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KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI: A Bio-Bibliography

Cindy Bylander

PRAEGER

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI
A Bio-Bibliography
Cindy Bylander

Bio-Bibliographies in Music, Number 98 Donald L. Hixon, Series Adviser Westport, Connecticut London

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Bylander, Cindy. Krzysztof Penderecki : a bio-bibliography / Cindy Bylander. p. cm. (Bio-bibliographies in music, ISSN 07426968 ; no. 98) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0313256586 (alk. paper) 1. Penderecki, Krzysztof, 1933Bibliography. 1. Title. II. Series. ML134.P47B95 2004 016.78'092dc22 2004017327 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available. Copyright 2004 by Cindy Bylander All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced, by any process or technique, without the express written consent of the publisher. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2004017327 ISBN: 0313256586 ISSN: 07426968 First published in 2004 Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881 An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. www.praeger.com Printed in the United States of America

The paper used in this book complies with the Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National Information Standards Organization (Z39.481984). 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Contents

Preface Biography Works and Performances Discography Annotated Bibliography Appendix A - Chronological List of Compositions Appendix B - Compositions by Genre Appendix C - Dissertations by Reference Number

5 7 15 49 79 279 287 293

Appendix D - Books and Monographs by Reference Number 295 Index of Works 297

Preface

In producing this volume on Krzysztof Penderecki, it would have been ideal to be able to include everything ever written by or about the composer. However, given the voluminous amount of attention paid to Penderecki since the very beginning of his career, this has proved impossible. The works list contains compositions written through 2003, and includes the early works for theater that are not often included in other such lists. The performances that are cited include the world premieres and selected presentations such as the Polish or American premieres. The discography is as complete as possible through 2003, although I expect that other information will surface after publication. The annotated bibliography is comprised of books, articles, and dissertations that were published in North America, England, Poland, Germany, and France through 1998, the year of Pendereckis 65th birthday. This reflects the vast majority of writings about the composer. Several major works have been published since then: Krzysztof Pendereckis Music in the Context of 20thcentury Theatre, edited by Teresa Malecka (Krakw: Akademia Muzycana, 1999); Regina Krzysztof Penderecki. Music Sacra Musica Profana (Warsaw: Adam Mickiewicz Institute, 2003); Tomaszewskis Penderecki (Warsaw: Adam Mickiewicz Institute, 2003); Tadeusz Zielinskis Dramat instrumentalny Pendereckiego (Krakw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 2003), and Studies in Penderecki, vol. 2 Penderecki and the Avant-Garde, edited by Ray Robinson and Regina and published in 2003.

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Four appendices are included: a chronological list of Pendereckis compositions, a list by his works by genre, a reference list of dissertations, which are interspersed alphabetically by author in the main bibliography section, and a reference list of books on Penderecki, which also are interspersed throughout the annotated bibliography. The index itself provides references only for compositions. This project could not have been completed with the support of the following institutions: the University of Illinois, The Ohio State University, the New York Public Library, the University of Warsaw, the Polish Composers Union, the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), the Polish Music Center at the University of Southern California (USC), the University of Texas at Austin, and Trinity University. At the risk of omitting the names of many important people, I would like to express my thanks for their support to Ray Robinson, Regina Marek Stachowski, Czopowicz, Alina Sawicka-Baird, Barbara and Kazimierz Nowacki (now deceased). In this time of widespread Internet access, I must admit that much of my research in recent years has started with the invaluable online resources from RILM, OCLC, and FirstSearch.

Biography

Krzysztof Penderecki is one of the most prominent composers of the twentiethcentury. He is a man of outstanding intellect and musical genius whose music, perhaps inevitably, has aroused controversy throughout much of his career. His independent musical personality has led him to compose both strikingly innovative compositions and more traditional pieces. Many of his works reflect his deep religious faith. He does not consider himself to be a composer who responds to political events, yet he is lauded in Poland for his interpolations of Polish hymns and patriotic songs and his willingness to create music that is relevant to the contemporary events of his native country. As a composer, he has moved through several apparent stylistic changes. Nevertheless, similarities of style consistently appear in his music, providing a thread of unity throughout his oeuvre. Youth The circumstances of Pendereckis upbringing have had a profound impact on his music. Born in 1933 in a small town in southern Poland, Penderecki experienced both the horrors of World War II and some of the restrictions on Polish artistic life imposed by that countrys Communist government, which came to power in 1947. Paralleling these experiences was the pious family life his family led in a country whose people have routinely intertwined Catholicism and politics in their everyday lives. This combination of forces imbued Penderecki with a strong sense of morality, a passion for justice, and a deep interest in theology. These sentiments, in turn, have served as inspiration for many of his works.

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Pendereckis youth was also spent surrounded by music. His parents and extended family were amateur musicians, and Krzysztof became proficient on the violin. In 1951 he began taking classes at University; at the same time he enrolled in Krakws Intermediate School of Music. In 1954, he entered the State Academy of Music in Krakw, studying composition with Artur Malawski and, for a short time, Wiechowicz. Influences Pendereckis exposure to contemporary music from Western countries was minimal during his formative years. Performances of music by twentiethcentury Western composers occurred rarely in Poland, and composers there were not encouraged to experiment with new compositional techniques. It was only in 1956, with the political thaw in Poland and the inception of the Warsaw Autumn International Festival of Contemporary Music, that he was able to hear a range of compositions by such composers as Stravinsky, Honegger, and Schoenberg. The second Festival, held in 1958, introduced him to works by Webern, Boulez, Berio, Nono, and Stockhausen, among others. Although the thaw ended for writers and graphic artists in 1958, the atmosphere surrounding composers remained relatively liberal. Even so, life in Communist Poland was never completely free of restrictive governmental policies Yet another influence on Pendereckis early compositional career was his work at the Polish Radio Experimental Music Studio, established in Warsaw in November 1957. For the next two to three years Penderecki spent time there writing music for film and theater and attempting to develop a new musical language. Indeed, his experiments there served as a major impetus for his integration of new string techniques, tone clusters, and noise into his nonelectronic compositions. A Shocking Start Penderecki was catapulted to the top ranks of Polands musical consciousness when the three winning compositions in the 1959 Polish Composers Unions Young Composers Competition, all entered anonymously, were found to be his submissions. These piecesPsalms of David, Emanations, and Strophesall use serialism to some degree and, at the same time, foreshadow the innovations of his more mature compositions. Penderecki burst onto the international scene with his next piece, Anaklasis. Scored for percussion and 42 strings, each with a separate part, the piece astounded the Donaueschingen Festival audience at its 1960 premiere with its quarter-tones, cluster glissandos, percussive treatment of the string instruments, lack of discernible melody, and unusual performing requirements, which include playing the highest note possible, repeating a note as quickly as possible, and bowing between the bridge and tailpiece. This was also the first of Pendereckis

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works to feature extensive use of his new notational methods. At its premiere, the audience demanded that the piece be encoreda rare event in modern music and a testimony to Pendereckis ability to combine innovation with theatrical appeal. Penderecki now entered a two-year period in which he thoroughly developed his catalog of compositional trademarks: tone clusters, durations indicated in seconds rather than in metrical notation, an increased use of percussion and/or percussive-style writing, a variety of new means of playing the string instruments, non-traditional notational symbols, andthe trait least discussed by the pressa strong emphasis on traditional forms and dramatic flow. Pendereckis most famous work of this period, and a piece that is still among his favorites, is Threnody, a piece from 1960 originally titled 8 37. This composition conveys a strong sense of linear motion as it develops an interplay between sustained sounds (single pitches and clusters) in the outer sections and a pointillist, canonic middle section. Sections are delineated by a thinning out of the sound blocks. The strings are asked to perform on the bridge and tailpiece as well as behind both devices and to produce percussive effects and vibratos of various speeds. A Turning Point The year of 1962 was pivotal for Penderecki, for it was then that he reached a point of no return in his search for a new musical language. The list of instruments in Fluorescences includes siren, musical saw, penny whistle, electric doorbell, flexatone, and typewriterthis in addition to a full orchestra using nearly all of the unconventional techniques Penderecki had developed to date. Before Fluorescences was premiered at the Donaueschingen Festival in October 1962, Penderecki had completed Stabat Mater, a piece that reflects a clear shift in compositional intent. Elements of medieval chant, polyphony, and traditional tonality are cast within a rondo form. Traditional notation is the norm rather than the exception. Pendereckis expanded interest in traditional musical elements initially was more apparent in his choral pieces than in his instrumental works. Many of his ultra-modern techniques are absent from the choral works written after 1962. In these pieces, noise is de-emphasized as a structural element and a more pronounced affirmation of the musical traditions of past centuries is introduced, although clusters, glissandos, and an interest in polyphony rather than vertical harmonies remain. As always for Penderecki, form is the most important part of each piece. The St. Luke Passion, finished in 1966, is one such work. At that each time, the significance of a composer from a Communist country writing a Passion, with all of its religious connotations, was enormous, and, indeed,

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Penderecki has acknowledged that political concerns were part of the impetus for writing this piece. Musically, it incorporates many of the compositional ideas worked out in earlier pieces, as well as those reflected in the Stabat Mater, which itself became part of the Passion. Penderecki used the texts dramatic implications and huge performing forces to produce a highly expressive piece. After the Passion, Penderecki continued his forays into large-scale sacred choral works with Dies Irae, Utrenia, and Magnificat. Written for an international ceremony at the Auschwitz concentration camp, Dies Irae uses texts from a variety of sources to dramatize the plight of that camps victims and, in a larger sense, all victims of torture. As in the St. Luke Passion, the imagery of the text is skillfully reflected in the music. For Utrenia, Penderecki incorporated Church Slavonic language and musical traits into a concert setting of Easter Eve and Easter Day rituals in the Eastern Orthodox church. Again, the dramatic setting of the text is the defining factor in the works success. Complex polyphony, allusions to Eastern Orthodox Easter music, tolling wooden bells typical of old Slavonic rituals, and 48-part choral writing comprising the same vocal techniques as in the Passion and Dies Irae are components of this piece. Traditional Trends Penderecki began his career as a conductor in October 1971, leading Actions in its world premiere at the Donaueschingen Festival. Since then he has been in great demand, conducting both his own works and those of other composers. He has frequently stated that a change toward a greater simplicity in his writing came about in part because of his conducting experiences. After his First Symphony was completed in 1973, Penderecki began writing in a neo-Romantic style. Gone were the graphic notational symbols, clusters, and unconventional playing techniques. In their place were clearly defined, lyric melodies and traditional orchestration. Violin Concerto No. 1 (1976) astonished critics with its echoes of 19th-century expressiveness and post-Wagnerian harmonies. Formally, one basic motive serves as the basis for continuous variation. Pendereckis trademark sighing-motiveor movement by descending half-stepmakes an appearance here as well. The work was met with derision by some critics, who thought it lacked dramatic and harmonic interest. After similar criticism was leveled at Paradise Lost, Penderecki was branded by some as a traitor for his abandonment of his avant-garde techniques and the alleged shallowness of his new pieces. These opinions have followed Penderecki for much of his career, even as other critics have raved about the same pieces. Paradise Lost, commissioned by the Chicago Lyric Opera and completed in 1978, is the second of Pendereckis operas, the first being The Devils of

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Loudun. Based on Miltons epic work of the same name, its distinct musical characterizations of God, Satan, and the human roles of Adam and Eve, late Romantic chromatic harmonies, more contemporary structures such as tritones and three-note cells, and a passacaglia on the Dies Irae melody are featured in this dramatic portrayal of good vs. evil. National Concerns Individual Style Beginning in 1980, it is possible to see a correlation between Pendereckis compositions and political events in Poland. At the same time, his dedication to his Catholic faith continues to be manifested in his music. Penderecki also became more comfortable with his move toward a more traditional compositional approach. Many of his works of the 1980s and 1990s combine chromatic polyphony and tone clusters with classical motivic development and expressive melodies. Dramatic tension and release continue to be prominent. The Te Deum of 1980 was dedicated to Pope John Paul II on the occasion of his ascension to the papacy. This hymn of praise for soloists, two choruses, and orchestra incorporates a song that for the Polish nation had become a symbol of freedom from captivity. The Solidarity labor union emerged from the Polish underground in the latter half of 1980 and became the focal point of the nation in its struggle for freedom from Communist rule. Penderecki contributed to the cause at least symbolically with Lacrimosa, dedicated to Solidarity and its leader, Lech It was premiered in December 1981 in at the unveiling of the monument to the victims of the 1970 workers uprising. Its soaring, anguish-laden melody makes it one of the most memorable of Pendereckis works. Martial law was declared in Poland in December 1981. Penderecki began his Polish Requiem. In addition to Lacrimosa, his Agnus Dei, composed in memory of Cardinal Stefan an outspoken critic of the Communist government, and Recordare, dedicated to Father Maximilian Kolbe, a priest killed in Auschwitz, are included in this momentous work. Another quotation from a Polish melody appears, this time from heard in the Recordare. Although the Requiem was premiered after the lifting of martial law in July 1983, it is considered by the Polish people to be a strong statement of support for the cause of freedom from Communist rule. It is not simply a Polish work, however. It bears references to earlier models by Mozart, Berlioz, Verdi, and Britten and, through its world-wide performances, has become a significant contribution to the Requiem genre. To a greater extent than in previous decades, Penderecki now began composing chamber works alongside his larger, more grandiose pieces. Cadenza, Per Slava, Song of Cherubim, Prelude for clarinet, Veni Creator, and Der

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unterbrochene Gedanke all were written in the 1980s. These chamber pieces bear witness to his penchant for closed forms, virtuosic instrumental parts, and transparent textures; they are also lighter in mood than his large-scale works. The Black Mask occupies a somewhat different spot in Pendereckis output. In this, his third opera, he wanted to break away from the musical and political traits of the Requiem. Structured as an ensemble opera in one scene, its cast of characters from various religions, nationalities, and professions engage in a psychological struggle that descends into chaos. Complex, motoric rhythms, quick pacing, clashing harmonic structures and, as is now normal for the composer, quotations (of 17th-century dance music, Luthers Aus tiefer Not, and his own Dies Irae from the Polish Requiem) play an important role in this dance of death. The Ark Symphony as Synthesis In Pendereckis Labyrinth of Time, a volume of speeches given between 1993 and 1996, the composer revealed his thoughts about what he perceived to be an artistic crisis in contemporary music in the late 20th century. His synthesis of traditional and experimental approaches, which had begun as early as the Stabat Mater of 1962, was his personal solution to this crisis. In the 1990s, tradition bears more weight than experimentation. Penderecki described the symphony as his musical ark, which could convey the best of 20th-century traditions, much as Mahler had done at the end of the 19th century. To this end, his third, fourth, and fifth symphonies were composed between 1988 and 1995, with Seven Gates of Jerusalem, conceived as Symphony No. 7, appearing in 1996. Each is a large-scale work, even though the fourth and fifth symphonies have just one movement. Reminiscences of classical and romantic symphonies abound, with allegro opening sections, scherzos, and transparently scored passages interspersed with fully scored sections of heightened drama. The Fourth Symphonys single adagio movement evokes a mood of great grandeur and solemnity, aided by imaginative orchestration. Each bears the influences of Mahler, Bruckner, and other romantic symphonists. Seven Gates, a work for soloists, three choruses, and large orchestra, uses texts from the Psalms and other books of the Old Testament. Its seven movements and motives of seven notes correspond to Jerusalems seven gates and Biblical references to the number seven. As in the symphonies, Seven Gates offers passages of simplicity and monumentality, here befitting the meaning of the text and the honor of the commission from the city of Jerusalem. Credo, similar in instrumentation to Seven Gates, is a one-movement work, highly emotional yet finely detailed. It speaks to the composers personal faith

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and his belief that faith is important for humanity. Its texts include the liturgical creed, fragments of two Polish hymns, and interpolations of other Latin and German sacred melodies. Smaller sacred pieces continue to appear in the 1990s: Benedicamus Domino, Benedictus, Agnus Dei for the Requiem for Reconciliation, Hymn to St. Daniel, and Hymn to St. Adalbert. Although brief works, their very existence is a statement about the composers desire to bear witness to his faith. Clarity of texture and sound are featured in the chamber works of this period. For Penderecki, composing such works has allowed him to shift focus, or even to serve as a form of relaxation while simultaneously working on larger works. To this end, we see Entrata, Quartet for Clarinet and String Trio, Divertimento, Lucerne Fanfare, Sextet, and other pieces. Often more classical than romantic in spirit, they feature contrasting tempi, contrapuntal lines, and clear forms. Sextet is a major work featuring rhythmically complex passages alongside those of sparse scoring and tranquil moods. The Flute Concerto and Second Violin Concerto, Concerto Grosso for Three Cellos, and Piano Concerto have also emerged from the composers pen since 1990. Each of the concerti displays virtuosic soloist lines and an almost rhapsodic flow of musical thought. The Baroque and Classical opposition of soloist and orchestra exists, though in a less rigid manner than in their models. Ubu Rex is the most recent of Pendereckis operas. Although he had started it several times, he could not bring himself to complete it due to the harsh political situation in Poland. Finally, in 1991, the premiere was held. Based on a play by Jarry that has been characterized as a rebellion against the world, Penderecki chose to compose an opera buffa, drawing on the grotesque and absurd traits of the same theme. He purposely turned to operatic models of the 18th and 19th centuries, in particular those of Mozart, Pergolesi, Rossini, and even Wagner. These models are not directly imitated, but are instead presented within the context of a parody. Distinctions Despite the occasional critical reception given to Penderecki by the press, he has been honored frequently and widely throughout his career. He has received honorary doctorates from many institutions, including Georgetown University, the University of Rochester, Madrid Autonomous University, Belgrade University of Fine Arts, the universities in Leuven and Bordeaux, the Academies of Music in Warsaw and Krakw, Adam Mickiewicz University in the University of Warsaw, University, and the University of Glasgow.

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Among the many awards he has received are those from the Polish Ministry of Culture (1962), Great Art Prize of North Rhein-Westphalia (1966, for St. Luke Passion), Priz Italia (1967, St. Luke Passion), Honegger Prize (1973, Magnificat), Wolf Prize (1987, shared with Isaac Stern), the Sibelius Prize (1983), Grawemeyer Award for Music Composition (1992, Symphony No. 4), a Grammy Award (1988, Cello Concerto No. 2), and a second Grammy in 2001 (Credo). He is an honorary member of the Royal Academy of Music in London, the Academy of Music in Stockholm, the American Academy of Arts and Letters, the Beijing Conservatory, and the Tchaikovsky Conservatory in Moscow, among others. As mentioned earlier, Penderecki has spent much of his time conducting orchestras around the world. He was the artistic director of the Krakow Philharmonic from 1987-1990 and the artistic director of the Casals Festival in San Juan, Puerto Rico from 1992-2002. He has also been the principal guest conductor of the North German Radio Orchestra (Hamburg) and the Central German Radio Symphony Orchestra (Leipzig), and has been the musical director of Sinfonia Varsovia since 1997. Penderecki has devoted substantial amounts of his time to teaching composition. From 1966-1968 he taught composition at the Folkwang Hochschule fr Musik in Essen. He was a professor at Yale University from 1972-1978 and, perhaps his most important academic position, the Rector of the Academy of Music in Krakw from 1972 to 1987. Here he was able to attract the attention of the Polish government, a situation that worked favorably for the Academy and Polish music in general. As a composer, conductor, and teacher, Penderecki has never failed to follow his own path. He is profoundly concerned with the condition of humanity. As a composer, he made a major contribution to the avant-garde movement of the mid-twentieth century. His innovative notational practices and sonorities shocked the world and made him an acclaimed composer as a young man. Although he eventually turned towards a more traditional style, he never completely abandoned the ideals of his early years. Not merely of academic importance, his pieces either outrage or inspire their audiences. In short, he has been a composer both of his times and independent of his times.

Works and Performances

Wl. About the Grinder and the Kantel's Miraculous Lute ("O mfynku sampo i cudownej lutni Kantele") (c. 1960; music for puppet theatre) World premiere: 1960, Pinocchio Theater, Poland; J. Wroniszewski, director W2. Achilles and the Young Ladies ("Achiles i panny") (1962; music for puppet theater; A. M. playwright) World premiere: c. 1962, Groteska Theater, Krakw, Poland; Z. Jaremowa, director W3. Actions (1971; jazz ensemble; 17 min.) Commission: Donaueschingen Music Days festival Publisher: Schott World premiere: October 17, 1971, Donaueschingen Music Days, West Germany; International Free Jazz Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor W4. Adagietto from Paradise Lost (1976-78; orchestra; 5 min.) Commission: Chicago Lyric Opera (written after the premiere of Paradise Lost as an intermezzo for Act 2, scenes 5-6) Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: April 8, 1979, International Festival, Osaka, Japan; NHK Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Selected performances: September 24, 1987, Warsaw Autumn Festival, Poland; Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra; Mariss Jansons, conductor

16 See Paradise Lost W5. Adventure of the Frog ("Przygoda Wajser, film director)

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) (1963; short-film music; K.

W6. Adventures of the Little Screws ("Przygody ) (1963; electronic music for puppet theater; V. Silvester; playwright) World premiere: c. 1963, Marcinek Puppet and Actors Theater, Poland; Wojciech Wieczorkiewicz, director W7. Adventures of the Warsaw Bear ("Przygody warszawskiego misia") (1958; music for puppet theater; playwright) World premiere: c. 1958, Arlekin Puppet Theater, Poland; S. director W8. Agnus Dei (1981; eight-part unaccompanied mixed chorus; 1994, arranged for string orchestra by Boris Pergamenshikov; 8 min.) Composed in memory of Cardinal Stefan Catholic Primate of Poland Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere of choral version: May 31, 1981, Warsaw, Poland (funeral of Cardinal Stefan Krakw Polish Radio Chorus; Antoni Wit, conductor World premiere of version for string orchestra: December 4, 1994, Krakw, Poland; Sinfonietta Cracovia; Boris Pergamenshikov, conductor Selected performances: First public performance of choral version: June 21, 1982, Nuremberg, West Germany; South German Radio Choir; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor See Polish Requiem Agnus Dei for Requiem of Reconciliation (1995; 4 soloists, mixed W9. choir, orchestra; 7 min.) Commission: International Bach Academy, Stuttgart Publisher: Schott World premiere: August 16, 1995, Stuttgart, Germany; Donna Brown, soprano; Ingeborg Danz, alto; Thomas Randle, tenor; Andreas Schmidt, bass; Gchinger Kantorei Stuttgart; Krakw Chamber Choir; Israel Philharmonic Orchestra; Helmut Rilling, conductor W10. Anaklasis (1960; 42 strings and percussion; 9 min.) Commission: Heinrich Strobel, Southwest German Radio Orchestra for the Donaueschingen Music Days festival Publisher: PWM, Moeck

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World premiere: October 16, 1960, Donaueschingen Music Days, West Germany; South-West German Radio Orchestra; Hans Rosbaud, conductor Aria and Two Minuets. See Three Pieces in Antique Style W11. The Awakening of Jacob (1974; orchestra; 8 min.) Dedicatee: Prince Rainier II, on the 25th anniversary of his ascension to the throne Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: August 14, 1974, Monte Carlo; National Opera Orchestra of Monte Carlo; Skrowaczewski, conductor Selected performances: Polish premiere: February 16, 1975, Krakw, Poland; Krakw Philharmonic Orchestra; Jerzy Katlewicz, conductor W12. Balloons ("Balony") (1961; short-film music realized at Polish Radio Experimental Music Studio, Warsaw; Stefan Janik, film director) Selected performances: February 1983, Penderecki Festival in Breda, Tilburg, s-Hertogenbosch and Eindhoven, Brabant province, The Netherlands W13. The Bells Are Tolling (1966; music for puppet theater; Z. Wojciechowski, playwright) World premiere: c. 1966, Marcinek Puppet and Actors Theater, Poland; L. Serafinowicz, director W14. Benedicamus Domino (1992; 5 mens voices; 3 min.) Publisher: Schott World premiere: April 18, 1992, Lucerne, Switzerland; Taverner Consort W15. Benedictus (1992; mixed chorus; 10 min.)

W16. The Birds Milk ("Ptasie mleczko") (1958; music for puppet theatre; Tudorowski and Mietalnikow, playwrights; Jerzy Zitzman, director) World premiere: c. 1958; Banialuka Puppet Theater, Poland W17. Bitterness ("Gorycz") (1962; short-film music realized at Polish Radio Experimental Music Studio, Warsaw; W. Wajser, film director)

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W18. The Black Mask (1984-1986; opera in one act; 90 min.) Libretto: Harry Kupfer and Krzysztof Penderecki; adapted from play of the same name by Gerhart Hauptmann; English translation by Michael Feingold Commission: Salzburg Festival Dedicatee: Otto Sertl Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: August 15, 1986, Salzburg, Austria as a co-production of the Vienna State Opera and the Salzburg Festival; soloists: Walter Raffeiner, Josephine Barstow, Lona Culmer-Schellbach, Marjana Lipovsek, Martin Finke, Hans Franzen, Jolanta Radek, Gnter Reich, Huub Claessens, Malcolm Smith, Heinz Zednik, Rainer Scholze, Gertrude Jahn; Harry Kupfer, stage director; Hans Schavernoch, scenery; Reinhard Heinrich, costumes; Walter Hagen-Groll, choir director; Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra; Woldemar Nelsson, conductor Selected performances: U. S. premiere, July 30, 1988, Santa Fe Opera Festival, New Mexico; soloists: Ragnar Ulfung, Timothy Nolen, Lona CulmerSchellbach, John Kuether, Dennis Bailey, Judith Christin, Marius Rintzler, James Ramlet, Beverly Morgan, Robert Remington, Joyce Castle, Mark Lundberg, Lisa Treger, Michael Lott; Alfred Kirchner, stage director; John Conklin, scenery and costumes; George Manahan, conductor Polish premiere (Polish libretto): September 18, 1988, Warsaw Autumn Festival; soloists: Roman Wegrzyn, Jacek Parol, Krzysztof Szmyt, Jerzy Artysz, Wanda Teresa Borowczyk, Anna Malewicz-Madey, Hoff; Teatr Wielki orchestra, Warsaw; Albert Andr Lheureux, director; Andrzej Majewski, scenery and costumes; Robert Satanowski, conductor Polish premiere (German libretto): October 25, 1987, soloists: Ewa Werka, Joanna Kubaszewska, Aleksander Burandt, Jzef Lwel Perl, Moniuszko Teatr Wielki orchestra, Ryszard Peryt, director; Ewa Starowiejska, scenery and costumes; Dondajewski, conductor W19. The Blacksmith ("Kowala") (1964; music for puppet theater; G. Morcinek, playwright) World premiere: c. 1964, Ateneum Silesian Puppet and Actors Theater, Katowice, Poland; Jerzy Zitzman, director W20. The Brigade of Death (1963; radio play for reciting voice and tape; electronic music realized at Polish Radio Experimental Music Studio; text by Leon Wieliczker, adapted by Jerzy Smoter; 16 min.) Selected performances: First concert performance, January 20, 1964, Warsaw, Poland

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W21. Brothers Karamazov ("Braci Karamazw") (1963; music for theater adapted from Dostoevskys book of the same name; Jerzy Krasowski, director) World premiere: c. 1963, Teatr Polski, Warsaw, Poland W22. Burlesque Suite from Ubu Rex (1995; arranged for concert band by Henning Brauel; 16 min.) Publisher: Schott World premiere: October 19, 1996, South Tyrol, Italy; Landesblasorchester Sdtirol; Michael Luig, conductor See Ubu Rex W23. Cadenza for Solo Viola (1984; 8 min.; arranged for violin by Christiane Edinger) Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere of version for viola: September 10, 1984, Poland; Grigori Zhislin, viola World premiere of version for violin: October 28, 1986, Warsaw, Poland; Christiane Edinger, violin W24. Canon (1962; 52 strings and 2 tapes of music realized at the Polish Radio Experimental Music Studio, Warsaw; 8 min.) Award: Malawski Composers Competition, 1962, first prize Dedicatee: Jan Krenz Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: September 20, 1962, Warsaw Autumn Festival, Poland; Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra, Katowice; Jan Krenz, conductor W25. Cantata in honorem Almae Matris Universitatis Iagellonicae sescentos abhinc annos fundatae (1964; 2 mixed choirs and orchestra; 6 min.) Publisher: PWM, Belwin, Deshon World premiere: May 10, 1964, Krakw, Poland; Krakw Philharmonic Orchestra and Choir; Witold Rowicki, conductor W26. Canticum Canticorum Salomonis (1970-1973; 16-voice choir and orchestra; 17 min.) Commission: Gulbenkian Foundation Dedicatee: Emil Breisach Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: June 5, 1973, Lisbon, Portugal; NCRV Vocal Ensemble, Strasbourg Percussion Ensemble, Gulbenkian Foundation Orchestra, Werner Andreas Albert, conductor

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Selected performances: Polish premiere, February 23, 1974, Festival of Contemporary Polish Music, Krakw Philharmonic Orchestra and Choir; Jerzy Katlewicz, conductor W27. Capriccio for Oboe and 11 Strings (1965; 7 min.) Commissioned by and dedicated to: Heinz Holliger Publisher: PWM, Moeck World premiere: August 26, 1965, Lucerne Festival, Lucerne, Switzerland; Heinz Holliger, oboe; Lucerne Festival Strings; Rudolf Baumgartner, conductor Selected performances: Polish premiere, September 23, 1976, Warsaw Autumn Festival, Poland; Heinz Holliger, oboe; Polish Chamber Orchestra; Jerzy Maksymiuk, conductor W28. Capriccio for Siegfried Palm (1968; solo cello; 8 min.) Commissioned by and dedicated to: Siegfried Palm Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: May 4, 1968, Pro Musica Nova 68, Bremen, West Germany; Siegfried Palm, cello Selected performances: Polish premiere, September 27, 1970, Warsaw Autumn Festival; Siegfried Palm, cello W29. Capriccio for Tuba Solo (1979-1980; 5 min.) Publisher: Schott World premiere: June 20, 1980, Penderecki Festival, Krakw, Poland; Piernik, tuba W30. Capriccio for Violin and Orchestra (1967; 10 min.) Commission: Southwest German Radio Publisher: PWM, Moeck World premiere: October 22, 1967, Donaueschingen Music Days, West Germany; Wanda Wilkomirska, violin; South-West German Radio Orchestra; Ernest Bour, conductor Selected performances: Polish premiere, January 12, 1968, Wanda Wilkomirska, violin; National Philharmonic Orchestra, Warsaw; Jan Krenz, conductor U. S. premiere: March 10, 1968, Buffalo, NY; Paul Zukovsky, violin, Buffalo Philharmonic. Orchestra: Lukas Foss. conductor W31. Codes (Szyfry) (1966; film music; Wojciech Has, director) (1963; short-film music;

W32. The Coffee Grinder Jerzy Zitzman, film director)

WORKS AND PERFORMANCES

21

W33. Concert at Wawel ("Koncert wawelski") (1960; short-film music realized at Polish Radio Experimental Music Studio, Warsaw; film director W34. Concerto for Violino Grande (or Cello) and Orchestra No. 1 (1966/1967, transcribed for cello 1971/1972; 20 min.) Commission: Eichenholz Publisher: PWM, Moeck (transcribed version) World premiere: July 1, 1967, Sweden; Bronislav Eichenholz, violino grande; Stockholm Symphony Orchestra; Henryk conductor World premiere of transcribed version: September 2, 1972, Edinburgh Festival, Scotland; Siegfried Palm, cello; Scottish National Orchestra; Alexander Gibson, conductor Selected performances: Polish premiere of transcribed version, June 1, 1974, Katowice; Hans Joachim Scheitzbach, cello; Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor W35. Concerto for Cello and Orchestra No. 2 (1982; 34 min.) Commission: Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra for its 100th anniversary Dedicatee: Mstislav Rostropovich Publisher: Schott World premiere: January 11, 1983, Berlin, West Germany; Mstislav Rostropovich, cello; Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Selected performances: Polish premiere, January 17, 1983, Krakw; Roman cello; Krakw Philharmonic Orchestra; Tadeusz conductor U. S. premiere: November 23, 1983, Washington, D. C.; Mstislav Rostropovich, cello; National Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor W36. Concerto for Flute (or Clarinet or Violin) and Chamber Orchestra (1992, 25 min.) Commission: Flute version, Lausanne Chamber Orchestra, on the occasion of its 50th anniversary. Clarinet version, 100th anniversary of the Czech Philharmonic Dedicatee: Jean-Pierre Rampal Publisher: Schott World premiere of version for flute: January 11, 1993, Lausanne, Switzerland; Jean-Pierre Rampal, flute; Lausanne Chamber Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor World premiere of version for clarinet: March 7, 1996, Prague, Czechoslovakia; Sharon Kam, clarinet; Czech Philharmonic; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor. Selected performances: U. S. premiere, January 20, 1993, New York City; Jean-Pierre Rampal, flute; Orchestra of St. Luke's; Roger Norrington, conductor

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KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

Polish premiere: September 17, 1993; Warsaw; Irena Grafenauer, flute; Sinfonia Varsovia; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor W37. Concerto for Piano and Orchestra Resurrection (2002, 30 min.) Commission: Carnegie Hall Corporation in celebration of Marie-Jose Kravis birthday Publisher: Schott World premiere: May 9, 2002, New York City; Emmanuel Ax, piano; Philadelphia Orchestra, Wolfgang Sawallisch, conductor. W38. Concerto for Viola (or Clarinet or Cello) and Orchestra (1983; 18 min.) Commission: The government of Venezuela, for the bicentenary of the birth of Simn Bolivar. Publisher: Schott World premiere of version for viola: July 21, 1983; Caracas, Venezuela; Joen Vasquez, viola; Maracaibo Symphony; Eduardo Rahn, conductor World premiere of version for viola, 13 solo strings and three percussionists: October 20, 1985; Moscow, USSR; Grigori Zhislin, viola; Grigori Zhislins chamber orchestra; Saulius Sondetskis, conductor World premiere of version for cello, done by Boris Pergamenshikov: December 15, 1989; Wuppertal, West Germany; Boris Pergamenshikov, cello; Wuppertal Symphony Orchestra; Peter Glke, conductor World premiere of version for clarinet: July 9, 1995; Boulder, Colorado; Orit Orbach, clarinet; Colorado Music Festival Orchestra; Giora Bernstein, conductor Selected performances: U. S. premiere of version for viola, 13 solo strings and three percussionists, March 30, 1986; Los Angeles; Milton Thomas, viola; American Chamber Symphony; Nelson Nirenberg, conductor W39. Concerto for Violin (1962/1963, withdrawn after premiere) Commission: Zagreb Biennale World premiere: May 14, 1963, Zagreb Biennale, Zagreb, Yugoslavia; Tomasz Michalak, violin; Krakw Philharmonic Chamber Group; Andrzej Markowski W40. Concerto for Violin and Orchestra No. 1 (1976, rev. 1988; 39 min.) Commission: Basel Music Society, for its centenary anniversary Dedicatee: Isaac Stern Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: April 27, 1977, Basel, Switzerland; Isaac Stern, violin; Basel Symphony Orchestra; Moshe Atzmon, conductor Selected performances: U. S. premiere, January 4, 1978, Minneapolis; Isaac Stern, violin; Minnesota Orchestra; Skrowaczewski, conductor Polish premiere: March 8, 1979, Katowice; Konstanty Andrzej Kulka, violin;

WORKS AND PERFORMANCES

23

Great Polish Radio and Television Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor W41. Concerto for Violin and Orchestra No. 2 Metamorphoses (1995; 40 min.) Dedicatee: Anne-Sophie Mutter Publisher: Schott Commission: Central German Radio Orchestra World premiere: June 24, 1995; Anne-Sophie Mutter, violin; Central German Radio Orchestra; Mariss Jansons, conductor. Selected performances: U. S. premiere, November 9, 1996, New York; AnneSophie Mutter, violin; San Francisco Symphony; Michael Tilson Thomas, conductor W42. Concerto Grosso for Three Cellos and Orchestra (2000, 35 min.) Publisher: Schott World premiere: June 22, 2001, Tokyo; Boris Pergamenshikov, Ha-Nah Chang, and Truls Mork, cello; NHK Symhony Orchestra; Charles Dutoit, conductor W43. Cosmogony (1970; soprano, tenor and bass soloists, mixed choir, orchestra; 20 min.) Commission: United Nations, on the occasion of its 25th anniversary Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: October 24, 1970, New York City; Joanna Neal, soprano; Robert Nagy, tenor; Bernard bass; Rutgers University Choir; Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra; Zubin Mehta, conductor World premiere of revised version: October 22, 1971, Nuremberg, West Germany; Sonja Poot, soprano; Karl-Heinz Thiemann, tenor; Kurt Moll, bass; Nuremberg Opera Chorus; Hamburg Radio Choir; Nuremberg Philharmonic Orchestra; Hans Gierster, conductor Selected performances: Polish premiere, April 8, 1971, Krakw; Stefania Woytowicz, soprano; Kazimerz Pustelak, tenor; Bernard bass; Krakw Philharmonic Choir and Orchestra; Jerzy Katlewicz, conductor W44. Credo (1998; 5 soloists; mixed choir; boys choir; orchestra; 60 min.) Commission: Oregon Bach Festival and the International Bach Academy, Stuttgart Publisher: Schott World premiere: July 11, 1998, Eugene, Oregon; Juliane Banse, Milagro Vargas, Marietta Simpson, Thomas Randle, Thomas Quasthoff, soloists; Oregon Bach Festival Orchestra and Choir, Phoenix Boys Choir; Helmut Rilling, conductor. Selected performances: Polish premiere, October 5, 1998, Krakw, Poland; Julia Borchert, Milagro Vargas, Marietta Simposon, Rolf Romei, Thomas

24

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

Quasthoff, soloists; International Bach Academy Orchestra and Chorus, Krakw Philharmonic Boys Choir; Helmut Rilling, conductor. W45. The Crimson Dress ("Pasowa sukienka") (1959; music for puppet theater; M. Kossakowski and J. Galewicz, playwrights) World premiere: c. 1959. Arlekin Puppet Theater, J. Galewicz, director W46. De Natura Sonoris No. 1 (1966; orchestra; 8 min.) Dedicatee: Otto Tomek Publisher: PWM, Moeck World premiere: April 7, 1966, International Festival of Contemporary Art, Royan, The Netherlands; ORTF Philharmonic Orchestra of Paris; Andrzej Markowski, conductor Selected performances: Polish premiere, January 6, 1967, Warsaw; National Philharmonic Orchestra; Henryk conductor W47. De Natura Sonoris No. 2 (1970; orchestra; 10 min.) Commission: Juilliard School of Music, New York City Dedicatee: Zubin Mehta Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: December 3, 1971, New York City; Juilliard Orchestra; Jorge Mester, conductor Selected performances: Polish premiere: June 16, 1972, Warsaw; National Philharmonic Orchestra; Andrzej Markowski, conductor W48. De profundis (a transcription of part 3 of Seven Gates of Jerusalem) (1996, 3 a cappella mixed choruses; 1998, string orchestra; 7 min.) Publisher: Schott World premiere of version for string orchestra: September 10, 1998; Salerno, Italy; Sinfonia Varsovia; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Selected performances: Opole, Poland, January 12, 1999; Sinfonietta Cracovia; Robert Kabara, conductor See Seven Gates of Jerusalem W49. Descent to Hell (1966; film music; Zbigniew director)

W50. The Devils of Loudun (1968/1969; opera in three acts; libretto by Penderecki, based on Erich Fried's German translation of John Whiting's The Devils, which itself is an adaptation of Aldous Huxley's The Devils of Loudun) Commission: Hamburg State Opera Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: June 20, 1969, 43rd International Society of Contemporary

WORKS AND PERFORMANCES

25

Music Festival, Hamburg, West Germany; soloists: Tatiana Troyanos, Cvetka Ahlin, Helga Thieme, Andrzej Hiolski, Bernard Hans Sotin, Horst Wilhelm, Ernst Wiemann, Karl-Heinz Gordesmann, Rolf Mamero, Kurt Marschner, Heinz Blakenburg, Ingeborg Krger, Elisabeth Steiner, Helmuth Melchert, William Workman, Carl Schutz, Franz-Rudolf Eckardt; Hamburg State Opera; Konrad stage director; Lidia and Jerzy scenery and costumes; Gnther Schmidt-Bohlnder, choir master; Elmar Gehlen, pantomime; Henryk conductor Selected performances: June 22, 1969, Wrttemberg State Theater, Stuttgart, West Germany; soloists: Colette Lorand, Carlos Alexander; Gnther Rennert, stage director; Leni Bauer-Escy, scenery; Janos Kulka, conductor U. S. premiere: August 14, 1969, Santa Fe Opera Festival, Santa Fe, New Mexico; soloists: John Reardon, Joy Davidson, John Stewart, Richard Cross, William Workman, Ragnar Ulfung, Ray Hickman; Konrad stage director; Georg Schreiber, lighting; Rouben Ter-Arutunian, scenery; Stanistaw Skrowaczewski, conductor Polish premiere (revised version): June 8, 1975, Teatr Wielki, Warsaw; soloists: Urzula Andrzej Hiolski, Krzystyna Jamroz, Bogdan Paprocki, Bernard Ladysz; Kazimierz Dejmek, stage director; Andrzej Majewski, scenery; Henryk Wojnarowski, choir director; Nowakowski, conductor 1970, Television film adapted from the Hamburg State Opera production, 35mm. color, 108 minutes. Joachim Hess, film director; Marek Janowski, conductor W51. Diamond Dew ("Diamentowa rosa") (1958; music for puppet theater; A. Borodin, playwright) World premiere: c. 1958; Pinocchio Theater, W. Byrsek, director W52. Dies Irae (1967; oratorio for soprano, tenor and bass soloists, mixed choir, and orchestra; 22 min.) Written in memory of those killed in the Auschwitz concentration camps Award: Prix Italia 1968, for the TV film version Publisher: PWM, Moeck World premiere: April 16, 1967, dedication ceremony of the International Monument to the Victims of Fascism at Auschwitz-Birkenau, Poland (unofficial premiere at a public rehearsal, April 14, 1967, Krakw, Poland); Delfina Ambroziak, soprano; Ochman, tenor; Bernard bass; Krakw Philharmonic Choir and Orchestra; Krzysztof Missona, conductor W53. Dimensions of Time and Silence (1959/1960, rev. 1961; 40-voice mixed choir; percussion and strings; 15 min.) Publisher: PWM, Moeck

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KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

World premiere: September 18, 1960, Warsaw Autumn Festival, Poland; Krakw Philharmonic Chorus and Orchestra; Andrzej Markowski, conductor Selected performances: Premiere of revised version, June 1961, International Society of Contemporary Music Festival, Vienna, Austria; RIAS Chamber Choir; Die Reihe; Freidrich Cerha, conductor W54. Divertimento for Cello Solo (1994, 10 min.) Dedicatee: Boris Pergamenschikov Publisher: Schott World premiere: December 28, 1994, Cologne, Pergamenschikov cello

Germany;

Boris

W55. Don Juan (1962; short-film music; Jerzy Zitzman, director) W56. Ecloga VIII (1972; six male voices; 8 min.) Commission: The King's Singers for the Edinburgh Festival Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: August 21, 1972, Edinburgh Festival, Scotland; The King's Singers Selected performances: Polish premiere, September 19, 1976, Warsaw Autumn Festival, Poland; The King's Singers W57. Ekecheiria (1972; electronic music realized at the Polish Radio Experimental Studio, Warsaw, engineered by Eugeniusz Rudnik and J. Owidzki, with the participation of the following performers: Bernard J. Dukaj, Z. Listkiewicz, W. Press, T. Zaliwski, A. Zarnecki, M. Voita; National Philharmonic Choir, Jzef Bok, conductor; 3 min.) World premiere: August 26, 1972, Conclusion of the Opening Ceremony for the 20th Olympic Games, Munich, West Germany W58. Emanations (1958; two string orchestras; 8 min.) Award: Polish Composers Union Young Composers Competition, April 1959, second prize Dedicatee: Tadeusz Ochlewski Publisher: PWM, Moeck World premiere: September 7, 1961, Darmstadt Summer Festival, Darmstadt, West Germany; West German Radio Orchestra; Michael Gielen, conductor W59. Enemy in the Glass ("Szklany wrg") (1961; short-film music realized at Polish Radio Experimental Music Studio, Warsaw; Stefan Janik, film director) Selected Performances: February 1983, Penderecki Festival in Breda, Tilburg, 's-Hertogenbosch and Eindhoven, Brabant province, The Netherlands

WORKS AND PERFORMANCES

27

W60. Entrata (1994; brass, timpani; 4 min.) Commission: Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra Publisher: Schott World premiere: November 4, 1994, Cincinnati, Ohio; Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor W61. Epitaph Artur Malawski in Memoriam (1958; string orchestra and timpani) Written as a graduation piece for the State Higher School of Music in Krakw World premiere: June 1958, Krakw, Poland; Krakw Philharmonic Orchestra; Baranowski, conductor W62. The Famous Story about Troilus and Cressida historia o Troilusie i Kressydzie") (1965; music for theater; adapted from a work by Shakespeare) World premiere: c. 1965, Teatr Polski, Warsaw; Bohdan Korzeniewski, director W63. Fluorescences (1961/1962; orchestra; 13 min.) Commission: Southwest German Radio, Baden-Baden, West Germany for Donaueschingen Music Days Dedicatee: Southwest German Radio Orchestra Publisher: PWM, Moeck World premiere: October 21, 1962, Donaueschingen Music Days, West Germany; Southwest German Radio Orchestra; Hans Rosbaud, conductor Selected performances: September 28, 1969, Warsaw Autumn Festival, Warsaw, Poland; Silesian Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra; Karol Stryja, conductor W64. Fonogrammi (1961; flute and chamber orchestra; 7 min.) Publisher: Moeck World premiere: September 24, 1961; Venice Biennale, Venice, Italy; Marona, flute; Krakw Philharmonic Chamber Orchestra; Andrzej Markowski, conductor W65. Forefathers ("Dziady") (1963; music for theater; Adam Mickiewicz, playwright) World premiere: c. 1963; Teatr, Krakw; Bohdan Korzeniewski, director W66. Forms ("Formy") (c. 1960; short-film music realized at Polish Radio Experimental Music Studio, Warsaw; Stefan Janik, film director)

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KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

W67. For Whom the Bell Tolls ("Komu bije dzwon") (1964; music for theater; adapted from a story by Ernest Hemingway) World premiere: c. 1964, Teatr Poland; Jerzy director W68. Funeral Song (1964; voice and piano?) Written in memory of Rutkowski, rector of the Krakw Higher School of Music W69. The General and the Fly ("General i mucha") (1961; short-film music realized at Polish Radio Experimental Music Studio, Warsaw; Jerzy Zitzman, film director) Selected performances: January-February 1983, Penderecki Festival in Breda, Tilburg, 's-Hertogenbosch and Eindhoven, Brabant province, The Netherlands W70. Grandfathers Wink theater; J. Morawski, playwright) World premiere: 1959, Pinocchio Theater, (1959; music for puppet Poland; W. Byrsek, director

W71. He Left Home z domu") (1965; adapted from story by Tadeusz electronic music for theater realized at Polish Radio Experimental Music Studio, Warsaw) World premiere: c. 1965, Stary Teatr, Krakw, Poland; Jerzy Jarocki, director W72. How Little Hanna Came to an Agreement with the Bear ("Jak Hania z misiem ") (c. 1961; music for puppet theater) World premiere: 1961, Arlekin Puppet Theater, Poland; H. Ryl, director W73. Hymn to St. Adalbert, (1997, mixed chorus, winds, percussion; 5 min.) Commission: City of Poland, in celebration of its 1000th anniversary World premiere: October 17, 1997; Poland; Sinfonia Varsovia, Krakw Philharmonic Choir; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor W74. Hymn to St. Daniel, (1997, mixed chorus, winds, percussion, piano; 15 min.) Commission: Television station 6, Moscow, Russia, in celebration of the 850th anniversary of Moscows founding World premiere: October 4, 1997, Moscow, Russia; Orchestra and Choir of TV6 Moscow Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Selected performances: Polish premiere: November, 1997, Warsaw; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor

WORKS AND PERFORMANCES W75. I Come to Tell a Story theater; Broszkiewicz, playwright) World premiere: c. 1964, director

29 (1964, music for Theater, Krakw, Poland;

W76. In pulverum mortis from the St. Luke Passion (1966; 3-part mixed a capella chorus; 6 min.) Publisher: Moeck W77. Intermezzo (1973; twenty-four strings; 7 min.) Commission: Zurich Chamber Orchestra, Switzerland Dedicatee: Edmond de Stoutz Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: November 30, 1973, Zurich, Switzerland; Zurich Chamber Orchestra; Edmund de Stoutz, conductor Selected performances: Polish premiere: September 20, 1978, Warsaw Autumn Festival, Warsaw, Poland; Polish Chamber Orchestra; Jerzy Maksymiuk, conductor W78. Je taime, je taime (1968, feature film music; electronic realization at the Polish Radio Experimental Music Studio, Warsaw, with vocal material sung by Musici Cantanti; Alain Resnais, film director) World premiere: c. 1968, Poland W79. Juggler Wearing a Crown ("Kuglarz w koronie") (c. 1960; music for puppet theater; Z. Nawrocki, playwright) World premiere: 1960, Arlekin Puppet Theater, H. Ryl, director W80. The Kidnapping ("Porwanie") (1963; short-film music; L. Serafinowicz and Wojciech Wieczorkiewicz, film directors) W81. King Midas Midas") (1963; short-film music for flute, harp, xylophone, gongs, cymbals, electronic material; Lucjan film director) Selected performances: January-February 1983, Penderecki Festival in Breda, Tilburg, 's-Hertogenbosch and Eindhoven, Brabant province, The Netherlands W82. Lacrimosa (1980; soprano, mixed choir, and orchestra; 6 min.) Commission: Lech and the Solidarity Labor Union for the unveiling ceremony of the monument "To the Fallen in December 1970," Poland Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: December 16, 1980, Poland; Jadwiga Gadulanka, soprano; Krakw Polish Radio and TV Choir and Orchestra; Antoni Wit, conductor (The performance was recorded in Krakw and broadcast via public-

30

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

address system during the ceremony.) Selected performances: December 16, 1980, Krakw, Poland; Jadwiga Gadulanka, soprano; Krakw Polish Radio and TV Choir and Orchestra; Antoni Wit, conductor (An evening performance following the ceremony.) U. S. premiere: January 14, 1981, Kennedy Center, Washington, D.C.; Galina Vishnevskaya, soprano; Washington Oratorio Society Chorus; National Symphony Orchestra; Mstislav Rostropovich, conductor See Polish Requiem Larghetto. See Serenade W83. Largo (2003; cello and orchestra)

W84. Legend of Bulandra the Miner o grniku Bulandrze") (1959; music for puppet theater; G. Morcinek, playwright) World premiere: 1960, Ateneum Silesian Theater of Puppets and Actors, Katowice; I. Wojutycka, director; T. Ociepka, scenery Selected performances: February 1983, Penderecki Festival in Breda, Tilburg, 's-Hertogenbosch and Eindhoven, Brabant province, The Netherlands W85. Legend of the Five Brothers o braciach") (1967; music for puppet theater, for a capella boys and mens choir; Z. Obracow and S. playwrights) World premiere: c. 1967, Marcinek Puppet and Actors Theater, Poland W86. Little Tiger ("Tygrysek") (c. 1961; music for puppet theater) World premiere: 1961, Marcinek Puppet and Actors Theater, H. Januszewska, director

Poland;

W87. Little Tommy Tiptoe ("Tomcio paluszek") (1958; music for puppet theater; J. Zaborowski, playwright) World premiere: 1958, Banialuka Puppet Theater, Poland; S. director W88. The Loitering Fox ("Lis ") (1963; music for puppet theater; J. Zaborowski, playwright) World premiere: c. 1963, "Rabcio Zdrowotek" Puppet Theater, Rabka, Poland; director W89. Lucerne Fanfare (1998; 8 trumpets and 4 percussionists; 6 min.) Commission: Opening of Culture and Congress Center, Lucerne, Switzerland Publisher: Schott

WORKS AND PERFORMANCES

31

World premiere: August 18, 1998; Lucerne, Switzerland; Lucerne Trumpet Ensemble; Vladimir Ashkenazy, conductor W90. The Magic Grinder ("Czarodziejski (1965; music for puppet theater; J. Afanasjev, playwright) World premiere: c. 1965, Banialuka Puppet Theater, Poland; Jerzy Zitzman, director W9l. The Magic Jug ("Czarodziejski garnek") (1957; music for puppet theatre; text by U. Damm-Wendler, adapted by G. Morcinek) World premiere: 1957, Banialuka Puppet Theater, Poland; I. Wojutycka, director W92. The Magic of Circless (1965; short-film music realized at the Polish Radio Experimental Music Studio, Warsaw; Kazimierz film director) W93. Magnificat (1973/1974; bass solo, seven-part male vocal ensemble, two 24-part mixed choruses, boys chorus, and orchestra; 40 min.) Commission: Austrian Radio and Television for the 1200th anniversary of the Salzburg Cathedral Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: August 17, 1974, Salzburg Cathedral, Austria; Peter Lagger, bass; Schola Cantorum, Stuttgart; Vienna Boys Choir; Austrian Radio and Television Choir and Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Selected performances: Polish premiere: February 23, 1975, Krakw; soloists: Leonard Mrz, Adamkiewicz, Zenon Migacz; Jacek Dutka, Jozef Solawa, Ignacy Andrzej Krakw State Philharmonic Orchestra, Boys Chorus and Mixed Chorus; Jerzy Katlewicz, conductor U. S. premiere: February 27, 1977, New Haven, Connecticut; Yale Philharmonia; Westminster Choir; Boy Choir, Princeton; Trinity Church Choir, Princeton; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor W94. The Masters Children ("Dzieci pana majstra ") (1959; music for puppet theater; Z Rogoszowny, playwright; A. Rettinger, director) World premiere: 1959, Puppet and Actors Theater, Lublin, Poland W95. Meeting with a Monster ("Spotkanie z bazyliszkiem") (1961; shortfilm music realized at Polish Radio Experimental Music Studio, Warsaw; L. Serafinowicz and Wojciech Wieczorkiewicz, film directors)

