree that they are encouraged to develop new and more efficient ways to do their work . 14% of respondent says Strongly disagree that they are not encouraged to develop new and More efficient ways to do their work.

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CHART-8.19
ABILITY TO DEVLOP NEW AND MAN EFFICIENCY
48 50

45
40 35

20

30
25 20

20 12

15
10 5

0
Strongly disagree disagree Agree Strongly agree

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TABLE-8.20 FLEXIBLITY OF MANAGEMENT IS BALANCING WORK


S.NO 1 2 3 4 OPINION Strongly disagree disagree Agree Strongly agree Total NO.OF.RESPONDENTS 18 14 20 48 100 PERCENTAGE 18 14 20 48 100

INFERENCE:
From the above table we understand that 48% of the respondents Strongly agree that management is flexible and understands the importance of balancing both work and personal life.20% of respondents Agree that management is flexible and understands the importance of balancing both work and personal life.18% of respondents Strongly disagree that management is not flexible and understands the importance of balancing both work and personal life.14% of respondents Disagree that management is not flexible and understands the importance of balancing both work and personal life.

70

CHART-8.20
FLEXIBLITY OF MANAGEMENT IS BALANCING WORK

48 50

45
40 35 30 25 18 20

14

20
15 10 5 0 Strongly disagree disagree Agree Strongly agree

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FINDINGS
The job enables the employees to develop their skills. The employees change themselves according to the changing conditions of the organization. The employees are ready adapt themselves to unexpected obstacles in the organization. The employees remain persistent even under adversity. The employees try to solve and manage conflict in a positive and constructive manner. The company inspires motivation and guides the employees towards the goal of the organization. The employees works with specific responsibility. The employees who work hard are reward by the company. The management is flexible and ready to understand the employees personal life. The employees are encouraged to develop new and more efficient ways to work

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SUGGESTIONS
The job gives to their employees with full involvement. Efficient workers are encouraged with promotion and incentives. We train the adaptation of work should listen the employees. The management should listen the employee quaries The employee should be monitored properly

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CONCLUSION
Choosing the right type of person to the right type of job enables the employees to do the work with the efficiency and diligently. The organization motivates the employees with the good environment and remuneration. The employees working in the organization is flexible and changes themselves according to the working conditions. The employees conflicts are managed by the organization in a constructive manner. The efficient workers are encouraged with promotion and good remuneration. The objectives of the organization it is clearly defined by the employees. The job given to the employees in such that improves quality of the workers. The employees in a organization should not be given any potential threats by employers. The company should inspire and guide the employees for achievement of goal of the organization.

The management guides and direct the employees to vital accomplishment of the enterprise goal . The introduces the subordinates to work with confidence and zeal. The management also stimulates to strive and willing to attend the organizational objectives

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BIBLOGRAPHY:
This information is collected from books, and web resources.

BOOKS:

Organisation behavior Organisation behaviour Marketing research

Philip kotlar J.Jayasankar P.Ravilochanan

WEB RESOURCES:
www.pklindia.com Panther@pklindia.com

www.google

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ANNEXURE EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE This Questionnaire to be filled by the Employees of ____________________ Please indicate a Tick Mark on the preferred option for each aspect in the Questionnaire

NAME AGE

: :

Designation Sex A. Male B. Female

: :

1. This job enables me to develop my skills ? A) Agree B) Dis agree C) Partially agree 2. How long have you worked for this company? A. 0 2 Years B. 3 4 Years
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C. 5 10 years D. More than 10 years

3. No of Dependents in your family? A. B. C. D. 1 2 3 Above 3. (Please specify)

4. Do you adapt yourself to the changing conditions, or unexpected obstacles in the organisation?

A) Yes

B) No

5. I undergo stress when change is preferred?

A) Agree

B) Dis agree

6. Do you maintain focus and intensity and remain optimistic and persistent, even under adversity? A) Yes B) No

7. Can you determine objectives, set priorities and anticipate potential threats or opportunities? A) Yes B) No

8. Do you think that you can share vision with others; influences others to translate vision into action?
77

B) Yes

B) No

9. I can you manage and resolves conflicts in a positive and constructive manner to minimize negative impact? A) Strongly disagree C) Agree B) Disagree D) Strongly agree

10. Does your company Inspire, motivate, and guide others toward goal accomplishments? A) Strongly disagree C) Agree B) Disagree D) strongly agree

11. Do you feel that you are a person someone who can be relied upon to carry out your tasks effectively?

A) Yes

B) No

12. You are a person who can be relied upon to ensure that projects within areas of specific responsibility are completed in a timely manner and within budget.?

A) Yes

B) No

13. Do you meet the needs of your clients?

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A) Yes

B) No

14. Does your company makes effective and timely decisions, even when data is limited or solutions produce unpleasant consequences.? A) C) Strongly disagree Agree B) Disagree D) Strongly agree

15. Can you distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information to make logical decisions.

A) C)

Strongly disagree Agree

B) Disagree D) Strongly agree

16. Did the hard work is usually rewarded by my Company? A) Yes B) No

17. Job promotions within the company are fair and reasonable?

A) C)

Strongly disagree Agree

B) Disagree D) Strongly agree

18. Do you prefer this system of increment on better performance & demotion on improper performance?
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A) Yes

B) No

19. I am encouraged to develop new and more efficient ways to do my work?

A) C)

Strongly disagree Agree

B) Disagree D) strongly agree

20. Management is flexible and understands the importance of balancing my work and personal life?

A) C)

Strongly disagree Agree

B) Disagree D) Strongly agree

21. What changes, if any, do you feel need to made in your department to improve working condition ? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 22. What changes, if any, do you feel need to be made in the company to improve working condition? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

*********************************************************************** THANKS FOR DEVOTING YOUR PRECIOUS TIME FOR FILLING THIS QUESTIONNAIRE
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*********************************************************************** Date Signature : :

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