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KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

W96. Mensura sortis (1963; 2 pianos) Commission: Radio Bremen World premiere: May 6, 1964, Bremen Radio, West Germany; Alois and Alfonse Kontarsky, pianos W97. Miniatures for Flute (c. 1954/1955) Student work, now lost? W98. Miniatures for Violin and Piano (1959; 10 min.) Dedicatee: Tadeusz Ochlewski Publisher: PWM, Belwin Mills (also part of Polska miniatura skrzypcowa, 1939-1964, a PWM publication) World premiere: June 1960, State Higher School of Music, Krakw, Poland; Henryk. violin; Krzysztof Penderecki, piano Selected performances: June 1980, Penderecki Festival organized by Polish Radio, Krakw W99. Miserere from the St. Luke Passion (1966; 3-part mixed a capella chorus with optional junior chorus; 4 min.) Publisher: Moeck W100. Misterioso (?, flute) This is possibly an alternate title for Miniatures for Flute Selected Performances: March 1993, European Flute Festival, Frankfurt, West Germany; Grzegorz Olkiewicz, flute W101. The Most Valiant Knight ("Najdzielniejszy z rycerzy") (1959; music for puppet theater; E. Szelburg-Zarembiny, playwright) World premiere: Banialuk Puppet Theater, Poland; Wojciech Wieczorkiewicz, director See The Superhero W102. Mother ("Matka") (1964; music for theater; Jerzy Jarocki, director; adapted from Witkiewicz's story of the same name) World premiere: c. 1964, Stary Teatr; Krakw, Poland W103. Mr. Trumpet (1960; short-film music realized at the Polish Radio Experimental Music Studio, Warsaw; W. Nehrebecki, film director) Selected performances: January-February 1983, Penderecki Festival in Breda, Tilburg, 's-Hertogenbosch and Eindhoven, Brabant province, The Netherlands

WORKS AND PERFORMANCES W104. Mr. Twardowski ("Pan Twardowski") (1962; music for puppet theater; A. playwright; W. Byrsek, director) World premiere: 1962, Pinocchio Puppet Theater, Poland

33

W105. Music for Three Recorders, Marimba, and Strings (arr. by Shokei Kazumi Steffens and Bischof Nissho Taeuchi of the Adagio from Symphony No. 3) (2000, 13 min.) World premiere: June 25, 2000, Hanover, Germany; Barbara Engelmann, Susanne Riehmann, and Anja Wetzki, recorders; Marta Klimasara, marimba; Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra; Michael Hurshell, conductor W106. Music from Ubu Rex (1994; arranged for orchestra by Henning Brauel; 25 min.) Publisher: Schott See Ubu Rex W107. Nal and Damayanti ("Nal i Damayanti") (1962; music for puppet theater adapted from the book Mahabharata) World premiere: c. 1962, Arlekin Puppet Theater, Poland; H. Ryl, director W108. Our God's Brother ("Brat naszego Boga") (?; incidental music for a play; Karol Wojtyla, playwright) World premiere: 1980?, Theater, Krakw, Poland; Krystyna stage director; Anna Sekula and Zubrowska, set designers W109. Paradise Lost (1975-78; sacra rappresentazione in two acts; 3 hours) Libretto: Christopher Fry and Sam Wanamaker, adapted from John Milton's Paradise Lost Commission: Chicago Lyric Opera, for the bicentennial anniversary of the United States Publisher: Schott World premiere: November 29, 1978; Chicago, Illinois; Chicago Lyric Opera; soloists: Ellen Shade, William Stone, Peter van Ginkel, Paul Esswood, Joy Davidson, Arnold Moss, William Powers, Alam Opie; dancers: Nancy Thuesen, Dennis Wayne; Igal Perry, stage director; Ezio Frigerio, scenery; Robert Page, chorus director; John Butler, choreography; Bruno Bartoletti, conductor Selected performances: Italian premiere (La Scala and the Chicago Lyric Opera shared the costs of the work's premiere performances), January 21, 1979, La Scala Opera, Milan; soloists: Ellen Shade, William Stone, Carlo Zardo, Joy Davidson, Paul Esswood, Aldo Bottion, Boris Carmeli; Chicago Lyric Opera Chorus; dancers: Nancy Thuesen, Dennis Wayne; Igal Perry, stage director;

34

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

Ezio Frigerio, scenery; Robert Page, chorus director; John Butler, choreography; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor West German premiere (sung in German, trans. Hans Wollschlger): April 28, 1979, Penderecki Days, Stuttgart; Wrttemberg State Opera, Stuttgart; soloists: Bodo Brinkmann, Uta-Maria Flake, Gnter Reich, Doris Soffel, Toni Krmer, Siegfried Jerusalem, Paul Esswood, John Patrick Thomas; dancers: Stuttgart Eurhythmaeum; August Everding, stage director; Gnter Schneider-Siemssen, scenery; Janos Kulka, conductor Polish premiere (German translation): September 21, 1979, Warsaw Autumn Festival, Warsaw; Wrttemberg State Theater, Stuttgart; soloists: Bodo Brinkmann, Uta-Maria Flake, Gnter Reich, Paul Esswood, Doris Soffel, Carlos Alexander; dancers: Stuttgart Eurhythmaeum; August Everding, stage director; Gnther Schneider-Siemssen, scenery; Heinz Mende and Ulrich Eistert, chorus directors; Janos Kulka, conductor Polish premiere (Polish translation, trans. Baranczak): November 21, 1993, Teatr Wielki, Warsaw; soloists: Adam Kruszewski, Ryszard Morka, Galka; Marek stage director; Andrzej Majewski, scenery; Emil choreography; Andrzej conductor. See Adagietto and Prelude, Visions and Finale W110. Partita (1971/1972; solo harpsichord; electric guitar, bass guitar, double bass, harp, chamber orchestra; 20 min.; revised version, 1991) Commission: Eastman School of Music, Rochester, New York on its 50th anniversary Dedicatee: Felicia Blumental Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: February 11, 1972; Rochester, New York; Felicia Blumental, harpsichord; Eastman Philharmonic Orchestra; Walter Hendl, conductor World premiere of revised version: January 5, 1992, Munich; Elzbieta Chojnacka, harpsichord; Michael Goltz, electric guitar; Hans Lengefeld, bass guitar; Han-An Liu, harp; Matthias Weber, contrabass; Munich Philharmonic; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Selected performances: February 15, 1972, Carnegie Hall, New York City, on the occasion of Penderecki's acceptance of an honorary doctorate from the University of Rochester; Felicia Blumental, harpsichord; Eastman Philharmonic Orchestra; Walter Hendl, conductor Polish premiere: September 24, 1972, Warsaw Autumn Festival, Warsaw; Felicja Blumental, harpsichord; National Philharmonic Orchestra; Andrzej Markowski, conductor Passacaglia. See Serenade

WORKS AND PERFORMANCES

35

W111. Passacaglia and Rondo (1988; orchestra) World premiere: August 20, 1988; Lucerne, Switzerland; Lucerne Festival Orchestra See Symphony No. 3 W112. Passio et mors Domini nostri Jesu Christi secundum Lucam ("St. Luke Passion") (1966; soprano, baritone, and bass soloists; speaker, boys choir, three mixed choirs and orchestra; 80 min.) Incorporates Stabat Mater Awards: Great Art Prize of North Rhein-Westphalia, 1966; Prix Italia, 1967; Jean Sibelius Medal, 1967; Festival of Art Prize, Japan, 1967 Commission: West German Radio, Cologne Dedicatee: Penderecka Publisher: PWM, Moeck World premiere: March 30, 1966, Mnster, West Germany; soloists: Stefania Woytowicz, Andrzej Hiolski, Bernard Rudolf Jrgen Bartsch, speaker; West German Radio Choir; Tlzer Boys Choir; West German Radio Symphony Orchestra; Henryk conductor Selected performances: Polish premiere, April 22, 1966, Krakw; soloists: Stefania Woytowicz, Andrzej Hiolski, Bernard Leszek Herdegen, speaker; Krakw Philharmonic Boys Choir, Mixed Chorus and Orchestra; Henryk conductor U. S. premiere: November 2, 1967, Minneapolis; Minnesota Orchestra; Skrowaczewski, conductor W113. Per Slava (1985/1986; solo cello; 6 min.) Composed for the Rostropovich International Competition, Paris Dedicatee: Mstislav Rostropovich Publisher: PWM, Schott Selected performances: Polish premiere, September 20, 1986, Warsaw Autumn Festival, Warsaw; Ivan Monighetti, cello W114. Pinocchio ("Pinokio") (1962; music for puppet theater; Collodi, playwright) World premiere: c. 1962, Banialuka Puppet Theater, Poland; M. Karwat, director W115. Pittsburgh Overture (1967; wind ensemble; 10 min.) Commission: Robert Austin Boudreau for the American Wind Symphony Orchestra Publisher: C. F. Peters, PWM, Schott World premiere: June 30, 1967, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; American Wind Symphony Orchestra; Robert Austin Boudreau, conductor

36

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

W116. The Pocketknife ("Scyzoryk") (1961; short-film music realized at Polish Radio Experimental Music Studio, Warsaw; L. Lorek, film director) W117. Polish Ballad ("Ballada polska") (1964; music for theater; adapted from story by Bohdan Drozdowski) World premiere: Teatr Polski, Warsaw; Jerzy Krasowski, director W118. Polish Requiem (1984; four soloists, mixed choir and orchestra; 90 min.; addition of Sanctus (1993; alto, tenor, mixed chorus, orchestra; 14 min.) Incorporates Agnus Dei (W), Lacrimosa (W), and Recordare (W) Publisher: Schott Commission: South German Radio, Wrttemberg State Theatre World premiere of the incomplete version (Agnus Dei; Dies IraeQuid sum miser, Rex tremendae, Recordare Jesu, Confutatis maledictus; Lacrimosa): November 23, 1983, Washington, D. C; soloists: Galina Vishnevskaya, Maureen Forrester, John Gilmore, Stafford Dean; Choral Arts Society; National Symphony Orchestra; Mstislav Rostropovich, conductor World premiere of the complete version: September 28, 1984, Stuttgart, West Germany; soloists: Phyllis Bryn-Julson, Doris Soffel, Ryszard Karczykowski, Stafford Dean; Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra; Wrttemberg State Opera Choir; South German Radio Choir; Mstislav Rostropovich, conductor World premiere of the version including Sanctus: November 11, 1993; Stockholm, Sweden; Birgitta Svendn, Zachos Terzakis, soloists; Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Chorus and Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Selected performances: Polish premiere of the incomplete version, September 22, 1984, Warsaw Autumn Festival, Warsaw; soloists: Jadwiga Gadulanka; Jadwiga Rapp, Henryk Grychnik, Leonard Mrz; Krakw Polish Radio and Television Symphony Orchestra; Antoni Wit, conductor Polish premiere of the complete version: April 27, 1985, Katowice; soloists: Jadwiga Gadulanka, Jadwiga Rapp, Henryk Grychnik, C. Zardo U. S. premiere of the complete version: November 29, 1985, Washington, D. C; Choral Arts Society; National Symphony Orchestra; Mstislav Rostropovich, conductor W119. Polymorphia (1961; 48 strings; 10 min.) Comission: North German Radio, Hamburg Dedicatee: Hermann Moeck Publisher: PWM, Moeck World premiere: April 16, 1962, Hamburg, West Germany; North German Radio Orchestra; Andrzej Markowski, conductor Selected performances: Polish premiere, September 26, 1963, Warsaw Autumn Festival; Krakw Philharmonic Orchestra; Andrzej Markowski, conductor

WORKS AND PERFORMANCES

37

W120. Portrait of a Conductor (196-, film music) World premiere: October 28, 1969; Days of Contemporary Music, Cinemathque Franais, Paris W121. Prelude (1971; winds, percussion, keyboard, and double basses; 8 min.) Commission: Dutch Radio, Amsterdam Publisher: Schott World premiere: July 4, 1971, Holland Festival, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Radio Wind Ensemble; Hans Vonk, conductor W122. Prelude for Clarinet (1987; 2 min.) Dedicatee: Paul Patterson, for his 40th birthday Publisher: PWM, Schott W123. Prelude, Visions, and Finale from Paradise Lost (1979; six soloists; mixed chorus, orchestra; 40 min.) Publisher: Schott World premiere: August 10, 1979; Salzburg Festival, Salzburg, Austria; Austrian Radio Orchestra and Chorus; Leif Segerstam, conductor See Paradise Lost W124. Professor Serduczko (c. 1960; music for puppet theater; Dominik, playwright) World premiere: 1960, Banialuka Puppet Theater, Poland; L. Serafinowicz, director W125. Psalms of David (1958: mixed choir, percussion, keyboard, and double basses; 10 min.) Award: Polish Composers Union Young Composers Competition, April 1959, second prize Publisher: PWM, Moeck World premiere: October 9, 1959, Krakw, Poland; Krakw Philharmonic Chorus and Orchestra; Andrzej Markowski, conductor (an earlier radio recording had been made with the Krakw Polish Radio Choir and Orchestra; Jerzy Gert, conductor) W126. Psalmus 1961 (1961; electronic music realized at the Polish Radio Experimental Music Studio, Warsaw; 5 min.) World premiere: April 10, 1961, Fylkingen concerts, Stockholm, Sweden W127. Quartet for Clarinet and String Trio (1993; 20 min.) Dedicatee: Ake Holmquist

38

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

Publisher: Schott World premiere: August 13, 1993, Lbeck, Germany; Sharon Kam, clarinet; Christoph Poppen, violin; Kim Kashkashian, viola; Boris Pergamenshikov, cello World premiere of transcription for saxophone quartet: Dresden Contemporary Music Days, 1999; Rascher Saxophone Quartet W128. Quartet for Strings (c. 1956/1957) Withdrawn by the composer after the world premiere World premiere: c. 1957, Krakw Higher School of Music; performers unknown W129. Quartet for Strings No. 1 (1960; 8 min.) Dedicatee: Julian Zarzycki Publisher: PWM, Belwin Mills World premiere: May 11, 1962, Cincinnati, Ohio; LaSalle Quartet Selected performances: Polish premiere, September 17, 1962, Warsaw Autumn Festival; LaSalle Quartet W130. Quartet for Strings No. 2 (1968, revised c. 1968-1970; 10 min.) Dedicatee: Heinrich Strobel Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: September 30, 1970, Berlin Festival Week, West Berlin, West Germany; Parrenin Quartet (This was the premiere of the revised version, Penderecki having withheld the first version from performance.) W131. Recordare (1983; soprano, alto, tenor, and bass solos, mixed choir, and orchestra; 10 min.) Dedicatee: Father Maximilian Kolbe, martyred in Auschwitz Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: November 23, 1983, Washington, D. C; soloists: Galina Vishnevskaya, Maureen Forrester, John Gilmore, Stafford Dean; Choral Arts Society; National Symphony Orchestra; Mstislav Rostropovich, conductor See Polish Requiem W132. Request for the Joyous Islands (c. 1954/1955; voice and piano; text by World premiere: mid-1950s, Krakw Higher School of Music; Zofa Stachurska, soloist Selected performances: June 13, 1988, Poland; Andrzej Hiolski, baritone; Maciej Paderewski, piano

WORKS AND PERFORMANCES

39

W133. Roland the Mad ("Roland Szalony ") (1962; music for puppet theater; J. Gorzycki, playwright) World premiere: 1962; Marcinek Puppet and Actors Theater, Poland; Wojciech Wieczorkiewicz, director W134. The Saragossa Manuscript znaleziony w Zaragossie") (1964, feature-film music realized at the Polish Radio Experimental Music Studio, Warsaw; Wojciech Has, film director) See Three Pieces in Antique Style W135. Serenade (1997; string orchestra) (two movements of a planned fivemovement piece: Passacaglia and Larghetto) Dedicatee: Rudolf Baumgartner World premiere: Passacaglia: August 20, 1996, Larghetto: August 31, 1997; (both premieres) Lucerne Festival, Lucerne, Switzerland; Lucerne Festival Strings; Rudolf Baumgartner, conductor W136. Seven Gates of Jerusalem (Symphony No. 7) (1996; 5 soloists, speaker, 3 mixed choirs, orchestra; 65 min.) Commission: City of Jerusalem, Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra, Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, for the 3000th anniversary of Jerusalem Publisher: Schott World premiere: January 9, 1997, Jerusalem, Israel; soloists Mariana Nicolesco, Sylvia Greenberg, Jadwiga Rapp, Evgenii Szapovalov, Reinhard Hagen, Boris Carmeli; Radio Choirs from Munich, Stuttgart, and Leipzig; Bavarian Radio Orchestra; Israel Philharmonic; Lorin Maazel, conductor Selected performances: European premiere, March 14, 1997, Warsaw, Poland; soloists: Harasimowicz-Haas, Izabella Ewa Ochman, Romuald Tesarowicz, Gustav Holoubkiem; National Philharmonic Orchestra and Choir; Kazimierz Kord, conductor U.S. premiere: July 17, 1998, New York; narrator, Boris Carmeli; soloists Christine Goerke, Wendy Nielsen, Florence Quivar, Jon Villars, William Stone, Philadelphia Singers Chorale; New York Philharmonic; Kurt Masur, conductor See De profundis W137. Sextet for Clarinet, Horn, String Trio and Piano (2000; 30 minutes) Commission: Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna Publisher: Schott World premiere: June 7, 2000, Vienna Festival, Vienna, Austria; Paul Meyer, clarinet; Radovan Vlatkovic, horn; Julian Rachlin, violin; Yuri Bashment, viola; Mstislav Rostropovich, cello; Dmitri Alexeev, piano

40

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

Selected performances: U.S. premiere, January 8, 2002, Columbus, Ohio; David Niwa, violin; Kenichiro Matsuda, viola; Luis Biava, cello; Robert Jones, clarinet; Martina Snell, horn; Marko Kaneda, piano W138. The Shoemakers Twine ("Szewc Dratewka") (1958; music for puppet theater; M. Kownacki, playwright; W. Jarema, director) World premiere: c. 1958, Groteska Theater, Krakw W139. The Silver Adventure przygoda") (c. 1960; music for puppet theater; H. Ryl, playwright) World premiere: 1960, Arlekin Theater, Poland; H. Ryl, director W140. Sinfonietta No. 1 (transcription of Trio for Strings) (orchestra; 12 min.) Publisher: Schott World premiere: February 17, 1992, Warsaw; Sinfonia Varsovia; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor W141. Sinfonietta No. 2 for Clarinet and Strings (transcription of Quartet for Clarinet and Strings, 1994, 20 min.) Publisher: Schott World premiere: July 13, 1994, Bad Kissingen, Germany; Paul Meyer, clarinet; Sinfonia Varsovia; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor W142. The Snow Queen (1962; music for puppet theater; adapted from a tale by Andersen; E. Szwarec, playwright) World premiere: c. 1962, Marcinek Puppet and Actors Theater, Poland; Wojciech Wieczorkiewicz, director W143. Sonata for Cello and Orchestra (1963/1964; 10 min.) Commission: Southwest German Radio, for Donaueschingen Music Days Dedicatee: Siegfried Palm Publisher: PWM, Belwin Mills, Kalmus, Deshon, Edition Eulenberg World premiere: October 18, 1964, Donaueschingen Music Days, Donaueschingen, West Germany; Siegfried Palm, cello; Southwest German Radio Orchestra; Ernest Bour, conductor Selected performances: Polish premiere, September 29, 1965, Warsaw Autumn Festival, Warsaw; Siegfried Palm, cello; Philharmonic Orchestra; Andrzej Markowski, conductor W144. Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 1 (1953; 8 min.) Publisher: Schott World premiere: January 7, 1990, Houston, Texas; Christiane Edinger, violin; Christoph Eschenbach, piano

WORKS AND PERFORMANCES

41

W145. Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 2 (1999; 35 min.) World premiere: April 29, 2000, London, England; Anne-Sophie Mutter, violin; Lambert Orkis, piano W146. Song of Cherubim (1986; a capella mixed chorus; 6 min.) Dedicatee: Mstislav Rostropovich, for his 60th birthday Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: March 27, 1987, Washington, D.C.; Washington Chorale W147. Song of the Fox olisie") (c. 1961; music for puppet theater; J. W. Goethe, playwright) World premiere; 1961, Marcinek Puppet and Actors Theater, Poland; Wojciech Wieczorkiewicz, director W148. The Spider (1959; music for puppet theater; U. DammWendler, playwright) World premiere; c. 1959, Ateneum Puppet and Actors Theater, Katowice, Poland; I. Wojutycka, director W149. Sport Etudes (Etiudy sportowe) (1965; short-film music; Andrzej Trzos, director) W150. Stabat Mater (1962; three 16-part a capella choruses; 9 min.) Publisher: PWM, Belwin Mills World premiere: November 27, 1962, Warsaw, Poland; National Philharmonic Choir; Antoni conductor See Passio et mors Domini nostri Jesu Christi secundam Lucam W151. Star Child ("Dziecko gwiazda") (1963; music for puppet theater adapted from a story by O. Wilde; M. Kossakowski and J. Galewicz, playwrights) World premiere: c. 1963, Puppet and Actors Theater, Lublin, Poland; S. director W152. Strophes (1959; soprano, speaker, and ten instruments; 8 min.) Awards: Polish Composers Union Young Composers Competition, April 1959, first prize Dedicatee: Andrzej Markowski Publisher: PWM, Belwin Mills, Strophes World premiere: September 17, 1959, Warsaw Autumn Festival, Warsaw, Poland; Zofia Stachurska, soprano; Franciszek Delekta, reciting voice (sprechstimme); Silesian Philharmonic Chamber Orchestra; Andrzej Markowski, conductor

42

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

W153. The Superhero ("Najdzielniejszy") (1965, 60 min., children's opera with puppets adapted from Ewa Szelburg-Zarembina's fairy tale; instrumental ensemble; orchestration and elaboration by Marek Stachowski; 60 minutes). This is a revised and expanded version of The Most Valiant of the Knights Libretto: Krzysztof Penderecki World premiere: May 15, 1965, Marcinek Puppet and Actors Theatre, Poland; Wojciech Wieczorkiewicz, director Selected performances: September 1965, International Festival for Puppet Theatre, Bucharest, Romania April 1990, Philharmonic Orchestra; music school students February 13, 1994, Ankara, Turkey; Ankara State Opera; Wojciech Wieczorkiewicz, director; Kemal Cglar, conductor W154. Sweet Rhythms rytmy) (1965; short-film music realized at the Polish Radio Experimental Music Studio, Warsaw; Kazimierz director) World premiere: c. 1965, Poland Selected performances: February 1983, Penderecki Festival in Breda, Tilburg, 's-Hertogenbosch and Eindhoven, Brabant province, The Netherlands W155. The Swineherd (1958; music for puppet theater; text adapted by J. from a tale by Andersen) World premiere: c. 1958, Banialuka Puppet Theater, Poland; J. director W156. Symphonic Scherzo (c. 1953/1955; orchestra) A student work, now lost W157. Symphony No. 1 (1972/1973; 30 min.) Commission: Perkins Engines, Peterborough, England Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: July 19, 1973, Peterborough Cathedral, England; London Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Selected performances: Polish premiere, September 22, 1973, Warsaw Autumn Festival; National Philharmonic Orchestra; Witold Rowicki, conductor U. S. premiere: January 9, 1975, Los Angeles; Los Angeles Philharmonic; Zubin Mehta, conductor W158. Symphony No. 2 "Christmas" (1979/1980, revised 1981; 36 min.) Commission: New York Philharmonic Orchestra Dedicatee: Zubin Mehta Publisher: Schott

WORKS AND PERFORMANCES

43

World premiere of original version: May 1, 1980, New York City; New York Philharmonic Orchestra; Zubin Mehta, conductor World premiere of revised version: September 27, 1981, Warsaw Autumn Festival, Poland; National Philharmonic Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Selected performances: European premiere of original version, August, 1980, Edinburgh, Scotland; New York Philharmonic Orchestra; Zubin Mehta, conductor W159. Symphony No. 3 (1988/95; orchestra; 50 min.) (includes Passacaglia and Rondo) Commission: Munich, Germany, as part of centennial celebration Publisher: Schott World premiere of the Passacaglia and Rondo: August 20, 1988; International Music Festival Week, Lucerne, Switzerland; Lucerne Festival Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor World premiere of the full symphony: December 8, 1995; Munich, Germany; Munich Philharmonic; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Selected performances: Polish premiere of the Passacaglia and Rondo, September 19, 1988, Warsaw Autumn Festival, Warsaw; Krakw Philharmonic Orchestra; Gilbert Levine, conductor U. S. premiere of the full symphony: October 26, 1996, New York, New York; Montreal Symphony; Charles Dutoit, conductor W160. Symphony No. 4 Adagio (1989; 33 min.) Commission: Radio France and the French Secretary of State, to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the Declaration of the Rights of Man Publisher: Schott World premiere: November 26, 1989, Paris; Orchestre National de France; Lorin Maazel, conductor Selected performances: U.S. premiere, April 25, 1991, Pittsburgh; Pittsburgh Symphony; Lorin Maazel, conductor W161. Symphony No. 5 Korean (1991/1992; 35 min.) Commission: International Cultural Society of Korea Publisher: Schott World premiere: August 14, 1992, Seoul, South Korea; Seoul Philharmonic Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Symphony No. 7. See Seven Gates of Jerusalem W162. Te Deum (1979/1980; soprano, mezzo-soprano, tenor, and bass soloists, two mixed choruses, orchestra; 35 min.) Dedicatee: Pope John Paul II

44

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: September 27, 1980, Sacra Musicale Umbra festival, Assisi, Italy; soloists: Stefania Woytowicz, Ewa Paulos Raptis, Bernard Krakw Polish Radio Orchestra and Chorus; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Selected performances: U. S. premiere: January 14, 1981, Kennedy Center, Washington, D. C; soloists: Galina Vishnevskaya, Marianna Pannova, Eugene Tucker, Boris Carmel; Washington Oratorio Society Chorus; National Symphony Orchestra; Mstislav Rostropovich, conductor Polish premiere: September 21, 1981, Warsaw Autumn Festival, Warsaw; soloists: Jadwiga Gadulanka, Ewa Ochman, Andrzej Hiolski; Krakw Polish Radio and Television Symphony Orchestra and Chorus; Antoni Wit, conductor W163. Three Miniatures for Clarinet and Piano (1954; 4 min.) Dedicatee: Kosieradzki Publisher: PWM, Belwin Mills World premiere: November 17, 1958; Polish Composers Union concert, Krakw; Kosieradski, clarinet; Zbigniew piano W164. Three Pieces in Antique Style (also known as Aria and Two Minuets) (1963; excerpts used in the film The Saragossa Manuscript ; 6 min.) Publisher: Schott World premiere: June 11, 1988, Polish Radio Orchestra and Chorus; Agnieszka Duczmal, conductor See The Saragossa Manuscript W165. Threnody (1960; 52 strings; 9 min.; originally titled 8' 37") Award: Fitelberg Composers Competition, Katowice, Poland, May 1960, third prize; Ministry of Culture and Art Award, 3rd degree, July 1962 Dedicatee: The victims of Hiroshima Publisher: PWM, Belwin, Schott, Kalmus World premiere: September 22, 1961; Warsaw Autumn Festival, Warsaw, Poland; Krakw Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra, Andrzej Markowski, conductor (a radio recording had been made in May 1961 by the Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra, Jan Krenz, conductor) Selected performances: U. S. premiere, January 4, 1964, Kansas City; Kansas City Philharmonic; Hans Schwieger, conductor W166. Timothy the Bear, Rim-cim-ci! Tymoteusz Rym-cim-ci") (1963; music for puppet theater; J. Wilkowski, playwright) World premiere: c. 1963, "Rabcio Zdrowotek" Puppet Theater, Rabka, Poland; director

WORKS AND PERFORMANCES

45

W167. Tour of the Cosmos ("Wycieczka w kosmos") (1961; short-film music realized at the Polish Radio Experimental Music Studio, Warsaw; Krzysztof Dembowski, film director) W168. The Tower Clock (c. 1960; short-film music; Lucjan film director) Selected performances: January-February 1983, Penderecki Festival in Breda, Tilburg, 's-Hertogenbosch and Eindhoven, Brabant province, The Netherlands W169. The Trap (c. 1960; short-film music; Krzyszt of Dembowski, film director) Selected performances: January-February 1983, Penderecki Festival in Breda, Tilburg, 's-Hertogenbosch and Eindhoven, Brabant province, The Netherlands W170. Trio for Strings (violin, viola and cello) (1990/1991; 12 min.) Dedicatee: Deutsches Streichtrio Publisher: Schott World premiere of the second movement: December 8, 1990; Krakw, Poland; Deutsches Streichtrio World premiere of the complete work: November 15, 1991, Metz, France; Deutsches Streichtrio Selected performances: Polish premiere of the incomplete version, September 29, 1991, Warsaw Autumn Festival, Warsaw; Deutsches Streichtrio W171. Two Scenes and Finale from The Black Mask (1988; soprano, mezzo-soprano, mixed chorus and orchestra; 30 min.) Publisher: Schott World premiere: November 6, 1988, Poland; State Philharmonic; Wojciech Michniewski, conductor See The Black Mask W172. Two Songs Silence The Sky at Night (Niebo w nocy)] (c. 1955; baritone and piano; texts by Leopold Staff) Selected performances: June 13, 1988, Poland; Andrzej Hiolski, baritone; Maciej Paderewski, piano W173. Ubu Rex (1991; opera based on Ubu Roi, a play by Alfred Jarry; 2 hours) Libretto: Krzysztof Penderecki and Jerzy Jarocki Commission: Bavarian State Opera, West Germany Publisher: Schott (libretto only) World premiere: July 6, 1991, Munich, Germany; Bavarian State Opera; Soloists: Robert Tear, Doris Soffel, Pamela Coburn, Herman Becht, Keith

46

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

Engen, Christian Baumgrtel, Ferry Gruber; August Everding, stage director; Roland Topor, scenery; Michael Boder, conductor Selected performances: Polish premiere, November 6, 1993, soloists Vita Nikolajenko, Andrzej Kostrzewski; Teatr Wielki; Antoni Wicherek, conductor W174. Ubu Roi (1964; incidental music for puppet theatre) World premiere: 1965; Stockholm Marionette Theatre Selected performances: September 1965; International Festival for Puppet Theatre, Bucharest, Romania See Ubu Rex W175. The Ungodly Comedy ("Nieboska komedia") (1965; incidental music; Zygmunt playwright) World premiere: October 9, 1965, Stary Teatr, Krakw, Poland; Konrad director; choreography W176. The Uninhabited Planet ("Bezludna planeta") (1962; short-film music; Krzyszt of Dembowski, film director) W177. Der Unterbrochene Gedanke (1988; string quartet) Dedicatee: Arno Volk World premiere: February 4, 1988, Frankfurt, West Germany; Kreuzberg String Quartet Publisher: Schott, PWM Selected performances: Polish premiere, June 12, 1988, Penderecki Music Festival, Krakw; Arditti Quartet W178. Utrenia, Part I The Entombment of Christ (1970; soprano, mezzosoprano, tenor, bass, and basso profondo soloists; two mixed choruses and orchestra; 40 min.) Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: April 8, 1970, Altenburg, West Germany; soloists: Stefan Woytowicz, Krystyna Louis Devos, Bernard Boris Carmeli; North German Radio Choir, Hamburg; West German Radio Choir, Cologne; West German Radio Symphony Orchestra; Andrzej Markowski, conductor Selected performances: Polish premiere, June 26, 1970, Krakw; soloists: Stefan Woytowicz, Krystyna Kazimierz Pustelak, Bernard Boris Carmeli; Krakw Philharmonic Orchestra and Chorus; Jerzy Katlewicz, conductor

WORKS AND PERFORMANCES

47

U. S. premiere: September 24, 1970; Philadelphia; soloists: Stefania Woytowicz, Kerstin Meyer, Seth McCoy, Bernard Peter Lagger; Temple University Choirs; Philadelphia Orchestra; Eugene Ormandy, conductor W179. Utrenia, Part II: The Resurrection of Christ (1971; five soloists; two mixed choruses; boys choir; orchestra; 36 min.) Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: (of the complete Utrenia), May 28, 1971; Mnster, West Germany; soloists: Stefan Woytowicz, Krystyna Louis Devos, Bernard Boris Carmeli; North German Radio Choir, Hamburg, West German Radio Choir, Cologne; Tlzer Boys Choir; West German Radio Symphony Orchestra; Andrzej Markowski, conductor Selected performances: Polish premiere of the complete Utrenia, June 8, Krakow; soloists: Delfina Ambroziak, Krzystyna Kazimierz Pustelak, Bernard Peter Lagger; Krakw State Philharmonic Orchestra, Chorus, and Boys Chorus; Jerzy Katlewicz, conductor U. S. premiere of Part II: July 1977, Aspen, Colorado; Aspen Festival Orchestra; Richard Dufallo, conductor W180. Veni Creator (1987; 8-part a capella mixed chorus; 7 min.) Dedicatee: Madrid Autonomous University, in thanks for receipt of an honorary doctorate Publisher: PWM, Schott World premiere: April 28, 1987; Madrid, Spain; National Philharmonic Choir; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Selected performances: Polish premiere: April 29, 1988, Warsaw; National Philharmonic Choir; Henryk Wojnarowski, conductor W181. The War Is Never Over (c. 1960; short-film music for jazz ensemble and electronic sounds; Jan film director) Selected performances: January-February 1983, Penderecki Festival in Breda, Tilburg, 's-Hertogenbosch and Eindhoven, Brabant province, The Netherlands W182. Were You But a Dream ? snem (1988; voice and piano; text by K. Przerwy-Tetmajer) Dedicatee: Tomaszewski, for his 60th birthday World premiere: March 26, 1987, International Szymanowski Music Biennale, Krakw, Poland; Jerzy baritone, Eugeniusz Knapik, piano W183. Zwyrtala the Musician, or How the Mountaineer Reached Home ("O Zwyrtale muzykancie, czyli jak gral do nieba") (1958; music for puppet theater; Jan Wilkowski, playwright. Revised version, 1963)

48

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI Poland;

World premiere of first version: c. 1958, Arlekin Puppet Theater, Jan Wilkowski, director. World premiere of revised version: c. 1963, Puppet

Discography

Actions D1. Everest SDBR 3484 (LP, rec. 1971); Philips 6305 153 (LP, rec. 1971); Wergo 1010 (LP rec. 1971); Intuition 3606 (CD, rec. 1971, rel. 2001) The New Eternal Rhythm Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Adagietto from Paradise Lost D2. Muza SX 2582 (LP rec. and rel. 1987, Warsaw Autumn Festival Sound Chronicle 1987) Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra; Mariss Jansons, conductor D3. Muza 2494 (LP rel. 1987) Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Antoni Wit, conductor D4. Polskie Nagrania PNCD 020 (CD, ADD, rec. 1985, rel. 1989 in vol. 4 of the Penderecki series) (a reissue on CD of D3.) Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Antoni Wit, conductor Agnus Dei D5. Divox Radio Vaticana: Div Vat 61 001 (CD); FRZ 61001 (CD); Wergo WER 6261 (CD, DDD, rec. 1988, rel. 1995) National Philharmonic; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D6. EMI 56439 (CD, DDD, rel. 1997) Kings College Choir, Cambridge; Stephen Cleobury, conductor

50

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

D7. St. Olaf Records E-1256 (LP rel. 1985) St. Olaf Chorus; Kenneth Jennings, conductor D8. Artlab Preludio Productions 90-665 (CD, DDD, rec. 1990, rel. 1991) Choeur des XVI; Andre Ducet, conductor D9. Finlandia 98999 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1995); Finlandia 88433 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 2001) Tapiola Chamber Choir; Juha Kuivanen, conductor D10. United 88021 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993 or 1994, rel. 1994); CALA 88021 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993 or 1994, rel. 1996) BBC Singers; Bo Holton, conductor D11. Swedish Society Discofil SCD 1050 (CD, rel. 1992) Pro Musica Chamber Choir; Jan Yngwe, conductor D12. Concordia Recordings E-2204 (CD, DDD, rel. 1998) Concordia Choir; Ren Clausen, conductor Agnus Dei for Requiem of Reconciliation D13. Hnnsler Classic 98.931 (CD, DDD, live rec. & rel. 1995) Donna Brown, soprano; Julie Moffat, mezzo-soprano; Thomas Randle, tenor; Andreas Schmidt, bass; Gchinger Kantorei Stuttgart, Krakw Chamber Choir, Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, Helmut Rilling, conductor. Anaklasis D14. Supraphon 1410 2734 (LP rec. 1980, rel. 1981) Prague Radio Symphony Orchestra; Jacek Kasprzyk, conductor D15. Wergo 60020 (LP rec. 1965 by Polskie Nagrania); Muza SXL 0260 (LP rel. 1970); Mace S-9090 (LP rel. 1970); Mace CMCS-9090 (cassette rel. 1970); Wergo 0 301 (LP); Philips 6500 683 (LP rel. 1974) National Philharmonic Orchestra; Andrzej Markowski, conductor D16. EMI 1C 065 102452-1 (LP rel. 1973); VSM C 065 102452-1 (LP); EMI Electrola SHZE 393 (LP); EMI-EMD 5507 (LP rel. 1973); EMI 65077 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, rel. 1994); EMI 74302 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, 1975, rel. 2001) London Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D17. Polmusic PmCD 1024 (CD, rel. 1989) Krakw Philharmonic Orchestra; Wojciech Czepiel, conductor

DISCOGRAPHY

51

D18. Col Legno AU 31800 CD (CD of world premiere performance rec. 1960, rel. 1993); Col Legno 31899 (rec. 1960, rel. 1997) Southwest German Radio Symphony Orchestra; Hans Rosbaud, conductor The Awakening of Jacob D19. Supraphon 1410 2734 (LP rec. in 1980, rel. 1981) Prague Radio Symphony Orchestra; Jacek Kasprzyk, conductor D20. Muza SX 2578 (LP rec. and rel. 1987, Warsaw Autumn Festival Sound Chronicle 1987) Krakw Philharmonic Orchestra; Jacek Kasprzyk, conductor D21. Muza 2494 (LP rel. 1987); Polskie Nagrania PNCD 020 (CD, ADD, rec. 1985, rel. 1989) Polish Radio National Symphony Orchestra; Antoni Wit, conductor D22. EMI 1C 065 102484-1 (LP rel. 1976); EMI-EMD-5529 (LP); VSM C 065-02 484 (LP); EMI 65077 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, rel. 1994); EMI 74302 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, 1975, rel. 2001) Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D23. Fonit Cetra LAR 32 (LP rel. 1982) Italian Radio Symphony Orchestra, Turin; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D24. WCAL RSST 77703 (LP titled: The St. Olaf College Orchestra 19761977, rec. 1977) St. Olaf College Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D25. New England Conservatory of Music--Performances (cassette rec. 1985) Conservatory Symphony Orchestra; Piero Bellugi, conductor D26. Chandos CHAN 9459/60 (CD, DDD, rec. 1995, rel. 1996) Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Benedicamus Domino D27. Finlandia 98999 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1995); Finlandia 88433 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 2001) Tapiola Chamber Choir; Juha Kuivanen, conductor D28. Sony SK 66284 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1995) National Philharmonic Chorus; Henryk Wojnarowski, conductor

52

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

Benedictus D29. Finlandia 98999 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1995); Finlandia 88433 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 2001) Tapiola Chamber Choir; Juha Kuivanen, conductor Cadenza for Solo Viola D30. Wergo WER 6258 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1994) Artur Paciorkiewicz, viola D31. SNE 562 (CD, DDD, rel. 1997) Robert Verebes, viola D32. Dynamic CDS 61 (CD, DDD, rel. 1991) James Creitz, viola D33. Dux 0234 (CD, DDD, rec. 1992/1993, rel. 1995) Claude Lelong, viola D34. MDG 304 0917 (CD, DDD, rec. 1997-1998; rel. 1999) Enrique Santiago, viola Cadenza for Solo Viola (Version for Solo Violin) D35. Simax PSC 1115 (CD, rec. 1994, rel. 1995) Christian Edinger, violin D36. Nimbus 5631 (CD, DDD, rec. 1999, rel. 2000) Daniel Hope, violin Canon D37. Muza W-828 (LP rec. and rel. 1962, Warsaw Autumn Festival Sound Chronicle 1962) Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Jan Krenz, conductor. D38. EMI Electrola 1C 193-02 386/7 (2 LPs rec. 1972); Angel S-36949/50 (2 LPs rel. 1973); HMV 850 (2 LPs); EMI 74852 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972, rel. 2001) Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Cantata in honorem Almae Matris Universitatis Iagellonicae sescentos abhinc annos fundatae D39. Muza SX 1151 (LP, world premiere recording rel. 1970) Krakw Philharmonic Orchestra and Chorus; Jerzy Katlewicz, conductor

DISCOGRAPHY

53

Canticum Canticorum Salomonis D40. EMI Electrola 1C 065 1024841 (LP rel. 1976); VSM C 065-02 484 (LP); EMI-EMD-5529 (LP rel 1976); EMI 65077 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, rel. 1994); EMI 74302 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, 1975, rel. 2001) Krakw Philharmonic Chorus; Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor. D41. Mum SX 1151 (LP, world premiere recording rel. 1970) Krakw Philharmonic Orchestra and Chorus; Jerzy Katlewicz, conductor Capriccio for Oboe and 11 Strings D42. Muza SX 1444 (LP rec. and rel. 1976, Warsaw Autumn Festival Sound Chronicle 1976) Heinz Holliger, oboe; Polish Chamber Orchestra; Jerzy Maksymiuk, conductor D43. RCA Victor RD 60370-2-RC (CD, DDD, rec. 1989, rel. 1990); RCA Victor Red Seal 60370-4-RC (cassette); Col Legno AU 31806 (CD rec. 1988, rel. 1991) Alexei Utkin, oboe; Moscow Virtuoso; Vladimir Spivakov, conductor D44. Wergo 60172-50 (CD, DDD, rec. 1988, rel. 1989) Mariusz oboe; Amadeus Chamber Orchestra; Agnieszka Duczmal, conductor D45. Denon DC-8006 (CD, DDD, rec. 1974, rel. 1987); Denon OX 7031 N (LP rec. 1974, rel. 1975); Denon CO 8006 (CD, rec. 1974, rel. 1993) Heinz Holliger, oboe; Camerata Bern D46. Wergo 314 (LP rel. 1960) Heinz Holliger, oboe; Southwest German Radio Orchestra; Ernest Bour, conductor D47. RMArts ID9328RADVD (DVD: Penderecki: A Celebration, rel. 1994) Mariusz oboe; Sinfonietta Cracovia; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Capriccio for Siegfried Palm D48. Gasparo GS-102 (LP, rel. 1976) Roy Christensen, cello D49. Grammophon 471 573 (CD, ADD, rec. 1974, rel. 2002) Siegfried Palm, cello

54

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

D50. Wergo WER 6258 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1994) Ivan Monighetti, cello D51. ZPR Records ZCD-026 (CD, DDD, rel. 1997) Anna Szarek, cello D52. ICR Records 12193 (Towson University) (CD, DDD, rel. 2000) Cecylia Barczyk, cello Capriccio for Tuba Solo D53. Muza SX 2073 (LP rec. and rel. 1980, Warsaw Autumn Festival Sound Chronicle 1980); Muza SX 1806 (LP rec. 1982, rel. 1984) Piernik, tuba D54. Doyen DOY 028 (CD, DDD, rel. 1996) James Gourlay, tuba D55. Crystal CD 690 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993) Roger Bobo, tuba D56. Summit DCD 163 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1995) Daniel Perantoni, tuba D57. Hungaraton/White Label HCD 31642 (CD, DDD, rel. 1996) Jzsef Bazsinka, tuba Capriccio for Violin and Orchestra D58. Muza XW-1033 (mono LP rec. 1968, Warsaw Autumn Festival Sound Chronicle 1968); EMI Electrola 1C 193-02 386/7 2 (2 LPs rel. 1972); Angel S36949/50 (2 LPs rel. 1973); HMV 850 (2 LPs) Wanda Wilkomirska; violin; Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D59. Nonesuch 71201 (LP rec. and rel. 1968); Nonesuch 32818 (LP) Paul Zukofsky, violin; Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra; Lukas Foss, conductor D60. RCA 60370-2-RC (CD, DDD); RCA 60370-4-RC (cassette) Vladimir Spivakov, violinist and conductor; Moscow Virtuosi D61. New England Conservatory of MusicPerformances (cassette rec. 1985) Conservatory Symphony Orchestra; Piero Bellugi, conductor

DISCOGRAPHY

55

D62. EMI 65077 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973?, rel. 1994); EMI 74302 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, 1975, rel. 2001) Wanda Wilkomirska, violin; London Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Concerto for Violino Grande (or Cello) and Orchestra No. 1 D63. EMI Electrola 1C 193-02 386/7 (2 LPs rec. 1972); EMI S-36949/50 (2 LPs rel. 1973); HMV 850 (2 LPs); EMI 65416 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, rel. 1995); EMI 74302 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, 1975, rel. 2001) Siegfried Palm, cello; Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Concerto for Cello and Orchestra No. 2 D64. Erato ECD 75321 (CD and LP, DDD, rel. 1987); RCA CD 30 156 QA (CD); Erato 45271 (CD) Mstislav Rostropovich, cello; Philharmonia Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D65. Muza SX 2172 (LP rec. and rel. 1983, Warsaw Autumn Festival Sound Chronicle 1983) Ivan Monighetti, cello; Krakw Polish Radio and TV Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D66. Muza SX 2256 (LP rec. 1984, rel. 1985); Polskie Nagrania PNCD 020 (CD, ADD, rel. 1989) Ivan Monighetti, cello; Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Antoni Wit, conductor D67. Orfeo C 285 931 A (CD, DDD, rec. 1992, rel. 1993) Boris Pergamenschikov, cello; Bamberg Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D68. BIS CD 937 (CD, DDD, rec. 1998, rel. 1999) Torleif Theden, cello; Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Leif Segerstam, conductor Concerto for Flute (or Clarinet or Violin) and Chamber Orchestra D69. Sony SK 66284 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1995] Jean-Pierre Rampal, flute; Sinfonia Varsovia, Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D70. Signum X72-00 (CD, DDD, rel. 1996) Jean-Claude Gerard, flute; Estonian State Symphony Orchestra; Arvo Volmer, conductor

56

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

D71. Naxos 8554185 (CD, DDD, rec. 1997, rel. 1999) Petri Alanko, flute; Tapiola Sinfonietta; Okko Kamu, conductor D72. RM Arts ID9328RADVD (DVD: Penderecki: A Celebration, rel. 1994) Irena Grafenauer, flute; Sinfonietta Cracovia; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Concerto for Piano and Orchestra D73. Polskie Radio PRCD 040 (CD, DDD, rec. & rel. 2003) Barry Douglas, piano; National Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra (Katowice); Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Concerto for Viola (or Clarinet or Cello) and Orchestra D74. Wergo 60172-50 (CD, DDD, rec. 1988, rel. 1989) Tabea Zimmermann, viola; Amadeus Chamber Orchestra; Agnieszka Duczmal, conductor D75. Muza 2494 (LP rel. 1987) Soloist unknown; Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Antoni Wit, conductor D76. Polskie Nagrania PNCD 020 (CD, ADD, rec. 1985, rel. 1989 in vol. 4 of the Penderecki series) Stefan Kamasa, viola; Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Antoni Wit, conductor D77. Muza SX 2455 (LP, rec. and rel. 1986, Warsaw Autumn Festival Sound Chronicle 1986) Grigori Zhislin, viola; Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Antoni Wit, conductor D78. Conifer CDCF 168 (CD, AAD, rec. 1987 or 1988, rel. 1988); Conifer MCFC 168 (cassette); Vienna Modern Masters VMM 3010 (CD, ADD, rel. 1992) Grigori Zhislin, viola; Krakw Polish Radio and Television Symphony Orchestra; Szymon Kawalla, conductor D79. Koch Aperto KoAp 86 422 (CD, DDD, rel. 1990) Grigori Zhislin, viola; Sinfonia Varsovia; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D80. Melodiya C10 16711/1 (LP) Grigori Zhislin, viola; Moscow Philharmonic; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor

DISCOGRAPHY

57

D81. ECM 1506 (CD, DDD, rec. 1992, rel. 1993); ECM 20002 (CD, DDD, rec. 1992, rel. 1993) Kim Kashkashian, viola; Stuttgart Chamber Orchestra; Dennis Russell Davies, conductor D82. Warsaw Autumn 1998 (cassette tape no. 2, live rec. 1998) Dmitri Ashkenazy, clarinet; Sinfonia Varsovia; Jacek Kaspszyk, conductor D83. Gega New GD 250 (CD, DDD, rec. 1987, rel. 2002) Dimitar Penkov, viola; North German Radio Orchestra; Aldo Ceccato, conductor D84. RM Arts ID9328RADVD (DVD: Penderecki: A Celebration, rel. 1994) Tabea Zimmermann, viola; Sinfonietta Cracovia; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Concerto for Violin and Orchestra No. 1 D85. Mum SX 1840 (LP, rec. 1979, rel. 1981); Polskie Nagrania PNCD 019 (CD, AAD, rel. 1989) Konstanty Andrzej Kulka, violin; Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D86. Thorofon CTH 2017 (CD, DDD, rec. and rel. 1987) Christiane Edinger, violin; Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D87. Columbia M 3515O (LP, rec. 1978, rel. 1979); CBS Masterworks 76739 (LP, rec. 1978); CBS 40-76-739 (cassette, rec. 1978); Sony SMK 64507 (CD, rec. 1978, rel. 1995); Sony 67194 (CD) Isaac Stern, violin; Minnesota Orchestra; Skrowaczewski, conductor D88. Nuova Era 033.6705 (CD, DDD, rec. live and rel. 1987); FSM Nu 6705 (CD); FSM Nu 675 (LP) Salvatore Accardo, violin; Orchestra Giovanile Italiana; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D89. Melodiya C10-16711-12 (LP, rel. 1982) Grigori Zhislin, violin; orchestra and conductor unknown D90. Orfeo C 285 931 A (CD, DDD, rec. 1992, rel. 1993) Christiane Edinger, violin; Bamberg Symphony Orchestra; Penderecki, conductor

Krzysztof

58

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

D91. Naxos 8.555265 (CD, DDD, rel. 2003) Konstanty Kulka, violin; Polish Radio National Symphony Orchestra; Antoni Wit, conductor Concerto for Violin and Orchestra No. 2 Metamorphoses D92. Deutsche Grammophon 435 507 (CD, DDD, rec. & rel. 1997) Anne-Sophie Mutter, violin; London Symphony Orchestra, Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D93. Warsaw Autumn 96, tape no. 5 (cassette, live rec. and rel. 1996) Niziol, violin; National Philharmonic Orchestra; Jan Krenz, conductor D94. Naxos 8.555265 (CD, DDD, rel. 2003) Chee-Yun, violin; Polish Radio National Symphony Orchestra; Antoni Wit, conductor Concerto Grossofor Three Cellos and Orchestra D95. Accord ACD 096 (CD, DDD, rec. & rel. 2002) Ivan Monighetti, Adam Klocek, Kazimierz Philharmonic Orchestra and Choir; Antoni Wit, conductor

cellos; National

D96. Polskie Radio PRCD 040 (CD, DDD, rec. & rel. 2003) Andrzej Bauer, Bartosz Koziak, Kwiatkowski, cellos; National Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra (Katowice); Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Cosmogony D97. Muza SXL 0781 (LP rel. 1970); Philips 6500 683 (LP rel. 1974); Philips 412030-IPSP (LP rel. 1984); Philips 412030-4PSP (cassette) Stefania Woytowicz, soprano; Kazimierz Pustelak, tenor; Bernard bass; National Philharmonic Chorus and Orchestra; Andrzej Markowski, conductor Credo D98. Hnssler CD 98.311 (CD, DDD, rec. and rel. 1998) Juliane Banse, soprano; Marietta Simpson and Milagro Vargas, mezzo-soprano; Thomas Randle, tenor; Thomas Quasthoff, bass; Oregon Bach Festival Orchestra and Choir, Phoenix Boys Choir; Helmut Rilling, conductor D99. Accord ACD 066/Universal 465 615 (CD, DDD, live rec. & rel. 1999) Harasimowicz-Haas, Izabella sopranos; Ewa Marciniec, mezzo-soprano; Adam Zdunikowski, tenor; Piotr Nowacki, bass; Warsaw Boys Choir; National Philharmonic Orchestra and Choir; Kazimierz Kord, conductor

DISCOGRAPHY

59

De Natura Sonoris No. 1 D100. EMI Electrola 1C 065 1024841 (LP, rel. 1976); VSM C 065-02 484 (LP); EMI-EMD-5529 (LP rel. 1976); EMI 65077 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, rel. 1994); EMI 74302 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, 1975, rel. 2001) Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor. D101. Muza XL 0413 (LP rel. 1970); Philips 839-701 LY (LP rel. 1971); Philips 3680 (LP); Philips PHS-900184 (LP rel. 1967); Philips 6500 118 (LP rel. 1973); Philips 6866 093 (LP rel. 1973) Krakw Philharmonic Orchestra; Henryk conductor D102. Nonesuch 71201 (LP); Nonesuch 32818 (LP) Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra; Lukas Foss, conductor De Natura Sonoris No. 2 D103. First Edition Recordings LS-722 (LP rel. 1972) Louisville Orchestra; Jorge Mester, conductor D104. EMI Electrola 1C 193-02 386/7 (2 LPs rec. 1972); Angel S-36949/50 (2 LPs rel. 1973); HMV 850 (2 LPs); EMI 1C 065-02574Q (LP) Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D105. Muza SXL 0781 (LP rel. 1970); Philips 6500 683 (LP rel. 1974); Philips 412030-IPSP (LP rel. 1984); Philips 412030-4PSP (cassette) National Philharmonic Orchestra; Andrzej Markowski, conductor D106. Philips 6539 035 (LP) National Philharmonic Orchestra; Witold Rowicki, conductor D107. EMI 65077 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, rel. 1994); EMI 74302 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, 1975, rel. 2001) London Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D108. Naxos 8.554491 (CD, DDD, rec. 1998, rel. 1999) Polish Radio National Symphony Orchestra; Antoni Wit, conductor The Devils of Loudun D109. Philips 6700042 (2 LPs rel. 1971); Philips 6500 050-051 (2 LPs rel. 1970); Philips 446 328 (CD, ADD, rec. 1969, rel. 1995) Soloists: Tatiana Troyanos, Cvetka Ahlin, Ursula Boese, Helga Thieme, Andrzej Hiolski, Bernard Hans Sotin-Rangier, Kurt Marschner, Heinz Blankenburg, Helmut Melchert, and others; Gnther Schmidt-Bohlnder, stage director; Hamburg State Orchestra and Chorus; Marek Janowski, conductor

60

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

Dies Irae D110. Muza XL 0413 (LP rec. 1967, rel. 1970); Philips 839 701 LY (LP rec. 1967, rel. 1971); Philips 3680 (LP, rec. 1967); Philips PHS-900184 (LP rec. 1967, rel. 1967) ; Polskie Nagrania PNCD 021 (CD, AAD, rec. 1967, rel. 1989) Stefania Woytowicz, soprano; Ochman, tenor; Bernard bass; Krakw Philharmonic Chorus (Janusz Przybylski, director) and Orchestra; Henryk conductor D111. Conifer CDCF 185 (CD, DDD, rec. 1989, rel. 1990); MCFC 185 (cassette); Vienna Modern Masters VMM 3015 (CD) Olga Szwajgier, soprano; Zygmunt Jankowski, tenor; Leonard Mrz, bass; Krakw Polish Radio and TV Symphony Orchestra and Chorus; Szymon Kawalla, conductor D112. Philips 6539 035 (LP) Soloists unknown; National Philharmonic Orchestra; Witold Rowicki, conductor D113. Vogt Quality Recordings CSRV 2229 (CD, live rec. 1969) Lynn Meyers, soprano; Robert Holland, tenor; Richard Griffith, baritone; Crane Symphony Orchestra and Chorus; Brock McElheran, conductor Dimensions of Time and Silence D114. Muza W-678 (LP, rec. and rel. 1960, Warsaw Autumn Festival Sound Chronicle 1960) Krakw Philharmonic Chamber Orchestra and Chorus; Andrzej Markowski, conductor (The recording incorrectly indicates that the performers were the National Philharmonic Chamber Orchestra and Chorus) D115. Muza SXL 0781 (LP rel. 1970); Polskie Nagrania PNCD 017 (CD, rec. 1972; rel. 1989) National Philharmonic Orchestra and Chorus; Andrzej Markowski, conductor Divertimento for Solo Cello D116. Naxos 8.557052 (CD, DDD, rec. 2001, rel. 2003) Arto Noras, cello Ecloga VIII D117. Muza SX 1443 (LP, rec. and rel. 1976, Warsaw Autumn Festival Sound Chronicle 1976); MMG 1142 (LP rel. by EMI Records in 1975); EMI/CMG 1142 (cassette); EMI 0C 061-5767 (LP); Intercord 161 513 (cassette); EMI-EMD 5521 (LP rel. 1975) King's Singers

DISCOGRAPHY

61

D118. Wergo 60070 (LP, rel. 1974); Cadenza CAD 800 901 (CD, ADD, rel. 1993); Bayer CAD 800-901 (CD, ADD, rel 1994) Schola Cantorum Stuttgart; Clytus Gottwald, conductor Emanations D119. EMI Electrola 1C 193-02 386/7 (2 LPs rec. 1972); Angel S-36949/50 (2 LPs rel. 1973); HMV 850 (2 LPs) Wanda Wilkomirska, violin; Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D120. EMI 1C 065-02574Q (LP); EMI 65416 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, rel. 1995); EMI 74302 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, 1975, rel. 2001) Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D121. Candide CE 31071 (LP rel. 1972); VOX STGBY 673 (LP); Candide VOX 36018 (LP rel. 1973); VoxBox CDX 5142 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972, rel. 1995) Radio Luxembourg Orchestra; Alois Springer, conductor Fluorescences D122. Wergo 60020 (LP, rec. and rel. 1965); Muza SXL 0260 (LP rel. 1970); Mace S-9090 (LP rel. 1970); Mace CMCS-9090 (cassette rel. 1970); Philips 6500 683 (LP rel. 1974); Philips 412030-IPSP (LP rel. 1984); Philips 4120304PSP (cassette) National Philharmonic Orchestra; Andrzej Markowski, conductor D123. Warsaw Autumn 95, tape no. 3 (cassette, live rec. and rel. 1995); Naxos 8.554491 (CD, DDD, rec. 1998, rel. 1999) Polish Radio National Symphony Orchestra; Antoni Wit, conductor Fonogrammi D124. EMI Electrola 1C 193-02 386/7 (2 LPs rec. 1972); Angel S-36949/50 (2 LPs rel. 1973); HMV 850 (2 LPs); EMI 1C 065-02574Q (LP) Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D125. EMI 65077 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, rel. 1994); EMI 74302 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, 1975, rel. 2001) London Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Intermezzo D126. Muza SX 1685 (LP rec. and rel. 1978, Warsaw Autumn Festival Sound Chronicle 1978) Polish Chamber Orchestra; Jerzy Maksymiuk, conductor

62

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

D127. Wergo 60172-50 (CD, DDD, rec. 1988, rel. 1989) Amadeus Chamber Orchestra, Agnieszka Duczmal, conductor Lacrimosa D128. Tonpress SX-T 32 (LP, world premiere recording by EMI in 1983, rel. 1983); EMI 1C 067 1436231 (LP rel. 1983); VSM 1436231 (LP); Angel DS38060 (LP rel. 1983); EMI/Angel 4XS 38060 (cassette rel. 1983); Dux 0402 (CD, rel. 2003); EMI 74852 (CD, ADD, rec. 1983, rel. 2001) Jadwiga Gadulanka, soprano; Krakw Polish Radio Chorus and Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D129. EMI 067-754 0898 (CD); EMI 067-7540989 (cassette); EMI CDC 7 54098 (CD, rec. 1990, rel. 1991) Barbara Hendricks, soprano; Stockholm Chamber Orchestra and Choir; members of Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Eric Ericson, conductor D130. Sony SK 66284 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1995) Jadwiga Gadulanka, soprano; National Philharmonic Chorus; Sinfonia Varsovia; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Magnificat D131. EMI 1C 065-02 483 Q (LP rec. and rel. 1975); VSM C 065-02 483Q (LP); Angel S-37141 (LP rec, and rel. 1975); EMI-EMD 5524 (LP); EMI/Deutsche Harmonia Mundi CDS 7 49313 2 (CD, ADD, rec. 1975, rel. 1988); EMI 74852 (CD, ADD, rec. 1975, rel. 2001) Peter Lagger, bass; soloists of the Krakw Philharmonic Chorus; Krakw Polish Radio Chorus; Krakw Philharmonic Children's Chorus; Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor. "Sicut locutes est" from Magnificat: D132. Divox Radio Vaticana: Div Vat 61 001 (CD); FRZ 61001 (CD); Wergo WER 6261 (CD, DDD, rec. 1988, rel. 1995) National Philharmonic Chorus and Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D133. Finlandia 98999 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1995); Finlandia 88433 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 2001) Tapiola Chamber Choir; Juha Kuivanen, conductor Miniatures for Violin and Piano D134. Candide CE 31071 (LP rel. 1972); VOX STGBY 673 (LP); Candide VOX 36018 (LP rel. 1973); VoxBox CDX 5142 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972, rel. 1995) Gabriel Banat, violin; Ilana Vered, piano

DISCOGRAPHY D135. Turnabout 34429 (LP) Gabriel Banat, violin; Richard Lewis, piano D136. Wergo WER 6258 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1994) Konstanty Andrzej Kulka, violin; Waldemar Malicki, piano D137. Propius 250402-009 (LP rel. 1968) Eichenholz, violino grande; Herta Fischer, Bolin grand piano D138. Black Box Classics 1025 (CD, DDD, rec. and rel. 1999) Roman Mints, violin; Eugenia Chudinovich, piano

63

Partita D139. Erato ECD 75321 (CD and LP, AAD, rel. 1987); Erato 2292-45271-2 (CD); RCA CD 30 156 QA (CD) Stefanska-Lukowicz, harpsichord; Helga Bohnstedt, electric guitar; Wolfgang Bargel, bass guitar; Annemarie Schmeisser, harp; Norbert Brenner, double bass; Southwest German Radio Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D140. EMI Electrola 1C 193-02 386/7 (2 LPs rec. 1972); Angel S-36949/50 (2 LPS rel. 1973); HMV 850 (2 LPs); EMI 1C 065-02574Q; EMI 65416 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, rel. 1995); EMI 74302 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, 1975, rel. 2001) Felicja Blumental, harpsichord; Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D141. Warsaw Autumn 92 (cassette, rec. and rel. 1992, Warsaw Autumn Festival Sound Chronicle 1992) Chojnacka, harpsichord; Sinfonia Varsovia; Richard Dufallo, conductor Passacaglia and Rondo. See Symphony No. 3 Passio et mors Domini nostri Jesu Christi secundum Lucam ("St. Luke Passion") D142. BASF JA 293 793 (Harmonia Mundi) (2 LPs rec. 1966, rel. 1967); RCA VIC 6015 (2 mono LPs rel. 1967), RCA VICS 6015 (2 LPs rel. 1967); EMI/Deutsche Harmonia Mundi ICI57 99660-661 (2 LPs rel. 1967); EMI 157199 660-3 (2 LPs); HM 4929379 (2 LPs); HM SL 3101/02 (2 LPs or 2 cassettes); HM 30980 (cassette); EMI/Deutsche Harmonia Mundi CDS 49313 (CD, ADD, rec. 1966, rel. in 1988)

64

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

Stefania Woytowicz, soprano; Andrzej Hiolski, baritone; Bernard bass; Rudolf Jrgen Bartsch, speaker; Tlzer Boys Choir; Cologne Radio Chorus; Cologne Radio Symphony Orchestra; Henryk conductor D143. Philips 802 771/72 AY (2 LPs rec. and rel. 1966 by Polskie Nagrania); Muza SX 0325-0326 (2 LPs rel. 1966); Philips 2.007 (2 LPs); Philips 6700 022 (2 LPs); Philips 3613-4 (2 LPs); Philips PHS-2-901 (2 LPs rel. 1967); Philips PT-2901 (tape reel rel. 1967); Philips PHS 2601 (2 mono LPs rel. 1967); Polskie Nagrania PNCD 017 (CD, AAD, rec. 1966, rel. 1989) Stefania Woytowicz, soprano; Andrzej Hiolski, baritone; Bernard bass; Leszek Herdegen, speaker; Krakw Philharmonic Boys and Mixed Choruses and Orchestra; ; Henryk conductor D144. Argo 430 328 (CD, DDD, rec. 1989, rel. 1990) Sigune von Osten, soprano; Stephen Roberts, baritone; Kurt Rydl, bass; Edward Lubaszenko, narrator; National Philharmonic Chorus; Krakw Boys Chorus; Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D145. MDG 337 0981 (CD, DDD, rec. 1999, rel. 2000) Franziska Hirzel, soprano; Franois Le Roux, baritone, Jean-Philippe Courtis, bass; Manfred Jung, narrator; North German Radio Choir; West German Radio Choir; Mainz Womens Chorus; Beethovenhalle Orchestra; Marc Soustrot, conductor D146. Naxos 8.557149 (CD, DDD, rec. 2002, rel. 2003) Izabella soprano; Adam Kruszewski, baritone; Romuald Tesarowicz, bass; Krzysztof Kolberger; Evangelist; Warsaw Boys Choir; National Philharmonic Orchestra and Chorus; Antoni Wit, conductor "In pulverum mortis," "Miserere," and "Ut quia, Domine" from the St. Luke Passion D147. Divox Radio Vaticana: Div Vat 61 001 (CD); FRZ 61001; Wergo WER 6261 (CD, DDD, rec. 1988, rel. 1995) National Philharmonic Chorus and Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D148. Finlandia 98999 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1995); Finlandia 88433 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 2001). "In pulverum mortis" and "Miserere only Tapiola Chamber Choir; Juha Kuivanen, conductor "Miserere " only: D149. Candide CE 31071 (LP rel. 1972); VOX STGBY 673 (LP); Candide Vox 36018 (LP rel. 1973); VoxBox CDX 5142 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972, rel. 1995) Schola Cantorum, Stuttgart; Clytus Gottwald, conductor

DISCOGRAPHY D150. Schwan Studio 601 (LP rel. 1970) NCRV Vocal Ensemble, Hilversum; Marinus Voorberg, conductor D151. Pelca PSR 40 607 (LP, rel. 197?) Pfalz Evangelical Youth Chorus; Heinz Markus Gttsche, conductor D152. Accord ACD 070 (CD, DDD, rec. 1999, rel. 2000) Camerata Silesia; Anna Szostak, choir director

65

O crux ave; Jerusalem, convertere ad Dominum " from the St. Luke Passion D153. Musicaphon BM 30 SL 5100 (LP, rel. 1979) Performers unknown Per Slava D154. Muza SX 2456 (LP rec. and rel. 1986, Warsaw Autumn Festival Sound Chronicle 1986); Chant du Monde LDC 278 1059 (CD, rec. 1991, rel. 1991); Wergo WER 6258 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1994) Ivan Monighetti, cello D155. Aulos AUL 66 010 (CD, DDD, rec. and rel. 1989) Boris Pergamenschikov, cello D156. MDG 304 0917 (CD, DDD, rec. 1997-1998; rel. 1999) Martin Ostertag (Ensemble Villa Musica), cello Pittsburgh Overture D157. Point Park College recording series--Point KP 101 (LP rel. 1970); Bayer Records BR 100 024 CD (CD, DDD, rel. 1988) American Wind Symphony Orchestra; Robert Austin Boudreau, conductor D158. Deutsche Grammophon 2530 063 (LP rel. 1973) Eastman Wind Ensemble; Donald Hunsberger, conductor D159. Kosei KOR 7907 (LP, rec. 1983, rel. 1983); Kosei KOCD-3073 (CD rec. 1983, rel. 1988) Tokyo Kosei Wind Orchestra; Kazuyoshi Akiyama, conductor Polish Requiem D160. Muza SX 2319-2320 (2 LPs, world premiere recording made in 1985, rel. 1987); Polskie Nagrania PNCD 021 (CD, AAD, rec. 1985, rel. 1989) Jadwiga Gadulanka, soprano; Jadwiga Rapp, alto; Henryk Grychnik, tenor; Carlo Zardo, bass; Krakw Philharmonic Chorus; Krakw Polish Radio and TV Chorus; Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Antoni Wit, conductor

66

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

D161. Deutsche Grammophon 429 720 (CD, DDD, rec. live in 1989, rel. 1990) Soloists: Ingrid Haubold, Winogrodska, Zachos Terzakis, Malcolm Smith; North German Radio Chorus; Baverian Radio Chorus; North German Radio Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D162. Chandos CHAN 9459/60 (CD, DDD, rec. 1995, rel. 1996) (Includes Sanctus) Soloists: Jadwiga Gadulanka, Jadwiga Rapp, Zachos Terzakis, Piotr Nowacki; Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra; Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra and Chorus; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Polymorphia D163. Foyer 1-CF 2038 (CD, AAD, live rec. 1968, rel. 1990); FOY 502 038 (CD, AAD, live rec. 1968) Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra; Herbert von Karajan, conductor D164. Muza W-876 (LP, rec. and rel. 1963, Warsaw Autumn Festival Sound Chronicle 1963) Krakw Philharmonic Orchestra; Andrzej Markowski, conductor D165. Muza SXL 0413 (LP rel. 1970); Philips 839 701 LY (LP rel. 1971); Philips 3680 (LP); Philips 900184 (LP rel. 1967); Philips 6500 018 (LP rel. 1971); Philips 6866 093 (LP rel. 1970); Polskie Nagrania PNCD 017 (CD, rec. 1967, rel. 1989) Krakw Philharmonic Orchestra; Henryk conductor D166. Opus Musicum OM 116-118 (3 LPs rel. 1975) Performers unidentified D167. Elektra Nonesuch 79334-4 (cassette, rel. 1993) National Philharmonica Orchestra; Leonard Slatkin, conductor Prelude for Clarinet D168. Wergo WER 6258 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1994) Aleksander clarinet D169. BIS 652 (CD, DDD, rec. 1994, rel. 1994) Martin Frst, clarinet D170. MDG 304 0917 (CD, DDD, rec. 1997-1998; rel. 1999) Ulf Rodenhuser, clarinet

DISCOGRAPHY D171. Camerata 491 (CD, DDD, rel. 1998) Karl Leister, clarinet D172. Naxos 8.557052 (CD, DDD, rec. 2001, rel. 2003) Michel Lethiec, clarinet

67

Psalms of David D173. Wergo 60020 (LP, rec. and rel. 1965); Muza SXL 0260 (LP rel. 1970); Mace S-9090 (LP rel. 1970); Mace CMCS-9090 (cassette rel. 1970); Supraphon 10951 (LP); Polskie Nagrania PNCD 017 (CD, AAD, rec. 1966, rel. 1989) National Philharmonic Chorus and Orchestra; Andrzej Markowski, conductor D174. Cantate 658 225 (LP rec. and rel. 1969) Vocal Ensemble Kassel; Siegfried Fink Percussion Ensemble of Wrzburg; members of the Kassel State Theater Orchestra; Klaus Martin Ziegler, conductor D175. Wergo WER 6261 (CD, DDD, rec. 1988, rel. 1995) National Philharmonic Chorus and Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D176. Accord CD 112 (CD, DDD, rec. and rel. 2001) Krakowski Chr Kameralny and musicians; D177. Mark Custom Records MC 5618 (LP, rel. 1971) Oberlin College Choir; Harriet Simons, conductor "Exaltabo te, Domino" from Psalms of David D178. Divox Radio Vaticana: Div Vat 61 001 (CD); FRZ 61001 National Philharmonic Chorus and Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Psalmus 1961 D179. Philips 6740 001 (LP); Philips 6585 007 (LP); Philips 6526 006 (LP), Supraphon 10951 (LP), Supraphon DV 6221 (LP) Realized in 1968 at the Polish Radio Experimental Music Studio, Warsaw Quartet for Clarinet and String Trio D180. Sony SK 66284 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1995) Sharon Kam, clarinet; Christoph Poppen, violin; Kim Kashkashian, viola; Boris Pergamenschikov, cello D181. BIS 652 (CD, DDD, rec. 1994, rel. 1994) Martin Frst, clarinet; Patrick Swedrup, violin; Ingegerd Kierkegaard, viola; Helena Nilsson, cello

conductor

68

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

D182. MDG 304 0917 (CD, DDD, rec. 1997-1998; rel. 1999) Ensemble Villa Musica D183. Boston Records BR1026 (CD, DDD, rec. and rel. 1996) Donald Montanaro, clarinet; Luis Biava, violin; Sidney Curtiss, viola; William Stokking, cello D184. BIS CD-1153 (CD, DDD, rec. 2000, rel. 2001, arr. for saxophone quartet by Harry-Kinross White) Raschr Saxophone Quartet D185. Naxos 8.557052 (CD, DDD, rec. 2001, rel. 2003) Michel Lethiec, clarinet; Rgis Pasquier, violin; Bruno Pasquier, viola; Arto Noras, cello D186. RM Arts ID9328RADVD (DVD: Penderecki: A Celebration, rel. 1994) Sharon Kam, clarinet; Christoph Poppen; violin; Kim Kashkashian, viola; Boris Pergamenschikov, cello D187. Warsaw Autumn 94, tape no. 1 (cassette, live rec. and rel. 1994) Martin Frst, clarinet; Arkadiusz Kubica, violin; Lukasz Syrnicki, viola; Piotr Janosik, cello Quartet for Strings No. 1 D188. Deutsche Grammophon 137001 IMS (LP rec. 1967, rel. 1968); Deutsche Grammophon 423 245 (CD, ADD, rel. 1987); Muza XL 0282 (LP, mono rec. 1966, rel. 1969); Polskie Nagrania PNCD 017 (CD, ADD, rec. 1966, rel. 1989) LaSalle Quartet D189. Veriton SXV 811-812 (LP, rec. 1976, rel. 1977); Veriton ECD 035 (CD, rel. 1994); Polskie Nagrania ECD 035 (CD, rec. 1994) Wilanw Quartet D190. Candide CE 31071 (LP); VOX STGBY 673 (LP); Candid VOX 36018 (LP rel. 1973); VoxBox CDX 5142 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972, rel. 1995) Kohon Quartet D191. Da Camera Magna SM 92418 (LP rec. and rel. 1979) Warsaw String Quartet D192. D165. Deutsche Grammophon 104 988-104 993/643 541-643 546 (2 vol. set of 12 LPs rel. 1968) Performers unidentified

DISCOGRAPHY D193. Wergo WER 6258 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1994) Silesian Quartet D194. BIS 652 (CD, DDD, rec. 1994, rel. 1994) Tale Quartet

69

D195. United 88014 (CD, DDD, rel. 1994); Cala 88014 (CD, DDD, rel. 1996) Penderecki Quartet Quartet for Strings No. 2 D196. Pavane ADW 7149 (LP rec. and rel. 1983); Olympia OCD 328 (CD, AAD, rel 1989) Varsovia String Quartet D197. Veriton SXV 811-812 (LP rec. 1976, rel. 1977); Veriton ECD 035 (CD, rel. 1994); Polskie Nagrania ECD 035 (CD, rec. 1994) Wilanw Quartet D198. Wergo WER 6258 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1994) Silesian Quartet D199. BIS 652 (CD, DDD, rec. 1994, rel. 1994) Tale Quartet D200. United 88014 (CD, DDD, rel. 1994); Cala 88014 (CD, DDD, rel. 1996) Penderecki Quartet D201. PWM 10190/DUX 004 (CD, DDD, rec. 2001, rel. 2001) Quartetto Daf Seven Gates of Jerusalem (Symphony No. 7) D202. Accord ACD 036 (CD, DDD, rec. and rel. 1997) Harasimowicz-Haas and Izabella sopranos; Ewa alto; Ochman, tenor; Romuald Tesarowicz, bass; Gustaw Holoubek, narrator; National Philharmonic Orchestra & Choir; Kazimierz Kord, conductor. D203. Wergo WER 6647 (CD, DDD, live rec. 1999, rel. 2000) Harasimowicz-Haas and Izabella sopranos; Jadwiga Rapp, alto; Ochman, tenor; Romuald Tesarowicz, bass; Boris Carmeli, narrator; National Philharmonic Orchestra & Choir; Kazimierz Kord, conductor.

70

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

Sextet D204. Naxos 8.557052 (CD, DDD, rec. 2001, rel. 2003) Michel Lethiec, clarinet; Rgis Pasquier, violin; Bruno Pasquier, viola; Arto Noras, cello; Markus Maskuniitty, horn Sinfonietta No. 1 (transcription of Trio for Strings) D205. Aperto APO 86 410/1 (CD, DDD, rec. and rel. 1992); Sony SK 66284 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1995) Sinfonia Varsovia; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D206. Vienna Modern Masters VMM 3023 (CD, DDD, rel. 1993) Krakw Chamber Players D207. PWM Edition PWM 9784 CD 0001 (CD, DDD, rel. 1998) Sinfonietta Cracovia; Robert Kabara, conductor D208. RM Arts ID9328RADVD (DVD: Penderecki: A Celebration, rel. 1994) Sinfonietta Cracovia; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Sonata for Cello and Orchestra D209. Muza XW-575 (LP, rec. and rel. 1965, Warsaw Autumn Festival Sound Chronicle 1965); Wergo 60036 (LP rec. 1966, rel. 1970); Wergo 60020 (LP, rec. and rel. 1965); Muza XL 0260 (LP rel. 1970); Mace S-9090 (LP rel. 1970); Mace CMCS-9090 (cassette rel. 1970), Wergo 6036 (CD, DDD, rel. 1991); Heliodor 2549004 (LP rel. 1970) Siegfried Palm, cello; Philharmonic Orchestra; Andrzej Markowski, conductor D210. Candide CE 31071 (LP); VOX STGBY 673 (LP); Candide VOX 36018 (LP rel. 1973); VoxBox CDX 5142 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972, rel. 1995) Thomas Blees, cello; Radio Luxembourg Orchestra; Alois Springer, conductor D211. Deutsche Grammophon 0629 027-029 031 (5 LPs rel. 1977 with Heinreich Strobel's book Begegungen mit Komponistem unserer Zeit) Performers unidentified Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 1 D212. Sony SK 66284 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1995) Grigori Zhislin, violin; Vladimir Viardo, piano D213. Wergo WER 6258 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1994) Konstanty Andrzej Kulka, violin; Waldemar Malicki, piano

DISCOGRAPHY D214. MDG 304 0917 (CD, DDD, rec. 1997-1998; rel. 1999) Ida Bieler, violin; Kalle Randalu, piano (Ensemble Villa Musica) D215. Naxos 8.557253 (CD, DDD, rel. 2003) Ida Bieler, violin; Nina Tichman, piano Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 2 D216. Naxos 8.557253 (CD, DDD, rel. 2003) Ida Bieler, violin; Nina Tichman, piano

71

Song of Cherubim D217. Divox Radio Vaticana: Div Vat 61 001 (CD); FRZ 61001; Wergo WER 6261 (CD, DDD, rec. 1988, rel. 1995); Sony SK 66284 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1995); Sony SK 66284 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1995) National Philharmonic Chorus and Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D218. EMI 56439 (CD, DDD, rel. 1997) Kings College Choir, Cambridge; Stephen Cleobury, conductor D219. Finlandia 98999 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1995); Finlandia 88433 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 2001) Tapiola Chamber Choir; Juha Kuivanen, conductor D220. Sony SMK 64586 (CD, DDD, rec. 1994, rel. 1995) Chamber Choir Lege Artis; Boris Abalyan, conductor D221. American Choral Classics ACC 121 (CD, DDD, rec. 1995, rel. 1995) Dale Warland Singers; Dale Warland, conductor D222. Swedish Society Discofil SCD 1058 (CD, DDD, rec. 1992/1993, rel. 1995) Rilke Ensemble; Gunnar Eriksson, conductor D223. Audite 97-475 (CD, DDD, rec. 2000, rel. 2001) Carmina Mundi Aachen; Harald Nickoll, conductor Stabat Mater D224. Wergo 60020 (LP rec. 1965); Muza XL 0260 (LP rel. 1970); Muza SX 1135 (LP rel. 1974); Mace S-9090 (LP rel. 1970); Mace CMCS-9090 (cassette rel. 1970); Wergo 60200-50 (CD, ADD, rel. 1988) (reissue containing Stabat Mater from Wergo 60020); Wergo 0 301 (LP); Wergo WER 6261 (CD, DDD, rec. 1988, rel. 1995) National Philharmonic Chorus; Andrzej Markowski, conductor

72

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

D225. Muza W-967 (mono LP rec. and rel. 1964, Warsaw Autumn Festival Sound Chronicle 1964) Krakw Philharmonic Chorus; Andrzej Markowski, conductor D226. Muza XL 530 (LP) Szczecin Polytechnical University Chorus; Jan Szyrocki D227. Mark 2144 (LP) Concordia Chorus; Paul Christiansen, conductor D228. EMI Electrola C 063-29075 (LP); EXPO NORR 5 NCB (LP); Expo Norr RIKS LP 5 (LP, rel. 1966); EMI 555 769 818-2 (CD); EMI-EMD 5506 (LP rel. 1972); EMI CDM 69818 (CD, rec. 1970/71, rel. 1989); EMI Electrola 5 65348-5 56535 Stockholm Radio Chorus; Eric Ericson, conductor D229. Erato STU 70457 (LP rel. 1968) French Radio Chorus; Marcel Couraud, conductor D230. Candide CE 31071 (LP rel. 1972); VOX STGBY 673 (LP); Candide VOX 36018 (LP rel. 1973); VoxBox CDX 5142 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972, rel. 1995) Schola Cantorum, Stuttgart; Clytus Gottwald, conductor D231. Finlandia 98999 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1995); Finlandia 88433 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 2001) Tapiola Chamber Choir; Juha Kuivanen, conductor Strophes D232. Wergo 60172-50 (CD, DDD, rec. 1988, rel. 1989) Olga Szwajgier, soprano; Amadeus Chamber Orchestra; Agnieszka Duczmal, conductor D233. Muza SX 1151 (LP, world premiere recording rel. 1970) Stefania Woytowicz, soprano; Andrzej narrator; Philharmonic Chorus and Orchestra; Jerzy Katlewicz, conductor

Krakw

Symphony No. 1 D234. EMI Electrola SHZE 393 (LP); EMI 1C 065 102452 (LP rel. 1973); EMI-EMD-5507 (LP rel. 1973); VSM C 065-02 452 (LP); EMI 65416 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, rel. 1995); EMI 74302 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, 1975, rel. 2001) London Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor

DISCOGRAPHY D235. Warsaw Autumn 1998 (cassette no. 1, live rec. 1998) Middle German Radio, Leipzig; Johannes Kalitzke, conductor D236. Naxos 8.554567 (CD, DDD, rec. and rel. 1999) Polish Radio National Symphony Orchestra; Antoni Wit, conductor

73

Symphony No. 2 Christmas D237. Pavane ADW 7100 (LP, world premiere recording made in 1981); Muza SX 2310 (LP, world premiere recording made in 1981); Olympia OCD 329 (CD, DDD, rel. 1989); Polskie Nagrania PNCD 019 (CD, AAD, rel. 1989) Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Jacek Kasprzyk, conductor D238. EMI 067 270 041-1 (LP rec. 1983, rel. 1984); VSM 270 0411 (LP); EMI 74852 (CD, ADD, rec. 1983, rel. 2001) Krakw Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D239. Wergo WER 6270 (CD, DDD, rec. 1989, rel. 1994); Wergo WER 286 270 (CD, DDD, rec. 1989, rel. 1994) North German Radio Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D240. Polmusic PmCD 1024 (CD, rel. 1989) Krakw Philharmonic; Wojciech Czepiel, conductor D241. Naxos 8.554492 (CD, DDD, rec. 1999, rel. 2000) Polish Radio National Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Symphony No. 3 (includes Passacaglia and Rondo) D242. Polmusic PmCD 1024 (CD, rel. 1989) Krakw Philharmonic; Wojciech Czepiel, conductor D243. Warsaw Autumn 96, tape no. 1 (cassette, rec. and rel. 1996); Naxos 8.554491 (CD, DDD, rec. 1998, rel. 1999) Polish Radio National Symphony Orchestra; Antoni Wit, conductor D244. Muza SX 2736 (LP rec. and rel. 1988, Warsaw Autumn Festival Sound Chronicle 1988) Krakw Philharmonic Orchestra; Gilbert Levine, conductor Symphony No. 4 Adagio D245. Wergo WER 6270 (CD, DDD, rec. 1989, rel. 1994); Wergo WER 286 270 (CD, DDD, rec. 1989, rel. 1994) North German Radio Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor

74

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

D246. Naxos 8.554492 (CD, DDD, rec. 1999, rel. 2000) Polish Radio National Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Symphony No. 5 Korean D247. Warsaw Autumn 1997 (cassette no. 1, live rec. 1997); Naxos 8.554567 (CD, DDD, rec. and rel. 1999) Polish Radio National Symphony Orchestra; Antoni Wit, conductor Te Deum D248. Tonpress SX-T 32 (LP, rec. 1983); EMI 1C 067 1436231 (LP, rec. 1983); VSM 1436231 (LP); Angel DS 38060 (LP rel. 1983); Angel 4XS 38060 (cassette rel. 1983); EMI 74852 (CD, ADD, rec. 1983, rel. 2001) Jadwiga Gadulanka, soprano; Ewa mezzo-soprano; Ochman, tenor; Andrzej Hiolski, baritone; Krakw Polish Radio Chorus and Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor Three Miniatures for Clarinet and Piano D249. Solstice SOL 31 (LP rec. 1983, rel. 1984) Claude Faucomprez, clarinet; Alain Ras, piano D250. CBC Enterprises MVCD1016 (CD, DDD, rel. 1987) Joaquin Valdepenas, clarinet; Patricia Parr, piano D251. Crystal Records S-335 (LP rel. 1985) Melvin Warner, clarinet; Sylvia Reynolds, piano D252. DC BIS LP-62 (LP rel. 1970); BIS CD 62 (CD, AAD, rec. 1976, rel. 1995) Kjell-Inge Stevensson, clarinet; Eva Knardahl, piano D253. CRS 8632 (LP rel. 1986) T. J. Pasternack, clarinet; C. Sibinga, piano D254. EMI 567-749 711 (CD) Meyer, clarinet; Kontarsky, piano D255. Coronet Records LPS 3116 (LP rel. 1981); Coronet Records LPS 3123 (LP) Brian Schweickhart, clarinet; John Cobb, piano D256. Melodiya C10-06717/18 (LP rel. 1970) Lev Mekhailov, clarinet; Aleksei Ljubimov, piano

DISCOGRAPHY D257. Roncorp EMS-005 (cassette rel. 1983) Allen Sigel, clarinet; pianist unidentified D258. Terpsichore 1982 012 (LP rel. 1983) Walter Boeykens, clarinet; Robert Groslet, piano D259. Wergo WER 6258 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1994) Aleksander clarinet; Szbolcs Esztnyi, piano

75

D260. Dante LYS 500 (CD, ADD, rec. 1978, rel. 1999) Clarinet Classics CC0041 (CD, ADD, rec. 1978, rel. 2002) David Weber, clarinet; Jane Hayes, piano D261. Naxos 8.557052 (CD, DDD, rec. 2001, rel. 2003) Michel Lethiec, clarinet; Juhani Lagerspetz, piano Three Pieces in Antique Style D262. Wergo 60172-50 (CD, DDD, rec. 1988, rel. 1989) Amadeus Chamber Orchestra, Agnieszka Duczmal, conductor. D263. Intim IMCD 027 (CD, DDD) Camerata Roman Threnody D264. EMI Electrola 1C 065 1024841 (LP, rel. 1976); VSM C 065 02 484 (LP); EMI EMD-5529 (LP rel. 1976); EMI 65077 (CD, ADD, rec. 1975, rel. 1994); EMI 74302 (CD, ADD, rec. 1972-1973, 1975, rel. 2001) Great Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D265. Conifer CDCF 168 (CD, AAD, rec. 1987 or 1988, rel. 1988); MCFC 168 (cassette); Vienna Modern Masters VMM 3010 (CD, ADD, rel. 1992) Krakw Polish Radio and Television Symphony Orchestra; Szymon Kawalla, conductor. D266. D191. Philips 839260 DSY (LP); Philips A 02383 L (LP); Muza SX 2313 (LP, Warsaw Autumn Festival 1956-1981 collection, no. 3); Muza XL 0171 (mono LP rel. 1960); Muza SXL 0171 (rel. 1970); Philips 835261 AY (LP rel. 1963); Philips 500141 (mono LP rel. 1960); Philips 900141 (stereo LP rel. 1967); Philips PHS-2-901 (2 LPs); Philips PT-2901 (tape reel rel. 1967); Muza SX 1135; Philips 6539 035 (LP); Philips 412030-1 (LP rel. 1984); Philips 412030-4PSP (cassette); Polskie Nagrania PNCD 017 (CD, ADD, rec. 1963, rel. 1989) National Philharmonic Orchestra; Witold Rowicki, conductor

76

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

D267. RCA Victrola VICS-1239 (LP rel. 1967); RCA 94004 (LP); V8S-1013 (mono LP) Rome Symphony Orchestra; Bruno Maderna, conductor D268. RCA Lineatre GL 31518 (LP rel. 1980) Italian Radio and TV Symphony Orchestra; conductor unknown D269. DSB 1 012 (CD); Berlin BC 1012 (CD, ADD, rec. 1978, rel. 1992) Leipzig Radio Symphony Orchestra; Herbert Kegel, conductor D270. Custom Recording Consultants [Vox] (LP, rel. 1969) Performers unidentified D271. Naxos 8.554491 (CD, DDD, rec. 1998, rel. 1999) Polish Radio National Symphony Orchestra; Antoni Wit, conductor Trio for Strings D272. Wergo WER 6258 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1994) Silesian Quartet D273. BIS 652 (CD, DDD, rec. 1994, rel. 1994) Tale Olsson and Patrick Swedrup, violin; Ingegerd Kierkegaard, viola; Helena Nilsson, cello D274. MDG 304 0917 (CD, DDD, rec. 1997-1998; rel. 1999) Ensemble Villa Musica Der Unterbrochene Gedanke D275. Wergo WER 6258 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1994) Silesian Quartet D276. BIS 652 (CD, DDD, rec. 1994, rel. 1994) Tale Quartet D277. United 88014 (CD, DDD, rel. 1994); Cala 88014 (CD, DDD, rel. 1996); United 88088 (CD, DDD, rel. 1994) Penderecki Quartet Utrenia Part I only: D278. RCA LSC 3180 (LP, rec. 1970, rel. 1971); RCA ERPA 3180 [tape reel rel. 1971); RCA 26.41 105 AW (LP); RCA 6857 (LP)

DISCOGRAPHY

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Stefania Woytowicz, soprano; Kerstin Meyer, mezzo-soprano; Seth McCoy, tenor; Bernard bass; Peter Lagger, basso profondo; Temple University Chorus; Philadelphia Orchestra; Eugene Ormandy, conductor Parts I and II: D279. Muza SXL 889-890 (2 LPs rec. 1973), reissued as Polskie Nagrania PNCD 018 (CD, AAD, rel. 1989); Philips 6700-0065 (2 LPs rel. 1973; alternate numbers: Philips 6500 557/58) Part I: Delfina Ambroziak, soprano; Krystyna mezzo-soprano; Kazimierz Pustelak, tenor; Denysenko, bass; Boris Carmeli, basso profondo; National Philharmonic Chorus and Orchestra; Andrzej Markowski, conductor Part II: Stefania Woytowicz, soprano; Krystyna Szczepanska, mezzosoporano; Kazimierz Pustelak, tenor; Bernard bass; Peter Lagger, basso profondo; Pioneer Chorus; National Philharmonic Chorus and Orchestra; Andrzej Markowski, conductor. D280. Koch International 33788 (CD, DDD, rec. 1997, rel. 1998) Soloists: Jadwiga Gadulanka, Wita Nikolajenko, Piotr Kusiewicz, Giennadij Biezzubienkow; National Philharmonic Choir, Warsaw Boys Choir; Orchester des Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor. Veni Creator D281. Divox Radio Vaticana: Div Vat 61 001 (CD); FRZ 61001; Wergo WER 6261 (CD, DDD, rec. 1988, rel. 1995) National Philharmonic Choir; Krzysztof Penderecki, conductor D282. Polmusic mCD 1024 (CD, rel. 1989) Krakw Philharmonic; Wojciech Czepiel, conductor D283. Finlandia 98999 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 1995); Finlandia 88433 (CD, DDD, rec. 1993, rel. 2001) Tapiola Chamber Choir; Juha Kuivanen, conductor D284. Supraphon 11 1809 (CD, DDD, rec. 1992, rel. 1993) Prague Philharmonic Choir; Pavel Kuhn, conductor

Annotated Bibliography

B1. Audycje z cyklu 'Horyzonty muzyki' nadane w latach 1959-1970. In Horyzonty muzyki, edited by Jzef Patkowski and Anna Krakw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1970. This is a list of the compositions broadcast from 1959-1970 on the Polish radio series Horizons of Music. Also cited are the publications used as source material for each broadcast. B2. Awards & Appointments. American Record Guide 55, no. 5 (1992): 33. The 1992 Grawemeyer Award for Music Composition was given to Penderecki for Adagio for orchestra. B3. Brahms czy Penderecki? Nowa kultura, no. 51-52 (1962): 3, 13; abridged version in Polish Perspectives 6, no. 3 (1963): 23-29. Tadeusz Zygmunt Mycielski, Stefan Kisielewski, Witold and others discussed the differences between the reception of classical and popular music in Poland. Among other things, they claimed that Penderecki's music was more popular than that of Brahms and other contemporary Polish composers. B4. Bratwurst contra Oper. Pendereckis Die schwarze Maske als polnisches Gastspiel in der Staatsoper Unter den Linden. Das Orchester 39, no. 1 (1991): 29-30. A sparse audience attended The Black Mask in Berlin. The author of this review lamented the problems that arose as a result of having Polish singers sing German texts

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to a German-speaking public. He succinctly described the operas plot and noted the role that the orchestra played in presenting a tension-loaded atmosphere B5. Composers Penderecki and Crumb at Wichita State University. Pan Pipes 67, no. 3 (1975): 26. Penderecki served as composer-in-residence at Wichita State from November 23 to December 2, 1974. Among the highlights of his stay was a concert on the final evening, master classes, and open rehearsals. B6. Demons in Santa Fe. Newsweek, August 25, 1969, p. 85. In this review of the Santa Fe Operas production of The Devils of Loudun, the author criticized the opera for its welter of sex, scatology, and ecclesiastical satire. Furthermore, it contain[ed] moments of complete unobtrusiveness followed by various hackneyed leitmotifs. B7. The Devils and Reardon. Time, August 22, 1969, pp. 60-61. The Santa Fe Operas production of The Devils of Loudun was highly praised, even though the operas music was less forceful than it should have been, given the plot's dramatic demands. John Reardon, who portrayed Grandier, was the focus of much of the article. B8. Doctorate for Penderecki. Polish Perspectives 29, no. 2 (Spring 1986): 55. Penderecki received an honorary doctorate from the University of Fine Arts in Belgrade. B9. Dyskusja. Muzyka 21, no. 4 (1976): 29-52. This wide-ranging discussion among Penderecki, Tomaszewski, and others took place at the end of a 1975 Krakw seminar on the composers music. Topics included Pendereckis compositional process, his ideas about clusters and sonorism (he disliked the latter term), his affinity for traditional forms, the reception of his works by both musicians and the public, his sketches for Psalmus 1961, and the distinction between sounds and murmurs in his music. B10. Edinburgh. Bunt ist die Devise. Streifflichter vom Edinburgh Festival 1980. Oper und Konzert 18, nos. 7-8 (1980): 7-8. The audience at the European premiere of Symphony No. 2 was surprised to hear the works romantic, quasi-tonal style, since it was more accustomed to Pendereckis experimental music. B11. Entuzjastyczne urodzinowego koncertu Krzysztofa Pendereckiego w Kennedy Center. Warszawy, December 1, 1983, pp. 1, 6; excerpts in Clavis. Muzyka w prasie. Ruch muzyczny 28, no. 1 (1984): 12. In this conversation with Jerzy Grski, a correspondent with the Polish Press Agency, Penderecki mentioned that contemporary Polish music served as an ambassador of Polish culture. He attributed the popularity of his music in both the United States and the Soviet Union to the universal values of contemporary classical music.

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B12. Festival of the Music of Krzysztof Penderecki. Polish Music 23, no. 4 (1988): 8-11; 3. Penderecki Musik-Festival Krakau 11. Bis 17. Juni 1988. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 149, no. 4 (April 1988): 80-81. This lists the schedule of events for the Penderecki Festival to be held in Krakw, Katowice, and June 11-17, 1988. B13. Goings on about the Town. Warsaw Voice, November 14, 1993. This includes an announcement about the Penderecki Festival to take place in Warsaw in honor of the composers 60th birthday. Highlights include the Polish premiere of Paradise Lost and presentations of Ubu Rex and The Devils of Loudun. B14. Hamburg Cheers Penderecki Work. New York Times, June 22, 1969, p. 70. This article's author summarized the plot of The Devils of Loudun and noted that applause after its world premiere had lasted 20 minutes. He also claimed that the score was not yet in final form and that the orchestra had resisted some of the instrumental techniques called for in the piece. B15. Here & There. American Record Guide 61, no. 5 (SeptemberOctober 1998): 34-35. The American Academy of Arts and Letter named Penderecki as a Foreign Honorary Member. B16. Internationales Musikfest Warschauer Herbst. Musik und Gesellschaft 23, no. 12 (December 1973): 746-48. Pendereckis First Symphony, performed at the inaugural concert of the 1973 Warsaw Autumn Festival, contains a variety of tone colors and is effective dramatically. B17. In the News. Opera 38, no. 10 (October 1987): 1134. Penderecki has been commissioned by the Deutsche Oper to compose an opera based on the Dreyfus affair. The world premiere is to occur in the early 1990s. [Note: as of 2003, the opera has not been completed.] B18. Karta z Codzienne, no. 209, September 7, 1993; excerpts in Clavis. Muzyka w prasie. Ruch muzyczny 37, no. 20 (October 3, 1993): 2. Penderecki's Paradise Lost will be given its Polish premiere during the 1993-1994 season at Warsaws Teatr Wielki. A concert version of The Black Mask will also be presented. B19. Krzysztof Penderecki. Music Forum 1 (1968/1969): 22-24; originally published in Radar, no. 4 (1968). In Pendereckis opinion, compositions that can begin or end at any point or that consist of constant change in all parameters are written by bad composers. The composer also discussed his dislike of pointillism and aleatorism.

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B20. Krzysztof Penderecki Doktorem H.C. Uniwersytetu w Leuven. Ruch muzyczny 23, no. 6 (March 25, 1979): 2. Penderecki received an honorary doctorate from the university in Leuven. B21. Krzysztof Penderecki honorowym Rady Muzycznej. Ruch muzyczny 23, no. 23 (November 18,1979): 2. Penderecki was among those honored in Melbourne by the International Music Council. B22. Krzysztof Penderecki laureatem nagrody Fundacji Wolfa. Ruch muzyczny 31, no. 2 (1987): 2. Penderecki was a co recipient of the annual arts prize awarded by Israel's Wolf Foundation. He shared the $100,000 award with Isaac Stern. B23. Krzysztof Penderecki laureatem nagrody Akademii Medyceuszy. ycie Warszawy 240 (October 14, 1985): 1. Penderecki received the Lorenzo the Magnificent award in Florence. B24. Krzysztof Penderecki laureatem nagrody im. Sibeliusem. muzyczny 27, no. 23 (November 13, 1983): 2. The 1983 Sibelius Award was awared to Penderecki. Ruch

B25. Krzysztof Penderecki w Baranowie. Ruch muzyczny 30, no. 26 (1986): 20 21. Penderecki provided lengthy remarks about The Black Mask at the 1986 Baranow seminar. After considering seven texts, he chose Hauptmanns The Black Mask because of its dramatic construction: it was in one act, with complete uniformity of time, place, and action. Hauptmann's use of quotations from the Old Testament and the Psalms also fascinated him. Penderecki included quotes from chorales, his own Te Deum and the Polish Requiem. He developed a new musical language for the opera, which consisted of a harmonic system based on two circles of fifths separated by the interval of a second. B26. A Libretto by Fry for 'Paradise Lost'. New York. Times, April 16, 1975, p. 54. This is a brief statement about the selection of Christopher Fry as the librettist for Penderecki's new piece commissioned by the Lyric Opera. B27. Marginalia: Opera Picks Penderecki. New York Times, June 2, 1973, p.18. The Lyric Opera commissioned Penderecki to write an opera for the 1976 Bicentennial celebrations. B28. A Modern Composer Enjoys 'The New Realism in Music'. U.S. News & World Report, February 26, 1979, p. 71. In this interview, Penderecki explained that his shift from a radical experimentalism to a more romantic style of composition occurred because he had begun to dislike the abstract, tense nature of his early works. He believed it was necessary for young composers both to write avant garde pieces and to study the music of the past.

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B29. Musica Viva zwischen Penderecki, Schuller und Reimann - immer fessselnd. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 131, no. 6 (June 1970): 272-73. Pendereckis Dies Irae was presented at the Musica Viva festival. The author of this review cited the works various textual sources and commented that its whispers, cries, screams, and glissandos, along with the echo of the hall, contributed to its mystical neonaturalism. B30. Muzyka. Tygodnik kulturalny 31, no. 19 (May 10, 1987): 13. A performance of Polish Requiem was mentioned. B31. Muzyka. Tygodnik kulturalny 32, no. 11 (March 13, 1988): 13. The Black Mask is to be presented in Moscow and Leningrad in April during the Soviet Union's Fourth Festival of Polish Music. B32. Muzyka. Literackie, December 2, 1984, p. 14. Penderecki received an honorary doctorate from Georgetown University. B33. Muzyka. Literackie, September 22, 1985, p. 6. The Krakw premiere of the Polish Requiem was presented on September 12. The skillful interweaving of into the piece made a great impression on the audience, as did the Lacrimosa and Agnus Dei movements. B34. Muzyki nie od Krzysztof Penderecki. Ruch muzyczny 3 1 , no. 22 (1987): 8-9. Penderecki answered questions about his philosophy of composition. During the early part of his career, he believed that he had to create something entirely different from what had been written previously. However, after composing Polymorphia, he realized that he had exhausted all possibilities for expanding string techniques. He then attempted to develop a universal musical language that would allow him to write what he felt without yielding to the pressure of the environment...in which he lived. Te Deum and the Polish Requiem are examples of this language. Penderecki also stated that he often felt like an outsider, for he had begun writing operas and religious music at a time when those genres were considered irrelevant. He also mentioned that he had had tremendous difficulties with performances of the St. Luke Passion, but he did not elaborate further. B35. Nagrody i odznaczenia dla muzykw z okazji lecia Polski Ludowej. Ruch muzyczny 28, no. 17 (1984): 2. Penderecki received a State Award for Paradise Lost. odrodzenia I 40-

B36. New Opera by Penderecki. Polish Perspectives 31, no. 2 (1988): 62. The Deutsche Oper in West Berlin commissioned Penderecki to write an opera about Alfred Dreyfus. George Whyte is to be the librettist. B37. New Operas for Berlin. Opera 38, no. 10 (Oictober 1987): 1134. Penderecki was commissioned to write an opera on the Dreyfuss affair for the Deutsche Oper. It is to be premiered in the early 1990s.

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B38. Nowe Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 42, no. 16 (August 9, 1998): 3. This is a brief review of the July 11 world premiere of Credo in Eugene, Oregon, and announcements of the U.S. premiere of Seven Gates of Jerusalem in New York on July 18 and the German premiere of the same piece in Dresden on August 29. B39. ' Paradise Lost'. Lyric's Gift to the World. Chicago Tribune, November 28, 1978, Section 4, p. 14. This short article announces the world premiere of Paradise Lost and heralds the made in Chicago features of the production. B40. Paradise Lost, News of the Day: Highlight 1978-1979 Season. EAM Accents 2, no. 2 (Spring 1979): 1-3. The world premiere of Paradise Lost was the most sensational event of the 1978-1979 concert season. This article's anonymous author described the herculean efforts put forth by the Lyric Opera to produce this sacra rappresentazione, the success of Christopher Fry at transforming 12,000 lines of poetry into a libretto, and the numerous staff changes made just prior to the premiere. The premiere may have brought about the greatest single confluence of opera producers, directors, music press and other media, publishers and other professional music people ever to attend a premiere in the U.S. ' Paradise Lost' Wins Praise at La Scala. Chicago Tribune, January B41. 23, 1979, Section 2, p. 4. This article includes several comments made by Italian music critics about the successful performance of Paradise Lost in Milan, Italy. B42. The Paradoxical Composer From Poland. Newsday (Long Island, NY), January 12, 1986. In a conversation preceding performances of his music in New York, Penderecki described what a shock the avant-garde music at the Darmstadt summer courses had been to him. In his opinion, the composers in attendance were poorly trained and their music impossible to listen to. He also discussed his Polish Requiem, to be given its New York premiere on January 25. B43. Penderecki at Carnegie Hall. New Horizon 14, no. 2 (February 1986): 9. This article includes comments about the Polish Requiem made by Bernard Holland and Joseph McLellan. Its author also reviewed the compositional history of the Requiem, Cello Concerto No. 2, and The Awakening of Jacob, all of which were performed during the Krakw Philharmonic's 1986 tour of the U.S. B44. Penderecki Commemorates Moscows 850th. Polish American Journal 87 (January 1998): 16. An announcement of the world premiere performance of the Hymn to St. Daniel at the Moscow Conservatory.

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B45. Penderecki Commissioned. Billboard 81 (March 22, 1969): 38. This brief report announces upcoming performances of Penderecki's works: the world premiere of The Devils of Loudun and the world premiere of Utrenia, Pt. 1 (here called Matins and given an incorrect date and location). His second opera will be The Ubu King [sic], and he has been commissioned to write a piece for the opening of the new opera house in Mexico City. B46. Penderecki Doktorem H.C. Uniwersytetu w Bordeaux. muzyczny 23, no. 4 (July 15, 1979): 10. Penderecki received an honorary doctorate from the University in Bordeaux. Ruch

B47. Penderecki Festival in London. Polish Perspectives 29, no. 3 (Summer 1986): 53. Seven concerts were given during the Penderecki Festival at the Royal Academy of Music. B48. Penderecki in Moscow. Polish Perspectives 30, no. 2 (Spring 1987): 59. Penderecki received a commission from the Bolshoi Theater to compose a ballet based on The Master and Margarita. B49. Penderecki Leads BSO in Un-Haydn Program. Baltimore Sun, April 2, 1982. The Baltimore Symphony Orchestra and Chorus, conducted by Penderecki, presented four excerpts from Psalms of David, followed by Lacrimosa, Cello Concerto No. 1, and Sibelius's Second Symphony. Mihaly Virizlay, soloist in the Concerto, used an amplified cello and played a cadenza reportedly written by the composer during the preceding week. The author questioned whether Penderecki had defected from the avant-garde, but judged that it was too early to tell. B50. Pendereckis Lukas-Passion in Stuttgart. Das Orchester 33, no. 6 (June 1985): 585-86. The St. Luke Passion was performed during the Bach and the 20th Century Festival. This piece unites new and old compositional techniques, e.g., percussive instrumental techniques, responsorial song, and recitative. Penderecki, who conducted, offered slow tempos that contributed to the works mournful character. B51. Penderecki's Music. Zgoda [Polish National Alliance Newsletter] (1983): n.p. This brief article summarized the events of the 1983 Penderecki Festival held in Krakw. Among the highlights were performances of the St. Luke Passion, excerpts from Paradise Lost, and the world premiere of Capriccio for Tuba. B52. Penderecki's New Opera Bravoed by International Critics. PolAm Journal 67, no. 12 (December 18, 1978): 1. This brief review of the world premiere of Paradise Lost included a note that radio broadcasts of the performance reached several million people in fourteen countries.

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B53. Penderecki's Passion. Register Guard (Eugene, Oregon), June 15, 1990. The Oregon Bach Festival will feature performances of the St. Luke Passion, with Penderecki conducting. The author of the article used quotations from the Festival's program notes and other reviewers of the Passion to describe the piece and present Penderecki's thoughts on it. B54. Penderecki's 'St. Luke Passion'. Musical Events 22 (July 1967): 28. This anonymous reviewer of the British premiere of the St. Luke Passion summarized the work's musical materials and textual sources. In particular, he pointed out the pieces affinities to earlier musical models. He felt, however, that Penderecki had not met the challenges of the profounder implications of the Passion story, perhaps because his musical language was not suited to such means of expression. B55. Penderecki. Violin Concerto. The Strad 91, no. 1086 (October 1980): 421. Isaac Stern declared Penderecki's Violin Concerto to be the most important in the genre since that of Berg. B56. Penderecki Wins Music Award. New York Times, April 30, 1992. The $150,000 1992 Grawemeyer Award for Music Composition was given to Penderecki for his Adagio for Orchestra. B57. Plany Teatru Wielkiego w Warszawie. Ruch muzyczny 36, no. 8 (1992): 8. A new production of The Black Mask is to be premiered by the Teatr Wielki in June 1993. Boris Pokrowski will be the stage director, Dondajewski the musical director, and Andrzej Majewski the scenery designer. B58. A Polish Legends Visits: Are You Ready For Penderecki Week? Seattle Times, October 9, 1988. Seattle is hosting a Penderecki Week, which features two symphony concerts, two chamber concerts by the Marzena ensemble, a viewing of the film The Saragossa Manuscript, and an informal public meeting with the composer. 'Polish Requiem' in London. Polish Perspectives 30, no. 2 (Spring B59. 1987): 61. The British premiere of Polish Requiem was given on January 25, 1987. Penderecki conducted the BBC Symphony Orchestra and Chorus. B60. Pope John Paul II And 'Paradise Lost'. EAM Accents (Fall 1979): 45. Following the performance of the second act of Paradise Lost in Rome, Pope John Paul II remarked that Milton's Paradise Lost, the source material for this piece, presented questions concerning the fundamental problems of man's existence and missions, and that these questions are answered in the Bibles book of Genesis.

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B61. Prawykonania. Ruch muzyczny 35, no. 22 (1991): 5. The String Trio is listed among the world premieres given at the Warsaw Autumn Festival. [See, however, Kado's article in Ruch muzyczny, no. 14 (1991), which refers to an earlier performance in May 1991. Both performances were of the incomplete Trio.] B62. baletowe. Ruch muzyczny 11, no. 18 (1967): 17. A ballet version of Polymorphia was presented by the Twentieth Century Ballet of Bonn. Lothar Hfgen made his choreographic debut. B63. The Seminar Meeting with Penderecki. In The Music of Krzysztof Penderecki: Poetics and Reception, edited by Tomaszewski, 11926. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1995; Konwersatorium z K. Pendereckiego. Muzyka Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Poetyka i Recepcja, edited by Tomaszewski, 119-24. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1996. On the occasion of a seminar on Pendereckis music held in celebration of Pendereckis 60th birthday, participants and guests gathered to meet the composer. Among the principle topics of conversation were the composers attitude toward his chamber works vis--vis his operas and orchestral works, the recent incorporation of Sanctus into the Polish Requiem, and the role of dramatic expression in his compositions. B64. Silelius Prize to Penderecki. New York Times, October 16, 1983, Section 1, p. 57. Pendereckis received the 1983 Sibelius Prize, which includes a $30,000 award. B65. Sidmy doktorat h. c. dla Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 31, no. 12 (1987): 2. Penderecki received an honorary doctorate from Madrids Autonomous University. The composer conducted the world premiere of Veni Creator when he received that degree. B66. Stern and Penderecki Share $100,000 Prize. New York Times, June 2, 1987, p. C17. The Israel government announced that Penderecki and Isaac Stern were the recipients of the 1987 Wolf Prizes for the arts. B67. Dni Muzyki 1992 w Polsce. Ruch muzyczny 36, no. 4 (1992): 1. Teatr Wielki will present The Black Mask at the ISCM Festival in Warsaw in May 1992. Die Teufel von Loudun in Kln. Das Orchester 28 (April 1980): B68. 314-15. For the 1975 Mnchengladbach production of The Devils of Loudun, director Paul Hager inserted a wedding scene; Penderecki, for the Warsaw production of the same year, had introduced a similar revision. The 1980 production in Cologne, the main subject of this review, used the original libretto, which included lewd, lascivious displays.

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B69. w kulturze. Przekrj (November 6, 1994); excerpts in Clavis. Ruch muzyczny 38, no. 25 (December 11, 1994): 2. The excerpted portion of this article contains some of the remarks Penderecki made when he received an honorary doctorate from Krakws Academy of Music. These remarks concerned the commercialization of the music business. B70. Ein Verlangen nach reinem Dur. Spiegel-Gesprch mit Krzysztof Penderecki. Der Spiegel 31, no. 2 (January 5, 1987): 144-46. This interview with Penderecki was devoted to a discussion of the composers relationship to Polish political events and his thoughts about contemporary music. Concerning the latter topic, Penderecki stressed that his period of experimentation was behind him, although he still used elements of that musical style in some of his compositions. He called the current era the fin-de-sicle in music, when the styles of the past century must be reconsidered and synthesized. He also stated that he wrote the St. Luke Passion at a time when such sacred pieces could not be performed in Poland; this work thus signalled his public stance with the Polish Catholic Church and against Communism. B71. Viel Staub um 'Polymorphia'. Das Bayerische Staatsorchester und Pendereckis Ballettmusik. Das Orchester 16 (June 1968): 283-85; Musikalische Jugend 17 (1968), no. 2: 3. This insightful article includes comments made by several of the Bavarian State Opera musicians who refused to play Polymorphia for a ballet performance. They cited damage to their instruments as one of the main reasons for their protest. They also objected to the whistling and speaking that were called for in their parts. The musicians compromised by offering to tape the piece for the ballet performance. This was done, and critics deemed it preferable to a live performance, since the dancers were able to become accustomed to a precise tempo. B72. Warsaw Benefits by Penderecki's Changes In 'The Devils of Loudun'. Variety, July 9, 1975, p. 73. For the Warsaw production of The Devils of Loudun, Penderecki made several changes to the score at the suggestion of stage director Kazimierz Dejmek. B73. Warszawska '93. Ruch muzyczny 37, no. 17 (1993): 1, 8. The 1993 Warsaw Autumn Festival is to include performances of Penderecki's Flute Concerto and Viola Concerto. The latter will be presented in its transcription for cello and orchestra, with Boris Pergamenshikov as soloist. B74. Eine Wiederbegegnung. Pendereckis Lukas-Passion in der Zrcher Tonhalle. Neue Zrcher Zeitung, October 13, 1984, pp. 39-40. Five performances of the St. Luke Passion are scheduled for Swiss cities. The Passion created a worldwide sensation after its premiere in the 1960s, but its Zurich performance was not perfect.

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B75. Wratislavia Cantans we Ruch muzyczny 42, no. 17 (August 23, 1998): 12-13. Paradise Lost is scheduled for presentation at the 1998 Wratislavia Cantans festival in

B76. Wykonania utworw Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 11, no. 4 (1967): 7. Recent performances of Penderecki's music included the following: De Natura Sonoris No. 1 in Paris, Budapest, Strasbourg, Baden-Baden, Krakow and Warsaw; St. Luke Passion in Venice; Sonata for Cello in Baden-Baden and Venice; Threnody in Oslo, Bergen, Leningrad, and Rotterdam; Stabat Mater in Auckland, Christchurch, and Donaueschingen; Capriccio for Oboe in Dsseldorf and Essen; Miniatures for Violin in Bollns, Malm, Norrkping, Motala, Linkping, and Gteborg; Polymorphia in Karlsruhe; Dimensions of Time and Silence in San Francisco; String Quartet No. 1 in Buenos Aires and Lund; and Psalms of David in Cassel. B77. Wykonania utworw Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 11, no. 15 (1967): 3. The following performances of Pendereckis music took place recently: St. Luke Passion in Turin, London, Belgrad, Dubrovnik, Zagreb, Rotterdam, Krakw, and Stabat Mater in Munich, Nuremberg, and Basel; Miserere from the Passion in Cologne and Darmstadt; Threnody in London, Vilnius, and Cheltenham; Emanations in Brunswick; Capriccio for Oboe in Zagreb; De Natura Sonoris No. 1 in London and Zagreb; and Sonata for Cello in Berlin and Prague. B78. Wykonania zagraniczne utworw Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 11, no. 13 (1967): 3. Recent foreign performances of Penderecki's music included Polymorphia in BadenBaden; Sonata for Cello and Orchestra in Hamburg; De Natura Sonoris No. 1 in Lubljana; Threnody in Rotterdam, East Berlin, and London; Miserere from the St. Luke Passion in Darmstadt; Psalms of David in Cassel; and Capriccio for Oboe in Cologne and Zagreb. B79. A., K. Moderne Woche der Bayerischen Staatsoper. Oper und Konzert (March 1970): 35-36.The Stuttgart Operas production of The Devils of Loudun was presented twice during Munichs Modern Music Week in February. Sensation and grandiosity marked the presentation. Stage director Gnther Rennert worked with an outstanding cast, but musically the opera was indescribably boring. B80. Adler, Andrew. Louisville's SoundCelebration II. American Record Guide 56, no. 1 (1993): 19-20. Penderecki's Adagio for Orchestra, which received the 1991 [sic] Grawemeyer Award for Music Composition, was performed during the SoundCelebration II contemporary music festival. The composer commented that 'I don't think there is a difference between the past and present...In the 20th century we have developed the idea that music must be advanced. This is not true.' [Note: Penderecki received the 1992 Grawemeyer Award.]

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B81. Albers, Bradley Gene. De Natura Sonoris I and II by Krzysztof Penderecki: A Comparative Analysis. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Illinois, 1978. Albers analyzed instrumentation, harmonic structures, texture, and form, and performance problems in these two compositions. B82. Ameringen, Sylvia van. IGNM-Musikfest. Musica 17, no. 5 (1963): 217-18. The highlight of the ISCM (International Festival of Contemporary Music) was the presentation of Threnody, which was played twice due to audience demand. Ameringen marveled at the work's unusual but fascinating layering and manipulation of the string instruments. B83. Andraschke, Peter. Geistliche Musik als politisches Bekenntnis: ber Kompositionen von Krzysztof Penderecki und Henryk Mikolaj Grecki. Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch 79 (1995): 125-37. Andraschke claimed that both Pendereckis Polish Requiem and Goreckis Symphony No. 3 were written at least in part as a protest against war and dictatorship. These works thus continued Polands tradition of politically charged musical composition. B84. Andris-Michalaros, Aliki. Milan. Opera News 43, no. 16 (March 3, 1979): 36-37. The European premiere of Paradise Lost, given at La Scala, was a success. Although some of the audience left before the end, those who remained applauded enthusiastically. B85. Anson, Philip. Krystof [sic] Penderecki Talks about the Polish Requiem. La Scena Musicale 3, no. 6 (April 1998). On the occasion of a Montreal performance of the Polish Requiem (including the Sanctus), Penderecki spoke about the pieces genesis and denied that it was either religious or political in nature. B86. Aprahamian, Felix. Proms. Sunday Times (London), August 17, 1980, p. 31. Penderecki's Violin Concerto was performed at the 1980 Proms by soloist Salvatore Accardo and the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, with the composer conducting. The Concerto contains both dramatic expression and masterful orchestral effects. B87. Ardoin, John. An Irritating Night of Noise. Dallas Morning News, August 24, 1988. This reviewer was extremely critical of both The Black Mask and the Santa Fe Opera's decision to present the piece. Although he praised the company's plan to differentiate itself from other summer musical events by introducing new operas to American audiences, he asserted that such productions must still be worthy of viewing, which was not true of The Black Mask. He blamed the stage director for not creating enough interest on stage, and the composer and librettist for producing too much noise.

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B88. Santa FFive Operas in Four Days. Opera 20, no. 11 (November 1969): 977-78. In this review of the American premiere of The Devils of Loudun, Ardoin noted that the music was more appropriate to a soundtrack than an opera. In his opinion, Penderecki failed to fulfill the dramatic potential inherent in the opera's plot. B89. Aris, Stephen. The Sweet Sequestered Life of the Zloty Millionaires. Sunday Times (London), September 30, 1984, Sunday Times Magazine, pp. 1622. Aris described Penderecki's estate at and the composer's penchant for collecting antiques and artwork. Penderecki's relationship with the Communist government in Poland was also summarized. B90. Arstyp. i rozrywki. Tu i Teraz, no. 46 (Nov. 30, 1983); excerpts in Clavis. Muzyka w prasie. Ruch muzyczny 28, no 2 (1984): 12. Artstyp responded sarcastically to Penderecki's festivals. He wondered why the composer did not provide grants to composers instead of holding a festival, and why only invited guests could attend the concerts. B91. Asche, Gerhart. Mit drastischen Details. Pendereckis Die Teufel von Loudon in Kiel. Opern Welt 23, nos. 8-9 (August-September 1982): 68-69. John Dews production of The Devils of Loudun, given in Kiel, was theatrically shocking and musically irrelevant. With nuns dressed in erotic clothing and the enema scene at the beginning of the second act enacted in full view of the audience, an air of misdirected depravity reigned on stage. B92. Ashby, Arved. Penderecki: Violin Concerto 2. Bartk: Violin Sonata 2. American Record Guide 61, no. 4 (July/August 1998): 173-74. Ashby considered Pendereckis Second Violin Concerto to be much improved over his First. The newer piece features new roles for the winds and percussion and a welcome variety of material within its sectional format. B93. Penderecki: Flute Concerto; Espere: Flute Concerto; Bartk: Hungarian Peasant Suite. American Record Guide 60, no. 4 (July-August 1997): 152. Ashby recommended Rampals Sony recording of Pendereckis Flute Concerto rather than this one featuring flutist Jean-Claude Grard. B94. Rafal. Po czym Odra, no. 5 (1992): 37-44. Augustyn briefly mentioned Penderecki as a composer whose religious music, for the most part, fit the description of art music rather than confessional, or liturgical music. B95. II Symfonii Pendereckiego w Nowym Jorku. Ruch muzyczny 24, no. 17 (August 24, 1980): 4. comments about the Second Symphony ranged from a description of its form (similar to sonata allegro) and musical style (neo-romantic) to a discourse on the reason

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for the work's subtitle Christmas Symphony (quotations from a Polish Christmas carol). He proposed that the symphonys musical style heralds the emergence of a third Penderecki style, following the composer's earlier expressionist-sonoristic' and monumental periods. B96. aw. Pendereckiego wydarzeniem. Warszawy (January 7, 1987): 7. In an exaggeration of the facts, the author congratulated PAGART (the Polish Artists Agency) for producing The Black Mask in Salzburg and Vienna in 1986. B97. awl. Nowe Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 27, no. 17 (1983): 15. The Second Cello Concerto was the primary subject of this article. Its characteristic progression of rising and falling minor seconds makes the piece vaguely similar to the Violin Concerto, but in its form and general mood, it is quite different from that earlier work. B98. Bachmann, Claus-Henning. Urauffhrungen der Berliner Philharmoniker. sterreiche Musikzeitschrift 38, no. 3 (March 1983): 187-88. Mstislav Rostropovichs skill was on display in the premiere of the Second Cello Concerto. On first hearing, this piece seemed to reflect a mature compositional style; however, after further study it seemed rather simplistic. B99. Urauffhrungen neuer Kirchenmusik. Festliche Kirchenmusik in Salzburg: Neue Werke von Penderecki und Bresgen. Musik und Kirche 44, no. 6 (November/December 1974): 304-305. The premiere of the Magnificat was part of the 1200-year anniversary celebration of the Salzburg Cathedral. Bachmanns review focused on the structure of this new sevensection piece. He thought the piece was quite convincing, with clear proportions and comprehensible harmonic patterns. B100. Weltgeistliche Liaison. Klangvolles Dom-Jubilum Penderecki-Uraffuhrung in Salzburg. Der Tagesspiegel (Berlin), August 21, 1974, p. 4. Penderecki conducted the world premiere of his Magnificat, substituting for Herbert von Karajan, who withdrew after not having enough time to become familiar with the score. B101. Zeitgenssische Musik in Venedig. sterreiche Musikzeitschrift 23, no. 10 (October 1968): 571. This is a brief mention of a performance of Stabat Mater at Venices International Music Festival. B102. Baculewski, Krzysztof. Penderecki: Siedem bram Jerozolimy. Studio, no. 54 (June 1998): 28-29. The world premiere recording of Seven Gates of Jerusalem (Accord ACD 036) is a live recording of the works European premiere. This performance allowed the works characteristics many of which were typical of Pendereckis large-scale vocalorchestral piecesto be clearly revealed.

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B103. Baier, Christian. Penderecki: Die Teufel von Loudun. sterreichische Musikzeitschrift 50, no. 1 (1995): 48-49. The Devils of Loudun stands stylistically between the era of tone clusters, such as those heard in Dies Irae, and that of spiritual declamation, heard in Paradise Lost. In Baiers opinion, the music of Devils serves to highlight the operas drama. An excerpt from the score is included with this brief article. B104. Bambarger, Bradley. The Pain and Passion of Classical Music: DGs Anne-Sophie Mutter. Strings Past to Present. Billboard 108, no. 49 (December 7, 1996): 1, 17. Pendereckis Violin Concerto No. 2 was written for and dedicated to Mutter. B105. Bandur, Markus. Geisterbahn. Krzysztof Pendereckis Die schwarze Maske in Karlsruhe. Musica 45, no. 3 (May-June 1991): 179-80. In this review of a Karlsruhe production of The Black Mask, Bandur summarized the operas plot and criticized its incongruity of music and drama. B106. Bantel, Otto. Rckblick auf fnf Dezennien. Die diesjhrigen Internationalen Musikfestwochen in Luzern. Das Orchester 36, no. 11 (November 1988): 1138-39. The premiere of Passacaglia was one of the highlights of the 1988 International Music Week Festival in Lucerne. In this new work, Penderecki avoided the unusual techniques so apparent in his early works, in favor of a more romantic style. B107. Von tief religiser Art. Pendereckis Lukas-Passion in Stuttgart. Musik und Bildung 17, no. 6 (June 1985): 433-44. Stuttgart was the scene of a performance of the St. Luke Passion. The boldness and innovative experiments that permeate this monumental work clearly distinguish it from the composers later works (e.g., the Polish Requiem and Paradise Lost). B108. Baran, Zbigniew, editor. Krzysztof Penderecki Itinerarium. Wystawa Szkicw Muzycznych. Krakw: Bunkier Sztuki Galeria Sztuki 1998. This lavish collection of Pendereckis sketches is itself a work of art, with an artistically appealing design of text and graphics. The sketches, which were included in an exhibit in Krakow during the 1998 Penderecki Festival, are in color and come from the following works: The Awakening of Jacob, Canticum Canticorum Salomonis, Cello Concerto No. 2, Concerto per Violono Grande, Cosmogony, Credo, The Devils of Loudun, Ecloga VIII, Hymn to St. Adalbert, Magnificat, Paradise Lost, Polish Requiem, Quartet for Clarinet and Strings, Seven Gates of Jerusalem, Stabat Mater, St. Luke Passion, Symphony No. 1, Threnody, Utrenia, Violin Concerto No. 2, and Ubu Rex. B109. Barber, Tony. Penderecki: Noted Music From Poland. Chicago Tribune, August 2, 1984, Section 5, p. 7. This article is a commentary on Penderecki's recent activities. Recently he has devoted much time to renovating his mansion outside Krakw. He has been criticized for not taking a strong public stand against Communism in Poland. In reality, however, his

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sacred music was written partly in an attempt to continue Poland's tradition of church music despite the governments lack of support for such music. B110. Barfuss, G. et al. Carl Orff zum Gedenken. Musik 143, no. 5 (May 1982): 27. Penderecki and other musicians offered tributes to Carl Orff. Neue Zeitschrift fr

B111. Barnes, Clive. Dance: Pennsylvania Ballet Makes Debut Here. New York Times, January 30, 1968, p. 34. Barnes evaluated the dance portion of the ballet Ceremony, choreographed by John Butler to music by Penderecki. Given its world premiere by the Pennsylvania Ballet at the New York City Center, the dance was remotely impersonal in its effect, and yet merged with the music to offer a combination of sound and music that is both revealing and stimulating. Its choreography was compared to abstract sculpture. B112. Baruch, Gerth-Wolfgang. Von Hndel bis Penderecki. Melos/Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 3, no. 5 (September-October 1977): 434. Penderecki conducted the Stuttgart Symphony in a performance of Shostakovich's Fifth Symphony and his own The Awakening of Jacob and Capriccio for Violin. Christiane Edinger was the soloist in the latter work. B113. Stuttgart. Pendereckis Teufel von Loudun. Melos 4, no. 6 (1978): 524. Baruch was favorably impressed with the new Stuttgart Opera production of The Devils of Loudun. Werner Dobbertin, who directed in place of the recently deceased Gnther Rennert, did an admirable job, although the orgy scene was only a shadow of what Rennert had presented in the world premiere production. Baruch praised Pendereckis novel use of the orchestra and the musics strong emotional effects. B114. Salut fr Vergangenes. Deutsche Erstauffhrung von Pendereckis Violinkonzert. Stuttgarter Zeitung, May 9, 1979, p. 30. The composer distanced himself from various aspects of the Stuttgart Operas production of Paradise Lost and declared that in writing such provocative pieces as Threnody early in his career, he had been rebelling against his composition teacher, Artur Malawski. His newest composition, a Violin Concerto, bears many links to the nineteenth century, even though it is not based on major-minor harmonies. B115. Bastian, Hans Gunther. Der Einfluss musikunterrichtlicher Lernprozesse auf Einstellungen und Werturteile 11-jahriger Haupt-, Real- und Gymnasialschuler gegenuber Avantgarde-Musik. Ergebnisse einer Untersuchung im Fachpraktikum Musik am Beispiel von Pendereckis Anaklasis. In Forschung in der Musikerziehung: Beiheft der Musik und Bildung, 158-79. Germany, 1977. Anaklasis was used as the sample piece in an experiment that involved teaching avantgarde music to a group of 11-year old children in Germany. Reactions to the piece, which were diverse and complex, did not correspond to the models anticipated by the investigators.

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B116. Bavicchi, John, et al. Five Questions: Fifty-Five Answers. Composer (U.S.) 7, no. 16 (1976-77): 16-25. The first question, which concerned the Lyric Opera's commissioning of Penderecki to write an opera for America's Bicentennial, yielded a predictable mix of opinions. The remainder of the article dealt with other composers and issues. B117. Behrendt, Allmuth. Der unterbrochene Gedanka? Krzysztof Pendereckis Klarinettenquartett und seine Kammermusik nach 1980. In Jeder nach seiner Fasson: Musikalische Neuansatze heute, 105-19. Saarbrucken: Pfau, 1997. The Clarinet Quartet is related to other chamber works written by Penderecki since 1980. B118. Bellingardi, Luigi. Italy. Rome. Opera 31, no. 3 (March 1980): 274-75. The Devils of Loudun was presented in Rome at the beginning of the 1979-1980 season. Bellingardi was impressed with the production, even though the opera was largely devoid of music. B119. Belsom, J. Santa Fe. Opera 39 (Autumn 1988): 111-12. The Santa Fe Opera's production of The Black Mask was notable for its unintelligible texts and loud orchestra. Apparently the singers performed their parts well, though it was sometimes difficult to tell amid the musics din. Kirchner's staging was at times inept. B120. Benary, Peter. Luzern. Internationale Musikfestwochen. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 111, no. 5 (September/October 1971): 289. The Swiss premiere of Utrenia occurred on August 27, 1971 as part of the Musica Nova festival. In Benarys opinion, Penderecki used the Orthodox liturgy only as a foil that, except for occasional quotations of original or quasi-original liturgical music, functioned separately from the pieces significant musical events. The works dynamic extremes made a favorable impression, although pitch clusters were used too often for Benarys taste. B121. Bennett, Klaus. Berichte: Kreative Synthese - Pendereckis 3. Symphonie in Munchen uraufgefhrt. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik no. 2 (MarchApril 1996): 66. Bennert characterized the Third Symphony, enthusiastically welcomed at its world premiere performance, as a creative synthesis of the best symphonies of the past century. He differentiated between synthesis and eclecticism, stating that synthesis yielded new meaning to classic traditions. B122. Bernhard, Andr. Wie ein Tier in Bedrngnis. Krzysztof Penderecki und Isaac Stern in Basel. Die Weltwoche (Zurich), May 4, 1977, p. 29. Bernhard interviewed Penderecki and Isaac Stern on the occasion of the world premiere of the Violin Concerto. Stern began receiving sections of the solo violin part five weeks before the performance, although Penderecki continued to make changes in it up to two days prior to the concert. Stern described the violin part as having unusual virtuosity

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and great drama. At times he thought the orchestra screamed like an afflicted animal, and upon questioning Penderecki about this, the composer replied that his father, with whom he was very close, had died while composing this piece. B123. Bersano, James Richard. Formalized Aspect Analysis of Sound Texture. Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, 1979. Bersano developed computer programs to analysis the role of sound texture in five twentieth-century pieces, including Penderecki's Fluorescences. Five elements of sound texture were examined: loudness, density, register, activity, and timbre. B124. Bilica, Krzysztof. Ofiarom HiroszimyTren Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Prba analizy jednego z aspektw utworu. Muzyka 19, no. 2 (1974): 45-71. This article is extracted from Bilicas Masters thesis, completed at the University of Warsaw in 1972. For this essay the author chose to focus on four aspects of Threnody: its wide range of pitches, dynamic levels, tone colors, and durations. Of particular analytical interest was Bilicas discussion of the use of three-note cells and hocket technique, the latter of which was created with tone colors rather than pitches. B125. Pozaekspresyjne w Kwartecie Smyczkowym /Nr. 1/. In i tradycja w muzyce Krzysztofa Pendereckiego, edited by Regina and Krzysztof Szwajgier, 72-77. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna w Krakwie, 1983. Bilicas search for mathematical constructs in the First String Quartet led to a discussion of permutations of 3-note cells and a system of grouping notes under slur marks. B126. Quartette per archi (nr 1) Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Szkicowy projekt analizy muzykologicznej. In Kwartet smyczkw w polskiej muzyce 85-95. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1975. A discussion of acoustic processes in music formed the initial basis of this discussion. Later Bilica introduced the topic of note groupings in the First String Quartet. B127. Tresci Ofiarom Hiroszimy - Trenu K. Pendereckiego In i tradycja w muzyce Krzysztofa Pendereckiego, edited by Regina and Krzysztof Szwajgier, 29-40. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna,

1983. Bilica differentiated between the use of symbols and signals in musical compositions. While Bilica objected to the common perception that Threnody is a musical illustration of an atomic explosion, he did suggest that the piece might be a signal of a musical lament, this despite his awareness that the pieces original title837was abstract. B128. Birk, Reinhold. Neue Philharmonie Kln mit neue Orgel und Penderecki-Requiem. Musik und Kirche 57, no. 2 (March-April 1987): 100101. A performance of the Polish Requiem was given a lengthy ovation, although Birk attributed this to the works political connections to the composers Polish homeland rather than to its musical qualities.

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B129. bj. 35-lecie Choru FN. Ruch muzyczny 33, no.10 (1989): 17-18. Veni creator and Song of Cherubim were performed in Warsaw in March 1989. Both pieces reflect Penderecki's neoromantic style. The first of these songs has hints of Stabat Mater, while the second testifies to Penderecki's continuing interest in Orthodox liturgical music. B130. Blindow, Martin. Pendereckis Utrenja in Mnster. Musik und Kirche 41, no. 4 (July-August 1971): 211-23. The premiere of Utrenia, one of the most important large choral works of our time, was heard by a full house of political and artistic luminaries. Links to Eastern liturgical music abound in it, even though the piece is not intended for performance at worship services. B131. Blumenfeld, Harold. Bloomington. Opera 44, no. 6 (June 1993): 664-665; Opera News 57, no. 17 (June 1993): 47-48. The Indiana University Opera Theaters presentation of The Devils of Loudun in March 1993 marked the first U.S. production of the piece since its American premiere in 1969. Blumenfeld remarked that over the years the opera has lost whatever luster it may have once had. B132. Chicago. Musical Times 120, no. 1632 (February 1979): 146. The staging of Paradise Lost by the Lyric Opera did not live up to the potential suggested by its libretto. One bright spot was its impressive solo vocal writing. B133. Blumenthal, Ralph. Opera Feud Defused, For Now. New York Times, April 2, 1996, Section C, 11-12. Penderecki refused to write music for an opera on the Dreyfus affair. This article reveals an interesting situation in which the librettist tried to prevent the eventual composer, Jost Meier, from attending the premiere. B134. Boas, Robert. Bordeaux. Penderecki. Music and Musicians 27, no. 11 (July 1979): 72-73. Penderecki conducted the Polish Radio National Symphony Orchestra at the Bordeaux Festival in a concert of his Anaklasis, Threnody, De Natura Sonoris No. 1, Paradise Lost (excerpts, with Peter Lagger as soloist), and Violin Concerto (No. 1, with Salvatore Accardo, soloist). Boas noted that the first two works are the most radical stylistically. The Paradise Lost excerpts seem to be in a neo-romantic vein, while the Concerto lies between these two extremes. B135. Munich. Paradise Lost. Music and Musicians 28, no. 1 (September 1979): 55-56. The Stuttgart Opera's production of Paradise Lost was given at the Munich Festival in July 1979. Boas admired its musical portrayal of Adam and Eve, but felt that Penderecki's attempts at a Wagnerian-style musical idiom were not satisfactory.

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B136. Bhmer, Helga. Die Avantgarde fat auch in Sizilien Fu. Melos 27 (November 1960): 349. Pendereckis Strophes was performed in Palermo as part of the First International New Music Week. Bhmer described the piece as a mixture of the musical styles of Webern, Wiszniewski, and Boulez. B137. Borris, Siegfried. Pendereckis Stellung im Synkretismus der 60er Jahre. Musik und Bildung 7, no. 12 (1975): 609-14. Borris divided Pendereckis career into four stylistic periods: revolutionary innovations (1957-1959), expansion and consolidation (1960-1963), intensification and affirmation (1964-1967), and retrograde trends (1968-1970, 1972). He briefly discussed the compositions that belonged to each category, relating them to the works of Pendereckis contemporaries. B138. Bouma, A. L. Penderecki Trinity. Philips Music Herald (Spring 1967): 4-7. In this interview, Penderecki reviewed his musical education and early compositions. He mentioned that he had composed electronic music for about thirty films. B139. bpj. Sonata Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 9, no. 17 (1965): 12-13. The most striking aspects of the Sonata for Cello and Orchestra are its traditional elements and expressive tendencies. In its first section, a distant relationship with functional harmony is apparent and the soloist's melodies are reminiscent of Berg's works. The second and final section moves quickly, with almost motoric rhythms that help to evoke an anxious mood. B140. Brauneiss, Leopold. Kontinuitt und Wandel im Werk Krzysztof Pendereckis. Osterreichische Musikzeitschrift 48, no. 1 (October-November 1991): 530-36. In this critique of Pendereckis contribution to postmodernism, Brauneiss described the composers use of the triad as being simple, but not traditional. He referred to two definitions of postmodernism, then claimed that Pendereckis music fulfilled both of them. B141. Breiholz, Jochen. Dsseldorf. Opera News (March 31, 1990): 4142. The Deutsche Opers production of The Devils of Loudun suffered from poor staging. The principal soloists were on stage together constantly and events that should have occurred in succession took place simultaneously, thanks (or no thanks) to movable walls. B142. Breuer, Robert. Das IV. Internationale Webern-Festival in den USA. sterreiche Musikzeitschrift 23, no. 10 (October 1968): 575. Pendereckis Concerto for Violino Grande and Orchestra was performed during the Fourth International Webern Festival, held at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. Swedish lute virtuoso Hans Olof Hannson built the violino grande two years earlier.

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B143. Penderecki-Oper in Chicago uraufgefhrt. sterreiche Musikzeitschrift 34, no. 1 (January 1979): 51-53; Chicago. Das verlorene Paradies, von Krzysztof Penderecki. (Urauffhrung am 29. November 1978). Oper und Konzert 17, no. 1 (1979): 6-7.. In this review of the world premiere of Paradise Lost, Breuer pointed out that only 1450 lines of John Miltons original 10,565 lines had been incorporated into Pendereckis sacra rappresentazione. Prior to the premiere, Penderecki and Virginio Puecher, a Lyric Opera administrator, had several major disputes, although Breuer did not delve into the details of these problems. He did describe the works stage design, which was dominated by high towers on each side, upon which the choir was seated. Musically the work alludes to Wagner, although as Breuer pointed out, Penderecki also included all of his own trademark compositional techniques. [Note: Although the exact wording of the two articles cited in this annotation differs, the contents and main ideas are the same.] B144. Pendereckis 'Polnisches Requiem' in New York. Das Orchester 34, no. 4 (1986): 417-18. The New York premiere of the Polish Requiem was presented in January 1986 by the Krakw Philharmonic and the Choral Arts Society of Washington, D. C. With this piece, it is clear that Penderecki recognized his responsibility to respond to the tragic events of the twentieth century. B145. Pendereckis 'Kosmogonia'. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 111, no. 1 (January-February 1971): 42. Although Cosmogony is not easy to comprehend due to its multiplicity of texts, it is similar to the St. Luke Passion in its magical radiating power. B146. Pendereckis tnender Kosmos in New York raufgefhrt. Melos 37, no. 12 (December 1970): 520-21. Breuer reviewed the world premiere of Cosmogony. The composer seemed to be less concerned with the intelligibility of the texts than the overall sonority of the work, which was an intense mixture of sound and noise. Breuer questioned how well Cosmogony would be received since it could easily be perceived as a conglomeration of noise effects. B147. Pendereckis Zweite Symphonie in New York uraufgefhrt. sterreiche Musikzeitschrift 35, no. 9 (September 1980): 482. The world premiere of the Second Symphony was met with lengthy applause. Composed in a clearly defined sonata form that includes variations on Silent Night, its multilayered material was brought out skillfully in this performance. B148. Brill, Hans Gerd. Abkehr vom Experiment. Komponistenportt Krzysztof Penderecki in Gtersloh. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 149, no. 6 (June 1988): 48-49. A concert of Penderecki's music in Gtersloh provided the spark for this article. Brill examined the paths that Penderecki had taken in his search for new sounds and new musical styles. The First and Second String Quartets, Adagietto from Paradise Lost and the Violin Concerto were among the works mentioned

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B149. Briner, Andres. Zurich: Pendereckis 'Lukas-Passion'. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 109, no. 5 (September-October 1969): 289-90. On the occasion of the Swiss premiere of the St. Luke Passion, Briner felt that the horrors of World War II could be heard at least partially in this piece. He described the manner in which the performance had come together both financially and logistically. B150. Zrich: Neuere Musik bei den Juni-Festwochen 1973. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 113, no. 5 (1973): 294-95. The Swiss premiere of Partita took place at the Zurich Festival in June. The work displays Pendereckis proficiency in orchestration. B151. Zrich. Penderecki-Urauffhrung. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 114, no.1 (January/February 1974): 24. The pages of Intermezzo are filled with transformations of a primary motive, which consists of chromatic quarter and third-tone motions. Briner termed the piece neither a futility nor a jewel. B152. Brooks, Richard James G. Structural Functions of 'Musical Gesture' As Heard in Selected Instrumental Compositions of the Twentieth-century: A Graphic Analytic Method. Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 1981. Brooks explored the function of musical gesture in twentieth-century composition. Using a graphic method of analysis, he examined eight pieces, including Penderecki's Anaklasis. B153. Brown, Peter. Stabant Matres. Music and Musicians 14 (October 1965): 43. In comparison with Palestrina's setting of the same text, Penderecki's Stabat Mater is altogether more committed and dramatic. Both pieces were performed at the London Proms on August 12. B154. Brunner, Gerhard. Ein garantiert echter Penderecki. Der Komponist dirigierte die Uraffuhrung seines Magnificat im Salzburger Dom. Die Welt, August 20, 1974: 19. In this review of the Magnificats world premiere performance, Brunner briefly described each movement, then remarked that its sounds were similar to those heard in the St. Luke Passion, Utrenia, and Canticum Canticorum Salomonis. B155. Graz: Neues beimSteirischen Herbst. Opern Welt, no. 12 (1971): 39. The Austrian premiere of The Devils of Loudun was a production of a plot that encompasses brutality, mass hysteria, and obscenity. Alas, the result was tedious, since the success of Pendereckis opera depends on a good dose of the sensational, which was noticeably lacking here. B156. Bruzdowicz, Joanna. z Loudun' Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 15, no. 10 (May 16-31, 1971): 17-18. On the occasion of the release by Philips of a recording of The Devils of Loudun, Bruzdowicz pondered the reception of Penderecki's music in France, her adopted

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country. Many of his works were popular with young people, who were as familiar with his name as they were with Bach and the Beatles! B157. Brzostowiecka, Maria. W wielkiej tradycji. Ekran (Warsaw), no. 40 (October 4, 1981). Brzostowiecka suggested that Te Deum filled the role of enhancing the spiritual and patriotic life of Poland's citizens. Its texts, well-known to many Poles, were often sung or spoken on anniversaries or special occasions relating to Poland's existence as a free country. For example, the final portion of the Miserere nostri text was recited during the 1980 Solidarity strikes. B158. Buchau, Stephanie von. Santa Fe. Opera News 53, no. 5 (November 1988): 44-46. Buchau was not impressed with The Black Mask, given its U. S. premiere in Santa Fe. She felt that its text was incomprehensible and its melodies were concentrated too much in the upper ranges of the voices. She also noted that the English libretto differed significantly from the original German version. B159. Budweg, Harald. Polnische Steichquartette des 20. Jahrhunderts. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 142, no. 3 (May/June 1981): 294-95. In this review of the Warsaw String Quartets recording of String Quartet No. 1, Budweg noted that this piece was from the composers experimental phase. B160. Bujko, Miroslaw. The Difference Between Giants. Penderecki, Warsaw Voice, October 24, 1993. Several artists and other Warsaw Autumn Festival attendees compared the music of Penderecki and Some preferred Pendereckis emotional appeal, even though he was less consistent stylistically than was. B161. Opera i sacrum. Kierunki, no. 43 (October 28, 1979). Milton's Paradise Lost, with its philosophical treatment of the sources of good and evil and its paucity of truly dramatic moments, would seem to be a poor candidate for an opera plot. Christopher Fry, however, created a fine libretto based on this poetry. Pendereckis romantic compositional style fit the poems universal themes. B162. Sukcesy muzyki polskiej. Kierunki, no. 41 (October 14, 1979). As evident in the Violin Concerto, Penderecki's turn away from his avant-garde style seemed to bring forth unexpectedly fresh artistic effects. B163. Burde, Wolfgang. Berlin: Alban Bergs 'Lulu' -- Krzysztof Pendereckis 'Lukas-Passion'. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 129, no. 4 (April 1968): 146-48. A performance of the St. Luke Passion in Berlin was praised for its powerful text and successful integration of text and music. Penderecki noted that the piece represented not only the passion of Jesus Christ, but also the pain and death of Auschwitzfor him, its theme was a universal one.

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B164. Butcher, Eric A. Quantitative Parameters of Spatial Dynamics in Musical Space. Indiana Theory Review 18, no. 1 (1997): 1-24. Pendereckis works were used as examples in Butchers exploration of metaphorical expressions, which he translated into numerical measurements. B165. Bylander, Cynthia E. The Warsaw Autumn International Festival of Contemporary Music, 1956-1961: Its Goals, Structures, Programs, and People. Ph.D. dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1989. The repression of the socialist realist years in Poland delayed Penderecki's musical education, but he was able to make up for this in part by attending the Warsaw Autumn Festivals, which featured a wide range of contemporary music from Europe, the Soviet Union, and the United States. The Festival also provided him with an international audience for the performance of several of his own compositions. B166. C., G. The Artistry of Heinz Holliger. Fanfare 11, no. 3 (January/February 1988): 268-69. This reviewer of a Denon CD (8006) remarked that Pendereckis Capriccio for Oboe and 11 Strings was a mock serious piece. B167. Cadieu, Martine. L'automne Varsovie. Les Nouvelles Littraires (October 6, 1975): 15. Cadieu noted that the common denominator of Polish music is emotion. For Penderecki, it is all-powerful expressionism. He also mentioned that the Magnificat was reminiscent of The Devils of Loudun and Utrenia. B168. De Salzbourg Paris. Rencontre avec Krzysztof Penderecki. Europe: Revue litteraire mensuelle 64, no. 691 (1986): 206-208. Most of this article is an interview with Penderecki about The Black Mask. The composer admitted that he was fascinated with the dance of death in Hauptmann's play, the source of his libretto. Musically, the opera reminded him of the first act of Salom. The article's concluding paragraph includes a reference to a performance of the Polish Requiem at the Saint-Eustache church in Paris. Cadieu described this piece as a synthesis of Catholic liturgy and German Protestant traditions. B169. Caille, Georges. Un week-end Lucerne: Penderecki et Lutoslawski. Revue musicale de Suisse Romande 33, no. 4 (September 1980): 180-81. Caille developed a plot to accompany Penderecki's Violin Concerto, since he deemed the work too long to enjoy without such a device. B170. Cairns, David. Opera: a Case for Enterprise. Sunday Times (London), August 31, 1980, p. 3. Penderecki's Second Symphony, performed at the Edinburgh Festival, was characterized as a dark, brooding neo-Romantic effusion, richly scored and devoid of memorable ideas.

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B171. Canby, Edward Tatnall. Recent Records: Penderecki: Passion According to St. Luke. American Choral Review 10, no. 2 (1968): 88-89. The St. Luke Passion (RCA VICS 6015), has everything, including serial patterns and vast quantities of quarter-tones, glissandi, an astonishing sound and a feat in performance. Canby described it as a significant work, yet he also noted that stylistically it marked a dead end. B172. Cantrell, Scott. Penderecki. Albany (NY) Times Union, January 19, 1986. In a conversation with Cantrell, Penderecki revealed that he had begun using a more traditional musical sound in the mid-1970s as a result of his experiences as an orchestral conductor and his burgeoning interest in 19th-century music. B173. Cariaga, Daniel. Penderecki Conducts 'Passion'. Los Angeles Times, March 31, 1986, Section 6, pp. 1, 4. Cariega gave the Los Angeles Philharmonic's presentation of the St. Luke Passion a favorable review, describing it as a dramatic realization of the score. The effect of the piece on the audience was both touching and deeply disturbing. B174. Carter, Elliott. Letter from Europe. Perspectives of New Music (Spring 1963): 202-205; reprinted in The Writings of Elliott Carter, edited by Else Stone and Kurt Stone, 219-30. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977. In his discourse on aleatoric and total serialist music, Carter expressed his alienation towards both methods of composition. He briefly discussed Threnody as a piece that explores new possibilities of sound." B175. Casken, John. Warsaw. Music and Musicians 20 (May 1972): 64. The resident ballet troupe at Warsaw's Teatr Wielki danced to a recorded version of Polymorphia. According to Casken, the dancers had difficulty synchronizing their steps with the music. B176. Castanet, Pierre Albert. Penderecki et la France: Le chemin de lEsprance. In The Music of Krzysztof Penderecki: Poetics and Reception, edited by Tomaszewski, 134-36. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1995; Penderecki i Francja. Droga nadziei. Muzyka Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Poetyka i Recepcja, edited by Tomaszewski, 13134. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1996. Of particular interest in this article are the selected list of French performances of Pendereckis works and Castanets assertion that Penderecki and Messiaen were the two most inspired composers of the twentieth century. Other tidbits of information concern Pendereckis first conducting experience in France and his opinion about the Darmstadt school of composers.

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B177. Castagnino, Sergio. Penderecki at La Scala. Opera 30 (April 1979): 376-77. Castagnino gave a lukewarm review of the European premiere of Paradise Lost. In his opinion, the music is distinguished but seldom stimulating. John Butler's choreography was warmly received. B178. Chittum, Donald. Krzysztof Penderecki. Concerto per violino ed orchestra...Joseph Castaldo. Lacrimosa II for string orchestra. MLA Notes 38, no. 1 (September 1981): 163-64. Schott's publication of the score to Penderecki's Violin Concerto prompted this review. Chittum reviewed the pieces scoring and the details of its commissioning, then stated that the Concerto is essentially tonal and uses conventional notation much of the time. B179. Chlopecki, Andrzej. Gesichter der Postmoderne: Kompositorische Positionen in mittel- und steuropaischer Musik Ein Seminarbericht. Mainz: Schott, 1991. included Penderecki's music in his discussion of postmodernism in Central and Eastern Europe since 1960. He alluded to the importance of religious music as one reason for composers' turning toward traditional musical styles. B180. In a Hall of Mirrors, or Ubu in Pendereckis Opera. In The Music of Krzysztof Penderecki: Poetics and Reception, edited by Tomaszewski, 21-28. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1995; W gabinecie krzywych luster czyli Ubu w operze Penderecki. Muzyka Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Poetyka i Recepcja, edited by Tomaszewski, 2128. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1996. Chlopecki wrote insightfully about the historical background of Pendereckis Ubu Rex, then provided an intriguing interpretation of the composers choice of musical styles and dramatic emphases in the opera. He also included a synopsis of each scene of the opera. B181. Koncert skrzypcowy Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 23, 18 (1979): 3-5. viewed the Violin Concerto as the best of Penderecki's instrumental works. He described the roles of the orchestra and soloist as being like fire and air (the first would not exist without the other, the second would lose its sense of existence without the first). Hearing this piece was, for him, a deeply expressive, almost metaphysical experience. B182. Nad z Loudun'. Ruch muzyczny 19, no. 22 (1975): 3, 8-9. based his extensive comments about The Devils of Loudun on the opera's score and his viewing of its Warsaw production. He proposed that Devils was a humanistic opera dealing with three levels of intrique: political, obsession, and tragic spirituality. He also gave a detailed account of the differences between the original score and the opera's Warsaw version, noting the cutting or modifying of scenes and changes in instrumentation. Finally, he discussed the opera's musical style and orchestration.

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B183. Oaza: 1980. Ruch muzyczny 24, no. 22 (1980): 45. After commenting on the history of the estate and the hospitality of its current owners, the Pendereckis, turned to the mini-festival held there this year. String quartets were featured; Penderecki commissioned such pieces from several Polish composers. Penderecki had also written a piece for the occasion, a Quartet for Four Violins, but he lost the only copy of the manuscript, preventing its performance. B184. The Paschal Triptych. Polish Music 23, no. 4 (1988): 12-17. The impact of the St. Luke Passion on Penderecki's career and on contemporary music was discussed in the first half of this article. The Passion differed from other contemporary compositions in that its subject matter was considered more important than its compositional technique and style. As a result, Penderecki returned a humanistic perspective to composition. In Utrenia, discussed in the latter part of the article, Penderecki turned for inspiration not to the West, but to the East. Performances of the work in the Soviet Union enabled audiences there to hear a Russian Mass, a rare event for them in this century. B185. 'Pasja' Pendereckiego jako znak. Ruch muzyczny 19, no. 4 (1975): 3-5. thesis is that the symbolism contained in the St. Luke Passion's text and musical structure is essential to the work's expressiveness. He related the St. Luke Passion's emphasis on certain pitches to medieval organum. He also discussed the importance of the pitch 'g' as the central pitch of the Passion's first twelve-tone row (actually a thirteen-note row), and the significance of the B-A-C-H motive in the second row. B186. Penderecki i film. Kino 9, no. 12 (1974): 24-30. Pendereckis film music, which was written during the early years of his career, includes compositions for 30 short and six feature films. Electronic music played a bigger role in these pieces than in his concert works. B187. Profanum patafizycznie UBUstwione. Ruch muzyczny 35, no. 16 (1991): 1, 5; no. 17 (1991): 1, 4. In this two-part review of Ubu Rex, discussed the absurdist aspects of its storyline, calling it a realistic play turned upside-down. Among other references, he noted that August Everding, the stage director for the world premiere, had created a setting in which parody and black humor were changed into comedy. In the second part of the review, described Penderecki as an anarchist and a postmodernist oxymoron. B188. 261-66. began this article by briefly summarizing the published literature on and Penderecki. He then compared the musical styles of the two composers, noting in particular that Penderecki's compositions form a logical consistency in development, even though foreign critics have often stated that certain pieces represent a major change in style. The Structure of a Crystal' and 'All for Sale'. On Witold and Krzysztof Penderecki's Works. Polish Art Studies 3 (1982):

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B189. Teoretycy o Pendereckim. Ruch muzyczny 19, no. 6 (1975): 2. A seminar on Penderecki's musicConception, notation, and realization in Penderecki's compositionswas held in Krakw on January 28, 1975. Among the topics discussed were Penderecki's notational innovations, unconventional vocal writing, treatment of pointillist textures, hierarchy of formal structures, and the relationship between his music and humanistic and Christian values. B190. 1998): 7. X na Pendereckiego: twrcza. Studio (March

opened a series of commentaries on Pendereckis works by declaring that these compositions possess a strength of conviction and confidence that is rarely evident in the musical world. In his opinion, Penderecki is one of the most popular and most musically eloquent composers in the world. B191. X na Pendereckiego (2): wyboru. Studio (April 1998): 7. described Penderecki as the first dissident, for his conscience decisions to compose sacred music (Stabat Mater and Psalms of David) at a time when that was not popular. He also stated that Fluorescences and Polymorphia were shocking even for a time in which shock was considered the standard. B192. X na Pendereckiego (3): odmowy. Studio (May 1998): 7. Penderecki is not afraid to refuse to participate in current musical trends. For example, he refused compose serialist music. His decision to compose sacred music can also be interpreted as a refusal to go along with the abstract, secular trends of the times. B193. X na Pendereckiego (4): tradycji. Studio (June 1998): 7. This is a short discussion of composers from the past influenced who had Penderecki. Specifically mentioned were Bach, Mozart, Brahms, Mahler, Bruckner, Sibelius, Stravinsky, Shostakovich, and Messiaen. B194. X na Pendereckiego (5): ekspresji. Studio (July 1998): 7. Penderecki is well known for the strength of expression heard in his music. This is due in part to the huge instrumental and vocal forces used for some pieces and in part to his use of clusters and sonoristic techniques. Dark, pessimistic, and even demonic moods are more prevalent than lighthearted expressions. B195. X na Pendereckiego (6): perswazji. Studio (August 1998): 7. Although Penderecki often insists that his music should be heard simply as music, with no extra-musical associations attached to it, the opposite must often be considered. cites Christianity and Polish 20th-century history as factors that must be considered.

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B196. X na Pendereckiego (7): dramatu. Studio (September 1998): 7. summarized the similarities and differences among Pendereckis four operas. Each differs from the others, but stylistically each also reflects the dimensions of good vs. evil and/or sacred vs. profane. B197. X na Pendereckiego (8): symfonii. Studio (October 1998): 7. Penderecki is one of a long line of symphonic composers, including Beethoven, Bruckner, Mahler, and Shostakovich, who believed that symphonies were among the epitomes of musical creativity. For Penderecki, the symphony serves as an expression of mans confrontation with the world and with God. B198. X na Pendereckiego (9): kantaty. Studio (November 1998): 7. As one of the greatest composers of works for voices and orchestra, Penderecki has maintained his focus on musical architecture and color. In opinion, his early works such as Psalms of David and Dimensions of Time and Silence clearly led to his more recent Seven Gates of Jerusalem and Credo. B199. Regina. Czarna maska Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ekspresjonistyczna wizja In Krakwska szkola kompozytorska 1888-1988, edited by Teresa Malecka, 227-64. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1992. The Black Mask and Krl Ubu (Ubu Rex) differ from Pendereckis earlier operas and oratorios in their presentation of a world without faith or hope. In the earlier work, the composer enhanced the expressionistic features of Hauptmanns play through his incorporation of many musical contrasts. Inspiracja literacka w teatrze muzycznym K. Pendereckiego na opery Diably z Loudun. In Inspiracja w muzyce XX wieku: filozoficzno-literackie, religijne, folklorem, 112-19. oglnopolskiej Konferencji Muzykologicznej 1-3 1993. Warsaw: Kompozytorw Polskich, 1993. explored the musical and extra-musical influences that are embedded in The Devils of Loudun. Among these are the dramatic traditions of the oratorio and recitativearia pairings, the analogies between Grandiers actions in Act 3 and those of Christ in the days before his crucifixion, and the characteristics of expressionistic and mystical theater, including the juxtaposition of good and evil, prayer and aggressiveness, and lyric monologue and grotesque actions. B201. Krzysztof Pendereckis The Polish Requiem. Music Theory: Explorations and Applications (Duquesne University School of Music) 3 (Fall 1994): 23-26. The symbolic meaning of the Polish Requiem was discussed against the background of the historical requiem and contemporary events in Poland. Elements of the requiems written by many other composers (from Ockeghem to Stravinsky) could be heard in the Polish Requiem, although transformed into modern equivalents. Pendereckis B200.

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Requiem focuses on the attitude of man towards death,...asking the question about the sense of his existence. Much of the Requiems musical narration points toward the expressionism of The Black Mask. B202. Le masque noir de Penderecki. In Les premiers opras en Europe et les formes dramatiques apparentes, edited by Irne Mamczarz, 20315. Paris: Klincksieck, 1992. reviewed both the historical context and musical content of The Black Mask. First she discussed how the concept of death has changed since ancient times, then placed the librettos sourceHauptmanns drama of the same namewithin the writers career. Next, she elaborated upon the differences between his work and Pendereckis version of the story, noting, among other things, that the composer chose to provide it with a sense of closure, whereas Hauptmanns original had no such feeling of conclusion. considered the operas music to be more important than its text. B203. Le 'Paradis Perdu', Sacra Rappresentazione de Krzysztof Penderecki. In Problmes, Interfrences des Genres au Thtre et les Ftes en Europe, edited by Irne Marnczarz, 203-16. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1985. opened her essay by comparing Milton's Paradise Lost and Pendereckia sacra rappresentazione on the same text. While Milton had emphasized the worlds of God and Satan, Penderecki chose to focus on mankind's search for truth, and using the characters of God and Satan only as points of reference. next addressed the issue of whether Paradise Lost was really a sacra rappresentazione. She asserted that Penderecki wished to revive the genres of opera and oratorio...by returning to their common source. Thus he presented a sacred subject with theatrical means. She discussed Penderecki's evolving musical language and his means of creating drama in his compositions. Tension is often created by establishing two opposing worlds differentiated by musical material, expression, and texture. B204. Polish Requiem. In The Music of Krzysztof Penderecki: Poetics and Reception, edited by Tomaszewski, 29-43. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1995; Polskie Requiem. Muzyka Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Poetyka i Recepcja, edited by Tomaszewski, 2943. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1996. In opinion, elements of the requiem tradition reaching as far back as Ockeghem can be heard in Pendereckis Polish Requiem. Its main points of dramatic emphasis are horror theatre, sacred mystery, personal experience, and Polish national character. Musical examples are included. B205. Polskie Requiem. Ruch muzyczny 32, no. 19 (1985): 3-4; an abridged version appeared as 'Polish Requiem' by Krzysztof Penderecki. Polish Music 21, no. 1-2 (1986): 3-10. Penderecki is depicted as a composer inspired by architecture, painting, and literature (especially from antiquity and the Bible). The dramatic focus of his sacred pieces is on the choice of values created from the standpoint of a person seeking an answer to the question concerning the meaning of life and the world. She provided the premiere

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dates of the Requiems individual movements and briefly discussed the mood and musical contents of each part. She reviewed the harmonic systems of Penderecki's largescale sacred works, and described those of the Polish Requiem as a combination of quasi-tonal and twelve-tone thinking achieved by the first as if from the standpoint of the second. (Quotes are taken from the English translation in Polish Music.) B206. Problem dobra i w Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. In Muzyka, sens. Tomaszewskiemu w 70 rocznice edited by Anna Oberc, 113-34. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1994. In analyzing the presentation of good and bad in Pendereckis operas, contrasted his first two works in this genreThe Devils of Loudun and Paradise Lost with his most recent twoBlack Mask and Ubu Rex. The first two present the extremes of good and bad against a background of religious faith, in which the hope of redemption is always present. In the latter two works, a sense of chaos and, in Ubu Rex particularly, a loss of ethical values prevail. also illuminated differences between the individual works. The relationship of man to God, Christ, and Satan is central to Paradise Lost, while in The Devils of Loudun, mans actions lead to his own condemnation, with Grandiers death eventually becoming a symbol of goodness that overcomes evil. In The Black Mask, the heroine Benigna understood the difference between good and bad, but the chaos of her world eventually overwhelmed her. In Ubu Rex, all ethical values were negated in a world of absurdity. B207. Raj utracony koncepcja tekstu a muzyczny. In i tradycja w muzyce Krzysztofa Pendereckiego, edited by Regina and Krzysztof Szwajgier, 233-45. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna w Krakwie, 1983. In this article, focused on the text of Paradise Lost. In Miltons poem, which served as the basis of the libretto, God and Satan are the primary characters, symbolizing good and evil. In Pendereckis version of the text, man takes center stage and undergoes a transformation as he faces both God and Satan. The role of Christ also differed in the two works. Miltons Christ is a hero and someone who stands apart from man. In Pendereckis work, Christ has no features of greatness or strength. Instead he offers the gift of life and love to man. B208. w Magnificat. In i tradycja w muzyce Krzysztofa Pendereckiego, edited by Regina and Krzysztof Szwajgier, 187-205. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna w Krakwie, 1983. explored the close link between text and music in the Magnificat. She first reviewed the texts Biblical origins and its relationship to liturgical and Old Testament traditions. Next, she discussed the musical and expressive means heard in each of the works seven sections. As is typical in Pendereckis music, the opening section presents the essential musical elements of the composition. The remaining sections bear witness to his predilection towards traditional forms, with the passacaglia and fugue in evidence here. Latin and Polish translations are given at the end of the article.

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B209. Stylistic Phases in the Work of Krzysztof Penderecki. Studies in Penderecki 1 (1998): 51-64. It is contention that Pendereckis large-scale vocal-instrumental works form the nucleus of his output. For each of these piecesspecifically, the operas and oratorios Penderecki created a cohesive musical language that served to delineate a specific stylistic phase, while the instrumental works written at approximately the same time as each of these larger works acted to anticipate, complement or conclude the consecutive stages of his career. also observed that Pendereckis attitude towards form has remained basically stable during his career, while other aspects of his music have undergone change, with the particular element being altered (sound, intervals, texture, etc.) differing according to the composers interest at the time. then discussed each of the seven stylistic periods that she perceived in Pendereckis output. B210. Technika polifoniczna w Magnificat. In tradycja w muzyce Krzysztofa Pendereckiego, edited by Regina and Krzysztof Szwajgier, 206-20. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna w Krakwie, 1983. examined four types of polyphony present in the Magnificat: individual blocks of sound treated as a single voice, individual lines within a block of a sound, sound blocks accompanied by a single voice or voices outside of that block, and individual lines that are related to one another, but are outside of an accompanying sound block. Penderecki set certain words (e.g., Magnificat, Domine, and Gloria) apart from these textures in order to emphasize their role as literary symbols. B211. Theme of Death in Pendereckis Musical Theatre. In Penderecki, Krzysztof. The Black Mask. Contemporary Dance of Death from Idea to Performance, edited by Teresa and Regina 40-49. Krakw: Centrum Kultury: 1998. thesis is that while the central theme of each of Pendereckis stage works (Paradise Lost, The Devils of Loudun, The Black Mask, and Ubu Rex) is death, each piece presents this theme in varying ways. She discussed each piece separately in the latter portion of the article. B212. Tradycja gatunkowa w Pasji wg sw. Krzystofa Pendereckiego. In Spotkanie muzyczne w Baranowie 1977. Muzyka w muzyce, edited by Teresa Malecka and Leszek Polony, 182-213. Krakw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1980. first reviewed the history of the Passion, beginning with those from the medieval era. Next, she turned to the St. Luke Passion, mentioning the various ways in which Penderecki shortened the traditional Passion text, but maintained and even heightened its sense of drama. She also discussed some of the traditional ways in which Penderecki set the music for the main characters. B213. w liturgia w 'Jutrzni' Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. In Tomaszewskiemu w 60-lecie edited by Teresa Malecka, 119-38. Zeszyt Naukowy Nr. 7. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1984.

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began with an outline of the Orthodox liturgy for Holy Saturday Matins, then discussed the numerous links Penderecki made between Utrenia, Pt. 1 and this liturgy. These connections include using the bass voice for recitation of litanies, incorporating quasi-quotations into the music, constructing certain passages in a dialog format, and, most importantly, musically reflecting the deep expressiveness of the text. A Polish translation of the text is given, as is information about the work's premiere, recordings, and publication. A short bibliography is also provided. B214. Muzyka polski ludowej. Studia o polsce Edited by Stefan Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1968. Brief references to Penderecki's compositions are given throughout this volume on Polish music and musical life from 1945-1965. A chronology of premieres and other important musical events is given at the end.

B215. Przemiany techniki kompozytorskiej w trzydziestoleciu PRL. Muzyka 20, no. 3 (1975),: 16-27. Pendereckis pieces have featured many new sounds for string instruments. Jzef and Krystyna Synteza i tradycji. In Wielkie formy wokalne. Formy muzyczny 5, 45886. Krakw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1984. The authors devoted their discussion of the synthesis of modernity and tradition in Passions to one piece: Penderecki's St. Luke Passion. Among the topics they examined were the specific texts chosen by Penderecki, the works pitch structure, which includes two twelve-tone rows and the B-A-C-H motive, the piece's structural similarities to organum, Renaissance motets, and Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, its employment of sonoristic elements, and the musical style of its arias. Numerous musical examples are included. B217. Chrzanowski, Tadeusz. Teologia grozy. In Penderecki, Krzysztof. The Black Mask. Contemporary Dance of Death from Idea to Performance, edited by Teresa and Regina 12-23. Krakw: Centrum Kultury: 1998. Chrzanowski explored the iconography of death, touching specifically upon the devil, the dance of death and the final judgment. He turned for source material to materials from the Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque periods, and noted the distinctions between those eras in Poland and other parts of Europe. B218. Cisowska, Barbara. Ekloga VIII. In i tradycja w muzyce Krzysztofa Pendereckiego, edited by Regina and Krzysztof Szwajgier, 114-48. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1983. In this lengthy essay on Ecloga VIII, Cisowska focused on its form, text-setting, texture, and atmosphere. Latin and Polish translations were also given. B216.

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B219. W 'Canticum Canticorum'. In Tomaszewskiemu w 60-lecie edited by Teresa Malecka, 158-202. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1984. Cisowska divided her article on Canticum Canticorum Salomonis into three sections. In the first, she reviewed the historical interpretations of Song of Songs texts. In the second related Pendereckis text to the genres of epithalamion, pastoral poem, and psalm. In the final section, she discussed how Penderecki's music seems to have been inspired by the texts. B220. Clark, S. The Aspen Experience. High Fidelity/Musical America 27, no. 12 (1977): MA35. Penderecki was the composer-in-residence for the 1977 Conference on Contemporary Music in Aspen. Among the featured works were his Capriccio for Oboe, String Quartet No. 2, Capriccio for Siegfried Palm, Capriccio for Violin, and the U.S. premiere of Utrenia, Pt. II. B221. Cohen, Alan G. Subject Inverted. The Times (London), November 26, 1981, p. 15. In an editorial letter responding to a November 24 article in the same newspaper (by Paul Griffiths), Cohen questioned whether Paradise Lost should be described as avantgarde or orthodox. B222. Cohn, Arthur. Four Works from Poland, One of Them a Masterpiece. American Record Guide 34, no. 1 (September 1967): 26-27. Penderecki's Threnody is the masterpiece alluded to in Cohns title. The composition features diatonic-sounding quarter-tones, wide pitch ranges, and unusual string techniques. B223. Really New New Music from RCA Victrola. American Record Guide 34, no. 4 (December 1967): 288-89. Cohn briefly discussed Threnody in this review of an RCA recording (VICS-1239). In his opinion, the piece is frenzied, yet so slow moving that it tortures the listener. B224. Two Recordings of the Penderecki 'Passion According to St. Luke'. American Record Guide 34, no. 8 (April 1968): 624-26. The two recordings in question are RCA VICS 6015 and Philips PHS 2-901 (which also includes Threnody). Cohn defended Penderecki against accusations made in the press that he had reverted unnecessarily to more traditional musical means with this statement: absorption of [unusual intrumental and vocal techniques] into Gregorian chant allusions, Eastern European church modes, and serial cuttings is the very opposite of retrogression. B225. Collin, Dorothy. Critics Converge to Cover the Birth of a Classic. Chicago Tribune, November 28, 1978, Section 1, pp. 1, 3. In a departure from tradition, more than 150 critics were invited to attend the dress rehearsal of Paradise Lost. This article gives an anecdotal description of that event, complete with Penderecki pacing the aisles and the Opera's general manager giving lastminute directions.

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B226. Colombati, Claudia. La recezione dellopera di Penderecki in Italia. In The Music of Krzysztof Penderecki. Poetics and Reception, edited by Tomaszewski, 137-53. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1995; Recepcja Pendereckiego we Muzyka Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Poetyka i Recepcja, edited by Tomaszewski, 13552. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1996. Colombati explored the wide range of opinions on Pendereckis music that had been offered in the Italian press. Unlike the Polish press, the Italian press has differing opinions about the value and meaning of Pendereckis works. Some topics of discussion concerned the appropriateness of the composers turn toward tradition and whether he wrote religious music to show his opposition to Polands Communist government. B227. Commanday, Robert. Incompatibility In 'Paradise'. San Francisco Chronicle, December 10, 1978, World section, pp. 70-71. Commanday claimed that Paradise Lost was unsuccessful for two reasons: the poor quality of its music and the inadequate production staged by the Chicago Lyric Opera. Penderecki was assailed for his inability to blend his Wagnerian chromaticism with his avant-garde vocal and instrumental techniques. He was also criticized for not working more closely with the opera's directors during the production planning period. B228. Paradise Loses in Chicago's New Opera. San Francisco Chronicle, December 2, 1978, p. 38. The world premiere performance of Paradise Lost was reviewed here. In Commanday's opinion, the score was rhythmically weak..., continuity was uneven, contrast entirely insufficient. This was far more disappointing...than the curious visual effect of the production. The staging was described as a modern store rotunda--not much of a paradise to lose. B229. Cook, Eugene. Penderecki: the Polish Question...and Others. Music Journal 25, no. 2 (1977): 8-10, 42. Penderecki explained that he began conducting because he was dissatisfied with how other conductors were presenting his music. He talked at some length about rehearsing his compositions, the new sonorities audible in his recent works, and music education in Poland. B230. Cook, Paul. Penderecki: Emanationen; Partita; Cello Concerto; Symphony. American Record Guide 58, no. 6 (November/December 1995): 170. This review of EMI 65416, a re-release of a 1973 recording, can be summarized by quoting its final sentence: Pendereckis music will appeal most to people familiar with the more extreme works of Ligeti, Schnittke, Gubaidulina, Shchedrin, and most of the living Scandinavian composers. B231. Vienna Modern Plus. American Record Guide 56, no. 4 (July-August 1993): 187. The quality of this recording of Penderecki's Dies Irae (VMM 3015) is sumptuous. The composition is an atonal, extremely dissonant work employing notated pitches and precise quarter-tones mixed in with sounds of indeterminate pitch.

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B232. Cooklis, Ray. Cellist to play 'new music' with CSO. Cincinnati Enquirer, April 15, 1989, p. D-3. Acording to Heinrich Schiff, soloist in upcoming Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra performances of Penderecki's Second Cello Concerto, this piece is contemporary in musical language but romantic in design and expression. B233. Political Vigor in 'Finlandia'. Cincinnati Enquirer, April 15, 1989, p. D-3. Cooklis compared Penderecki's conducting style to his compositions: Grand emotional sweeps seemed to be of more concern than intricate details. The results were authoritative, but perhaps not pleasing to everyone. A performance of the Second Cello Concerto with soloist Heinrich Schiff and the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra was dramatic and tightly controlled. B234. Cooper, David S. Why Did Chicago Pick Penderecki? New York Times, August 12, 1973, Section 2, p. 5. In a letter to the editor, Cooper, executive director of the American Composers Alliance, supported Ezra Laderman and Donal Henahan's criticism of Penderecki's receipt of a Bicentennial commission from the Lyric Opera. Cooper's primary argument was that the Lyric Opera missed a good opportunity to bring forth a major piece by an American composer. B235. Coss, Peter. Urauffhrungen von Penderecki, Eder, Mllenbach, Zender, Stranz und Durko bei den Salzburger Festspielen. sterreichische Musikzeitschrift 41, no. 10 (October 1986): 517-20. In Cosss opinion, the world premiere of The Black Mask was a success, although it received a mixed reaction from the audience. The music contained a number of stylistic references, and the operas different characters were portrayed on stage with effectiveness and skill. B236. Couchoud, Jean-Paul. A l'coute de la musique polonaise contemporaine. Critique 40, no. 440 (1984): 111-19. Penderecki compositions are characterized as frequently inspired by literature and religion. They also reflect the composer's interest in new sonorities. B237. La musique polonais et Witold Paris: Stock Plus, 1981. Couchoud's consideration of Penderecki's career emphasized the composer's literary inspirations, his expressions of concern for human life, and his experiments with varying sound sources. B238. Cox. The Juilliard School. Music Journal 30, no. 2 (February 1972): 58. A performance of De Natura Sonoris No. 2 in New York City was predictable...[and] static.

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B239. Cox, David. Penderecki'St. Luke Passion'. Church Music (London) 2, no. 28 (1968): 8-9. After reviewing the politico-cultural background of post-war Poland, Cox turned to a description of the St. Luke Passion, which he judged to be a crystallization of Penderecki's compositional ideas. He compared the piece favorably to Bach's Passions and noted the various ways in which traditional and modern musical techniques are blended in Penderecki's piece. B240. Hamburg. Musical Times 110, no. 1520 (October 1969): 1064. The Hamburg State Opera gave a performance of The Devils of Loudun as part of the ISCM Festival. Although the libretto was intriguing, the music failed to sustain Cox's interest. B241. Crabtree, John. The 'Passion' of Penderecki. Christian Science Monitor, January 22, 1968, p. 4. In his review of the Philips and RCA recordings of the St. Luke Passion, Crabtree declared that the piece sounds like a 'masterpiece'. It is eclectic in style, yet unique in sound. B242. Crowther, Richard. Portugal. The Devils' Bowdlerized. Opera 27, no. 8 (August 1976): 766. In his brief statement about a Lisbon presentation of The Devils of Loudun by the Polish National Opera, Crowther noted that the performance was met with enthusiastic applause, but that the orchestra and chorus were too subdued. B243. Cunningham, Carl. Polish Composer Conducts Symphony This Weekend. Houston Post, February 14, 1981. On the occasion of Penderecki's appearance with the Houston Symphony, Cunningham talked with him about his compositional career. The four works to be performed Psalms of David, Anaklasis, Adagietto from Paradise Lost, and the Violin Concerto were featured topics. Penderecki also discussed the significance of St. Luke Passion, Stabat Mater, and Lacrimosa, and his current interest in late-Romantic musical traditions. B244. Sheer Ardor Proves Main Asset, Downfall for 'The Black Mask'. Houston Post, August 5, 1988. Cunningham was not impressed with the Santa Fe Opera's production of The Black Mask. Much of the text was unintelligible since it was delivered in rapid-fire dialogue over an energetic and dissonant orchestral accompaniment. B245. and Jacek Ziarno. Pasja o Krzysztofie Pendereckim. Warsaw: Polska Oficyna Wydawnicza BGW, 1993. This full-length biography of Penderecki is replete with photographs of the composer from his professional and personal life. It also contains numerous quotes from Penderecki and his Polish colleagues. It even contains a list of the trees and other plants in the composers garden. Somewhat suspect, however, is the accuracy of the information given in the discography and works list.

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B246. Cybulski, Bohdan. Penderecki o sobie, i Dejmku. Teatr, no. 6 (1973): 4-5. Penderecki discussed the relationships between text and music in several of his pieces and described the changes he made in The Devils of Loudun for its Warsaw premiere. He said that he had originally intended to compose two additional scenes for the Devils, but had decided they were unnecessary. The stage director of the Warsaw production, Kazimierz Dejmek, suggested that the opera would be improved if these scenes were included, so Penderecki changed his mind and agreed to complete them. He and Dejmek also agreed to combine two scenes and eliminate another one. In addition, he reorchestrated three scenes in Act I. B247. Dale, S. S. Contemporary Cello Concerti. XLIII: Korngold and Penderecki. The Strad 87, no. 1036 (August 1976): 277-89. The second half of this article is devoted to a discussion of Penderecki's musical style. Dale scorned Penderecki's music because it did not contain counterpoint and lyrical melodies. Although he conceded that Penderecki's most recent compositions were more musical, he cited the Cello Sonata as proof that the composer is forced to abdicate intelligence and rely on useless general statements. B248. Danler, Karl-Robert. Deutsche Erstauffhrung einer Messa in scena; Berio und Penderecki in Mnchens Musica Viva. Das Orchester 18 (April 1970): 167-68. A stunning performance of Dies Irae in its Germany premiere was the impetus for this review. Danler briefly mentioned Pendereckis modernist musical language and Polish connections. B249. Absurdes zum Festspielauftakt in Mnchen. Pendereckis Knig Ubu in Luxusausgabe. Das Orchester 39, no. 10 (1991): 1116-7. In this review of the world premiere of Ubu Rex, Danler offered positive comments about Penderecki, but a negative opinion about the production presented by the Bavarian State Opera. He felt that writing for theater of the absurd was appropriate for Penderecki, since the composer was able to incorporate stylistic models of the past into the piece. On the other hand, he thought that the opera as it was staged in Munich emphasized entertainment at the expense of the dimension of the demonic. B250. Iwakis grosser Auftritt. Mnchens Musica Viva mit Acker, Ishil und Penderecki. Das Orchester 23, no. 1 (1975): 14. Hiroyuki Iwaki conducted the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra in a performance of Pendereckis First Symphony. In Danlers opinion, this complex piece is characteristic of the composers earlier works in its use of harmonics, pizzicati, and glissandos. B251. Penderecki dirigiert Penderecki. Mnchens Musica Viva unter der Leitung des Komponisten. Das Orchester 28 (July-August 1980): 601. Penderecki conducted his own Violin Concerto and Shostakovichs Sixth Symphony in a Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra concert. Although soloist Konstanty Kulka mastered the many technical demands of his part, he was unable to penetrate through the thickness of the orchestral sound. Penderecki also displayed his inexperience at the conducting podium during the Shostakovich Symphony.

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B252. Pendereckis Die schwarze Maske uraufgefhrt. Harry Kupfers Regietriumph in Salzburg. Das Orchester 34, no. 11 (1986): 1178-79. Danler described the scenario of The Black Mask in some detail and congratulated its Salzburg director, Harry Kupfer, for his excellent work. The Vienna Philharmonic proved to be surprisingly adept at handling this complex score. B253. Danuser, Hermann. Innerlichkeit und uerlichkeit in der Musiksthetik der Gegenwart. In Die Musik der achtziger Jahre. Sechs Kongrebeitrge und drei Seminarberichte, edited by Ekkehard Jost, 17-29. New York: Schott, 1990. Danuser named Penderecki as one of the composers who had reached a critical turning point in their work. He thought the Second Symphony was reminiscent of Bruckners music in its dark emotional language and chromatically enriched harmonies. However, he questioned the lack of authenticity in both this work and Pendereckis move towards tradition. B254. Davies, Margaret E. A Review of the Paris Season. Musical Opinion 84 (September 1961): 737-39. Anaklasis is a fascinating experiment in sound. In Davies opinion, the piece sounds much like electronic music. B255. Davis, Peter G. Masterpiece Theater. New York (February 10, 1986): 64-65. Although Davis acknowledged that Penderecki belonged on any short list of prominent living composers, he belittled the Polish Requiem and, indeed, most of the composer's large-scale compositions. B256. Philadelphia String Quartet. High Fidelity/Musical America 16, no. 4 (April 1966): 150. The Philadelpha String Quartet's concert of Polish pieces included compositions by Bacewicz, Baird, Szymanowski, and Penderecki. Davis thought Pendereckis First String Quartet was interesting but not satisfying emotionally. B257. Dean, Winton. Opera. The Devils of Loudun. Musical Times 114, no. 1570 (December 1973): 1251. In The Devils of Loudun, Penderecki failed to create the two things necessary for a successful opera: convincing characterization and interesting music. In Deans opinion, the orchestral music was better suited for a television documentary, while the voices were preoccupied with screaming, laughing, and muttering. This version of the opera, seen at the Sadlers Wells Opera, was reduced to two acts from the original three. B258. Delisi, Daniel. Compositional Techniques and Use of the Chorus in Five Selected Choral Works of Krzysztof Penderecki. D.M.A. thesis, University of Cincinnati, 1985. Penderecki's choral works written between 1962 and 1974 differ in their treatment of vertical textures and sonorities and in their vocal and instrumental timbres. In his analysis of Stabat Mater, Dies Irae, Ecloga VIII, Te Deum, and Lacrimosa, Delisi

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demonstrated that each piece exhibits a balance between the innovations and the use of traditional musical elements, in particular a careful control of form. B259. Penderecki's Polish Requiem. Some Notes on Texture and Form. American Choral Review 30, no. 1 (Winter 1988): 14-16. Delisi began by reviewing Penderecki's compositional career, emphasizing his works for chorus and orchestra. He then noted the different portions of the Roman Catholic requiem that Penderecki had included, omitted, or added to in his Polish Requiem. Finally, Delisi discussed several ways in which Penderecki achieved formal and textural unity in the Requiem. B260. DeR. [DeRhen], A. Philharmonic Orchestra: Penderecki Premiere. High Fidelity/Musical America 21, no. 1 (January 1971): MA20. In DeRhens opinion, Penderecki missed an opportunity to give Utrenia, Part I a genuine Eastern Orthodox flavor. Instead, Penderecki used an international modernist style B261. Yale Philharmonia: Penderecki. High Fidelity/Musical America 27, no. 6 (June 1977): MA33. A Yale Philharmonia Orchestra concert conducted by Penderecki is the subject of this review. The author asserted that Penderecki's music is at its best [when] it conjures up the spirit of something timeless and elemental, as occurred in When Jacob Awoke [sic] and the Fecit potentiam from the Magnificat. Polymorphia and the Capriccio for Violin, however, did not warrant similar praise. B262. Dzsy, Thomas. und Penderecki dirigieren eigene Werke im Konzerthaus. sterreiche Musikzeitschrift 44, no. 5 (May 1989): 251-52. Penderecki conducted the Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra in performances of his Passacaglia and Viola Concerto. The Passacaglia contains the ostinatos and percussion solos that have become trademarks of Pendereckis recent compositions. B263. Dibelius, Ulrich. Polnische Avantgarde. Melos 34 (January 1967): 7-16. Also published in Das Orchester 15 (April 1967): 147-54. The premiere of Anaklasis at the Donaueschingen Music Days in 1960 caused a minor uproar. After hearing this piece, some in attendance predicted the end of music, while others spoke of its bold breakthroughs and new humaneness. In Diblius opinion, the works success comes from its gradations and development of dynamics, articulation, and tone color. B264. Postmoderne in der Musik. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 150, no. 2 (February 1989): 4-9. In this essay on postmodernism in music, Dibelius focused in part on Pendereckis Te Deum and its links to 19th-century musical styles. Evoking both the pathos of Bruckner and the fervour of Berlioz, the Te Deum can also be associated with musical styles from Gregorian chant to sprechstimme.

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B265. Wrzawa w Katedrze. Wrazenia z XV 'Warszawskiej Jesieni. Ruch muzyczny 15, no. 23 (1971): 11-12. The performance of Utrenia at the Warsaw Autumn Festival was a national event and a clear...symbol of the the fifteenth Warsaw Autumn. B266. Der zehnte Warschauer Herbst. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 127, no. 11 (November 1966): 455. The St. Luke Passion, presented at the 1966 Warsaw Autumn Festival, represents an alienation of the traditional Baroque Passion. B267. Dickinson, Peter. Polish Music Today. Musical Times 108, no. 1493 (July 1967): 596-98. In a discussion of Poland's music of the post-1956 era, Dickinson described Penderecki's Threnody as probably the most popular work using textural devices alone, a kind of natural sound without reference to traditional melody or rhythm. He characterized the St. Luke Passion as a good example of eclecticism combined with religious connotations. B268. Dobrowolski, Janusz. Srebrne wesele Warszawskiej Jesieni. Kierunki, no. 42 (October 18, 1981): 10. With his Second Symphony, Penderecki asserted himself as a composer of true brilliance. In this work and in Te Deum, he rehabilitated the art of counterpoint and melodic expression. B269. Drr, Gerhard. Staatsoper Stuttgart. Oper und Konzert 17, no. 6 (1979): 30-31. The West German premiere of Paradise Lost was presented by the Stuttgart Opera. This production, the work's second, confirmed the tediousness of Penderecki's creation. B270. Dommett, Kenneth. Cheltenham polonaise. Music and Musicians 16, (September 1967): 24-25, 43. Included in the Cheltenham Festival were Penderecki's Miniatures for Violin and Piano and Threnody. According to Dommett, the Miniatures' brevity and content scarcely merited so much climbing in and out of the piano by the two performers. Threnody did not even evoke human responses, but seem[ed] to enter that emptiness of intergalactic space. B271. Doucelin, Jacques. Ein lyrischer Bogen; Penderecki und Rostropowitsch in Paris. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 144, no. 6 (June 1983): 36. A month after the premiere of the Second Cello Concerto in Berlin, Rostropovich and Penderecki presented the same work in Paris. Rostropovich played as if this piece were an old friend instead of a newcomer to his repertoire. During the course of the work, wonderfully lyric solo passages are heard in opposition to furious orchestral episodes.

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B272. Douglas, Robert. Choral Performances. Dallas, Texas. American Choral Review 12, no. 2 (1970): 120-23. Douglass offered solutions for the performance problems encountered in the St. Luke Passion. Coordinating entrances in the work's aleatoric sections may call for the four choirs to memorize the music, at least in some passages. Since the desired pitch cannot always be heard prior to a particular entrance, they must be determined by interval recognition. B273. Drew, James. Information, Space, and a New Time-Dialetic. Journal of Music Theory 12, no. 1 (1968): 98-99. Drew attempted to relate the music and ideas of Webern and Ives to post-1950 compositions. Of Threnody, he said that the overall motionlessness of this kind of composition now brings sufficient attention to the space in which all of its information is constantly being revealed, and this in turn allows all levels of projected information to be more readily perceived. B274. Driver, Paul. Multi-Lingual Voice of Modern Poland. Sunday Times (London), January 21, 1990, p. E8. Driver reviewed the four-volume set of Penderecki's compositions released on compact disc by Polskie Nagrania. The pieces included on these discs encompass a full range of styles, from the unusual sonorities and instrumental techniques of Threnody and Polymorphia to the relative straightforwardness of idiom in the Second Symphony and Violin Concerto. B275. Droba, Krzysztof. Festiwal Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 24, no. 17 (August 24, 1980): 3-4. An impressive amount of music was heard by surprisingly large audiences at the Penderecki Festival held in Krakw in June 1980. Droba traced Penderecki's musical styles through the pieces offered, beginning with the neoclassicism of the clarinet Miniatures and progressing through the composer's sonoristic period to the more recent neo-romantic Violin Concerto. Of particular interest to Droba were those works in which elements of more than one style could be tracedfor example, The Awakening of Jacob. In his opinion, this Festival reaffirmed the high quality of Penderecki's music. B276. Hierarchia czynnikw formalnych w Krzyszofa Pendereckiego (na Polymorfii). Muzyka 21, no. 4 (1976): 22-28. Droba described the formal aspects of Polymorphia in terms of its rhythms and articulations, which are arranged in both simple and complex textures. B277. Raport z Wilna. III Litewsko-Polska Konferencja Muzykologiczna. Ruch muzyczny 35, no. 26 (1991): 5. Droba reported on a paper about Ubu Rex given by Regina at the LithuanianPolish Musicology Conference. She compared the moral signals sent in this opera to those evident in The Devils of Loudun, Paradise Lost, and The Black Mask. In particular, she discussed the boundaries between good and evil, the meaning of the references to God made in each piece, and the lost sense of hope for the existence of man and the world apparent in The Black Mask and Ubu Rex.

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B278. Drobig, Bernhard. Geistliche Hhenflge: Festivaljubilum in La Chaise-Dieu (20.8.-1.9.1996). Concerto 13, no. 117 (October 1996): 9-10. This contains a brief mention of a performance of the St. Luke Passion. B279. Druey, Paul. 'Musica nova' in Luzern. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 105, no. 5 (September-October 1965): 291-92. The Capriccio for Oboe and Strings, performed at the Lucerne Festival, was both shocking and humorous. B280. ds [Dorota Szwarcman]. 'David' i inni. Ruch muzyczny 33, no. 26 (1989): 11-12. Penderecki conducted the Krakw Philharmonic in Jan 'David' Symphony and Tchaikovsky's Rococo Variations in November 1989. B281. Dufallo, Richard. Trackings. Composers Speak with Richard Dufallo. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. Dufallo's lengthy interview with Penderecki, conducted in February 1987, revolved around several topics: the Darmstadt festivals of the early 1960s, electronic and serial music, the difficulties the composer has experienced in getting performances of his compositions, and the stylistic features of these same pieces. B282. Dmling, Albrecht. Routinierte Synthese. Urauffhrung von Pendereckis Violoncellokonzert Nr. 2 mit Rostropowitsch und den Berliner Philharmonikern. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 144, no. 4 (April 1983): 29-30. Dmling described the Second Cello Concerto as having a three-part, quasi-sonata form. The piece marked a continuation of Pendereckis neo-romantic style, first seen in the Violin Concerto. Penderecki conducted Shostakovichs Symphony No. 14 on the same concert as this world premiere performance of the Cello Concerto. B283. Dybowski, 'Warszawska na powszechne, no. 207 (September 25, 1980). The Capriccio for Tuba demonstrates the many technical possibilities inherent in this solo instrument. The piece also has a certain romantic quality that will appeal to listeners not accustomed to contemporary music. B284. Dzieduszycki, Wojciech. Pomost muzycznej Jesieni. literackie 38, no. 42 (October 16, 1988): 3, Two productions of The Black Mask were presented during the 1988 Warsaw Autumn Festival: one in German by Teatr Wielki, and another in Polish by Warsaw's Teatr Wielki. The interpretation focused on the main hero, who becomes entangled in the moral and social conflicts that are threatening the disintegration of his world. The Warsaw production presented a powerful, thrilling drama that, through the nightmarish experiences of the hero and its secretive atmosphere, reflects a world disappearing under the weight of social conflict.

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B285. e.,f. Bekenntnis und Markt. Krzysztof Penderecki verteidigt sich gegen westliche Kritik. Die Presse, December 27, 1983, p. 5; Deutsche Allgemeine Sonntagsblatt, November 20, 1983, p. 5. On the occasion of his 50th birthday, Penderecki received a Polish government award. This was promptly misinterpreted by some Western critics as a sign of his co-operation with Polands Communist government. Penderecki defended himself with statements alluding to his sacred compositions and to his position as a rector of a Polish music school [in Krakw], in which he uses his own fame for the good of the school. B286. E., R. Minnesota Orchestra: Penderecki Premiere. High Fidelity/Musical America 28, no. 5 (May 1978): MA21-22. On the occasion of the American premiere of Penderecki's Violin Concerto, the author balanced his overall praise for the piece with the caveat that it was too long for the musical ideas used in it. Soloist Isaac Stern could not always be heard against the luxuriant string backdrop. B287. Eberle, Gottfried. Verzuckertes Grauen der Welt. Pendereckis Tedeum in Berlin. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, February 16, 1981, p. 23. The 100th concert of West Berlins Musik der Gegenwart festival series was devoted to music by Penderecki. Included were Threnody, an experiment in the border area between sound and noise, Stabat Mater, with its triumpant final chord in D major, and the Adagietto from Paradise Lost, which was reminiscent of Mahlers Fifth Symphony. The Awakening of Jacob was not successful, although Eberle spoke of its horn calls and ethereal sounds of the ocarines. The dignified roots of Te Deum, with its dedication to Pope John Paul II, were obscured by the poor quality of its music. B288. Ebert-Obermeier, Traude. Musikfestival in Wroclaw. Musik und Gesellschaft 16 (November 1966): 758-60. Stabat Mater was performed at the Festival of Contemporary Polish Music in The piece is based on a Gregorian melody. Polyphony and hocket technique contribute to its archaic character. B289. Eckert Jr., Thor. In a Time of Tension, Polish Composer Penderecki Celebrates Hope. Christian Science Monitor, November 23, 1983, pp. 39, 41. In this talk with Eckert, Penderecki asserted that, although he did not consider himself to be a political activist, he did conceive of his music as being a symbol of hope for the Polish people. He commented favorably on Ligeti and Berio, but said that he would not discuss Nono's music because of the latter's sympathies towards Communism. B290. Penderecki Establishes Operatic Mastery. Christian Science Monitor, August 19, 1988, pp. 19-20. Eckert reviewed the Santa Fe Opera's premiere of The Black Mask in a positive light. Penderecki's music, though difficult vocally, was dramatically effective. The libretto, however, was rather weak. In an adjacent column under the same title is an interview with Penderecki by Eckert. Penderecki considered The Black Mask to be his best work to date.

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B291. Polish Composer Penderecki and Cracow on Tour in US. Christian Science Monitor, January 24, 1986, pp. 23-24. Eckert called Penderecki music's leading example of a creative artist living in the midst of an oppressive political system. Both the St. Luke Passion and the Polish Requiem were composed in response to the repression imposed by the Communist Party in Poland. Currently, Penderecki is touring the United States with the Krakw Philharmonic, conducting The Awakening of Jacob, the Second Cello Concerto, and the Polish Requiem. Eckert approved of the first of these pieces, but felt that the Concerto favored virtuosity at the expense of an organized musical statement. B292. Ehinger, Hans. Luzern: Musica Nova. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 126, no. 10 (October 1965): 401-402. Heinz Holliger was the soloist in the Capriccio for Oboe and Strings, performed at Lucernes Musica Nova festival. The piece called for completely outlandish sounds. B293. Eimert, Herbert. 2 Urauffhrungen und 3 Erstauffhrungen in Kln. Melos 31 (February 1964): 65. In Eimert's opinion, Penderecki is the boldest and most imaginative composer in presentday Europe. The Psalms of David and Stabat Mater helped to free contemporary music from stagnation. B294. ek. Dimensionen der Zeit und der Stille (Hermann Moeck Verlag, Celle). Melos 4, no. 29 (December 1962): 411. The reviewer described Dimensions of Time and Silence as a piece reflecting macabre violence, a comment intended to be taken in a positive light. He mentioned the works unorthodox treatment of the choir, its transfer of electronic effects to traditional instruments and voice, and its notation. B295. Ekiert, Janusz. Czarna Maska Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 30, no. 20 (1986): 14-15. In the first half of this review, Eckiert explored the surrealistic aspects of Hauptmann's play, which served as the basis of the opera. In the second half, he described the operas musical elements. He considered the piece to be a synthesis of Penderecki's compositions to date, but this music works in a fascinatingly fresh manner. B296. Owacyjne 'Raju utraconego' K. Pendereckiego. Express wieczorny, no. 213 (September 22-23, 1979): 1-2. Ekiert reviewed the dates of the previous productions of Paradise Lost, then discussed the Stuttgart State Theater's version, which was performed to great applause at the Warsaw Autumn Festival. This presentation was more like an opera than the world premiere had been, but the performers were not quite as good as those in the premiere production. B297. nie ostateczny. Express Wieczorny, no. 224 (October 57, 1979). The attempt by critics to link Paradise Lost to Wagner's music seems to be based on certain obscure and trivial elements of the latter's compositions. Ekiert reminded his readers that Wagner's operas were originally thought to have been influenced by Berlioz

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and other French composers, but that comparison was now considered to be inconsequential. Penderecki's case is similar. One of the complaints frequently expressed about the Stuttgart production (as seen in Warsaw) was that Uta Maria Flake, in the role of Eve, should be thinner if she was going to wear nearly transparent clothing. Another criticism was that the brutal realism of the finale's film projections unnecessarily shocked many audience members. However, in his rebuttal, Ekiert asserted that the logic behind the finale was faultless, and that both the libretto and the concept of a sacra rappresentazione originated in the Baroque era, when ideas about the beauty of human figures were different. B298. Ellis, Stephen. Penderecki: Concerto for Viola and Orchestra. Capriccio for Oboe and Eleven Strings. Strophes for Soprano, Speaking Voice, and Ten Instruments. Intermezzo for Twenty-four Strings. Three Pieces in Antique Style, for String Orchestra. Fanfare 13, no. 6 (July/August 1990): 221. Elliss response to this CD of Pendereckis music was luke-warm. Although the performances and sound quality were fine, he did not consider the music to be masterful. B299. Penderecki: Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima. Concerto for Viola and Orchestra. Van de Vate: Chernobyl, for Orchestra. Concerto No. 1 for Violin and Orchestra. Fanfare 12, no. 5 (May/June 1989): 266-67. Recordings of Threnody, a truly searing, brutal musical depiction of unimaginable horror, and the Viola Concerto, a tightly knit, rather morose affair, were reviewed here (Conifer 168). B300. Van de Vate: Cracow Concerto for Percussion and Orchestra. Katyn, for Orchestra and Chorus. Schoenberg: A Survivor from Warsaw, for Narrator, Male Chorus, and Orchestra. Pendereckis: Dies IraeOratorio in Memory of the Victims of Auschwitz. Fanfare 14, no. 4 (March/April 1991): 410-11. In this CD review (Conifer 185), North briefly described Dies Irae as a wrenching closer. B301. ep. polscy za Ruch muzyczny 33, no. 27 (1989): 2. Teatr Wielki gave performances of The Black Mask in Sindenfingen and Friedrichshafen, West Germany between November 12 and 17, 1989. B302. 2. polscy za Ruch muzyczny 34, no. 21 (1990):

Teatr Wielki presented The Black Mask in Dresden and West Berlin in September and early October 1990. B303. zagraniczni w Polsce. Ruch muzyczny 32, no. 15 (1988): 2. This is a list of the foreign performers involved in the Penderecki Festival in Krakw in June 1988.

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B304. Muzycy dla kultury narodowej. Ruch muzyczny 31, no.23 (1987): 2. Penderecki received the honorary title for Meritorious Service for National Culture from the People's State Council. B305. Penderecki szefem Filharmonii Krakowskiej. Ruch muzyczny 31, no. 22 (1987): 9. Penderecki became the artistic director of the Krakw Philharmonic effective with the 1987-1988 season. B306. Z kraju. Ruch muzyczny 33, no.11 (1989): 12-13. A film version of The Black Mask, set in the Polish town of is being prepared by the Warsaw Documentary and Feature Film Producers. B307. Erhardt, Ludwik. Bg, szatan, i Ruch muzyczny 23, no. 1 (1979): 3-5; no. 2 (1979): 14-15; no. 3 (1979): 12-13. Paradise Lost is the subject of this three-part article. In the first part, Erhardt described the differences between Milton's Paradise Lost and the libretto and reviewed the actual plot of the opera. In the second part, he gave a detailed history of the opera and sampled the foreign press reviews from the premiere performances. The final part is a discussion of the work's place within Penderecki's oeuvre. B308. Contemporary Music in Poland. Translated by Eugenia Tarska. Warsaw: Polonia, 1966. Penderecki is unquestionably the most original artistic personality in the experimentalists' group in Poland. His innovations mean...a search for, and the application of, such new media, as can best bring out and intensify the expressive intent of his music. B309. Pendereckiego w Warszawie. Ruch muzyczny 19, no. 16 (1975): 2-3, 8-9. In this article, Erhardt shed light on the disagreements between Penderecki and Kazimierz Dejmek, the stage director of the Teatr Wielki's production of The Devils of Loudun. This discord eventually prompted Penderecki to withdraw his approval of the production. Dejmek initially had suggested several changes in an effort to strengthen the opera's political intriques and its psychological profile of Urbain Grandier. These changes, approved by Penderecki, included deleting the provocative bathtub scene featuring Grandier and Ninon and the dramatic portraits of Cerisay and Ninon. Added to the work were an encounter between de Cond and de Laubardemont and the wedding scene. Later, however, Dejmek made further changes, which resulted in a departure from the realistic dramatic form proposed by the author, depriving the spectacle of all genre and literal quotation. In Penderecki's view, the opera's style and character were thus altered against his wishes. Erhardt reminded his readers that these backstage quarrels must be forgotten when viewing the opera. He deemed the Warsaw production an unusually beautiful operatic entertainment...each word, each gesture had meaning...the music is first-class.

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B310. w Dolnej Nadrenii. Ruch muzyczny 19, no. 14 (July 6, 1975): 16-18. The Devils of Loudun was presented in Mnchengladbach in May 1975. Although Erhardt reported that the production was received very well by the public and many critics, he did not find it satisfactory. In particular, he criticized the poor flow of scene changes, the scenery itself, and the conventionality of the finale's staging. B311. szybko i powierzchownie. Kultura (Warsaw), no. 41 (October 12, 1975): 1, 12. The Magnificat, performed at the 1975 Warsaw Autumn Festival, is the composer's finest work to date. It does not yield to superficial charm or to the fashions of the day, but reaches for the same emotions felt in the works of Bach and Stravinsky. In The Awakening of Jacob, presented on the same concert, one can hear that Penderecki has gradually eliminated aggressive sound effects and...terseness of form in favor of a more refined style. B312. Dwa wieczory z Ruch muzyczny 36, no. 6 (1992): 3. Penderecki conducted the Sinfonia Varsovia in the world premiere of his Sinfonietta for Strings No. 1. Its simplicity and conciseness should be appreciated by listeners. According to Erhardt, the piece represents a renewal of a tradition that had been neglected in Polish music since the compositions of Michal Spisak and Bacewicz. B313. Dwie opinie o dwch przestawieniach. Ruch muzyczny 13, no. 17 (1969): 6-8. Erhardt paraphrased Paul Moor's article about the Hamburg and Stuttgart productions of The Devils of Loudun (Financial Times, July 2, 1969). He quoted Moor's disparaging remarks about the Hamburg stage director's interpretations and summarized his positive comments about the Stuttgart director. Moor judged the Hamburg production to have better singers, but in Stuttgart, there were better performers. Erhardt then offered his own views about the similarities between Devils, the St. Luke Passion, and Dies Irae. B314. bogatych dni. Ruch muzyczny 11, no. 21 (1967): 714. After hearing a live performance of Dies Irae, Erhardt changed his formerly negative opinion about the piece. He now feels that it is an excellent work, and that Penderecki's gift for composition has been matched by only a few other composers in history. B315. Et facta est immensi copia mundi. Ruch muzyczny 17, no. 15 (1973): 5-6. Cosmogony was commissioned by the United Nations to celebrate the United Nations' 25th anniversary. Penderecki eventually selected excerpts from texts in five languages. Erhardt discussed Penderecki's reasons for selecting each text and commented on the seeming disparity between the importance of the texts themselves and their incomprehensibility in performance. Erhardt then described the various interpretations of the work's final measures, the meaning of the titles of the two main sections (Arch, Aperion), and the musical material employed by the composer.

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B316. A Glance at Contemporary Music in Poland. Polish Music 14, nos. 1-2 (1979): 17-27. In this comprehensive discussion of Polish composers, Erhardt described Penderecki as a musician who has made a challenging contribution to a discussion on the meaning and aim of contemporary art. He also raised the question of why Penderecki was now perceived to be outside the circle of avant-garde composers to which he had once belonged. B317. I Symfonia. ewolucji. Ruch muzyczny 17, no. 23 (1973): 5-6. Erhardt began by providing information about the world, Polish, East German, and British premieres of Penderecki's First Symphony. He then noted that critics had greeted the symphony with a full range of opinions, ranging from contempt, [and] ... disgust, [to] moderate praise, to praise and enthusiasm. Most criticism was directed towards the fact that a British firm, Perkins Engines, had commissioned a piece from a Polish composer rather than from a British onea foreshadowing of the controversy that erupted in the United States over the commissioning of Paradise Lost. Erhardt briefly described the Symphonys form and pitch structure, then commented that this piece exhibited less emotionalism and more intellectualism than the composers previous works had. B318. Jeden z bardziej niewygodnych Ruch muzyczny 33, no. 7 (1989): 5-6. This article is Erhardt's response to Jan Marynowski's essay in the previous issue of Ruch muzyczny, entitled To Sing in Polish or in the Original Language ( po polsku czy w oryginale). Erhardt related the story of what had happened to his Polish translation of Paradise Lost, which had to be submitted to the Ministry of Culture and Art for its approval before being used in performance. The libretto was reviewed by two people, one a Famous Poet, the other unknown to Erhardt. The poet picked the translation to pieces, making many changes that were very beautiful, except that the resulting lyrics did not fit with the music. The anonymous reader's principal complaint was that the insertion of the Dies Irae between Milton's verses was a case of extreme poetic license. The Ministry rejected the libretto, but accepted it without changes five years later, when Penderecki no longer had plans to perform the work in Poland. B319. Konkurs na libretto? Dialog 13, no. 12 (December 1968): 6063. In one section of this article, Erhardt related his story about attempting to prepare an opera libretto at Penderecki's request. Erhardt was able to complete a scenario for The Devils of Loudun, but discovered that he could not write the actual libretto without working in close collaboration with the composer. At the time, Penderecki was busy finishing his St. Luke Passion, and then presenting it around the world. A few years later, Penderecki showed Erhardt a libretto that he had constructed himself by cutting and pasting sections from the German translation of Whiting's The Devils.

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B320. Krzysztof Penderecki, twrcy kultury polskiej. Tygodnik Kulturalny 11, no. 20 (1967): 3; translated, abridged version in Krzysztof Penderecki. Polish Perspectives 11, nos. 8-9 (1968): 44-46. According to Erhardt, the originality of Penderecki's music stemmed from the composer's treatment of sound, which has been used without its traditional melodic and harmonic props, even without any serial arrangement. Penderecki's primary innovations in this field have been the development of non-traditional uses for string instruments and the expansion of vocal sonorities and articulations. [Quote is from Polish Perspectives.] B321. Krzysztof Penderecki dyryguje w Katowicach. Ruch muzyczny 18, no. 14 (July 7, 1974): 6. Penderecki's conducting debut in Poland was on June 1, 1974 in Katowice. (He had earlier participated in the making of a recording in that city, but the June event was the first time that he conducted publicly in Poland.) Stravinsky's Firebird Suite and his own Cello Concerto No. 1 and First Symphony were on the program. Erhardt noted that the Concerto was written in 1972 for Siegfried Palm [Note: it actually was revised for Palm that year from the original version for violino grande, completed in 1967]. As a conductor, Penderecki paid more attention to overall form than to details, although his tempos and dynamic contrasts were appropriate. B322. a teatr. Ruch muzyczny 23, no. 23 (1979): 3-4; English translation as Penderecki's 'Paradise Lost' at Warsaw Autumn 1979. Polish Music 14, no. 4 (1979): 18-22. In this review of Paradise Lost, presented at the 1979 Warsaw Autumn Festival by the Stuttgart State Theater, Erhardt lamented the fact that this staging did not reflect the wishes of either the librettist or the composer. August Everding, the stage director, shortened the work by more than a half hour, eliminated the dancers that in the Chicago production had served as the alter egos of Adam and Eve, and altered the characterization of Raphael. B323. Erhardt, Ludwik. Music in Poland. Edited by Wanda Michalek. Translated by Jan Aleksandrowicz. Warsaw: Interpress Publishers, 1975. Penderecki's compositions are mentioned throughout this book. Discographies at the end of each chapter list a few pertinent recordings. B324. Operowe Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 37, no. 23 (November 14, 1993): 1, 4. Erhardt argued that the relative lack of success that met Pendereckis last three operas (Paradise Lost, The Black Mask, and Ubu Rex) was due to the composers predilection to select librettos that were complete in themselves; that is, they did not need the assistance of music to bring them to life. Correspondingly, Pendereckis music for these works served only to illustrate the drama rather than to enrich it. B325. Pendereckis Paradise Lost at Warsaw Autumn 1979. Polish Music 14, no. 4 (1980): 18-22. The Stuttgart production of Paradise Lost shown at the Warsaw Autumn Festival was marred by overly theatrical staging and cuts in both music and drama. Among the cuts

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were the Archangel Raphaels part and the roles of the dancers who interpreted the roles of Adam and Eve. The use of a film to display the plagues overpowered the music. B326. Po siedemnastu latach. In Papierowe nosy, 166-72. Warsaw: Wydawnictwa Artystyczne i Filmowe, 1970; original article in Kultura (Warsaw), January 28, 1968. Erhardt's comments on the Polish premiere of the Capriccio for Violin took the form of recollections of Penderecki's work on the manuscript. In particular, he recalled that the piece's original title had been Violin Concerto, but that Penderecki had changed the name because he wished to avoid the traditional associations with the concerto genre. B327. ' Die schwarze Maske' in Polish Music 23, no. 1 (1988): 33-35. The Polish premiere of The Black Mask was given by the Grand Theater in Erhardt summarized the opera's plot, then discussed its musical styles. Penderecki conceded that this production was superior to the world premiere production . B328. Spotkania z Krzysztofem Pendereckim. Krakw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1975. Erhardts biography of Penderecki, the first to appear in any language, covers the composers career through 1973. Citations from published reviews, concise, yet insightful analyses of each work, and detailed information about world premieres are interwoven throughout the biography. Perhaps most valuablebecause of its rarityis the information Erhardt provided about Pendereckis numerous works for puppet theater and short films from the early 1960s. A list of published works, discography, and extensive endnotes are included. Added bonuses are the many photos scattered throughout and the facsimile excerpts from Capriccio for Siegfried Palm, De Natura Sonoris No. 2, and Utrenia. B329. Warszawska 1973. Kultura (Warsaw), no. 40 (October 7, 1973): 1, 6-7. The scheduled presentation of The Devils of Loudun at the 1973 Warsaw Autumn Festival was cancelled. The management of Warsaw's Teatr Wielki claimed that the work could have been performed had Penderecki not taken so long to make revisions. The composer disagreed with that assertion, declaring that all changes had been made early enough to permit the performance to take place. While Erhardt made no attempt to decide who was telling the truth, he did question why the opera had not yet been presented in Poland, when it had been seen in West Germany and Santa Fe and was soon to be offered in London and Berlin. B330. In Muzyka polska informator. Edited by Stefan Krakw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1967. A list of Penderecki's works completed between 1956 and 1963 is given. Penderecki's main source of experimentation is the string instruments, with which he uses new articulations to create new sounds.

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B331. Erhardt, Ludwik et al. O muzyce polskiej na festiwalu. Ruch muzyczny 18, no. 23 (1974): 3-12. Five Polish music critics (Erhardt, Malinowski, Pisarenko, and ) offered comments about Canticum Canticorum Salomonis and other Polish compositions heard at the 1974 Warsaw Autumn Festival. They had differing opinions about the value of Penderecki's work. was quite harsh, stating that he expected something that was more dynamicmore expressive of the Song of Songs texts. Both Erhardt and Pisarenko felt that the specific performance of this piece was below par. Malinowski called the piece one of the best of Penderecki's works, while described it as colorful, subtle, elegant, and expressively discreet. B332. Ericson, Raymond. 'The Devils': A Cynical Witch Hunt. New York Times, June 6, 1971, Section 2, pp. 21, 24. A Philips recording of The Devils of Loudun was given a positive review. Ericson summarized the operas plot, then declared that its music is always striking, its style eclectic in the best sense of the word, and its images mesmerizing. B333. Whatever the Crises, the Politics Gives Way to Music. New York Times, October 18, 1970, Section 2, p. 15. Ericson discussed the upcoming United Nations Day Concert, which will include the world premiere of Cosmogony and be telecast on a delayed basis in Canada, Europe, Japan, and possibly Latin America. B334. Evarts, John. Donaueschingen. World of Music 10, no. 2 (1968): 42-43. Penderecki's Capriccio for Violin, performed at the 1967 Donaueschingen Festival is a spirited piece of music, somewhat in the style of a traditional capriccio. Unfortunately, the soloist's pyrotechnics were sometimes lost within the sound of the orchestra. B335. Fabian, Imre. Als wr's ein Stck von E. A. Poe. Pendereckis Die schwarze Maske wurde aus bei den Salzburger Festspielen uraufgefhrt. Opern Journal 27 (October 1986): 10-11. In his review of the world premiere of The Black Mask, Fabian praised the piece as having the maturity of a championship. He noted its masterly orchestra treatment, the abundant and apparently diverging stylistic means of the quotation,... the hectic, figurative parlando [and]...the treatment of the voice from recitative to arioso... Fabians only complaint regarded the continual movement on stage B336. Deutsche Erstauffhrung: Pendereckis Verlorenes Paradies in Stuttgart, Opern Welt 20, no. 6 (June 1979): 19-20. The West German premiere of Paradise Lost contained several composer-instigated cuts made since its world premiere performance. Although the stage director, August Everding, attempted to enliven the action, the piece remained more of a commentary on the text than a dramatic portrayal of it. Penderecki has been deemed a traitor by modernist composers, which, in Fabians opinion, seems to be a misleading characterization.

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B337. Meine Musik hat barocke Zge. Gesprch mit dem Komponisten Krzyszt of Penderecki. Opern Welt 20, no. 1 (January 1979): 1617. At the beginning of his conversation with Fabian, Penderecki discussed the genesis of Paradise Lost. In comments about the work's premiere, he stated that he forced the Chicago Lyric Opera to replace the stage director, Virginio Puecher, with Igal Perry because he disagreed with Puecher's concept of the production as a kind of Broadway show. Musically, he gave different music to each character: God has unisons and octaves, the angels sing fifths and fourths, Eve has minor thirds, and Satan is given tritones. God is accompanied by organ and strings, Satan by brass instruments, and so forth. B338. Musik in Chicago. Die Urauffhrung von Pendereckis Paradise Lost, Mascagnis Cavalleria rusticana, Leoncavallos Bajazzo, Donizettis Don Pasquale and der Lyric Opera. Opern Welt 20, no. 1 (January 1979): 12-15. The world premiere on American soil of an opera by a European composer attracted about 200 critics and theatrical VIPs. The production itself was marred by poor staging (even taking into consideration its nomenclature as a sacra rappresentazione). Musically the piece displayed a mature style. B339. Schule der Gelufigkeit oder Ein Fest fr Roland Topor. Krzysztof Pendereckis Ubu Rex wurde im Mnchner Nationaltheater uraufgefhrt. Opern Welt 32, no. 8 (August 1991): 18-19. Fabian began this review by suggesting that Alfred Jarrys Ubu Roi represented the provocative side of modern theater in the early 20th century. Penderecki, however, had chosen to highlight the plays buffa side. His music, while skillfully written, was too thin to function successfully as a comic opera. Roland Topors scenery in the premiere production reduced the opera to a series of optical images and fantasies. B340. Fachmi, Farida. Penderecki in Russia. Reception by the Public and the Professionals. In The Music of Krzysztof Penderecki: Poetics and Reception, edited by Tomaszewski, 155-57. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1995; Penderecki w Rosji. reakcje, komentarze i muzycznego. Muzyka Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Poetyka i Recepcja, edited by Tomaszewski, 153-54. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1996. As an on-air employee of Gostelradio and later Radio Ostankino, Fachmi was an observer of contemporary musical life in the Soviet Union and its successor nation, Russia. Soviet music festivals played a prominent role in disseminating knowledge of European contemporary music, including the works of Penderecki and inside the Soviet Union. Penderecki enjoyed critical success in the Soviet Union during his visits there in the 1980s.

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B341. Favre, Max. Bern. Penderecki und Bartk. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 110, no. 1 (January/February 1970): 31-32. In this review of De Natura Sonoris No. 1, Favre stated that the development and form of the piece are distinguishable through modified or contrasting sound phenomena. In his opinion, Penderecki had a rich imagination. B342. Felder, David, and Mark Schneider. An Interview with Krzysztof Penderecki. The Composer 11 (1977): 8-20. Penderecki reflected on his compositional career in this conversation with Felder and Schneider. He divided his output into three periods. Prior to 1962, he was concerned with expanding the vocabulary of contemporary music. From 1962-1973, he developed his own compositional language. Then, beginning in 1974, he regained an interest in traditional orchestral sounds, pitch, and repetition. Of utmost importance to him are the ideas of tension and release in a composition. B343. Feschotte, Jacques. Lucerne. Revue musicale de Suisse Romande 18, no. 4 (1965): 17. This includes a brief mention of the world premiere of Capriccio for Oboe, with Heinz Holliger as soloist. The piece was a brilliant and lively divertissement. B344. Fierz, Gerold. Die Lukaspassion von Krzysztof Penderecki. Ein Vergleich zweier Aufnahmen. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 107, no. 5 (September-October 1967): 299-300. The release of two recordings of the St. Luke Passion (Harmonia Mundi 3101/3012 and Philips 802771/2) prompted this article. Each of the recordings featured the same soloists and conductor, but a different narrator, orchestra, and choruses. Fierz thought the Polish recording (released by Philips) had a more spontaneous feel to it. B345. Fischer, Erik. Akteure, Topoi und Innovationen in musikalischen Rezeptionsgeschichten. In Rezeptionssthetik und Rezeptionsgeschichte in der Musikwissenschaft, 317-36. Edited by Hermann Danuser and Friedhlem Krummacher. Laaber, Germany: Laaber, 1991. In addition to providing a look at the reception history in Germany of the music of Penderecki and other composers, Fischer also discussed Polish contemporary music against the background of Polish-Germanic relations. He asserted that music critics attitude were conditioned by their own and their nations political perceptions and prejudices. For example, German critics were very interested in Pendereckis experimental music of the early and mid-1960s, but their attention shifted to the music and art of Czechoslovakia after 1968. Later, they were able to offer more unbiased opinions about Polish music. B346. Das neue musikalische Repertoire und seine integrierenden Funktionen. In Zur Problematik der Opernstruktur, 57-74. Beihefte zum Archiv fr Musik-Wissenschaft, vol. 20. Wiesbaden: Steiner, 1982. Fischer selected The Devils of Loudun as an example of a modern opera that integrated music and theater rather than presenting them in opposition to one another. He discussed the historical events depicted in the opera and the manner in which they were depicted by Aldous Huxley, John Whiting, and Penderecki. He devoted the remainder

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of the article to a discussion of the ways in which speech, song, dynamics, and instrumentation were interrelated in this work. B347. Tendenzen der Penderecki-Rezeption Bundesrepublik Deutschland. In Deutsch-polnische Musikbeziehungen, edited by Wulf Konold, Munich: Emil Katzbichler, 1987. Fischer presented the idea that although a relative agreement on the Pendereckis music existed in the 1960s, a dichotomy in the reception of his audiences and music critics developed in the 1970s. in der 129-45, value of music by

B348. Flechtner, Michel R. Geneve: Kristof Penderecki: 'Les diables de Loudun'. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 119, no. 2 (1979): 92-93. The Swiss premiere of The Devils of Loudun was presented in Geneva by the Stuttgart Opera. Flechtner summarized the plot, then turned to the music itself, which reminded him of the St. Luke Passion. Both the libretto and the music failed to maintain the audience's interest. However, the high quality of the staging and the performers helped to create a positive impression overall. B349. Fleming, Shirley. Hanover, N. H.: Webern, Krenek, & a New Violin. High Fidelity/Musical America 18, no. 10 (October 1968): MA23, 31. Penderecki's Concerto for Violino Grande was heard during the Dartmouth Congregation of the Arts series in the summer of 1968. Fleming found it a fascinating piece. The solo instrument was developed at the request of violinist Eichenholz by a Swedish research scientist/luthier. Viol-shaped, it has five strings that cover the range of both violin and viola. B350. Krzysztof Penderecki: Musician of the Month. High Fidelity/Musical America 25 (December 1975): MA6-7. In a conversation with Fleming, Penderecki discussed his plans for the future (a Christmas Oratorio, a Requiem, a concerto for Isaac Stern, an opera buffa for the Munich Opera) and his work-in-progress, Paradise Lost. Penderecki mentioned that Paradise would be labeled a rappresentazione because of its static subject matter. He was currently searching for a new way of composing for theater. B351. New York Philharmonic: Penderecki Symphony No. 5. American Record Guide 61 (January-February, 1998): 49. Dozens of New York Philharmonic audience members at the performance of Pendereckis Threnody and Symphony No. 5 did not wait around to hear the latter work. Fleming, however, praised that piece as being engagingly transparent. B352. Floyd, Jerry. 'Polish Requiem' Gets Stunning Debut. Baltimore Sun, December 2, 1985. The U. S. premiere of the Polish Requiem was an overwhelming success. Floyd called it one of the most important classical music compositions of the 1980s.

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B353. Flummerfelt, Joseph. Passion according to St. LukePenderecki. Choral Journal 13, no. 8 (1973): 7-12. Flummerfelt devoted much of this article to providing performing hints for the choral portions of the St. Luke Passion. He preceded these comments with brief remarks about the piece's overall form, instrumentation, and dramatic action. B354. fm. Tage fr Neue Musik des Hessischen Rundfunks. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 102, no. 5 (1962): 306-307. Pendereckis String Quartet No. 1, heard in a Darmstadt concert, was described as an unfruitful work by a composer who specialized in making noise on string instruments. The reviewer erroneously called this performance a world premiere. B355. Foesel, Karl. Die letzten beiden Kompositionsauftrge des Nrnberger Drerjahres 1971. Melos 39, no 1 (January-February 1972): 4748. The newly revised version of Cosmogony, presented in Nuremberg, features expanded choral parts and reduced solo roles as well as a reworking of tempo and proportion. Foesel thought the piece was similar to but more decorative than the St. Luke Passion. B356. Forbes, Elizabeth. British Isles. Sadler's Wells (London). Opera Canada 15, no. 1 (Spring 1974): 26. The British premiere of The Devils of Loudun was given a mixed review. Its staging and performers were praised, but the music and libretto were criticizedthe former for its lack of drama and the latter for its failure to arouse pity in the audience. B357. Forster, Christine H. Wiener Staatsoper--Salzburger Festspiele: Die Schwarze Maske von K. Penderecki - Review. Musikerziehung 40 (December 1986): 79. With Pendereckis newest opera, The Black Mask, contemporary music theater has achieved a new height. One can be ambivalent about the opera, but must still admit that it is much better than anything seen in previous seasons. Forster declared that its presentation of a clear reality within a supernatural reality was a primary reason for its success. B358. Foy, Randolph M. Textural Transformations: The Instrumental Music of Krzysztof Penderecki, 1960-73. D.M.A., Peabody Conservatory of Music, 1994. Foy chose a rather ambitious project: to analyze compositions previously criticized as being unanalysablenamely, Pendereckis instrumental works written from 1960 to 1973. Foy coined the term texture style to describe Pendereckis treatment of his musical material in these pieces. He offered extensive analyses of the Capriccio for Violin and Symphony No. 1 and presented detailed comments on other relevant works. B359. Frankenstein, Alfred. Penderecki: St. Luke Passion. High Fidelity/Musical America 19 (May 1969): MA 21-22. The St. Luke Passion was given an outstanding performance in its New York premiere. However, the composition fell prey to a lack of stylistic continuity.

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B360. Freeman, John W. Records. 20th Century Liturgical Works. Opera News 50, no. 16 1986): 49. Recent recordings of Te Deum and Lacrimosa are mentioned briefly. These are definitely twentieth-century pieces, but they are stylistically conventional compared to the composer's earlier works. B361. French, Peter. The London Concert Scene. Musical Opinion 90, no. 1080 (September 1967): 671-72. The St. Luke Passion, performed at the Proms, was praised by French for its various dramatic effects. These effects were, alternately, gripping, or stunning, or fascinating, or sublime. B362. Fritzsche, Dietmar. Deutsche Staatsoper Berlin. Die Teufel von Loudun von Krzysztof Pendereck. Theater der Zeit, no. 3 (1982): 2. A January production of The Devils of Loudun at the Berlin State Opera made an even greater impression on Fritzsche than did the original East German premiere of this work, also presented at the Berlin Opera and directed by Erhard Fischer. B363. Fryc, Adam. przede no. 29 (July 20, 1980); excerpts in Clavis, "Muzyka w prasie," Ruch muzyczny 24, no. 18 (1980): 11. Penderecki commented that his next work, projected to be the comic opera Krol Ubu [Ubu Rex], would be different than any of his earlier compositions. He had begun this piece in 1967 as a commission from the Munich Opera. At that time he had planned to use a large orchestra and choir, but currently he is planning to score it for for chamber ensemble. B364. Frydrychowicz, Borys and Tadeusz Muzicki Biennale Zagreb (II). Ruch muzyczny 7, no. 15 (1963): 5-7. The two authors described Pendereckis unnumbered Violin Concerto, heard in its world premiere, as an attempt at combining the traditional form of a concerto with avant-garde techniques. Unfortunately, this experiment did not yield successful results. B365. Fuhrmann, Peter. Ein endgltig verlorenes Paradies. Neue Musikzeitung 28, no. 3 (1979): 4. The West German premiere of Paradise Lost was given during a festival of Penderecki's music in Stuttgart. The festival also included a production of The Devils of Loudun, the West German premiere of the Violin Concerto, and a choreographed version of the First Symphony. Substantial cuts were made in the production of Paradise. B366. Gegen den kleinen Kreis von Kennern. Neue Musikzeitung 26, no. 4 (1977): 3. In this interview, Penderecki offered his opinions about the state of musical composition in the world today. In general he was displeased with the attitude and training of many composers. Although Penderecki praised the fact that the commissioning of pieces has increased in the past twenty years, especially in West Germany, he believed that much of the music written today is pooronly about 3% is acceptable, in his opinion.

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B367. Totentanz mit Musikzitaten. Pendereckis Die Schwarze Maske in Salzburg uraufgefhrt. Neue Musikzeitung 35, no. 5 (October/November 1986): 4. In this review of the world premiere of The Black Mask, Fuhrmann acknowledged the operas public success and excellent performances. He criticized the music for its rather arbitrary mixing of tradition and innovation. B368. Das Unmgliche in der Realitt umgesetzt. Organisationswunder bei der Musikbiennale in Zagreb: ProgrammKontroversen. Neue Musikzeitung 34 (June-July 1985): 46. A concert of Penderecki's music at the 1985 Zagreb Biennale included his Second Symphony, Second Cello Concerto, and De Natura Sonoris No. 2. Fuhrmann noted that Penderecki never felt obligated to apologize for his position in the musical avant-garde. B369. Das verlorene Paradies eines Komponisten. Zur Auffuuhrung von Pendereckis Paradise Lost in Chikago und Mailand. Neue Musikzeitung 28, no. 1 (February/March 1979): 2. Following the Italian premiere of Paradise Lost in Milan, Fuhrmann criticized the work for its yawning boredom and lack of adherence to John Miltons original concepts. Fuhrmann wondered how any successful three-hour piece could be based on organ points, mushy, viscous-sounding layers of sound, glissandos, and other such devices. B370. Fuks, Marian. Przekora i Po 'Warszawskiej Jesieni 1974. Trybuna mazowiecka, no. 235 (October 5-6, 1974). Canticum Canticorum Salomonis was greeted with mild applause at the 1974 Warsaw Autumn Festival. Fuks described its musical style as luke-warm. B371. G., J. Classical Music Briefs. Stereo Review 46, no. 4 (April 1981): 100. On the occasion of the U. S. premiere of Te Deum, Penderecki discussed his early interest in composing for strings, his predilection for religious themes, the high quality of American musicians, and his distaste for much of contemporary music. B372. Percepcja muzyczna a poziom w grupach treningowych. Psychiatria polska 9, no. 5 (1975): 517-30. Pendereckis music was chosen as one of the samples in a study of anxiety levels experienced while listening to music. B373. Gallaher, Christopher Summers. Density in Twentieth-Century Music. Ph. D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1975. Gallaher's dissertation focused on the interaction of vertical and horizantal densities in contemporary music. Penderecki's String Quartet No. 1 was among the pieces analyzed. B374. Gann, Kyle. Contoured Sheets. Village Voice, March 3, 1987: 75. Gann claimed that Penderecki's music appealed to the American cultural establishment because of its generic quality of chromaticism. He called the Viola Concerto one of the most predictable atonal works ever written and...the dullest concerto...ever heard.

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B375. Garel, A. Musique de film. Revue du cinema, no. 362 (1981): 13639. This article contains a brief discussion about the compositions by Penderecki that were used in the film 2001, A Space Odyssey. Approximately two-thirds of the films score is made from excerpts from Utrenia, The Awakening of Jacob, and De Natura Sonoris No. 2. B376. Dni Krzysztofa Pendereckiego w Krakowie suplement. Ruch muzyczny 39, no. 5 (March 6, 1994): 1-2. reviewed the December 1993 symposium on Pendereckis music. Her primary focus was Tomaszewskis paper concerning the role of tradition in the composers music. B377. K. Penderecki - Psalmy Dawida na chr mieszany i In i tradycja w muzyce Krzysztofa Pendereckiego, edited by Regina and Krzysztof Szwajgier, 11-28. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1983. Innovation co-exists with traditional means of expression in the Psalms of David. This work, which can be sung in Polish or Latin, was the first piece based on a religious theme to be composed by a Polish composer following the end of that countrys socialist realist period in 1956. delineated the changes that Penderecki made to Kochanowskis poems and expounded on the strong link of the words to their musical setting. B378. Geitel, Klaus. Elegien in den Oasen des Friedens. Berlin: Urauffhrung von Pendereckis Cellokonzert mit Rostropowitsch. Die Welt, January 13, 1983, p. 15. Rostropovich demonstrated flashing superiority as the soloist for the world premiere of Pendereckis Second Cello Concerto (here called the Cello Concerto). The piece features passages of tenderness, melancholy, and virtuosity. B379. Klagendes, tonendes Weltgericht. Penderecki in Berlin. Die Welt, Feburary 1, 1988: 200-202. The Opera presented its German-language production of The Black Mask in Berlin. Geitel was impressed both with the performance and the opera, which is a departure from the oratorio style that Penderecki had been using for some time. B380. Krzysztof Pendereckis Verlorenes Paradies - Deutsche Erstauffhrung in Stuttgart. Ein Hllensturm auf den Himmel. Das Orchester 27, nos. 7-8 (July/August 1979): 543-44. The German premiere of Paradise Lost, given in Stuttgart, was superior to Chicagos world premiere. Stage director August Everding moved his players intelligently, while the soloists sang their difficult parts with precision and expression. B381. Vertrieben aus kunstlichen Paradiesen. Penderecki in Berlin. Die Welt, February 5, 1981, p. 23. The German premiere of Te Deum took place during the 100th concert of Berlins Musik der Gegenwart series. This piece is squarely rooted in 19th-century church

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music tradition. Indeed, Geitel stated that the Penderecki of today is quite different from the Penderecki of yesterday. B382. Volltnende Erinnerung an Polens jngste Opfer. Ein Kriegerdenkmal in Tonen: Krzysztof Pendereckis Polnsiches Requiem in Stuttgart uraufgefhrt. Die Welt no. 230 (October 1, 1984): 17. Geitel described Penderecki as an unabashedly patriotic composer. A clear example of this is the Polish Requiem, which includes several movements written to commemorate Polish events. Pendereckis use of the melody is further proof of his Polish patriotism. B383. Gelatt, Roland. Xenakis, Penderecki--and Buffalo. High Fidelity/Musical America 18, no. 6 (1968): 20, 22. Nonesuch's recording sessions for Penderecki's Capriccio for Violin and Orchestra and De Natura Sonoris No. 1 are decribed here. The U.S. premiere of the Capriccio took place just prior to them, during Buffalo's Festival of the Arts Today. B384. Bogdan. 'Polish Culture Is Dying!' Musical America 111, no. 3 (May 1991): 36, 37-38. In this essay on the current state of classical musical culture in Poland, mentioned the difficulties facing the Krakw Philharmonic. As artistic director of the ensemble, Penderecki brought in an American, Gilbert Levine, to be the orchestra's principle conductor beginning in 1987. However, in 1990 the orchestra's musicians began clamoring for a certain unnamed German conductor to replace Levine. Penderecki's response was to resign as artistic director. B385. Ginell, Richard S. Los Angeles. High Fidelity/Musical America 36, no. 8 (August 1986): MA20, 22. Los Angeles was the site of the U.S. premiere of the version of the Viola Concerto for 13 solo strings and percussion. Ginell described the piece as a fairly minor work for a composer who likes to think on a grand scale. B386. Gligo, Niksa. Die Zeit als ein beitragendes Element zur Werkdetermination in der Neuen Musik: Ansatz zu einem Aspekt der musikalischen Chronemik. International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music 28, no. 1 (1997): 19-36. Gligo discussed the semiotic function of musical time in Threnody and Dimensions of Time and Silence. B387. Penderecki na rzecz dzieci. Ruch muzyczny 42, no. 3 (February 8, 1998): 22. Seven Gates of Jerusalem and Hymn to St. Adalbert (here called St. Wojciech) were performed in on December 22, 1997. noted connections between the two pieces, with the most prevalent being the common use of texts from Psalm 47.

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B388. Goertz, Harald. Mnchener Opernfestspiele. Neues von Penderecki und Trojahn. sterreichische Musikzeitschrift 46, no. 10 (1991): 561-62. Darmstadt is dead! This declaration by Goertz summarized his description of Ubu Rex, which features catchy choirs, mysterious wind chords, and Rossini-inspired passages. Goertz noted that the source of some of the musical material was Pendereckis earlier work of the same name for puppet theater [Ubu Roi]. B389. Pendereckis erste Oper 'Die Teufel von Loudon'. sterreichische Musikzeitschrift 24, no. 8 (August 1969): 469-70. In the Hamburg production of The Devils of Loudun, theatrical effects almost overwhelmed the music B390. Gojowy, Detlef. Diese erstaunlichen Polen. Krzysztof Penderecki in Bonn. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, November 21, 1975, p. 23. Penderecki conducted the Southwest German Radio Orchestra in performances of his The Awakening of Jacob and First Cello Concerto. The first work, receiving its German premiere, was described by Gojowy as bearing the influences of Wagner and Shostakovich. B391. Krzysztof Penderecki: Te DeumLacrimosa. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 145, no. 9 (September 1984): 47. This article is a review of EMI's release of Penderecki's Te Deum and Lacrimosa (EMI1C-067-1436231). Gojowy explained the historical reasons for dedicating these pieces to John Paul II and the Solidarity labor union, respectively, and briefly described the importance of Catholicism and Western culture in Polish musical composition since 1956. B392. Penderecki dyryguje w Bonn. Ruch muzyczny 20, no. 1 (1976): 2. Penderecki's music was applauded heartily. The three compositions presented by the Southwest German Radio Orchestra (the First Violin Concerto, Symphony No. 1, and the West German premiere of The Awakening of Jacob) did not fulfill the emotional expectations of the German audience, but their logic and clarity were welcomed, nevertheless. B393. Von Szymanowski bis Schffer. Biennalen Neuer Musik in Krakau und Zagreb. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 148, no. 6 (June 1987): 38-41. This review mentions the world premiere performance of ty snem (Were You But a Dream? ) at the Szymanowski International Musik Biennale in Krakw. B394. Warschauer Herbst 1979. Musica 34, no.1 (1980): 52-54. In his review of the 1979 Warsaw Autumn Festival, Gojowy noted that two pieces by Penderecki were presented: the Violin Concerto and Paradise Lost. The latter, performed by the Stuttgart State Opera, was described as being stylistically reminiscent of Skriabin and his contemporaries.

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B395. Warschauer Herbst 1981. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 143, no. 3 (March 1982): 50-53. This is a brief mention of Te Deum, performed at the 1981 Warsaw Autumn Festival. The piece is stylistically within the East European tradition, but also has an Italian bel canto quality to it. B396. Witold Streichquartett. Krzysztof Penderecki: Streichquartett Nr. 2. Joanna Bruzdowicz: Streichquartett Nr. 1, La Vita. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 147, no. 5 (May 1986): 65. In his review of the Warsaw Quartets recording of these three pieces (Pavane ADW 7149), Gojowy included remarks made by Penderecki to several Belgrade students. Among other things, the composer noted that it would be impossible, given the recent historical experiences of Poland, to compose a piece in buffa style. He went on to say that string quartets had been rarely written in Poland until after World War II. B397. Zeit zum Ordnen. Im Gesprach: K. Penderecki. Die Welt, July 26, 1986, p. 2. Although subtitled In Conversation..., no direct quotes by Penderecki appear in this article. Rather, Gojowy asserted that the composer was famous because of the support he has received from the West in terms of commissions for the St. Luke Passion, Utrenia, Paradise Lost, and other works. He also noted that the sound-textile heard in Threnody and other works was developed by Penderecki without his knowledge of similar experimentation done by Ligeti. B398. Golea, Antoine. Les caprices d'Euterpe. Musica (Chaix) no. 106 (January 1963): 42-45. The Polish Radio National Orchestra performed Threnody during the Semaines Musicales Internationales in France. Golea called this piece a study of timbres and dynamics in which everything that the fertile and almost mournfully sadistic imagination of a young composer could extract from violins, violas, cellos, and contrabasses is extracted, leaving none of the traditional charm of these instruments. B399. ...Et les 'Plaintes la Memoire des Victimes d'Hiroshima' de Penderecki. Journal de musical franais musica disques, no. 168 (April 1968): 20. A performance of Threnody by the Orchestre de Paris prompted Golea to declare that Penderecki had discarded all that was beautiful about the sound of string instruments. B400. 'La Passion selon Saint Luc' de Krzystof Penderecki. Journal de musique francais, no. 166 (1968): 33-34. After hearing its world premiere and subsequent recordings, Golea acquired a favorable impression of the St. Luke Passion. However, its performance in the Saint-Sverin church bothered him. The conductor, Charles Bruck, was not suitably prepared, and his numerous late cues contributed to the poor performance.

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B401. Vu et entendu. Journal de musique francais, no. 165 (January 1968): 19-23. The Capriccio for Violin received its world premiere at the Donaueschingen Festival. In this piece, Penderecki surprised his critics and his audience with his abandonment of sonoristic experiments and his resulting turn to a more classical approach to sound and other musical structures. B402. Vu et entendu. De Geneve Hambourg. Journal de musique francais, nos. 184-85 (September-October 1969):43-45. In this review of the Hamburg production of The Devils of Loudun, Golea criticized Penderecki for his failure to create suitable depictions of the characters, particularly that of Urbain Grandier. Golea questioned whether Penderecki was truly interested in this piece, since his music was more appropriate for film than for the dramatic rigors of opera. B403. Vu et entendu. Musica (Chaix), no. 129 (December 1964): 14-16. The Sonata for Cello and Orchestra was premiered at the 1964 Donaueschingen Festival. Golea thought the piece was richly inventive and extraordinarily difficult. B404. Ein zeitgenssisches Musikfest. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 127, no. 6 (June 1966): 242. The premiere of De Natura Sonoris No. 1 was given such a noisy reception that it was repeated immediately. B405. Golianek, Ryszard Daniel. Spalic Ruch muzyczny 42, no. 13 (June 28, 1998): 26. A new production of The Devils of Loudun was premiered in in May. Artistically it was a success. Musically, it was less successful than The Black Mask, and Golianek even suggested that it could be called an anti-opera. B406. festiwal muzyki Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 42, no. 26 (December 27, 1998): 31-32. A four-day festival of Pendereckis music was held in Fourteen works were presented, including the Clarinet Quartet, Threnody, De Natura Sonoris No. 2, The Devils of Loudun, and a ballet performed to music from the Viola Concerto, the First Violin Concerto, and Symphony No. 3. B407. Good, Michael. A Selected Bibliography of Original Concert-Band Music. Journal of Band Research 19, no. 1 (1983): 26-51. Three items pertaining to the Pittsburgh Overture are listed in Good's bibliography. B408. Goodman, Peter. The Cracow Plays At Carnegie. Newsday (Long Island, NY), January 27, 1986. The Polish Requiem received its New York premiere in January 1986. Goodman gave it a mixed review. He praised much of it, even though it had a distressing degree of banality.

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B409. Goodwin, Nol. Brighton. Farce Gone Wrong. Opera (Annual Festival Issue, 1990): 42-44; Brighton. Opera News 55, no. 5 (November 1990): 59. Goodwin questioned the wisdom of producing The Black Mask with a Polish cast singing in German to an English audience, as occurred in Brighton, England. He claimed the music lacked a cogency of style to enhance the words. B410. Gori, Gianni. Trieste. Opera 25, no. 5 (May 1974): 436-37. The Italian premiere of The Devils of Loudun, given in Trieste, was praised. B411. Penderecki 'Passion' Staged. Opera 31, no. 7 (1980): 591-92. A staged version of the St. Luke Passion was given in Trieste. The setting consisted of choir stalls on either side of the stage, with an ornate replica of a Baroque altar at the back. A group of mimes performed in the center. B412. Grtz, Gunter. Ich gehe nicht mit den Moden in der Musik - ich mache welche. Neues Deutschland, April 5, 1989: 4. This interview with Penderecki touched upon such topics as his newest opera venture, here called King Ubu, the fate of symphonies in the 20th century, and the reasons for his apparent shift of musical styles during his career. B413. Salzburger Festspiele mit Urauffhrung von Pendereckis Oper 'Die schwarze Maske'. Musik und Gesellschaft 36, no. 11 (November 1986): 603-604. In this review of the 1986 Salzburg Festival, Grtz discussed the world premiere performance of The Black Mask. He provided a brief plot synopsis and a description of the set. Musically, the opera contains quotations from Penderecki's earlier works and alternating passages of luxurious writing and noises of a dramatically functional nature. B414. Gorzelany, Jan. K. Pendereckiego 'Raj utracony'. Kurier no. 221 (October 2, 1979). Gorzelany briefly reviewed the staging of Paradise Lost in its Stuttgart Theater production, which was repeated during the Warsaw Autumn Festival. This work, with its humanitarian overtones, should be accessible to many listeners. B415. Gostautiene, Ruta. The Reception of Pendereckis Music in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. In The Music of Krzysztof Penderecki: Poetics and Reception, edited by Tomaszewski, 157-59. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1995; Recepcja muzyki Pendereckiego na Litwie, Lotwie i w Estoniee. Muzyka Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Poetyka i Recepcja, edited by Tomaszewski, 155-56. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1996. Gostautiene divided the history of Pendereckis reception in Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia into three stages. During the first, which lasted until about 1975, the composers music was heard primarily during the Warsaw Autumn Festival and in a recording of String Quartet No. 1 that reached Lithuania in 1969. Lithuanians did not really understand the experimental nature of this quartet.

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For the next ten years, Baltic composers seemed to lose interest in Penderecki as they sought their own compositional paths. Since then, they have come to consider Penderecki as one of the great composers of the twentieth century. B416. Gradenwitz, Peter. Aus gleichem Geist. Krzysztof Pendereckis Lukas-Passion im Salzburger Dom. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, August 27, 1970, p. 13. Gradenwitz thought the prolonged echoes heard in a Salzburg Cathedral performance of the St. Luke Passion were somewhat disconcerting. Penderecki, however, felt that they were essential to the conception of the work. Gradenwitz also alluded to the composers use of Eastern and Western musical and liturgical practices in the piece. B417. Gratzer, Wolfgang. Nostalgie und Virklichkeit: Zur heutigen Rezeption schonerWeihnachtsmusik. Musica Germany 49, no. 6 (NovemberDecember 1995): 393-400. Gratzer reviewed Pendereckis early career as an avant-garde composer, then discussed his Second Symphony. B418. Zur gegenwrtigen Rezeption von Stille Nacht! Heilige Nacht! In 175 Jahre Stille Nacht! Heilige Nacht! Symposiumbericht, edited by Thomas Hochradner and Gerhard Walterskirchen, 184-96. Salzburg: Seike, 1994. Pendereckis Second Symphony and its use of a quotation from Silent Night were discussed. Although it is quoted three times in the piece, the carol is never heard in its entirety. Pendereckis reasoning for this partial use of the melody is that he intended the quote to be nostalgic, but that for him, Christmas as both a youth and adult also brought pain in the forms of war and Communist governmental constraints. B419. Gray, Channing . Polish Composer Penderecki Honors Pain of His Homeland. Providence Journal, January 19, 1986. In a phone interview, Penderecki discussed his strong interest in writing religious music, his desire to change the musical style of his composition from time to time, and his need to remain in immediate contact with his music through his conducting. B420. Green, Jonathan. Conductors Guide to Choral-Orchestral Woks, Twentieth Century. Part II: The Music of Rachmaninov through Penderecki. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 1998. This volume contains reference material on Canticum Canticorum Salomonisits instrumentation, textual sources, editions, availability of performing materials, performance issues, discography, and bibliography. B421. Greenfield, E. London: A Church Transformed; Schoenberg & Penderecki Reviewed. High Fidelity/Musical America 24, no. 6 (1974): MA38-39. The London premiere of Symphony No. 1 occurred the same week as the Sadler's Wells Company's production of The Devils of Loudun. Greenfield questioned whether the Company's sparkling performance was worth the effort, given the poor quality of the music.

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B422. Greenfield, Philip. Penderecki: Polish Requiem; Dream of Jacob. American Record Guide 59, no. 6 (November/December 1996): 178. This Chandos release (9459) is one of the years best recordings. Greenfield especially liked the Polish Requiem, which shows Penderecki in all his glory. B423. Penderecki: Psalms of David; Stabat Mater & Choruses from St Luke Passion; Sicut Locutus Est; Agnus Dei; Veni Creator Spiritus; Song of Cherubim. American Record Guide 58, no. 5 (September/October 1995): 190. Greenfield praised this recording (Wergo 6261), lamenting only its lack of translations and the difficulty of listening to so much of Pendereckis music at once. B424. Penderecki: Stabat Mater; Miserere; Sicut Locutus est; Agnus Dei; Song of Cherubim; Veni Creator; Benedicamus Domino; Benedictus. American Record Guide 59, no. 5 (July/August 1996): 168. Greenfield thought this Finlandia recording (98999) was better than a similar Wergo release. B425. Griffiths, Paul. Cracow RSO/Penderecki. St. Bartholemew's, Brighton. The Times (London): May 16, 1984, p. 13. Fragments of the Polish Requiem and the entire Violin Concerto were presented at the Brighton Festival. Griffiths was reluctant to offer a detailed analysis of the Requiem, stating that it is a Polish national monument, and as such should not be subjected to critical comments, especially those made by non-Polish citizens. The author did note wryly that the triad remains the surprise...only because the harmonic reach is so tiny and the existence of three notes at the same time is so stunning an achievement. B426. Music to Match the New Mood of Poland. The Times (London), November 24, 1981, p. 10. Griffiths discussed the impact of Penderecki's career on contemporary music in general and on the country of Poland specifically. Although the composer has often been criticized for both this extreme avant-gardism of the early 1960s and his subsequent turn to a more traditional style, Griffiths hears the same raw emotions in all of Penderecki's music. The stream of religious music produced by Penderecki was seen by Griffiths as a reaction by the composer against the Polish government's repressive policies. B427. New Music. Musical Times 116, no. 1585 (March 1975): 263-64. Penderecki's trip to Great Britain was the occasion for performances of Canticum Canticorum Salomonis and Partita in Edinburgh and The Awakening of Jacob in London Canticum contains incomprehensible text and Boulezian percussion devices. Partita is the most formally and texturally involved of Penderecki's works to date. The ascending and descending chromatic scales in The Awakening of Jacob reminded the author of Jacobian ladders.

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B428. Penderecki. Musical Times 114, no. 1570 (December 1973): 1255. A slightly revised version of Symphony No. 1 was performed by the London Symphony, with the composer conducting. Griffiths criticized the piece for its failure to fulfill the promises of its title: it was either overly simple or bewilderingly complex. B429. Penderecki. Violin Concerto. Musical Times 121, no. 1649 (July 1980): 567. Griffiths reviewed this piece in its recorded version (CBS-76739). The performers were applauded, but the music was described as ponderous and almost unendurable. B430. RPO/Penderecki. Albert Hall/Radio 3. The Times (London), August 11, 1980, p. 9. The British premiere of the Violin Concerto occurred at the Proms concerts. Griffiths called this performance a thoroughly dramatic reading. However, he questioned whether the work expresses anything new and important enough to justify its scale and its confident claims for itself. B431. Gross, Zygmunt. Krzysztof Penderecki. Requiem Polskie. Nowy Dziennik, January 30, 1986, pp. 1, 16. The Polish Requiem bears witness to Pendereckis rich compositional experience in its orchestration and its harmonic and melodic writing. However, Gross lamented the lack of the charm and beauty that can be heard in the output of the masters. B432. Gruhn, Wilfried. Avantgardeauf der Suche nach einer neuen Form. Das Orchester 19, no. 1 (January 1971): 5-8; Musik und Bildung 2, no. 10 (October 1970): 481-84. Gruhn juxtaposed the works of Ligeti and Penderecki in this essay about new ways of creating musical form. In Gruhns opinion, Pendereckis innovative instrumental effects are integrated logically into his music. B433. Strukturen und Klangmodelle in Pendereckis 'Threnos'. Melos 38, no. 10 (1971): 409-11. In his analysis of Threnody, Gruhn examined the works novel string techniques, notation, and formal structure. The latter generally consisted of sections of clusters alternating with passages of canonic writing. B434. Grzenkowicz, Izabella. Awangarda w odwrocie. Warszawska 79. Kultura (Warsaw), no. 40 (October 7, 1979). Differences between the Stuttgart Theater production of Paradise Lost and the Chicago Lyric Opera/La Scala world premiere version include, in the Stuttgart presentation, a quicker tempo, the elimination of the dancers interpreting the roles of Adam and Eve, and other musical cuts. These changes proved to be harmful for the musical, ideological, and theatrical aspects of the work. Nevertheless, there were many positive aspects to the Stuttgart production; in particular, the lighting and performers were singled out for praise.

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B435. Bogactwo Kultura (Warsaw), no. 6 (February 8, 1981): 1, 12. Penderecki touched upon many subjects in this interview with Grzenkowicz. Among them was his use of literature, drama, poetry, and religion as sources of inspiration. Penderecki claimed that he did not attempt to link political matters in contemporary Poland with his music. At the same time, however, he admitted that the impulse for writing Lacrimosa came from the 1980 workers' strikes in B436. Conversations with Krzysztof Penderecki. Polish Music 12, no. 3 (1977): 24-30; no. 4: 10-14; excerpts in Clavis. Muzyka w prasie. Ruch muzyczny 25, no. 5 (1981): 12. In the first part of this interview, Penderecki confirmed that many of his ideas about composing had changed since the early part of his career. He did not believe it was proper to use the same compositional style or techniques in every piece. Penderecki also thought that Poland's place at the crossroads of eastern and western culture may have influenced the musical language of the St. Luke Passion and, more generally, his interest in human suffering and beliefs. In conclusion, Penderecki asserted that form was the most important aspect of a composition, but that, today, there were no universally accepted forms. B437. Festiwal Pendereckiego. Kultura (Warsaw), no. 28 (July 13, 1980). The Penderecki Festival held in June brought the composer's music to the attention of people in Poland and abroad. Grzenkowicz praised Polish Radio and Television for their direct broadcast of some of the events to foreign countries. B438. 'I Symfonia' i 'Diably' Pendereckiego w Londynie. Ruch muzyczny 18, no. 9 (1974): 5-7. The author applauded the London Symphony's performance of the First Symphony. She included citations by critics from three London papers: the Guardian, the Times, and the Daily Telegraph. Next, she turned to The Devils of Loudun, asserting that much of the criticism directed towards it was unfounded. B439. Nagle przychodzi Kultura (July 24, 1977): 3-4. In this interview with Grzenkowicz, Penderecki discussed his views about the Darmstadt school of composers, his personal need to modify the musical style of his own works from time to time, and his ideas about musical form. He delineated the three stylistic periods that have evolved in his own compositions. He believed that his own music was strongly grounded in the traditions of the Renaissance, Baroque, and more recently, the 19th century. B440. O 'Czarnej masce' bez maski. Ruch muzyczny 30, no. 24 (1986): 3-4. The primary topic of this interview was The Black Mask and Pendereckis other operatic projects. The composer emphasized that rhythmic structures in The Black Mask were created as a network of leitmotives. He also said that the operas harmonic system was based on seconds, sevenths, and ninths. He thought this this same language might be appropriate for King Ubu (Ubu Rex), an opera that he was now attempting to write for

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the third time. He had set it aside in 1974 in order to compose Paradise Lost, and a second time in 1981, when Poland was experiencing serious political problems. Penderecki he did not think that The Devils of Loudun had been performed successfully in Warsaw, especially after the singers of the initial performances were replaced. He also did not plan to present Paradise Lost in Poland for the time being because no Polish singers could handle the piece's Wagnerian-like lines. B441. gsp. Rok Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 41, no. 22 (November 1997): 4-5. This includes a review of plans for the Penderecki Festival to be held in Krakw in 1998. B442. Gurewitsch, Matthew. A Search for Spirituality is the Stuff of New Disks. New York Times, February 28, 1999. In this review of the Hnnsler recording of Credo, Gurewitsch alluded to the composers ability to create a dramatic rendition of the text, but he lent an air of derision to his descriptions of the musical events. B443. H., H. Die Teufel von Loudun. Nationaltheater. Oper und Konzert (March 1970): 35-36. Commenting on the music of The Devils of Loudun, presented by the Stuttgart Opera as part of Munichs Modern Music Week, this reviewer stated that this background music is not the best that we have heard from Penderecki, despite the fact that it suggests the most extreme dramatic situations and conditions with unprecedented power. Gnther Rennerts directing emphasized the cruelty and horror of the story. B444. H., H. Grtnertheater. Paradise Lost. Oper und Konzert 17, no. 9 (1979): 7-8. This reviewer was somewhat appalled at the amount of nudity that was used in a Munich production of Paradise Lost. B445. Salzburger Festspiele. Krystof Penderecki: Passionsmusik nach Lukas Dom. Oper und Konzert 8 (September 1970): 8-9. The author of this review preferred a Munich performance of the St. Luke Passion to the one he heard in the Salzburg Cathedral. B446. Haegenbarth, Andrzej. w swj czas. Z Krzysztofem Pendereckim polskim kompozytorem rozmawia Andrzej Haegenbarth. Nurt, no.10 (October 1987): 2-11; excerpts in Clavis. Muzyka w prasie. Ruch muzyczny 31, no. 24 (1987): 10. Penderecki discussed a wide range of topics in this interview. In his comments about The Black Mask, Penderecki reviewed the preparation of the libretto and mentioned the opera's primary themes of intolerance and death. In his view, this opera marked a turning point in his compositional style, the Polish Requiem having signalled the close of his romantic era. Other stylistically pivotal works in his career were the St. Luke Passion, Utrenia, the Violin Concerto, and Paradise Lost. Among other topics, Penderecki mentioned his working habits. He usually has the overall form of a piece in

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mind beforehand and then fills in various sections, without working sequentially from beginning to end. B447. Haenseroth, Albin. Cologne. Opera 31, no. 8 (August 1980): 808809. Haesenroth did not like the Cologne presentation of The Devils of Loudun. The tasteful production could not rescue the nearly complete lack of musical interest in the score. B448. Haffner, Ingrid and Herbert. Warurn machen Sie keine Experiment mehr? Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, May 12, 1989, p. FM 94-95. Penderecki touched upon many topics in this interview with the Haffners. He regretted the division that has been created in the 20th-century between contemporary music and older classical music. He noted that this division occurred in part because of the ghetto created by the establishment of new music festivals. However, he admitted that these same events were valuable to young composers as a place where they could have their works performed. B449. Hhnel, Folke. Modernes Musiktheater in Stockholm. Melos 32, no. 2 (February 1965): 59-60. The Stockholm Puppet Theater was the scene of the premiere of Ubu Roi, with music by Penderecki. It includes a short overture of electronic music, quotations from Beethovens Fifth Symphony, military marches, and newly composed parodies for piccolo and other instruments. Michael Meschke, the Puppet Theaters director, replaced the traditional puppets with actors wrapped in cardboard and plaster (a photo is included with the article). The main character speaks his lines live, while the others are taped, thus creating a sense of alienation. B450. Halasz, Gabor. Auf hohem Niveau--Pendereckis 'Teufel von Loudun' in Mannheim. Opern Welt 18, no. 8 (1977): 33-34. A successful production of The Devils of Loudun was heard at Mannheims National Theater. Overall, the staging was fairly reserved and the score was given a precise reading. B451. Hamel, Peter Michael. Umstrittende Popularitt - Unumstrittene Weltgeltung. Stilfragen bei Krzysztof Penderecki. Das Orchester 44, no. 10 (1996): 20-23. Hamels concern here is Pendereckis apparent stylistic change from the avant-garde sound-world of his early pieces to his more melodic, tradition-oriented outlook of his later works. He quoted frequently from Wolfram Schwingers book on the composer when he discussed the works of the 1990s. B452. Hamilton, David. Some Newer Figures in Europe. High Fidelity/Musical America 18, no. 9 (1968): 55. Penderecki was named the best-known member of the burgeoning Eastern European avant-garde. His use of unusual textures and playing techniques was mentioned briefly.

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B453. Hamilton, David. The Tragedy of Father Urbain. High Fidelity/Musical America 21, no. 6 (June 1971): 69-70. On the occasion of the release of The Devils of Loudun on a Philips recording, Hamilton expressed his displeasure with the opera. He summarized his feelings by stating that Penderecki has given theater with music, where musical instruments and voices are used to make sound effects, and a monotonous style of arioso sometimes intrudes on the drama. He noted that the libretto supplied with the recording was barely legible. B454. Harewood, Lord. 'Musiktheater' in Hamburg. Opera 20, no. 9 (September 1969): 775-77. Harewood endorsed the world premiere production of The Devils of Loudun, stating that the drama was superbly enhanced by the music. B455. Harley, Maria. The Polish School of Sonorism and its European Context. In Crosscurrent and Counterpoint. Offerings in Honor of Bengt Hambraeus at 70, edited by Per F. Broman, Nora A. Engebretsen and Bo Alphonce, 62-77. Gteborg, Sweden: University of Gothenburg, 1998. Harley discussed Penderecki and his sonoristic works. Although he is thought by many to have written the first sonoristic compositions (Strophes and Dimensions of Time and Silence), Grecki actually deserves that honor, with his Epitafium. Penderecki is, however, considered to be the leader of the Polish sonoristic school, and Threnody is regarded as a prime example of sonorism. [Note: Harley has since reverted to her original name, Maja Trochimczyk.] B456. Hsler, Alfred A. Neuerer mit Tradition. Der polnische Komponist Penderecki in Luzern. Die Weltwoche, August 29, 1980, p. 3. Penderecki conducted his own Violin Concerto and Shostakovichs Symphony No. 5 during Lucernes International Music Festival. Hsler described the composers experimental style and briefly mentioned the romanticism that had pervaded his music in the last ten years. Hsler also listed several of the honors and awards granted to Penderecki. B457. Husler, Josef. Musik im 20. Jahrhundert. Von Schnberg zu Penderecki. Bremen: Carl Schnemann, 1969. The section on Penderecki is a fairly detailed discussion of the treatment of instruments and musical materials in Pendereckis compositions. A list of these works is also given. B458. Heindrichs, Heinz-Albert. Pendereckis Neufassung der 'Teufel von Loudun' in Wuppertal. Melos 37, no. 4 (April 1970): 152-53. A new production of The Devils of Loudun presented in Wuppertal was laden with religious and sexual overtones. Penderecki revised the final act for this production. B459. Heinsheimer, Hans. Endlich: Paradise Lost in Chicago. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 140, no. 1 (January 1979): 47-48. Heinsheimer first mentioned the directorial shift that occurred before the world premiere of Paradise Lost, then devoted much of the rest of the article to discussing the works musical highlights and characteristics.

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B460. Paradise Regained. Opera News 43 (November 1978): 4855; Paradies: verloren, verschoben, wiedergefunden. Melos/Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik 4, No. 6 (November-December 1978) In this article, written prior to the world premiere of Paradise Lost, Heinsheimer described the massive preparations being made for that production. He related the history of the composition and summarized the events that were to be depicted on stage. Among the quotes scattered throughout the article were these words by Penderecki: music should speak for itself and should go straight to the heart and mind of the listener...[Paradise] is a very lyric piece. As I composed it, I seemed to be discovering a new style, something very beautiful. B461. H[elm], E[verett], Donaueschingen. Music Review 21, no. 4 (November 1960): 329-31; abridged article as Donaueschingen 1960. Musical Times 101, no. 1414 (December 1960): 772. No new musical techniques or styles were presented at the 1960 Donaueschingen Festival. However, Helm also said that Penderecki's Anaklasis provoked the only nearriot of the festival. It was repeated in response to boos from the audience. B462. ISCM Festival. Music Review 24, no. 3 (1963): 253-54. The exhilarating reception accorded to Threnody (a rather terrifying work) at the ISCM Festival in Amsterdam compelled the orchestra to repeat the work. B463. Philadelphia Orchestra (Ormandy). High Fidelity/Musical America 19, no. 4 (April 1969): MA22. Threnody is replete with avant-garde sonorities that have been merged into a satisfactory whole. The author listed some of the unusual playing techniques used in the piece. B464. Helm, Everett. Autumn Music. Musical America 81, no. 11 (1961): 23-24. Threnody, performed at the 1961 Warsaw Autumn Festival, consists of a series of contrasting segments producing various coloristic effects....It is music of a very special kind. B465. Warschauer Herbst 1961Die neue polnische Schule. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 122, no. 11 (1961): 467-68. With Threnody, Penderecki has thrown overboard all of the musical traditions of past centuries. The composer incorporated new and unusual treatment of the string instruments into this piece, creating music that is not only expressive, but also impressive. Nevertheless, Helm wondered if the continued use of this style of music would lead to the impoverishment of art. B466. Helman, Zofia. Alte Musik als Inspirationsquelle neuer polnischer Musik. In Warschauer Herbst und neue polnische Musik: Rckblicke Ausblick, 29-40. Essen: Blaue Euele, 1998. Some works performed in the early years of the Warsaw Autumn Festival, including those by Penderecki, were influenced by Christianity. This phenomenon represented an alternative direction in avant-garde Polish music.

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B467. Hempel, Gunter. Warschauer Herbst 1966. Musik und Gesellschaft 16, no. 12 (1966): 848-50. A performance of the St. Luke Passion was one of the highlights of the 1966 Warsaw Autumn Festival. Hempel briefly described how Penderecki created a sense of drama in this music. B468. Henahan, Donal. American Composers: The Insulted and The Injured? New York Times, July 22, 1973, Section 2, p. 9. Henahan stated that the commissioning of Penderecki by Chicago's Lyric Opera was a mistake of nationalist proportions. For the sake of argument, he tried to defend the Opera's choice by reasoning that Penderecki had already composed a reasonable opera (The Devils of Loudun) and that Polish citizens had fought for the United States. B469. Murder, Suicide and the Black Plague. New York Times, August 2, 1988, p. C17. In his review of the American premiere of The Black Mask, Henahan lamented that Penderecki did not seem to be able to write successfully for opera. Henahan summarized the plot in a sarcastic manner. B470. Religiously, a Free Spirit. Politically? New York Times, February 23, 1969, Section 2, pp. 19-20. In this interview with Henahan, Penderecki discussed Polish musical life and his own thoughts about contemporary music. B471. Henderson, Robert. Penderecki. Musical Times 108, no. 1493 (1967): 624. Henderson placed part of the blame for a flat performance of the St. Luke Passion on the London Festival Hall's acoustics. He also questioned whether Penderecki's attempt to compose a large-scale work using radical compositional techniques had appealed to the public. B472. Penderecki's 'St. Luke Passion'. Musical Times 108, no. 1491 (1967): 422. The English premiere of the St. Luke Passion occurred in May 1967. Henderson placed the composition within Penderecki's compositional oeuvre, then described its links to Bach and the Holy Week rites of the Catholic Church. B473. Henken, John. Chamber Symphony Opens Its Fifth Season. Los Angeles Times, April 1, 1986, Section 6, pp. 1-2. In the North American premiere of the Viola Concerto, Milton Thomas gave a somewhat restrained rendition of the solo part. The effect of the piece was described by Henken as one of fitful neurosis. B474. Chamber Symphony Opens with Cellist. Los Angeles Times, October 14, 1982, Section 6, p. 4. The Capriccio for Siegfried Palm, performed in Los Angeles by its dedicatee, is a convincing display of the cello's technical and timbral possibilities.

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B475. Henry, Ruth. Salzbourg. Bernhard, Handke et Penderecki. Quinzaine Litteraire no. 470 (September 1986): 28. In her review of the world premiere of The Black Mask, Henry summarized the plot, then stated that Penderecki's understanding of the story as a surrealist one was a mistake. The production's success was assured by the hallucinatory images created by the large mirror on stage and the dramatic portrayals of its six principal characters. B476. Herbort, Heinz Josef. Klnge und Klagen. Pendereckis LukasPassion in der Berliner Philharmonie. Das Orchester 16 (April 1968): 185; Die Zeit, Fe 23, 1968. The powerful music of the St. Luke Passion and a skillful rendition by the Berlin Philharmonic contributed to its stunning reception by a sold-out audience. B477. Hermann, Hanns. Der grosse Flop im Mai. Marginalien zu den diesjhrigen Wiesbadener Maifestspielen. Das Orchester 36, no. 9 (September 1988): 904-911. Hermann praised the Teatr Wielki's production of The Black Mask, given at the Wiesbaden May Festival. In general, he favored the musical aspects of the opera over its staging. B478. Herrmann, Horst Dietrich. Krzysztof Penderecki: Aus den Psalmen Davids. Melos 29, no. 4 (April 1962): 127. Upon Moecks publication of the Psalms of David, Herrmann stated that the piece used the rhythm of its spoken text as a structural starting point. The choir sings everything from vocalises to whispers, while the works sharp dissonances make intonation a potential performance problem. B479. Hertelendy, Paul. The Composer Behind The Black Mask'. San Jose Mercury News, August 21, 1988. This reviewer challenged the view that Penderecki's music was worthy of international acclaim. In his opinion, the composer had not created any masterpieces since the St. Luke Passion. B480. Heyworth, Peter. 'Devils' Without Fire. New York Times, July 6, 1969, Section 2, pp. 13, 22. The Devils of Loudun did not live up to Heyworth's expectations. Penderecki's libretto contains too many details and, at the same time, does not give enough emphasis to the main characters. Musically, the composer was unable to render any sense of cohesiveness and drama. Heyworth noted that his opinions have been echoed by others, including, in part, the composer himself. Penderecki shortened the production by fortyfive minutes for its second performance in Hamburg and was heard to prefer the Stuttgart version of the opera, which opened almost immediately after the world premiere. B481. 'St Luke' is Given London Premiere . New York Times, May 26, 1967, p. 52. The St. Luke Passion has made the greatest impact of any work written in recent years by an Eastern European composer. The piece is eclectic, drawing upon plainsong, Stockhausen-like devices, Classical harmonies and counterpoint, and serialism, among

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other devices. Heyworth was skeptical about the long-term fame of the piece, but admitted that it is a fascinating work. B482. Hiementz, Jack. Eastman Philharmonic (Hendl). High Fidelity/Musical America 22, no. 5 (May 1972): MA 18. Penderecki was given an honorary doctorate by the University of Rochester. Partita was performed at the ceremony. B483. Hiller, Carl H. Cologne City Opera. Opera Canada 21, no. 2 (1980): 38. A new production of The Devils of Loudun at the Cologne Opera was praised by Hiller. It was more faithful to Penderecki's original wishes than the premiere production in Hamburg had been. B484. Wiesbaden. Eastern Promise. Opera 31 (Autumn 1980): 97100. The Warsaw Teatr Wielkis presentation of The Devils of Loudun at Wiesbaden's International May Festival was staged more like an oratorio than its previous incarnations had been. All cast members were on stage throughout, rising from their chairs only when involved in the action. B485. Hinz, Klaus-Michael. Pendereckis Polnisches Requiem in Stuttgart. sterreichische Musikzeitschrift: 39, no. 11 (November 1984): 609. The Polish Requiem, heard in its world premiere performance [of the complete version], represents a musical meeting of the 19th and 20th centuries. Overall, Hinz was unimpressed with the piece. B486. hjm. Passio Domini Nostri Secundum Lucam. Ruch muzyczny 13,no. 4 (February 15-28, 1969): 11. A performance of the St. Luke Passion in Warsaw, on December 22, 1968, was given a standing ovation. Penderecki avoided a sense of tragedy in this work, instead favoring the element of compassion. B487. Holden, Stephen. Adrift Between Dream and Fairy Tale. New York Times, September 27, 1997. On the occasion of a screening of the full-length version of The Saragossa Manuscript at the New York Film Festival, Holden provided a synopsis of the films plot. B488. Holland, Bernard. Concert: Penderecki and Cracow Ensemble. New York Times, January 20, 1986, Section 3, p. 25. The Krakw Philharmonic's performances of the Second Cello Concerto and The Awakening of Jacob were reviewed favorably. Of concern, however, was that people would eventually tire of the admittedly riveting sounds in both works and begin to wonder why its musical ideas do not flow together more effectively.

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B489. From Penderecki, A Mob That Howls or Whispers. New York Times, Oct. 28, 1996, pp. C15-16. The United States premiere of Symphony No. 3 was presented at Carnegie Hall by the Montreal Symphony and Charles Dutoit. Its five movements are largely bereft of engaging ideas and, in a word, boring. B490. One Way to Control the Chaos in Ives. New York Times, November 9, 1996, pp. 17, 21. The American premiere of Pendereckis Second Violin Concerto was presented at Carnegie Hall. Holland described the piece as easily comprehensible, with a virtuosic solo part. However, he did not think it was successful overall. B491. Penderecki Again Tries a Style He Overthrew. New York Times, January 23, 1993. Penderecki's Flute Concerto, heard in its American premiere, sounded suspiciously like the type of strictly organized music that the composer had disdained earlier in his career. In Hollands opinion, it was correct and dull. B492. Penderecki Is Retrogressing NowOn Purpose. New York Times, January 12, 1986, Section 2, p. 25. In a wide-ranging interview with Penderecki, Holland elicited comments about the composer's reasons for pursuing a conducting career, his most recent compositions, including the Polish Requiem and The Black Mask, and his Polish heritage. Among other provocative statements, Penderecki noted that he could notate only 60 percent of what he wanted to hearthe remainder he produced when conducting his works B493. Seven Gates of Jerusalem: A Grand Gesture for 3,000 Years of History. New York Times, July 20, 1998. The almost intimidating number of performers required for Seven Gates of Jerusalem, heard in New York, is not enough to overcome its poverty of invention. Conductor Kurt Masur spent his time trying to make sure that everyone came in as scheduled. B494. Homma, Martina. Recepcja muzyki polskiej w Niemczech. In Dziedzictwo europejskie a polska kultura muzyczna w dobie przemian, 233-60. Krakw: Musica Iagellonica, 1995. The reception of the music of Penderecki and in Germany was discussed within the context of the Warsaw Autumn Festival, the Darmstadt Summer Courses, and 20th-century musical styles. B495. Musiktheorie. 87. Darmstadt: Performances of music. Reichlich Theorie und Wissenschaft: Polnische Musik und In Deutsch-polnische Ansichten zur Literatur und Kultur, 280Deutsches Polen-Institut, 1989. Pendereckis works are included in Hommas discussion of Polish

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B496. Hommel, Friedrich. Von Zeit zu Zeit etwas Gltiges. Musiktage 1964. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik, 125, no. 12 (1964): 548-49. The world premiere of the Sonata for Cello and Orchestra was enthusiastically received, so much so that the second part of the work was repeated. B497. Honolka, Kurt. Die Zukunft: 'normale Oper, la Rossini'. Gesprch mit Krzysztof Penderecki. Opern Welt 15, no. 5 (May 1974): 36. In this interview, Honolka paraphrased most of Penderecki's comments instead of quoting them directly. The composer's most immediate plans were to write an opera (Ubu Rex) to be presented in Munich, to finish the Magnificat for the 1974 Salzburg Festival, and to revise The Devils of Loudun for upcoming productions in Warsaw and East Berlin. B498. Stuttgart. Opera 20, no. 9 (1969): 799-800. The Stuttgart version of The Devils of Loudun was deemed a much better production than the one seen in Hamburg. Penderecki had created a thrilling piece of contemporary musical theatre. B499. Howard, H. Wendell. A Matter of Life and Death. The Midwest Quarterly 33, no. 1 (Autumn 1991): 9-27. Howard asserted that Penderecki's commitment to Catholicism must be accepted as fact in order to understand his compositions. Penderecki expressed the concept of death in the midst of life in Threnody, the St. Luke Passion, Utrenia, The Devils of Loudun, Paradise Lost, and other works. Howard also named pieces that were unrelentingly oppressive in mood: Paradise Lost, The Devils of Loudun, Polish Requiem, and The Black Mask. The dark emotions depicted in compositions such as Paradise Lost and the Requiem reflected the bleakness and suffering of the lives of the Polish people. B500. Huber, Alfred. Pendereckis Anaklasis fr Streicher und Schlagzeuggruppen. Melos 38, no. 3 (March 1971): 87-91; Das Orchester 19 (May 1971): 239-43. Huber presented an almost measure-by-measure analysis of Anaklasis. The work is in three large sections, with the first notated for strings alone in durations marked off in seconds. The middle section, for percussion, uses a somewhat more traditional idea of metric notation, but introduces a tremendous amount of rhythmic complexity. The final section, for both strings and percussion, synthesizes the two notational systems and the musical material introduced in the first two sections. B501. Hughes, Allen. Music: Philadelphians. New York Times, December 9, 1983, Section 3, p. 15. Penderecki led the Philadelphia Orchestra in a performance of Te Deum. Hughes described the piece as an essentially Romantic musical setting that ultimately failed. B502. Hughes-Jones, Llifon. Arresting Penderecki. Music and Musicians 13 (April 1965): 50. A performance of Stabat Mater at Morely College was commendable. The College Choir was aided by a backstage piano in this a capella work.

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B503. Hugli, Pierre. La Passion selon Saint Luc de Krzysztof Penderecki. Revue musicale de Suisse Romande 20, no. 2 (March 1967): 14-15. In this essay on the St. Luke Passion, Hugli listed the sources of its texts and described its compositional style. In particular, he discussed its harmonic structure, orchestration, occasional use of medieval and polyphonic musical language, overall dramatic effect, and the role of its choruses. B504. Penderecki a 1'OSR. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 109, no. 2 (1969): 95. Rhythmically and sonorically, De Natura Sonoris No. 1 is reminiscent of electroacoustic music and Luigi Nono's post-serial compositions. Hugli thought the piece deserved a better performance than was given by the Suisse Romande Orchestra. B505. Le douzieme diorama de la musique contemporaine. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 119, no. 4 (1979): 222-22. A two-concert retrospective of Penderecki's works was given in Geneva as part of Switzerland's Diorama of Contemporary Music. The Polish Radio and Television National Symphony Orchestra performed Anaklasis, The Awakening of Jacob, the Violin Concerto, and De Natura Sonoris No. 1. B506. Hume, Paul. An American Bicentennial Opera Written by a Foreign Composer? Washington Post, September 23, 1973, p. E8. Hume castigated the Chicago Opera for its commissioning of Penderecki to celebrate America's Bicentennial. In his view, Pendereckis The Devils of Loudun had been only marginally successful. Hume named several composers who would have been better choices for the commission, including Barber, Bernstein, Copland, Crumb, Rorem, and Schuman. B507. The Divine Works of Penderecki. Washington Post, December 10, 1978, p. H3. Penderecki discussed his reasons for using six male voices for the role of God in Paradise Lost and his views on the overall musical style of the piece. Hume praised the composition's tonal imagery...[and] the imaginative choral writing. B508. First Appearance of Penderecki. Washington Post, November 23, 1974, p. B7. The American premieres of The Awakening of Jacob and the First Cello Concerto were presented in a performance that also included Threnody, De Natura Sonoris No. 1, and De Natura Sonoris No. 2. Hume offered some praise for De Natura Sonoris No. 1, but otherwise suggested that Penderecki was out of touch with both his audiences and current compositional ventures. B509. Magic in Santa Fe. American Musical Digest 1, no. 2 (November 1969): 39; Washington Post, September 7, 1969. Hume longed to see a more fluid production of The Devils of Loudun. In the Santa Fe Opera's presentation, the sets inhibited the flow of movement that was called for in both the libretto and the score.

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B510. Opera 'The Devils of Loudun' Released. Washington Post, August 8, 1971, p. 124. Hume compared the performers on this recording (Philips 6700042) to those who sang in the American premiere of the opera in Santa Fe. He favored Santa Fes soloists and the recording's chorus. B511. ' Paradise Lost': The World Premiere. Washington Post, December 1, 1978, pp. C l , C5. The premiere of Paradise Lost was deemed a critical success by Hume. The integral role of the dancers was especially pleasing, as were the choral efforts in parts that including shouting, humming, and hissing. B512. Penderecki Conducts. Washington Post, September 2, 1973, Books Section, p. 11. Hume reviewed the recent Angel recordings of Penderecki's music (Angel 3694936950). He gave all of the pieces and their performers a high rating and mentioned in particular Capriccio for Violin, Partita, Emanations, Canon, and Cello Concerto No. 1. B513. Hummel, Franz. Heile, Heile perchen. Der Spiegel 45, no. 28 (July 8, 1991): 182. In this review of Ubu Rex, Hummel gave moderate praise to director August Everding, but denounced Pendereckis score for its shallowness and meaningless instrumentation. B514. Humphrey, Mary Lou. Paradise Lost: Penderecki's Operatic Enigma. Music Journal 37, no. 1 (January 1979): 11-13. Humphrey provided a detailed account of the compositional history of Paradise Lost. She then turned to a critique of the premiere, admitting that there were successful moments both dramatically and musically, but judging that overall the production was a failure. B515. Hunziker, Andre. Switzerland: All-Round Excellence. Opera 30 (October 1979): 995-98. The Swiss premiere of The Devils of Loudun, presented in Geneva by the Stuttgart Opera, was of high quality. B516. Hutcheson, Robert Joseph, Jr. Twentieth century Passion settings: An analytical study of Max Baumanns Passion, Op. 63; Frank Martins Golgotha; Krzysztof Pendereckis St. Luke Passion; and Ernst Peppings Passionsbericht des Matthaus. Ph.D. dissertation, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, 1976. The four works named in the dissertation title, all settings of the Biblical Passion story, were compared by Hutcheson. Of central importance in the study was the relationship of God to man in each work. An analysis of the music was also included.

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B517. Hutton, Mary Ellen. Indiana University Opera Theater: Penderecki: The Devils of Loudun. American Record Guide 56, no. 4 (July-August 1993): 33. The Devils of Loudun received its first American performances since 1969. The Indiana University Opera Theater's production focused on the conflict between church and state rather than on its more sensationalist aspects of sex and torture. Hutton called it a powerful music event. B518. Hyatt. Los Angeles. Music Journal 33, no. 3 (1975): 53. Symphony No. 1, heard in its U. S. premiere, attempts to explore the very nature of sound emanating from conventional instruments played in unconventional ways. B519. Ignatowicz, Anna. Co z tej Jesieni. Ruch muzyczny 37, no. 33 (October 22, 1993): 1, 4-5. Pendereckis 60th birthday was celebrated at the Warsaw Autumn Festival with the Polish premieres of his Flute Concerto and the Viola Concerto in its transcription for cello solo. Both this article and the 1993 Warsaw Autumn Festival program book rather confusingly called the latter piece a Cello Concerto, not distinguishing it from the two concertos originally written for cello and orchestra. B520. Ivashkin, Aleksandr. Kshishtof Penderektskifi: ocherk. Moscow: Vses. Izd-vo Sov. Kompozitor, 1983. This biography of Penderecki includes a discography. monograficheskifi

B521. Leonia. Boga czy czarta? Teatr 20, no. 23 (December 1-15, 1965): 3-5.This is a review of the performance of The Ungodly Comedy (Nieboska komedia) at the Stary Teatr in Krakw. Pendereckis music received scant attention from the reviewer. B522. Jack, Adrian. The Autumn in Warsaw. Music and Musicians 21 (December 1972): 34. Penderecki was singled out as one of Poland's glossiest exports. However, Jack described the Partita, given its Polish premiere at the 1972 Warsaw Autumn Festival, as an angrily inflamed sore. B523. Jackson, David. The Student Speaks : Choral Potential Post 1950 (sic). Music Journal 28, no. 9A (November 1970): 36, 65. The St. Luke Passion is a good example of new and effective new choral techniques. Jackson noted that these methods were not offensive in this work, perhaps due to the softness with which they were scored and their surrounding musical events. B524. Jacobi, Peter P. Penderecki's Paradise. Opera 30 (February 1979): 129-32. Jacobi predicted that Paradise Lost would become an important part of the operatic repertory. The orchestra is asked to grind and soar and whisper and roar and screech and moan, all of which makes not only musical sense but also dramatic sense. Similarly, the chorus' almost impossible vocal acrobatics serve appropriate emotional and dramatic purposes.

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B525. Jacobs, Arthur. The Devils of Loudun. Opera 24, no. 12 (December 1973): 1126-29. In his review of the Sadler's Wells Opera production of Devils, Jacobs focused on Penderecki's text setting, in which both song and speech were used. Jacobs found the piece to be an extraordinarily compelling form of musical theatre. B526. Jacobson, Bernard. And We Quote... High Fidelity/Musical America 18, no. 1 (1968): MA20. Penderecki attempted to explain why Polish audiences were much more receptive to contemporary music than those in the United States. B527. Going Dutch. Music and Musicians 11 (August 1963): 35. Threnody was the concluding work on the 37th ISCM Festival. In Jacobson's view, its proportions are perfect, and the work builds up to a wonderful sense of emotional release. B528. PendereckiA Mighty Voice From Poland. High Fidelity/Musical America 17, no. 4 (1967): 74-75. Jacobson was impressed with the St. Luke Passion, newly recorded on Muza (XL 0325/0326). He described it as a work of shattering dramatic impact and powerfully individual inspiration. B529. A Polish Renaissance. London: Phaedon, 1996. Jacobson devoted this volume to commentary on four Polish composersPanufnik, Grecki, and Penderecki. The chapter on Penderecki is an excellent review of the composers career, with the critical reception of his music being a frequent point of discussion. A later chapter briefly compared the music of Penderecki and Grecki. A selected works list, bibliography and discography complete the book. B530. Jacobson, Robert. Chicago. Opera News 43, no. 13 (February 3, 1979): 32. The world premiere of Paradise Lost revealed its many musical and dramatic problems. The libretto and music are too complex, Penderecki failed to adequately differentiate between characters, and the stage director created a stylized ritual, even though the libretto called for something much more exciting. B531. JanickaApetyt na historie. Studio (August 1998): 7. Stabat Mater and Te Deum were performed in Krakw as part of the 6th World Conference of Historical Cities. Janickanoted that Penderecki selected from his wide knowledge of history only those aspects that suited his individual musical style. B532. From the New Sacred Songs: Song of Cherubim. In The Music of Krzysztof Penderecki: Poetics and Reception, edited by Tomaszewski, 81-90. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1995; Z nowych sakralnych: Cherubinw. Muzyka Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Poetyka i Recepcja, edited by Tomaszewski, 79-88. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1996.

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Using numerous musical examples, Janickadiscussed the structures found in the Song of Cherubim. In particular, she emphasized the works tonal relationships, chordal preferences, and textual symbolism. Od do wyznania wiary. Rozmowa z Regina Studio no. 10 (October 1998): 7. This interview included brief discussions of The Black Mask, the inaugural volumes of the Studies in Penderecki journal, the world premiere of Credo and its relationship to the Seven Gates of Jerusalem, and the Penderecki Festival held in Krakw in 1998. B534. Penderecki: Passacaglia i Rondo, II Symfonia Wigilijna, Tren Ofiarom Hiroszimy, Anaklasis. Orkiestra Filharmonii Krakwskiej, dyr. Wojciech Czepiel. Polmusic PmCD 1-1989-1024. Studio no. 6(1994): 46. In this review of a CD issued by Polmusic (a Polish firm), Janickafocused on the similarities and differences among the recorded works. The obvious stylistic differences between the sonorism of Threnody and Anaklasis and the postromanticism of the Christmas Symphony (No. 2) and the Passacaglia and Rondo from Symphony No. 3 were cited. Common elements were the strengths of contrast, expression, and the dramaturgy of form. B535. Pod znakiem Credo. Festiwal Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Krakw 18 10 1998. Studio (November 1998): 7. Highlights of the 1998 Penderecki Festival included the European premiere of Credo, productions of The Black Mask and the St. Luke Passion, presentations of all three versions of the Viola Concerto (for viola, cello, or clarinet), and the exhibit of some of the composers colorful sketches. B536. Rok Krzysztofa Penderecki. Studio (March 1998): 7. Some of the highlights of the Penderecki Festival scheduled for September-October 1998 are noted, as are those planned for April as part of the Krakw 2000 Festival. B537. Wyzwanie z dyrektorem artystycznym Roku Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Studio (July, 1998): 7. Among the varied topics touched upon in this brief article was a note that the European premiere of Credo would be the culmination of the Penderecki Festival to be held later in 1998. B538. Zaproszenie do Studio, no. 57 (September 1998): 7. This mentions the highlights of the Penderecki Festival, which is to take place in Krakw, as well as a preliminary schedule of festival concerts. B539. Janzen, Wes. Performing Krzysztof Pendereckis Passio et mors Domini nostri Jesu Christs secundum Lucam: A Conductors Preparation. D.M.A. thesis, University of Cincinnati, 1994. Penderecki authorized the finished version of this thesis. Janzen examined sketches, manuscripts, and conducting scores of the Passion as he developed conclusions about B533.

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tempi, pronunciations, performance practices, and other issues of importance to any conductor of this piece. B540. Stefan. Polish Music After World War II. Musical Quarterly 51, no. 1 (1965): 244-58. Penderecki's music is briefly described as having extraordinary timbral effects, with emphases on articulation, dynamic, and polyphonic techniques. A excerpt from the score to Dimensions of Time and Silence is included. B541. Jaroszewicz, Jerzy. Rg Po 'Warszawskiej Jesieni'. no. 231 (September 27, 1979). The highlight of this year's Warsaw Autumn Festival was the Stuttgart State Theater's presentation of Paradise Lost. Jaroszewicz considered this piece to be Penderecki's best work since the St. Luke Passion. B542. Alicja. Sonorystyczne wyrazu muzycznego w kwartetach XX wieku. Muzyka 26, nos. 3-4 (1981): 47-64. As part of her essay on sonorism in twentieth-century string quartets, described the various ways in which Penderecki treated timbre as the primary element of a composition. In particular, she mentioned the variety of percussive effects and shimmering atmospheres heard in the First String Quartet and the quarter-tone melodic movement present in the Second String Quartet. B543. Danuta. Stabat Mater. In i tradycja w muzyce Krzysztofa Pendereckiego, edited by Regina and Krzysztof Szwajgier, 52-71. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna w Krakwie, 1983. After briefly reviewing the history of the sequence, turned to Pendereckis Stabat Mater, describing its test setting and the musical construction of each section. B544. Olgierd. Krzysztof Penderecki: Gazeta Krakowska, no. 248 (October 23, 1986). Effective with the 1986-1987 season, Penderecki became the artistic director of the Krakw Philharmonic. Much of the article was devoted to reminiscences of earlier performances of Penderecki's music, particularly those that occurred in Rome, the Soviet Union, East Germany, and France. B545. Uciec przed literackie 38, no. 26 (June 26, 1988): 3. This review of the Penderecki Festival listed the compositions and performances given at that event. Among the highlights were performances of the St. Luke Passion, and both parts of Utrenia. For the first time ever, these compositions were presented together at one setting, as the composer had intended. B546. jk. Henryk i Gimpel. Ruch muzyczny 11, no. 5 (March 1-15, 1967): 15. success in leading the National Philharmonic in the Polish premiere of De Natura Sonoris No. 1 was acknowledged in this review. The composer's inventiveness in the field of timbre, as seen in this piece, was thought to be almost unlimited.

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B547. jk. 'Jutrznia' po raz drugi. Ruch muzyczny 16, no. 8 (April 16-30, 1972): 14. One of the highlights of the National Philharmonic's season was the presentation of the complete Utrenia. Andrzej Markowsk, its conductor, was praised for his ability to create dramatic tension and expressive strength. B548. Joachim, Heinz and Hans Oesch. Fnf Stimmen ber Donaueschingen 1962: Krzysztof Penderecki. Fluorescences pour orchestre. Melos 29, no. 12 (December 1962): 397. These two authors commented briefly on the world premiere performance of Fluorescences. Joachim discussed Pendereckis use of the extreme possibilities of traditional instruments and his incorporation of such mechanical sound sources as electric bells and typewriter. Oesch considered the piece a mistake. With its repulsive noises, it made an unfavorable impression on him. B549. Joachim, Heinz. Sind Geigen berholt? Melos 35 (April 1968): 166-67; Die Welt, March 23, 1968. Bavarian State Opera musicians balked at playing Polymorphia because of the pieces unorthodox playing techniques. As a compromise, the orchestra made a tape of the work to be used for the scheduled choreographed performances. Joachim urged musicians and others to be open-minded about the question of sound vs. noise in music, and suggested that composers must be allowed to use their creative imaginations if Western music is to survive. B550. Jones, Lesley Shrigley. The Cello in the 20th Century. The Strad 91, no. 1081 (1980): 40-42. The Capriccio per Siegfried Palm is a veritable bag of tricks, a few of which Jones described in his brief summary of the piece. B551. Jungheinrich, Hans-Klaus. Es nlt. Ein Polnisches Requiem von Penderecki uraufgefhrt. Frankfurter Rundschau, October 8, 1984, p. 17. The premiere of the Polish Requiem was filled with political connotations. The fervent nature of Polish Catholicism and the Solidarity union, each of whom opposed Polands Communist authorities, was seen by Jungheinrich as a motivating factor behind the Requiems existence. However, although Penderecki strove diligently to create a unified whole, he was unable to give it a personal stamp, as Britten had done so skillfully in his War Requiem. B552. K., Deutsche Oper, Berlin: von Beethoven bis Pendereckis. Oper und Konzert 26 (March 1988): 11-12. Poznan's Teatr Wielki gave a performance of The Black Mask in Berlin. The play is not one of Hauptmann's best, but Penderecki's music gave it dramatic thrust and fascination.

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B553. K., L. Po XV Festiwalu 'Warszawska '. Przekrj, no. 1384 (1971): 6-7. Acoustical conditions in Warsaw's St. John Cathedral were perfect for a performance of Utrenia. The most surprising aspect of the work is the freedom with which Penderecki linked the rituals of the Orthodox Church to modern compositional means. Knstler. sterreichische B554. K., R. Neue Werke--junge Musikzeitschrift 34, no. 11 (November 1979): 570-71. Leif Segerstam and the ORF orchestra accompanied soloist Christiane Edinger in a performance of Pendereckis Violin Concerto. Penderecki employed tonality instead of experimental sounds. Unfortunately, this reasonable regression was not combined with a satisfactory use of form. B555. K., T. Wielki Polski Koncert. Nowy Dziennik 16, no. 4048 (January 24-25, 1987): 4. Penderecki is to conduct the British premiere of his Polish Requiem as part of the celebration of Artur Rubinstein's 100th birthday. B556. KA. Salzburger Festspiele. Weltuntergang, uerlich, virtuos. Oper und Konzert 24, no. 9 (1986): 20-21. After describing the plot of The Black Mask, this reviewer remarked that at first glance, one does not recognize ...an opera, but a hectic,...monotonously destructive crescendo. At the world premiere performance discussed here, only ten percent of the text could be understood. Stage director Harry Kupfer successfully portrayed the intricacies of the plot and managed to avoid any extravangances. B557. Salzburger Festspiele 1974. Oper und Konzert 12, nol 9 (1974): 13-18. The Magnificat contains moving passages...for the heart, not only for the head. The reviewer concluded that Penderecki is one of the few composers who have something to say. B558. Kaack, Brunhilde. Pendereckis Zwlftonreihe. Versuch einer Interpretation des Erffnungschores der Lukaspassion. Musica 29, no. 1 (January-February 1975): 9-15. In her detailed analysis of the opening chorus of the St. Luke Passion, Kaack focused on the transformation and development of the pieces two 12-tone rows. She discussed the use of these rows within the context of a sonata form movement, and also related them to the B-A-C-H motive, Indian ragas, and the tone rows of Stravinsky and Hindemith. B559. Tadeusz. Do 'Kosmogonii' Pendereckiego dobieranie klucza. no. 12 (June 13-26, 1971): 11; excerpts in Clavis. Muzyka w prasie. Ruch muzyczny 15, no. 16 (1971): 2. pondered the relationship between text and music in Cosmogony. If the text was intended to be unintelligible in performance, as Penderecki himself admitted, then why did the composer also request that the text be inserted into the written program? Was it a compromise intended to appease his commissioning agency, the United Nations?

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Festiwal Towarzystwa Muzyki 1968. Ruch muzyczny 12, no, 23 (1968): 6-8. The Capriccio for Violin was the only work performed at the ISCM Festival in Warsaw in September that displayed an element of humor.

B561. Jeszcze Polska nie Literatura, no. 42 (October 16, 1975): 10. The Warsaw Autumn Festivals presentation of The Awakening of Jacob and Magnificat attracted a large audience, including Cardinal The Magnificat was free of any sort of foreign influences, while The Awakening of Jacob was the only symphonic poem that combined originality with a clear means of communication. B562. 'Jutrznia' Pendereckiego w Krakwie. Ruch muzyczny 14, no. 17 (September 1-15, 1970): 6-8. The scene of the Polish premiere of Utrenia, Pt. I was St. Catherine's Church in Krakw. described the unusual positioning of the choir, and rationalized the works static dramatic action, indistinct forms, and thick textures as being the result of a freedom of the religious topic, as well as a natural consequence of Penderecki's musical development. B563. nie Sztandar Mlodych, no. 227 (September 23, 1974). Canticum Canticorum Salomonis was given a chilly reception at the Warsaw Autumn Festival. In opinion, the work deserved a warmer welcome, despite the incoherence of its texts. B564. Od zewnatrz i od Warszawska 1979. Literatura, no. 42 (October 18, 1979). According to the Stuttgart Theater's production of Paradise Lost contained several shortcomings. Despite, or perhaps because of the richness of its many theatrical and film effects, the actual character of the work was lost. The production did not reveal the tragedy of Adam and Eve convincingly and the worlds of Satan and God were not clearly differentiated. B565. Olivier Messaien o swojej 'Tranfiguracji' i o muzyce polskiej. Ruch muzyczny 22, no. 18-19 (1978): 3-4. In this interview, Messaien remarked that he owned scores for almost all of Penderecki's compositions and had used some of them in his Paris Conservatory classes. He admired Penderecki's orchestration, treatment of tone clusters, and tendency to use his music as a protest against the injustices of this world. B566. Pocztwki z Ruch muzyczny 25, no. 1 (January 11, 1981): 15-16. A concert of Penderecki's music that included the world premiere of Te Deum was presented in the basilica of St. Francis in Assisi in September 1980. Other works presented were The Awakening of Jacob, the Adagietto from Paradise Lost, and Stabat Mater.

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B567. Polimorfia Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 7, no. 22 (1963): 17-18. Of the five major compositions written by Penderecki between 1960 and 1962, Polymorphia is the finest. Its musicalmaterial was treated in a more artistically mature manner than had been the case in his earlier works. gave a brief analysis of Polymorphia's form. B568. Polnische Avantgarde am Scheideweg. Melos 35, nos. 1-2 (January 1968): 6-13. Dies Irae is representative of Pendereckis modernist musical style. B569. 10. Spr czy qui pro quo? Ruch muzyczny 16, no. 1 (1972): 9-

responded to Mycielski's questions about the role of texts in Cosmogony (see and Wallek-Walewski, Ruch muzyczny, no. 11, 1971 and Mycielski, Ruch muzyczny, no. 18, 1971). He noted that the texts of many compositions from the second half of the 20th century were treated phonetically rather than semantically; Cosmogony was one such piece. felt that this piece could be interpreted as either a purely abstract work or a quasi-programmatic one. B570. Stale inna i zawsze ta sama. XXV Warszawska Literatura (October 22, 1981): 13. The Second Symphony and Te Deum were presented at the 1981 Warsaw Autumn Festival. B571. Tadeusz, and Marian Wallek-Walewski. Kosmogonia Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 15, no. 11 (1971): 3-5. and Wallek-Walewski debated the value of Cosmogony. Wallek-Walewski felt that this piece was better than Utrenia, which for him was extremely boring. felt, however, that such a comparison was invalid, since Utrenia was a contemplative work, while Cosmogony was intended by its composer to be more dynamic. Wallek-Walewski then stated that Penderecki's selection of texts was immoral. refuted that idea, saying that Penderecki was obligated morally, if not contractually, to choose a theme connected to the United Nations' mission. The selection of texts about man's intellectual and material control of the world was appropriate. B572. Kado, Jacek. Kwartet w Kanadzie. Ruch muzyczny 35, no. 14 (1991): 5. The Silesian Quartet performed Penderecki's String Trio in Edmonton, Alberta. The piece had clear articulations in its polyphonic sections and was striking in its expression and dramaturgy. B573. Kaluzny, Jan A. Krzysztof Penderecki and His Contribution to Modern Musical Notation. Polish Review 8, no. 3 (1963): 86-95. Kaluzny took as his premise the idea that modern composition had outgrown the limitations of the conventional notational system and that Penderecki was one composer who had succeeded in reforming the system. He discussed the composers innovations in several works: Anaklasis is written in a new style of strong and contrasting

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contours and has an increased role for the percussion section; Threnody displays a new concern for timbral possibilities; and in Dimensions of Time and Silence, the choir is as important as the instruments. B574. , Jzef. Bydgoski Festiwal Operowy. Ruch muzyczny 38, no. 11 (May 29, 1994): 2. mentioned the Operas presentation of Ubu Rex at the Bydgoszcz Opera Festival. Dwie 'Maski'. Ruch muzyczny 32, no. 24 (1988): 7-8. gave his impressions about the back-to-back productions of The Black Mask given during the Warsaw Autumn Festival by the and Warsaw opera houses. He declined to offer a preference for one or the other, saying that they were so different from one another that they seemed to be two different operas. B576. Europejska premiera 'Raju Utraconego'. Ruch muzyczny 23, no. 5 (1979): 2. The European premiere of Paradise Lost at La Scala was the first performance of an opera by a Polish composer in the theater's history. listed the personnel changes made since the operas world premiere in Chicago, and said that the Italian production had been greeted enthusiastically by both audiences and critics. B577. z Loudun'. Ruch muzyczny 34, no. 17 (1990): 1-2. Almost thirty productions of The Devils of Loudun have been given in its twenty-one years of existence. This season's production at the Teatr Wielki is only the second to be given in Poland, although the first one, presented by Warsaw's Teatr Wielki, has remained in the repertory. B578. Pierwsze imprezy 'Warszawskiej Jesieni'. Trybuna ludu (September 21, 1960). described Dimensions of Time and Silence, performed at the 1960 Warsaw Autumn Festival, as a piece that attempted to achieve electronic sound effects by using live instruments. B579. Poland. Lurid Phantasmagoria. Opera 40, no. 2 (February 1989): 223-24. The Warsaw Great Theatre's production of The Black Mask was quite different from the one staged by the Opera a year earlier. In this most recent version, producer Albert-Andr Lheureux went back to the original story by Hauptmann for inspiration, and succeeded in mounting a performance full of Baroque exuberance and richness of ideas. B580. Poland. Moral Problems. Opera 41, no. 19 (October 1990): 1243. Penderecki approved of the Teatr Wielkis production of The Devils of Loudun. B575.

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B581. Poland. Penderecki in Perspective. Opera 45, no. 3 (March 1994): 353-54. To celebrate Pendereckis 60th birthday, the Teatr Wielki in Warsaw had planned to present all four of the composers operas. Circumstances dictated that only Paradise Lost was performed by the Warsaw troupe. Ubu Rex was offered by the Krakw Opera, while the Operas presentation of The Devils of Loudun did not take place and The Black Mask received only a concert performance. B582. Poland. Penderecki Reaches Home. Opera 27, no. 2 (February 1976): 166. In this short review of the Polish premiere of The Devils of Loudun, noted that the production had been more like an oratorio than an opera. B583. Poland: Roving Report. Opera 39 (February 1988): 228-89. The Great Theatre's production of The Black Mask received a fifteen-minute ovation. Penderecki deemed the performance equal to that given in Salzburg. B584. 7. Polska Opera w Moskwie. Ruch muzyczny 32, no. 12 (1988):

Wielki Teatr presented the Moscow premiere of The Black Mask during the Fourth Festival of Polish Music. Unfortunately, poor advertising limited the size of the audience. Some audience members reacted enthusiastically, while others seemed rather disoriented by the action and character of the work. B585. Przewodnik operowy. Krakw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1973. This new, expanded edition of Kanskis opera handbook, originally published in 1964, includes a discussion of Pendereckis The Devils of Loudun. Szukanie prawdziwych Refleksje po 'Warszawskiej Trybuna ludu (October 5, 1984): 5. Fragments of the Polish Requiem were presented at the Warsaw Autumn Festival. described Penderecki's changes of compositional style during his career as being related to the greater simplicity that was also appearing elsewhere in contemporary music. B587. Teatr to nie tylko mury i pieniaczemwi Pietras, dyrektor Teatru Wielkiego w Warszawie. Ruch muzyczny 36, no. 4 (1992): 1, 4. A choreographed version of the Polish Requiem is scheduled for spring 1992 at the Teatr Wielki in Warsaw. The Polish premiere of Paradise Lost is to be given at the beginning of 1993 at the same theater. B588. Pendereckim. Ruch muzyczny 38, no. 1 (January 9, 1994): 3. To celebrate Pendereckis 60th birthday, all but one of the composers stage works were presented at Warsaws Teatr Wielki. The Devils of Loudun was not performed due to financial difficulties, and The Black Mask was presented only as a concert work. B586.

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considered Ubu Rex to be one of the finest comic operas since Verdis Falstaff. Its group scenes, reminiscent of those in Rossinis operas, were particularly impressive, as was its overall vocal writing. B590. Urodziny Pendereckiego i jego Raj. Ruch muzyczny 37, no. 26 (December 26, 1993): 1, 5. reviewed two events a concert consisting of Pendereckis Cello Concerto No. 2, Flute Concerto, Lacrimosa, Song of Cherubim, Benedicamus Domino, Sinfonietta, Sonata for Violin and Piano, and Clarinet Quartet, and the first performance of Paradise Lost by a Polish theater, Warsaws Teatr Wielki. B591. Kaptainis, Arthur. Montreal Symphony: Penderecki Violin Concert No. 2 [premiere]. American Record Guide 59, no. 3 (May-June 1996): 59. The North American premiere of Violin Concerto No. 2 elicited admiration for its expert integration of styles but not much affection for its content. It was too long and too reliant...on the repetition of simple melodic cells... B592. Karaskiewicz, Norbert. Raj Utracony. Nowa kultura 13, no. 41 (1962): 8. Karaskiewicz pondered the relevance of Penderecki's recent compositions. He cited Dimensions of Time and Silence, Threnody, and Canon as pieces that propel our thoughts into the future, and thus serve as a means of escape from both the past and the present. B593. Penderecki Project w Brabancji. Ruch muzyczny 27, no. 7 (1983): 22. The Penderecki Project, a series of concerts dedicated to the composers music, was held in the Brabant province of the Netherlands. (A similar event had been held in Rotterdam in 1980.). Among the pieces performed were Adagietto from Paradise Lost, the Violin Concerto, Symphony No. 2, Psalmus 1961, and Brigade of Death. Also featured were several films for which Penderecki had composed electronic music. B594. Kastendieck, Miles. Penderecki's 'Passion' in New York Premiere. Christian Science Monitor, March 14, 1969, p. 4. This performance of the St. Luke Passion by the Minnesota Orchestra and conductor Skrowaczewski proved to have a mesmerizing effect on its Carnegie Hall audience. B595. Philadelphians Play Penderecki. Christian Science Monitor, October 7, 1970, p. 6. In this review of Utrenia (Part I), Kastendieck discussed the works sonoristic innovations and their effect on the works overall success. The piece was not as fascinating as the St. Luke Passion, due to Pendereckis seeming preoccupation with sound at the expense of true expressiveness.

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B596. Kayser, Beate. Munich: A Mixed Bag. Opera 30 (Autumn 1979): 81-85. August Everding's production of Paradise Lost, created for the Stuttgart Opera and given a guest performance in Munich, omitted lengthy segments that had been in the original Lyric Opera version. B597. Munich: The New Penderecki. Opera 42 (1991 annual festival issue): 85-87. Kayser did not think Ubu Rex, heard in its world premiere, was a particularly convincing work. Its music lacked a distinctive personal sound, its drama contained little or no character development, and its sets overwhelmed the action on stage. Contributing to the work's failure was the fact that the performers did not receive their final parts until a week before the premiere. B598. kbu [Karol Bula]. WOSPRiT w formie. Ruch muzyczny 33, no. 7 (1989): 15-16. Passacaglia and Rondo and Threnody were performed by the Great Polish Radio and Television Orchestra. The Passacaglia suffered in comparison to Threnody. B599. Siedem bram Jerozolimy w Nowym Jorku. Ruch muzyczny 42, no. 17 (August 23, 1998): 3. The American premiere of Seven Gates of Jerusalem was given a standing ovation by the standing-room-only audience. B600. Keats. Denver. Music Journal 35 (July 1977): 80, 82. Anaklasis, Capriccio for Violin, and The Awakening of Jacob were performed by the Denver Symphony Orchestra with the composer conducting. The first two pieces exhibited Penderecki's basic treatment of musical material: layers of sound, dramatic changes of texture and dynamics, and exotic timbres. Keats wondered if Penderecki had intended the Capriccio to be a parody of nineteenth-century violin concertos, since it had double stops a la Paganini and difficult cadenzas. B601. Kellner, Hans. Devils and Angels: A Study of the Demonic in Three Twentieth-Century Operas. Music and Man 2 (1978): 255-72. Kellner took as his primary objects for discussion Prokofiev's The Flaming Angel, Robert Ward's The Crucible, and Penderecki's The Devils of Loudun. In The Devils of Loudun, compositional devices such as indeterminate pitches and rhythms and unusual vocal and instrumental techniques are used for expressive rather than structural purposes. In Kellners opinion, Penderecki wanted the opera's audiences to observe the historical events depicted on stage objectively and unemotionally. He also asserted that Penderecki had the Soviet show trials in mind when he selected the subject matter of this opera. B602. Kenyon, Nicolas. 'In Gdansk the People Stood and Listened...It Is Important'. The Times (London), July 30, 1983, p. 9. In this interview, Penderecki revealed his reasons both for changing his musical styles and for continuing to reside in Poland rather than the West. He began to experiment with different musical styles when others began to write in a manner similar to his.

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Penderecki has remained a resident of Poland because, in his opinion, his music and his actions have made a difference in the social and cultural life of that country. For instance, the St. Luke Passion was the first religious composition performed in a church in post-war Poland. Some of his other pieces have been viewed as symbols for the nation in its opposition to Communism. B603. Musical Events: Sound and Fury. New Yorker (May 19, 1980): 124-29. Kenyon reviewed Penderecki's career and wondered whether the composer's shift to a more romantic style resulted from his desire to write longer pieces. He then dismissed the Second Symphony as a characterless echo of the past. B604. Kerner, Leighton. Music: Give 'Em Skelter. Village Voice, June 3, 1981: 72-73. Penderecki's Dies Irae and Lacrimosa were mentioned briefly in this review of recent concerts by the New York Philharmonic. B605. Kessler, Giovanna. Unter der Leitung des Komponisten. Pendereckis Paradise Lost an der Mailnder Scala. Opern Welt 20, no. 3 (March 1979): 31. Penderecki conducted the European premiere of Paradise Lost at La Scala. Kessler echoed some Chicago critics in stating that that the opera should be shortened. He also felt that its scenery and staging could be less ostentatious. B606. khi (Khittl, Klaus). Zuruck zum Fin de siecle. Salzburg: Pendereckis 2. Symphonie unter Zubin Mehta. Die Presse, September 1, 1980: 4. The New York Philharmonic brought Pendereckis Second Symphony to Vienna. In Khittls opinion, the work belongs more to the 19th-century symphonic tradition than it does to 20th-century music. B607. Kijowski, Andrzej. Prby czytane: 'Pasji' Pendereckiego. Dialog 12, no. 1 (1967): 112-15. In Kijowski's opinion, contemporary audiences have no desire to see, hear, or read anything new. Given this attitude, why was Penderecki's St. Luke Passion received so warmly at its Warsaw premiere? In part, it was because the Passion story is familiar to Polish Catholics. In part, it was because Penderecki incorporated such known stylistic idioms as Gregorian chant and Bachian arias. B608. Kirby, Fred. Skrowaczewski, Minnesota give 'Passion' Top Reading. Billboard 81 (March 22, 1969): 38. Kirby praised the Minnesota Orchestra's performance of the St. Luke Passion, which was given its New York premiere on March 6. B609. Kirchberg, Klaus. Fnfzig Jahre danach. Donaueschinger Musiktage wollen junge talente frden. Musikhandel 22, no. 8 (1971): 353-54. Penderecki presented the world premiere of Actions at the 1971 Donauschingen Music Days. Although stylistically familiar to those who have heard other compositions by Penderecki, it presented difficulties for the International Free Jazz Orchestra.

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B610. Neue Musik in vielen Gestalten. Musica 35, no. 3 (May-June 1981): 286. In this review of a recording of string quartets by Penderecki (No. 1), and Szymanowski (No. 2) (Da Camera Magna SM 92418), Kirchberg commented that Pendereckis First String Quartet proved that the innovators of 1960 could also play the game of virtuosity with good effect. B611. Kirkillo-Stacewicz, Anna. Inspiracje w muzyce. Ruch muzyczny 37, no. 24 (November 18, 1993: 3. At a Polish symposium on Inspiration in 20th Century Music, Regina discussed musical ethics in The Devils of Loudun. B612. Kisielewski, Stefan. Muzyka atomowa i Warszawy, no. 232 (September 30, 1961): 3. A performance of Threnody was one of the highlights of the Warsaw Autumn Festival. Kisielewski described the piece as atomic music that could be compared to earlier music in the same way that a nuclear weapon could be compared to a traditional army saluting as it marches four abreast in a drill. B613. O Krzysztofie Pendereckim. In Muzyka i Mzg, 167-75. Krakw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1974. Threnody, Anaklasis, Polymorphia, and Fluorescences placed Penderecki within the avant-garde circle early in his career. However, with the St. Luke Passion, Penderecki achieved a synthesis of new and traditional styles. Kisielewski suggested that Penderecki had made a conscious decision to create this synthesis so that his works would be accepted by a wider circle of people. B614. Penderecki z Ruch muzyczny 19, no. 20 (1975): 8-11. In these comments about Ludwik Erhardt's Spotkania z Krzysztofem Pendereckim, Kisielewski concentrated on the four areas in which Erhardt presented new information: Penderecki's musical education, his relationship to the avant garde, his ideas about religious expression in music, and his treatment of texts. B615. Klein, Rudolf. Musik beim Premio Italia. sterreiche Musikzeitschrift, 23, no. 11 (November 1968): 630-31. A German television production of a choreographed Dies Irae received first prize in the television category of the Premio Italia prizes. Bizarre costumes and surrealistic conception contrasted sharply to the works dedicatory image of the Auschwitz concentration camp. B616. Penderecki-Oper in Graz. sterreiche Musikzeitschrift 26, no. 11 (November 1971): 655-56. The second performance in Graz of The Devils of Loudun was greeted by a half-empty hall, even though, in Kleins opinion, the public should be enthralled with contemporary opera.

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B617. Pendereckis 'Utrenia' im Konzerthaus. esterreichische Musikzeitschrift 26, no. 7 (1971): 395-96. Utrenia can be easily understood on an emotional level by listeners, despite its passages of clusters and its lack of clear tonality. B618. Penderecki Teufel von Loudun in Graz. Opern Welt (Yearbook, 1972): 60-61. The Graz production of The Devils of Loudun received a positive, although not enthusiastic review. Klein felt that the opera took an anti-Catholic stand, although at the same time he acknowledged that its ending displayed psychologically well-founded behavior. B619. Stuttgarter Oper gastierte mit Penderecki. esterreiche Musikzeitschrift 28, no. 4 (April 1973): 198. Gnther Rennerts production of The Devils of Loudun was presented at the Stuttgart Opera. Its unusual quality and crassness of...production formed the basis of Kleins highly negative evaluation. B620. Klekot, Ewa. Dysonans koncepcji. Wystawa partytur Pendereckiego oczyma historyka sztuki. Ruch muzyczny 42, no. 24 (November 29, 1998): 18-19. This essay focused on the dissonance that exists in the very concept of presenting a exhibit of musical scores, in this case Pendereckis scores. Should such an event be considered an art exhibit, thus treating the scores as artistic works in and of themselves? Or should this exhibit be a presentation of musical works, in which the initiated would be able to understand the secrets of the notes? B621. Klemesrud, Judy. Mehta's Mystique: Baton in Hand, Foot in Mouth? New York Times, October 18, 1970, Section 2, p. 15. Mehta described Penderecki as kind of a neo-Debussy. B622. Kluppelholz, Werner. ber den gegenwrtigen Stand der Dummheit in der Neuen Musik. MusikTexte 21 (October 1987): 3-7. Penderecki was belittled as a example of what has gone wrong in contemporary music. To support his opinion, Kluppelholz extracted several quotes from a nauseating interview with Penderecki that was published in Der Spiegel (see Klaus Umbach, Mit Gloria und Glykol). B623. Koch, Gerhard R. Gewaltiger Jammer. Pendereckis Polnisches Requiem in Stuttgart. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, October 4, 1984. The world premiere of the Polish Requiem was broadcast by French, Danish and Spanish radio networks. Koch described Pendereckis work as one in which romantic musical traditions were incorporated into the Lacrimosa and the Agnus Dei, while more atonal language was used in the remaining sections.

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B624. Pendereckis 'Partita'. Musica 26, no. 5 (September-October 1972): 461-62; Linien im Gerusch. Pendereckis Partita in Hersfeld. Neue Musikzeitung 21, nos. 7-8 (August-September 1972): 21. Gerd Albrecht directed the Frankfurt Radio Orchestra in the European premiere of Partita. Its collective approach to the soloists (cembalo, guitar, elecric bass guitar, harp, and contrabass) was similar to that heard in Ligetis Chamber Concerto and Globokars Concerto grosso. At the same time, however, allusions to the composers own Actions and his Capriccios for various instruments are audible. B625. Wiesbaden: Auf der Folter zu singen. Opern Welt, no. 8 (August 1970): 43-44. The Wiesbaden production of The Devils of Loudun did nothing to dispel the operas previously acknowledged weaknesses. Penderecki relied too heavily on the melodramatic qualities of the libretto, and the score leaves an impression of being only a decoration. B626. Sinfonie Orchester in einer gewandelten Welt. Musikzeitung 20, no. 6 (1971): 2. This contains a brief mention of Actions. Neue

B627. Koegler, Horst. Dsseldorf. Opera News 33, no. 27 (June 14, 1969): 25; Opera 20 (June 1969): 525-56; expanded version, Pendereckis 'Lukas-Passion' szenisch. Musica 23, no. 4 (July/August 1969): 366. Koegler was dissatisfied with both the theatrical and musical aspects of the Deutsche Oper am Rhein's stage presentation of the St. Luke Passion. In particular, he decried the choruss completely indigestible mixture of eurhythmics, mass gymnastics and expressionist contortions. B628. Salzburg. Opera News 51, no. 7 (December 20, 1986): 34. The world premiere of The Black Mask was a success. Although the text was difficult to understand, the eclecticism and eerie sounds of the music were dramatically appropriate. B629. Stuttgart. Opera News 44, no. 2 (August 1979): 33. The Stuttgart Opera's version of Paradise Lost was further proof that many problems exist in its score. This production was trimmed from three to two and a quarter hours; it also used film projections. B630. Traditionals als Widerstand. Pendereckis Polnisches Requiem uraufgefhrt. Stuttgarter Zeitung, October 1, 1984, p. 8. Following a review of the compositional history of the Polish Requiem and the differences between it and a strictly liturgical requiem, Koegler asserted that this work demonstrated the vitality of Polish music. He also contended that it followed in the line of the great 19th-century requiemsincluding those by Mozart, Cherubini, Berlioz and Verdi. Nevertheless, Koegler was not convinced that it was of high quality.

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B631. Was taugt der Theaterkomponist fr die Oper? Ein notwendiges Nachwort zur konzertierten Stuttgarter Penderecki-Aktion. Stuttgarter Zeitung, May 10, 1979, p. 33. Stuttgart Opera director Wolfram Schwinger should be pleased: He has finished his new book on Penderecki and the Stuttgart public enthusiastically applauded his production of The Devils of Loudun. B632. Wuppertal. Opera News 34, no. 26 (May 16, 1970): 29; Die Teufel von Loudun. Musica 24, no. 3 (May/June 1970): 266-67; Opera 21 (May 1970): 418. The Wuppertal production of The Devils of Loudun marked the premiere of the revised version of the score. Among other changes, Penderecki strengthened its choral writing by adding to the finale. In another departure from previous productions, projections of texts by Aldous Huxley were shown during scene changes. B633. Kofin, Ewa. Wratislavia ma sie dobrze. Ruch muzyczny 37, no. 21 (October 17, 1993): 1, 3. Te Deum was one of the highlights of the 1993 Wratislavia Cantans festival. B634. Kohn, Karl. Los Angeles. Musical Quarterly 49, no. 3 (1963): 36069. Strophes contains extended 'triadic' chords and a heterophonic texture. Intervals of a seventh, ninth, fourth, and seconds also are used frequently. An excerpt from the score is included with this article. B635. Kolodin, Irving. Music to My Ears. Saturday Review, March 22, 1969: 68-69, 79. The Minnesota Orchestra under Skrowaczewski gave the New York premiere of the St. Luke Passion. A fascinating and intense work of an expert craftsman, it achieves a dark, timeless mysteriousness, an austerity, and a leanness not linked to 'religious' music. B636. Music to my Ears. Saturday Review, December 18, 1971, p. 25. De Natura Sonoris No. 2, given its world premiere by the Juilliard Orchestra, is a skillfully crafted work, extending the kind of tonal imagery Penderecki deployed in his Threnody. B637. The Passions of Penderecki. Saturday Review, February 24, 1968: 63-65. In a conversation with Kolodin, Penderecki affirmed that he used overtones as an integral part of Dies Irae. He also discussed electronic music, serialism and Renaissance polyphony.

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B638. Santa Fe's Operatic Oasis. Saturday Review, August 30, 1969: 39-42,52. In this review of a Santa Fe Opera production of The Devils of Loudun, Kolodin thought the opera was faulty. Its drama was weak and its music was subordinate to the dramatic action, with even speech and mere noise outranking it in importance. B639. A Second Chance for Penderecki's 'Devils'. Saturday Review, August 28, 1971, p. 43. Kolodin appraised a recent recording of The Devils of Loudun (Philips 6700 042) by concluding that the piece was made for an electronic medium. The orchestra's role as a source...of sound effects and the mannered style of the text setting resulted in his unfavorable rating of the composition. B640. Komorowska, XXIV 'Warszawska czyli niemoc awangardy. Pnekrj, no. 185 (October 26, 1980). Penderecki withdrew his Second Symphony and Te Deum from the Warsaw Autumn Festival's program for reasons connected to the country's recent political events. No further details were provided in this article. B641. Penderecki w teatrze. Dialog 26, no. 11 (1979): 131-41. In this article, Komorowska provided valuable information that is unavailable elsewhere. The first of its four parts is a discussion of both the dramatic elements of Penderecki's non-vocal compositions and the theatrical aspects of his sacred vocal works. The second section is a discussion of Penderecki's compositions for both puppet and live theater. Komorowska cited examples from For Whom the Bell Tolls, Mother, the Famous Story about Troilus and Cressida, the Ungodly Comedy, and Brothers Karamazov. She also suggested similarities between these works and certain scenes and characters in The Devils of Loudun and the St. Luke Passion. In the third section, Komorowska focused on The Devils of Loudun, giving a summary of its plot and describing the differences in staging and critical reception among several of its productions. Paradise Lost, the subject of the fourth part, has action music fused with atmosphere music. B642. Polskie na studenckim konkursie. Ruch muzyczny 35, no. 25 (1991): 2. Penderecki's Niebo w nocy (one of his Two Songs to texts by Staff) was sung at the Polish Art Song Student Performers' Competition in November 1991. B643. 'Raj utracony' Pendereckiego w La Scali. Teatr, no. 7 (1979): 3-4. The European premiere of Paradise Lost at La Scala is reviewed here. A reproduction of the handbill for the production is included. B644. W masce Melpomeny. Ruch muzyczny 11, no. 1 (1967): 1314. Penderecki's music to The Ungodly Comedy, a play by Konrad Swinarski, is one of the finest examples of theatrical music of Poland's postwar period. Its tangle of live and

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mechanical music...[is an] excellent counterpoint to the whirling contents of Krasinski's poetry. B645. Teatr, no. 24 (November 25, 1979). Komorowska devoted much of her discussion of Paradise Lost to details of its staging and acting in the Stuttgart Opera production presented during the 1979 Warsaw Autumn Festival. Director August Everding provided a clear presentation of the dramatic action, but to do this, he cut sections that were musically substantive. B646. Kondracki, 'Jesienne' Ruch muzyczny 15, no. 22 (1971): 9-11. Kondracki gave Utrenia only a mixed review after hearing it at the Warsaw Autumn Festival. He was pleasantly surprised by the dramatic effectiveness of the first part of the piece, The Entombment of Christ, but perceived the second half, The Resurrection of Christ, as a return to the musical style of the St. Luke Passion. B647. List z USA. Ruch muzyczny 13, no. 15 (1969): 18. In his article on recent performances of Polish music in the United States, Kondracki mentioned Penderecki's Capriccio for Violin, Stabat Mater, St. Luke Passion, and Threnody and cited several reviewers' comments about these pieces. B648. Kopp, Jim. Quartet's Performance Energetic, Compelling. Atlanta Journal/Atlanta Constitution, May 8, 1989, Section B, p. 3. The Penderecki Quartet performed two works by its namesake composer in Atlanta. The Second String Quartet was compared to a beehive, while Der Unterbrochene Gedanke was a snapshot of a musical soul beset with modernist heebie-jeebies. B649. Korn, Peter Jona. Auferstehung mit Gebrll. Warum ist der polnische Komponist Krzysztof Penderecki eigentlich so berhmt? Die Welt, February 22, 1975, p. GW4. The subtitle of this article describes much of its content: Why is Polish composer Krzysztof Penderecki so famous? Korns response to his own question is that Penderecki was overrated, despite the obvious skill that he has displayed as a composer. B650. Kazimierz. Raj dla flecistw. Grzegorz Olkiewicz opowiada o I Europejskim Festiwalu Fletowym we Frankfurcie n. Menem. Ruch muzyczny 37, no. 10 (May 16, 1993): 10. Olkiewicz performed a flute piece by Penderecki entitled Misterioso at the European Flute Festival, which took place in Frankfurt, Germany March 11-14, 1993. [Note: No other information about this piece is available. It is possible, although unlikely, that it is part of Penderecki's Miniatures for Flute, a student work.] B651. . Penderecki we Ruch muzyczny 51 (November 16, 1997): 30. The opening concert of Wroclaws fall season was dedicated to Pendereckis Flute Concerto, Sinfonietta for Strings, and the Viola Concerto in its version for clarinet solo.

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Kostrzewska, Hanna. Zagadnienie sonoryzmu na kompozytorw polskich. Muzyka 36, no. 1 (1991): 83-93. After defining and reviewing the history of sonorism, Kostrzewska provided a compendium of the sonoristic techniques that have appeared in Polish compositions from 1956 to 1980. Penderecki's works were cited for their extended instrumental and vocal techniques, extreme dynamic effects, tone clusters, and innovative rhythms. B653. Kot, Protestant z Galicji. Wprost, January 19, 1992, p. 68; excerpts in Clavis. Muzyka w prasie. Ruch muzyczny 36, no. 4 (1992): 2. Penderecki talked with Kot about his genealogical background and about the Catholic Church in Poland. He described himself as a citizen of Europe, but with Eastern roots. He therefore thought it was natural for him to write a Catholic Passion and an Orthodoxinspired Utrenia. B654. Kotschenreuther, Hellmut. Penderecki, Papst und Polen. Musik der Gegenwart beim SFB in Berlin. Stuttgarter Zeitung, February 12, 1981, p. 12. Penderecki conducted his own music for the 100th concert of the Music der Gegenwart series. Included were Threnody, Stabat Mater, The Awakening of Jacob, Adagietto from Paradise Lost, and Te Deum. B655. Kovalenko, Susan Chaffins. The Twentieth-Century Requiem: an Emerging Concept. Ph. D., Washington University, 1971. Kovalenko suggested that a new genrethe secular requiemhad emerged in the twentieth century. This genre encompasses works that make a meaningful statement about death and that often deal with social and moral issues as well as with death. Penderecki's Dies Irae is one of the works that Kovalenko discussed at length. B656. Kowal, Roman. Actions for Free Jazz Orchestra. In i tradycja w muzyce Krzysztofa Pendereckiego, edited by Regina and Krzysztof Szwajgier, 105-13. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna w Krakwie, 1983. This insightful article about Pendereckis jazz work, Actions, includes information about the European free jazz movement of the 1960s and 1970s, the composers preliminary outline of the work, and the final outcome as it was recorded. B657. Kozinn, Allan. Has Baton Will Travel; Has Hour, Will Compose. New York Times, October 31, 1997. In this interview. Penderecki commented on how well the New York Philharmonic and a group of soloists had prepared his pieces for upcoming concerts. B658. A Journey From Spiky To Suave. New York Times, June 21, 1988, p. C17. The First New York International Festival of the Arts included presentations of Strophes, Capriccio for Oboe and 11 Strings, Partita, and the Viola Concerto. Kozinn asserted that when Penderecki abandoned his experimental avant-garde musical style, his music regrettably lost its sense of urgency.

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B659. A Talk with... Krzysztof Penderecki. Carnegie Hall/Stagebill 8, no. 5 (January 1986): 18, 22. Penderecki acknowledged that the declaration of martial law in Poland had, in part, compelled him to write the Polish Requiem. B660. Dorota. Il mio tesoro. Z Ochmanem rozmawia Dorota Studio 1, no. 4 (December 1992-January 1993): 5-6. Ochman, a leading Polish tenor, mentioned in this interview that Penderecki's music was not difficult to sing. Stefania Woytowicz, a soprano, performed Penderecki's music so well that others often imitated her interpretations. B661. Kozlowski, Maciej. wielkiej sztuki. Kultura, no. 33 (August 19, 1973); excerpts in Clavis. Muzyka w prasie. Ruch muzyczny 17, no. 19 (1973): 2; abridged version in A Conversation with Krzysztof Penderecki. Polish Perspectives 16, no. 12 (1973): 54-58. Penderecki talked about the reasons for Poland's recent successes in modern music, his own interests in classical antiquity, literature, and religion, his impetus for writing the St. Luke Passion, his opinions about contemporary classical and pop music, and his work as a teacher. Among his more interesting remarks, he stated that Polish music was better known abroad than in Poland and that he read Latin texts in the original language. B662. Kraemer, Uwe. Krzysztof Penderecki. In Uwe Kraemer. Komponisten uber Komponisten. Ein Quellen-Lesebuch, 148-50. Wilhelmshaven: Heinrichshofens Verlag, 1972. Two sets of comments about Penderecki are provided here: Norbert Linke suggested that Penderecki owed much to the music of Schaffer, particularly with regard to his notation and use of form. Dieter Einfeldt stated that Penderecki was a fashionable, though not modern composer. B663. Kramer, Gerhard. Auch in Wienscho Boulez den Vogel a Melos 38, no. 11 (November 1971): 494. Kramer claimed that the world premiere of the complete Utrenia took place in Vienna, when in fact it occurred in Mnster. The piece is musically attractive, with its fascinating treatment of clusters combined with the sounds of old Slavic church music. B664. Pendereckis 'Teufel' in Graz. Viel Beifall fr eine enttuschende Auffhrung. Neue Musikzeitung 20, no. 6 (December 1971/January 1972): 21. The Devils of Loudun was given a disappointing production in Graz. This was due to its non-provocative stage directions and the banality of its music. B665. Pendereckis zugngliche Musik. Zur Wiener Erstauffhrung des Polnischen Requiem im Konzerthaus. Die Presse, December 24, 1984, p. 5. Kramer was impressed with both the performers and the quality of the Polish Requiem. Characterized by a linguistic pluralism, the music is based on a polyphonic

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chromaticism that allows the use of both tonal harmonies and clusters without endangering its integrity. B666. Kranz, Dieter. Totentanz einer Gesellschaft. Pendereckis Schwarze Maske uraufgefhrt. Theater der Zeit 41, no. 11 (1986): 48-49. For the world premiere production of The Black Mask, director Hans Schavernoch created a fascinating theatrical vision of this 17th-century story of intrigue, wealth, and crime. In Kranzs opinion, the opera contains many of the compositional techniques heard in the St. Luke Passion and The Devils of Loudun. He also compared the piece to Bergs Lulu and Strausss Salome. B667. Krause, Ernst. Penderecki in der Lindenoper. Opern Welt 16, no. 12 (December 1975): 38 The Deutsche State Opera performance of The Devils of Loudun omitted or glossed over some of its more suggestive scenes. B668. Krause, Ernst. Schnell geschaltet. Dessau und Penderecki wieder im Repertoire der Deutschen Staatsoper Berlin (DDR). Opern Welt 23, no. 5 (May 1982): 50-51. Krause considered the Deutsche Staatsoper production of The Devils of Loudun, first presented in 1975, to be the finest to date. B669. Krellmann, Hanspeter. Altenberg. Pendereckis 'Grablegung Christi' uraufgefhrt. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 110, no. 3 (May/June 1970): 183. After a years delay, the premiere of Part I of Utrenia took place in 1970. The conductor was Andrzej Markowski, not Henryk with whom Penderecki had been at odds since the Hamburg production of The Devils of Loudun. The location was the Altenberg cathedral, not the previously announced Maria Laach Abbey Church. B670. Mnster. Pendereckis 'Auferstehung Christi'. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 111, no. 4 (July/August 1971): 241-42. The premiere of the complete Utrenia took place in Mnster. Prior to the performance, Penderecki stated in a radio interview that with this work he had finally found his own musical style, and that the opinions of critics did not concern him. B67l. Ein musikalisches Nachtgebet. Neue Musikzeitung 19, no. 3 (1970): 4. In this review of the world premiere of Utrenia, Pt. 1, Krellman described the piece as an evening prayer from the Greek Orthodox Church, which corresponds to Matins in the Roman Catholic liturgy. B672. Pendereckis 'Lukas-Passion' szenisch; Urauffhrung an der Dsseldorfer Oper unter Henryk Czyz. Neue Musikzeitung 28, no. 2 (1969): 2. The St. Luke Passion was given a staged performance at the Dsseldorf Opera. It was not a great success because the music did not lend itself to this type of production. B673. Krieg, Joann. Adam in Wonderland: Krzysztof Penderecki and the American Bicentennial. In Opera and the Golden West. The Past, Present and

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Future of Opera in the U.S.A., edited by John L. DiGaetani and Josef P. Sirefman, 257-64. Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1994. Krieg offered an illuminating essay on the reasons why Penderecki was given the Lyric Operas bicentennial commission. She discussed American and international reactions to that commission, which resulted in Paradise Lost. B674. Kriegsman, Alan. 'Dies Irae': A Holocaust Through the Eyes of a Composer. Washington Post, January 24, 1974, p. B17. Penderecki stated that he intended Dies Irae to be performed only once, at its premiere in Auschwitz, because it seemed a bit exhibitionistic to reproduce in concert settings. B675. Krzysztyniak, Zbigniew. Interview with Krzysztof Penderecki. Polish Perspectives 27 (Spring 1984): 54-56. In this brief interview, Penderecki discussed his plans to write more symphonies and opera. He was working on the Polish Requiem, which was a musical summing-up of my experiences. B676. Jestem ciekaw nie nieobecnym. Gazeta Krakowska, no. 273 (November 19-20, 1983); excerpts in Clavis. Muzyka w prasie. Ruch muzyczny 28, no. 2 (1984): 12. In the excerpted part of this interview, Penderecki discussed his musical upbringing, his view that composition should be taught in public schools, his regret that most people in Poland did not attend concerts of contemporary music, and his desire to help young composers and musicians, in part through his festivals. B677. Kube, Michael. Text und Struktur in Pendereckis Psalmen Davids. Musik und Kirche 67, no. 6 (November-December 1997): 381-87. Penderecki used new compositional techniques in the Psalms of David. Stylistically, it was a neoromantic work. B678. Kuhn, Georg-Friedrich. Groe Namen gut, groe Entdeckungen besser. Pendereckis Te Deum und Anmerkungen zu einem Jubilum. Frankfurt Rundschau, February 24, 1981, p. 9. The German premiere of Te Deum took place during the 100th concert of Berlins Musik der Gegenwart series. Also on the concert were Threnody, Stabat Mater, and Lacrimosa. B679. Kumpf, [H. H.] Interview. Jazz Podium 23 (August 1974): 17, 29. The musicians who performed Actions missed their usual freedom to improvise, since Penderecki notated all of its pitches and rhythms. The composer stated, however, that if he had granted such freedoms to the musicians, then it wouldn't have been his piece. B680. Kumpf, Hans. H. Jazz und Avantgarde. Musik und Bildung 9, no. 10 (October 1977): 521-25. Jazz musicians criticized the lack of opportunities for improvisation in Pendereckis Actions. Penderecki explained, however, that he had maintained the flavor of jazz while notating all the pitches and rhythms.

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B681. Kupferberg, Herbert. New York Philharmonic: Penderecki Seven Gates of Jerusalem [US premiere]. American Record Guide 61, no. 6 (November/December 1998): 69. The American premiere of Seven Gates of Jerusalem featured surround sound, with two choruses in the side balconies and percussion and brass in the back of the hall. B682. Lucjan. Muzyczna jest potrzebna! Przekroj, no. 808 (October 2, 1960): 7. Penderecki used a notational system for Dimensions of Time and Silence that was based on clock-time rather than traditional measures and bar lines. Its 40-voice choir, treated percussively, whistles and hisses. B683. O XXV Warszawskiej Jesieni Muzycznej: daleko od brzegu. Przekrj, no. 1905 (October 11, 1981). Large crowds thronged to the Warsaw Autumn Festival performances of Te Deum and the Second Symphony. These two works differ stylistically from Threnody or Strophes. B684. Penderecki w Carnegie Hall (i gdzie indziej...). Przekroj (February 16, 1986): 8-9. This report about the Krakw Philharmonic's tour of the United States focused on Penderecki's reception as both conductor and composer. Penderecki's Second Cello Concerto and The Awakening of Jacob and Shostakovich's Sixth Symphony formed one concert program, while the Polish Requiem was presented in New York and Boston only. In Boston, the audience was so moved that during Lacrimosa it stood and then began to shed tears. B685. Z Krzysztofem Pendereckim: Rozmowa w Stuttgarcie. Literackie, no. 43 (October 21, 1984): 3. The world premiere of the complete Requiem was broadcast live in West Germany, France, Denmark, and Spain, and was to be heard later in more than 30 countries. B686. Laderman, Ezra. Letters to the Editor...Opera Commission. Washington Post, July 14, 1973, p. A19; the same letter appears as Reverse Chauvinism. New York Times, July 11, 1973, p. 40. Laderman, president of the American Music Center, lamented the naming of a nonAmerican composer to composer an opera in honor of the Bicentennial, calling it a case of reverse chauvinism. B687. LaFave, Kenneth. Density Veils Power of Santa Fe Opera's 'The Black Mask'. Kansas City Star, August 7, 1988. The world premiere of The Black Mask was given a relatively favorable review by LaFave. He noted that most of the libretto could not be understood because several characters were singing different lines simultaneously over a loud orchestra. B688. Laine, Barry. Opera Ballet: Taming the Two-Headed Monster. Dancemagazine 54, no. 2 (1980): 84-89. John Butler's choreography in Paradise Lost created a unity of music and dance. The dancers, portraying Adam and Eve, sometimes interacted with the vocalists playing those

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same two roles, sometimes were on stage alone, and at other times danced apart from the singers. B689. Lange, Art. Penderecki's 'Paradise Lost'. Tempo, no. 128 (March 1979): 34-35. Lange lambasted the music of Paradise Lost. Its ponderous stage actions were attributed both to the composer's desire to create a sacra rappresentazione rather than a fullfledged opera, and to the last-minute shift of stage directors, which resulted in many changes in stage movements. B690. Lange, Wolfgang. Possenhaft entschrft. Theater der Zeit 46, no. 10 (October 1991): 15-16. Alfred Jarrys Ubu Roi is often considered to be a signature work of absurdist theater. In Langes opinion, the music for Pendereckis operatic version was flat and, at times, casual in purpose. B691. Larner, Gerald. Concerts. Musical Times 113, no. 1556 (October 1972): 998. Ecloga VIII is a a delightfully coloured study in witchcraft...resourcefully scored for unaccompanied voices. The Concerto for Violino Grande, presented in its new transcription for cello, was premiered at the same Edinburgh Festival. B692. Cracow Philharmonic. The Guardian, March 20, 1990, p. 38. Of the three works performed on a Glasgow concert, the Passacaglia was the most interesting. In this work, the composer has at last restored a function to sound independent of its harmonic associations. Both the Viola Concerto and the Second Symphony were dull. B693. Lasocki, Roman. Krzyszt of Penderecki. Trzy Miniatury na skrzypce i fortepian. In Uwagi o pracy nad utworem skrzypcowym na wybranych muzyki polskiej w latach ostatnich, 2028. Katowice: Wydawnictwo Akademii Muzycznej im. Karola Szymanowskiego, 1985. In his analysis of the Miniatures for Violin and Piano, Lasocki emphasized the role of dynamics and articulations in creating imagery and form. B694. Lawniczak, Donald A. Krzysztof Penderecki, John Milton and 'Paradise Lost'. Polish Heritage 32 (Spring 1981): 6-7. Lawniczak defended Paradise Lost against its many critics. He questioned some of the minor changes between Milton's text and the libretto assembled by Fry, and wondered why Penderecki had characterized the piece as a rappresentazione, since its music did not fit the style of that late 16th-century genre. B695. Lawrence, Richard. Summer Music. Music & Musicians 21 (November 1972): 77-78. The Second String Quartet, performed at the South Bank Summer Music festival, was summarized as an agreeable study in textures.

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B696. Lawton, David. Krzysztof Penderecki: De Natura Sonoris no. 2 (1971). MLA Notes 30, no. 4 (June 1974): 865-66. Lawton pointed out several of the features that make De Natura Sonoris No. 2 a successful work. For example, the piece's unusual timbres were not there merely for the sake of creating noise, but instead had an important musical function. B697. Layng, Judith. Interview: Joy Davidson. Opera Journal 3, no. 2 (1970): 19-22. Joy Davidson, who sang the role of Sister Jeanne in the U. S. premiere of The Devils of Loudun, stated that Penderecki's music aptly supported the dramatic action. She was fascinated by both the character and vocal part of Sister Jeanne. B698. le [Ludwig Erhardt]. Kulka gra 'Koncert' Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 23, no. 8 (April 22, 1979): 12. The author briefly described the works performed a a Katowice concert: Violin Concerto, Anaklasis, De Natura Sonoris No. 1 and The Awakening of Jacob. B699. Nagroda Grammy dla Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 32, no. 8 (1988): 2. Penderecki received a Grammy award for his Second Cello Concerto. B700. Penderecki z Ruch muzyczny 20, no. 15 (July 4, 1976): 12. On the occasion of Penderecki's conducting debut at the National Philharmonic, Erhardt stated that this composer was also an excellent, though not flamboyant, conductor. Penderecki led the Philharmonic in his own Canticum Canticorum, The Awakening of Jacob, and Symphony No. 1. B701. Przed 'Raju utraconego'. Ruch muzyczny 22,no. 24 (1978): 2. The world premiere of Paradise Lost was announced and its performers named. The work is to be presented in Milan in February 1979 and later in Stuttgart, Dsseldorf, and Warsaw. B702. Ledee, Mikel Andrew. An Analysis on the First String Quartet of Krzysztof Penderecki and an Original Composition, Symphony II. D.M.A. thesis, Louisiana State University, 1996. In this analysis of the First String Quartet, Ledee went beyond the surface details of non-metric notation and unusual timbres to examine the works rhythm, pitch organization, and form. B703. Lee, Douglas. Penderecki and Crumb at Wichita State. Musical Quarterly 61, no. 4 (1975): 584-88. A December 1974 concert of Penderecki's works, with the composer conducting, provided evidence that his music could be understood more easily than many other pieces written in the past decade. The pieces performed were Stabat Mater, Psalms of David, Threnody, and De Natura Sonoris No. 1.

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B704. Lehman, Mark L. Penderecki: Violin Sonata; Clarinet Quartet; Sinfonietta; Flute Concerto; Benedicamus Domino; Song of Cherubim; Lacrimosa. American Record Guide 58, no. 5 (September/October 1995): 190. Lehman offered positive comments on each of the works on this Sony recording (66284). He mentioned the crucial influence of Shostakovich on Penderecki and the latters propensity to juxtapose lyrical sections with those of more dissonance. B705. Lemery, Denys. Les present conjugues. Jazz Magazine no. 16 (1969): 34-37, 45-48. As Lemery explored the similarities between jazz and contemporary classical music, he cited Threnody, Polymorphia, and De Natura Sonoris No. 1 as examples of works that extend the range of timbral possibilities. He also referred to Threnody and Dies Irae in his discussion of pieces that express the problems of humanity. B706. Lesle, Lutz. Feuerfarben und Wassertne. Polnische Novitten beim Schleswig-Holstein Musik Festival. Das Orchester 41, no. 11 (November 1993): 1195-1196. The Clarinet Quartet, heard in its world premiere, was inspired by Schuberts String Quintet. The Quartet was played twice due to audience demand. On the same concert were performances of the Capriccio per Siegfried Palm, the Miniatures for Violin and Piano, and the Three Miniatures for Clarinet and Piano. B707. Ich brauche dieses Das Orchester wie meine Musik. Geburtstagsgesprch mit Krzysztof Penderecki. Das Orchester 42, no. 4 (1994): 27-28. Penderecki talked with Lesle on the occasion of his 60th birthday celebration. Among the topics were the continuity of style in his music, the difficulties that he once had in convincing orchestras to play such pieces as Threnody and Polymorphia, his relationship to German orchestras, and the effect that the success of the St. Luke Passion had on the Polish governments eventual willingness to permit conceit performances of sacred music. B708. Lesle, Lutz. Krzysztof Penderecki 50. So oder so. Deutsches Allgemeines Sonntagsblatt, November 20, 1983, p. 21. In Lesles opinion, Pendereckis music is among the most fascinating phenomena of contemporary music. He reviewed the composers career in this brief article. B709. Penderecki: Grenzgnge zwischen Klang und Gerusch. Musicalia 1, no. 2 (1970): 65. Before commenting on the premiere performance of Utrenia, Lesle briefly reviewed the innovative techniques used by Penderecki in his earlier scores. In the St. Luke Passion, Penderecki combined these new techniques with older means such as the B-A-C-H motive and Gregorian melismas. The Devils of Loudun lacked the theatrical vitality necessary to convey the scandalousness of the libretto. Finally, Utrenia features a musical language similar to that of the St. Luke Passion and Dies Irae.

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B710. Lewinski, Wolf-Eberhard von. Festspiel auf die Wiesbadener Maifestspiele 1988. Pendereckis 'Schwarze Maske'. Opern Welt 29, no. 7 (July 1988): 64. Lewinski preferred the production of The Black Mask, which he saw at the Wiesbaden May Festival, to the Stuttgart version. B711. Frauenschicksale von vorgestern. Gste aus dem Osten bei den Wiesbadener Maifestspielen. Opern Welt 21, no. 7 (July 1980): 15. The Warsaw Opera presented The Devils of Loudun during Wiesbadens May Festival. This production was marred by its rather dull staging and the deletion of certain scenes. B712. Germany. Musical Quarterly 54,no. 1 (January 1968): 103110. The Violin Capriccio proved to be reminiscen[t] of Ravel and Paganini...and a cheerfulness unknown to modern music. Lewinski wondered if it might foreshadow the next wave of new music. B713. Heitere und dstere neue Klnge. Musica 18, no. 6 (November/December 1964): 305. The biggest success of the 1964 Donaueschingen Music Days was the world premiere of Pendereckis Sonata for Cello and Orchestra. Displaying shades of Mendelssohn and Tchaikovsky, the work was musically brilliant and [included] witty parody. B714. Musik mit Geruschen. Musica 14, (December 1960): 79697. Boisterous disagreements were heard following the performance of Anaklasis at the 1960 Donaueschingen Music Days. According to Lewinski, the piece had an astonishing uniformity and fascinating power. B715. Neue Werke von Ligeti und Penderecki. Musica 22, no. 1 (1968): 10. Paganini-like virtuosity and Straussian humor characterize the Capriccio for Violin and Orchestra. B716. Das Orchester als Eckpfeiler und Sulen zugleich. Das Orchester 44, no. 10 (1996): 39. According to Lewinski, the world premiere of the Viola Concerto in its transcription for clarinet and orchestra was heard at the Rheingau Music Festival. [Note: Schott Music gives Boulder, Colorado as the site of the 1995 premiere.] B717. Ein wichtiger Test: Pendereckis Teufel von Loudun in Kln. Opern Welt 21, no. 3 (March 1980): 27-28. After seeing the Cologne production of The Devils of Loudun, Lewinski wondered if this opera really deserved to remain in the repertoire.

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B718. Libbey, Jr., Theodore W. Washington, D. C.: Ponelle and Penderecki. Ovation 4 (February 1984): 17, 26. After hearing the U. S. premiere of the Second Cello Concerto and the world premiere of the incomplete version of the Polish Requiem, Libbey deemed the Concerto to be a vivid work of enormous difficulty for the soloist and praised the Requiem for its emotional impact. B719. National Symphony: Penderecki Te Deum [U. S. premiere]. High Fidelity/Musical America 31 (June 1981): MA35-36. The American premiere of Te Deum was an emotional occasion, due both to the intense performance led by Rostropovich and to the fact that on the same day Solidarity leader Lech Walesa made his first Western trip, to meet with Pope John Paul II in Rome. B720. Lichtenfeld, Monika. Neue Musik und ein Jubilaeum in Kln. Melos 36, no. 1 (January 1969): 31-32. Siegfried Palm received such great applause in a performance of the Capriccio for Siegfried Palm that he was compelled to repeat the piece. B721. Pendereckis 'Auferstehung Christi' in Mnster uraufgefhrt. Melos 38, no. 9 (September 1971): 372-73. The world premiere of the complete Utrenia was given in the same cathedral in which Part I of that work had first been heard in 1970. Part II, The Resurrection, was described by Lichtenfeld as a joyful, lively movement that contrasted to the dark, mysterious mood of Part I, The Entombment of Christ. Lichtenfeld briefly reviewed the relationship of Utrenia to the liturgy of the Russian Orthodox Church, stating that Penderecki placed specific Orthodox verses, songs, and anthems in a different order than was normally used. B722. Pendereckis 'Grablegung Christi' in der Altenberger Abteikirche. Melos 37, no. 9 (September 1970): 351-52. The world premiere of Part I of Utrenia, The Entombment of Christ was noteworthy for several reasons. Pendereckis musical style displays a trend towards economy of means, although its predominant technique was a familiar one, the tone cluster. An aura of understatement was evident throughout, as its dynamics typically ranged from an extreme pianissimo to mezzopiano, its tone colors were dark and shadowy and its solo, choral and orchestral sounds flowed smoothly from one to another. B723. Liedtke, Ulrike. Gedanken ber die Oper. Gesprch mit Krzysztof Penderecki. Musik und Gesellschaft 37, no. 6 (June 1987): 303-305. Penderecki considers his operas to be among the most important pieces of his career. For instance, The Devils of Loudun and the St. Luke Passion form the high point of his expermental period, while Paradise Lost is one of the best works in his romantic style. The Black Mask is different yeta dance of death that is more similar to the Passion than to the intervening works from the 1970s. Penderecki acknowledged that being able to understand the text of an opera was not a top priority for him; in his opinion, the audience should read the synopsis and text of an opera before the performance.

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B724. Limmert, Erich. Der Triumph der Christiane Edinger. Penderecki als Gastdirigen im Opernhaus Hannover. Das Orchester 32, no. 1 (January 1984): 25-26. As part of the New Music in Poland festivities in Hannover, Penderecki led performances of Anaklasis, his own Violin Concerto, and Szymanowski's Violin Concerto No. 1. According to Limmert, Penderecki shocked the musical world with Anaklasis's new vitality and its emphasis on tone colors and noise. The stylistic changes made by the composer in Paradise Lost could be heard equally clearly in the Violin Concerto. B725. Linthicum, David Howell. Penderecki's Notation: A Critical Evaluation. Choral Journal 15, no. 4 (1974): 32. This article summarizes Linthicum's doctoral dissertation, granted at the University of Illinois in 1972 (same title as this article). The author evaluated Penderecki's aleatoric notation in such scores as String Quartet No. 1, Sonata for Cello and Orchestra, St. Luke Passion, and Polymorphia, and concluded that these scores lacked notational clarity and intent. This problem was particularly acute in the orchestral pieces. B726. Lisicki, Krzysztof. Raz do roku futurologicznie. Kierunki (January 3, 1971); excerpts in Clavis. Muzyka w prasie. Ruch muzyczny 15, no. 5 (1971): 2. The excerpted part of this article includes a brief description of Penderecki as the founder of a new school of compositionone based on new sonorities and techniques. B727. Szkice o Krzysztofie Pendereckim. Warszawa: Instytut Wydawniczy 'PAX', 1973. This book is, as the author stated in his preface, more a collection of sketches about Penderecki's music than a detailed biography of the composer. After summarizing both the composer's youthful years and the history of twentieth-century music, Lisicki concentrated on Penderecki's compositions, giving general descriptions of his major works and quoting from program notes and concert reviews. Polish translations to the texts of the St. Luke Passion, Dies Irae, Utrenia, and Cosmogony are provided, as are a discography and a list of works and premieres through 1971. Lisicki is one of few authors to note that the title Threnody was not the original name of that piece, but an afterthought. B728. Lissa, Zofia. nurty stylistyczne w muzyce polskiej 19441974. Muzyka 20, no. 3 (1975): 5-15. Lissa described Penderecki as one of the leaders of Polish contemporary music after 1956. She briefly discussed Penderecki's novel treatments of sound and alluded to his interests in religious music and musical traditions. B729. Lhlein, Heinz-Harald. Von der Eitelkeit der Welt. Pendereckis Schwarze Maske beim Gastspiel der Staatsoper Posen in Wiesbaden. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 149, nos. 7/8 (July-August 1988): 49-50. The Black Mask, presented in Wiesbaden by the Opera, represents a fusion of Pendereckis avantgarde and neotonal practices. Motivically terse and almost uniformly

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tense, this is an amalgam of complex polyphony, intricate rhythms, and a melodic style reminiscent of the composers Violin Concerto. B730. Lohmller, Helmut. In Donaueschingen mute Penderecki wiederholt werden. Melos 27, no. 11 (November 1960): 340-43. In this review of the Donaueschingen Music Days, Lohmller noted the thunderous applause that followed the performance of Anaklasis. He spoke of the wealth of ideas and the creative imagination reflected in this piece. B731. Mnchner Ballettabend mit unvermuteten Hindernissen. Melos 35, no. 4 (April 1968): 157. A choreographed version of Polymorphia presented by the Munich Ballet was greeted with tremendous applause. Lothar Hfgen was the choreographer. B732. Loney, Glenn. Poland Takes its Wagner Straight. Musical America 109, no. 6 (November 1989): 30-32. In this article about Warsaws Wielki Teatr and its music director, Robert Satanowski, Loney mentioned that The Black Mask was already in the theater's repertoire, and that Penderecki was preparing a new edition of The Devils of Loudun to be given there. B733. Lsker, Dieter. Wilanow-Quartett mit Penderecki, Lutoslawski und Meyer. Musik und Gesellschaft 29, no. 1 (January 1979): 20-21. The Wilanow Quartet's concert in Leipzig was one of the best performances of the Music Days festival. Penderecki's First String Quartet was described as a sensational composition. B734. Loveland, Kenneth. Salzburg. Musical Times 120, no. 1640 (October 1979): 847-48. This is a brief mention of the world premiere of a suite from Paradise Lost, performed by the Austrian Radio Chorus and Symphony. [Note: This is the Prelude, Visions, and Finale from Paradise Lost.] B735. Salzburg. Musical Times 127, no. 1726 (November 1986): 634. The world premiere production of The Black Mask was endorsed by Loveland for its set design and its music, in which Penderecki blended the sounds of his early career with his more recent conservative style. B736. lp [Leszek Polony]. 'Carmina burana' pod Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 33, no. 6 (1989): 15-16. Penderecki conducted Krakw's Polish Radio and Television Orchestra and Choir in a presentation of Orff's Carmina burana on January 27 and 28, 1989. B737. Krzysztof Penderecki w 'Requiem' Verdiego. Ruch muzyczny 32, no. 9 (1988): 11. Penderecki conducted Verdi's Requiem in Krakw. The reviewer noted the following similarities between the two composers: their explosive temperaments,...the role of tragedy, and the obsession with death that emerges here and there in their compositions.

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B738. Lck, Hartmut. Krzysztof Penderecki. 2. Violoncellokonzert. Partita fr Cembalo, E-Gitarre, Bagitarre, Harfe, Kontraba und Das Orchester. Neue Zeitschrif fr Musik 149, no. 2 (February 1988): 59. In this review of a recording of Pendereckis Second Cello Concerto and Partita (Erato 75321), Lck described soloist Mstislav Rostropovich as having undiminished, stupendous, technical perfection,...[and] full-bodied expressive sounds, and the Concerto itself as a compendium of modern virtuosic skills. B739. Ludwig, Heinz. Die Anatomie eines Verbrechens. Pendereckis 'Teufel von Loudun' in Krefeld-Mnchengladbach. Opern Welt 16, no. 9 175 (September 1975): 46-47. The Devils of Loudun was presented by the Krefeld and Mnchengladbach Theaters, with stage director Paul Hager and conductor Robert Satanowski. The stage was divided into three sections, symbolically representing city, state, and church. Musically the opera avoided almost all traditional elements, instead employing clusters, glissandos, and other unusual playing techniques. Satanowskis direction yielded a perfect result after only eight orchestral rehearsals. B740. Lugowska, Marta and Dorota Szwarcman. Po latach. Ruch muzyczny 34, nos. 1-2 (1990): 4; no. 3 (1990): 2-3. Lugowska and Szwarcman talked with Jan Radzynski, who had studied with Penderecki during the latters tenure at Yale University. Radzynski considered Penderecki to be an excellent teacher who devoted much time to his students. B741. Lttwitz, Heinrich von. Lukaspassion - szenisch. Ein milungenes Experiment. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 130, no. 5 (May 1969): 216-18. The fiftieth performance of the St. Luke Passion was given in Buenos Aires at the beginning of May 1969. This was a semi-staged presentation, in which the performers wore street clothes, floodlights were used in several scenes, and film projections were shown in the background and on the ceiling.Although the performances were technically accurate, Lttwitz thought that the music lacked its expected power. B742. Mnchengladbach: Pendereckis Priester-Passion. Melos/Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 42, no. 4 (July-August 1975): 300-301. The Mnchengladbach production of The Devils of Loudun was successful until the third act, when it seemed as if the imaginations of both the conductor (Satanowski) and director (Kupfer) fell asleep. The audience gave the performance tremendous applause, nevertheless. B743. Mnster: Ekstase im Ikonenglanz: Die Urauffhrung von Pendereckis Auferstehung' im Dom. Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik 132, no. 7 (July 1971): 382-83. The premiere of Pt. 2 of Utrenia was preceded by a performance of Pt. 1, The Entombment of Christ. The entire evening resonated with the spirit of the Russian Orthodox liturgy, heard in the context of a large-scale, emotionally moving piece.

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B744. Penderecki-Passion in sechs Stdten. Das Orchester 26, no. 5 (May 1978): 401-402. Although many performances of the St. Luke Passion have been given around the world, amateur choirs were used in this piece for the first time in a recent presentation at Bochum University. The middle section of the Stabat Mater was omitted because of performance difficulties. B745. Pendereckis Karsamstags-Oratorium 'Grablegung Christi' im Altenberger Dom uraufgefhrt. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 131, no. 5 (May 1970): 226. The premiere of Utrenia was an evening of meditative engrossment. Penderecki had located music in convents in Bulgaria and the Soviet Union and although he literally quoted only a couple of the psalms and recitations he found, he incorporated the aura of this music throughout the piece. B746. Streng katholische 'Teufel'. Erfolg fr Pendereckis historisches Musikdrama. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 131 (April 1970): 18889; 'Teufel von Loudun' in Wuppertal. Das Orchester 18 (May 1970): 23839. Janos Kulka conducted the third German production of The Devils of Loudun, presented in Wuppertal. With staging by Hanna Jordan and Kurt Horres as director, the production seemed to leave an impression of undue deliberateness. According to Lttwitz, the staging of the inquisition and orgy was so deliberate that the mass scenes seemed like ostentatious baroque paintings, while on-stage screen projections of Aldous Huxleys writings were both disturbing and superfluous. In Lttwitzs opinion, Penderecki should have rewritten the entire third act, not just the music of the finale, whose newly composed version was heard in this production. Nevertheless, he felt that this production assuaged the criticisms directed at the opera as a result of its Hamburg and Stuttgart stagings. B747. Urauffhrung des WDR im Dom. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 127, (May 1966): 186-87. The world premiere of the St. Luke Passion was attended by numerous dignitaries from the Catholic Church in Germany, and was recorded by its commissioning body, West German Radio. Lttwitz predicted that this work would have a great future. B748. Luys, Thomas. Dsseldorf. Opera 41, no. 3 (March 1990): 344-45. Gnter Krmers production of The Devils of Loudun in Dsseldorf was somewhat restrained, focusing more on the agonies of the characters than on eroticism. B749. Maciejewski, B. M. Twelve Polish Composers. London: Allegro Press, 1976. Maciejewski's chapter on Penderecki is in the form of a biography of the composer's professional life, with special attention being paid to descriptions of the large-scale works: the St. Luke Passion, Utrenia, and The Devils of Loudun. Throughout, Maciejewski relied on quotations made by other critics. Unfortunately, he did not provide any bibliographic information for these quotes.

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B750. Alina. Sztuka czy Opera polska w XX wieku? Ruch muzyczny 42, no. 9 (May 3, 1998): 9-11. A videotape of The Black Mask was presented during the 20th-Century Polish Opera musicology conference held in B751. BMcklemann, Michael. Die schwarze Maske. Zu Voraussetzungen und Gestaltung von Pendereckis dritter Oper. Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik 147, nos. 7-8 (July-August l986):28-33. Mcklemann reviewed Pendereckis musical style and briefly discussed Paradise Lost and The Devils of Loudun before turning his attention to The Black Mask. Here he compared Hauptmanns play of the same name to the text of Pendereckis opera, and presented a short description of the musics polyphonic layering. Two excerpts from the score are included. B752. Magee, Brian. Lucerne. Musical Times 122, no. 1653 (November 1980): 723. Magee heard hints of Shostakovich, Sibelius, and Bruckner in Penderecki's Second Symphony. Unlike many of the composer's earlier works, it is tonal and conventionally orchestrated. B753. Penderecki's 'Dance of Death'. Opera (Autumn l986):4l-47. In Magees opinion, the world premiere production of The Black Mask was excellent. He compared its almost continual freneticism to Salome and Elektra and favorably juxtaposed Josephine Barstow's long aria to her portrayal of Salome. The primary feature of the set design was its large mirror, which was set at an angle so the audience saw both the actual characters and their reflections. B754. Mahlke, Sybill. Musik des Gleitens. Krzysztof Penderecki mit den Berliner Philharmonikern. Der Tagesspiegel (Berlin), June 5, 1977, p. 4. The Magnificat was heard at the Berlin Philharmonic, with the composer as conductor. For Mahlke, the work reflects, regrettably, a continuation of the musical style heard in the St. Luke Passion. The Berlin audience provided both applause and weak protests. B755. Majewski, Andrzej. Paradise Really Lost? Warsaw Voice, January 23, 1994, p. 10. Majewski, the stage designer for the Wielki Teatrs production of Paradise Lost, claimed that Penderecki had asked him to be the designer when the piece was first begun. He purposely avoided creating allusions to contemporary events on stage; in his opinion, really important works are completely free of political references. B756. Malecka-Contamin, Barbara. Krzysztof Penderecki. Style et Matriaux. Paris: ditions Kim, 1997. This publication is devoted to an analysis of Pendereckis works for combined voices and instruments. The early chapters are concerned with Polish musical life in the decades after World War II, a biography of the composer, and a list of works. The remainder of the bookthe analysisis concerned in large part with the issue of sonorism in Pendereckis music.

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B757. Malecka, Teresa. Hymn Swiatomu Kniazju Moskowskomu Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Dysonanse (December 1998): 1721. This insightful article about The Hymn to St. Daniel covers a range of topics. Of special mention should be Maleckas discussion of Daniel (a prince who was recognized for his expansion of Moscows territorial lands; he was also the son of Alexander Nevsky), the strong Russian flavor embedded throughout the Hymn; and the somewhat puzzling insertion of a quotation from the Catholic sequence Dies Irae in this otherwise orthodox work. Several musical examples are provided. B758. I Symfonia. In i tradycja w muzyce Krzysztofa Pendereckiego, edited by Regina and Krzysztof Szwajgier, 176-86. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1983. Malecka analyzed Pendereckis First Symphony as a sonata-form movement, complete with two contrasting themes, a development, recapitulation, and a quasi tonic-dominant harmonic scheme. This form overlays the four sections that Penderecki indicated in the score (Arch 1, Dynamis 1, Dynamis 2, and Arch 2). She concluded by stating that the piece was pivotal, since it was positioned between two different stylistic periods in the composers career. B759. Pendereckis World of Lyrics: the Songs. In The Music of Krzysztof Penderecki: Poetics and Reception, edited by Tomaszewski, 65-69. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1995; liryki Pendereckiego. Muzyka Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Poetyka i Recepcja, edited by Tomaszewski, 69-77. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1996. Malecka discussed four of the composers songs for solo voice and accompaniment. After describing the structure of each song, she commented on how they, as a group, related to Pendereckis larger compositions. Polish and English versions of the texts and cursory remarks about the changes made to them by Penderecki are given at the end of the article. B760. Malinowski, 'Magnificat' Pendereckiego pierwszy raz w Polsce. Ruch muzyczny 19, no. 7 (1975): 11. The Polish premiere of the Magnificat took place in Krakw. In Malinowski's opinion, the composition displayed links to the pastto the musical traditions that most other contemporary composers purposely avoided. B761. Mandrell, Jr., Nelson Eugene. Compositional Aspects of Two Early Works for String Orchestra by Krzysztof Penderecki. D.M.A. thesis, University of Illinois, 1989. Through an investigation of the form and pitch organization of Polymorphia and Threnody, Mandrell demonstrated that contrapuntal structures dominate both works and that practically every event can be related to some form of imitation. The large-scale form of each piece is delineated by textural changes from clusters to pointillistic writing. The details of these two pieces are intriguing; Penderecki actually has tight control over seemingly indeterminate passages.

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B762. Marek, Tadeusz. The First World Performance of 'The Resurrection'. Polish Music 6, no. 2 (1971): 3-9. The world premiere of Utrenia, Pt. II (Resurrection) was a complete success. Marek considered the St. Luke Passion and the complete Utrenia to be a triptych. The Passion, based on Roman Catholic liturgy, is a synthesis of Penderecki's work up to 1966, yet it is unique in the world of music for its subject, expression and...techniques. The first part of Utrenia, Christ Laid in the Sepulcher, is characterized by chilling and static immobility. The final part follows, at least in part, the Easter eve services of the Orthodox Church. Its instrumentation and singing style are reminiscent of the ecstatic nature of these services. B763. Margles, Pamela. Krzysztof Penderecki, His Passion & Politics. Music Magazine 7, no. 5 (1984): 10-13. In this interview, Penderecki stated that he believed that experimental and traditional elements have co-existed in his music since his 1962 Stabat Mater. He does not consider himself a political composer, but it is clear from his many religious and humanitarian compositions that he is anti-Communist. The performance of the St. Luke Passion in Poland marked the first time that a religious composition by a contemporary composer had been performed there since a Communist government had been in power. Penderecki also noted that people stand up in Poland whenever Lacrimosa is performed as a sign of their opposition to the government. B764. Markle, David. Concert Notes: Minneapolis-St. Paul. The Strad 98, no. 1163 (March 1987): 173. Markle described the Viola Concerto, heard in its U. S. premiere, as richly inventive, dramatic, and nearly expressionistic. The material of the one-movement piece is derived from its opening measures. B765. Markowska, Jana Krenza lat z Rozmowy o muzyce polskiej. Krakw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1996. In his conversations with Markowska about Penderecki, Polish conductor Jan Krenz labelled the composer a genius. He noted that Threnody (under its original title) was awarded 3rd prize in the Fitelberg Competition in 1960, even though other members of the competition jury were less enamored of the piece than he had been. In another rarely heard story, Krenz remembered that he had been asked to take over as conductor for The Devils of Loudun after Penderecki had asked that Henry not conduct further performances of that opera. Krenz refused the request, preferring to remain loyal to

B766. 'Ubu Rex'prapremiera w lipcu. Mwi Krzysztof Penderecki. Ruch muzyczny 35, no. 10 (1991): 1, 8. Penderecki talked with Markowska about his conducting career. He is to make his Warsaw Autumn Festival conducting debut in September, leading the Sinfonia Varsovia. He was the artistic director of the Krakw Philharmonic for nearly two years, but resigned because of differences with the orchestra's management, primarily over the hiring of a permanent guest conductor without his approval. Penderecki also discussed the compositional history of his nearly completed Ubu Rex.

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B767. Markowski, Andrzej. Country Properties. Warsaw Voice, June 28, 1992. The history of Pendereckis country home, is summarized, as are the composer's planned restoration projects for the property. B768. Markowski, Liesel. Penderecki dirigierte Penderecki. Musik und Gesellschaft 23 (December 1973): 712. Anaklasis, the First Cello Concerto, and the First Symphony were conducted by Penderecki on a concert at East Berlin's Comic Opera. Anaklasis explored the limits between sound and noise. The Concertos orchestral part serves as a prime coat for the soloists virtuosity, while the First Symphony displays the varied possibilities of tone color inherent in orchestral writing. B769. Pendereckis 'Teufel von Loudun. Musik und Gesellschaft 25, no. 12 (December 1975): 724-27. On the occasion of the East German premiere of The Devils of Loudun, Markowski discussed the meaning of its plot. He created analogies between the clerical feuds over power in 17th-century France, the American quest for imperialism in Vietnam, and the Polish experience at the hands of German facism in World War II. Grandier, the priest in Devils, was described as a martyr, while the fable of the witch trials of the 17th century must be understood as an image of the suppression of mankind today. B770. 'Warschauer Herbst' 1972. Musik und Gesellschaft 22, no. 12 (December 1972): 760-63. Pendereckis Partita was given its Polish premiere at the Warsaw Autumn Festival. Markowski reviewed it favorably, describing an inner tension created by Pendereckis exploitation of aleatorism, tonal shadings, and percussive effects. Marynowski, Jan. po polsku czy w oryginalnej wersji Ruch muzyczny 33, no. 6 (1989): 8-10. Marynowski offered an editorial on the question of whether operas in a foreign language should be translated into Polish for presentation in Poland. His impetus for the article was Penderecki's opinion about the same topic (see Haegenbarth's interview in Nurt, no. 10, 1987, which was that operas should be presented in their original language, since composers take the structure of the language into account when writing the music. Marynowski argued that theatrical productions given in Poland should be in Polish. If an opera was originally written in a language other than Polish, then a second version must be prepared for Polish performances. B772. Mass, Lawrence. Ned Rorem. Opera Monthly (February 1990): 513. It's sad that the only conceivable contribution of the Santa Fe Opera...to the AIDS crisis ended up being Penderecki's I (based on Nazi collaborationist Gerhard Hauptmann's racist, 1929 soap opera about the second wave of the black death in seventh-century [sic] Europe). B771.

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B773. Mastnak, Wolfgang. Wahnsinn im Klassen raum: Pathologische Operngestalten im Unterricht. Musik in der Schule 3 (May-June 1996): 123128. Mastnak included The Devils of Loudun in his discussion of how to incorporate the topic of 'insanity' on the opera stage into the classroom. B774. Matejka, Wilhelm. Pendereckis Teufel von Loudun in Kln. sterreichische Musikzeitschrift 35, no. 4 (April 1980): 239-40. The Cologne Opera production of The Devils of Loudun was convincingly performed. Compositional originality, however, was severely lacking. B775. Matynia-Szukalska, Elementy dramaturgii z Loudun. In i tradycja w muzyce Krzysztofa Pendereckiego, edited by Regina and Krzysztof Szwajgier, 94-104. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna w Krakwie, 1983. Characters are associated with specific intervals and motives in The Devils of Loudun, with the tritone being one of its pervasive harmonic features. The work reflects a compromise between tradition, modernism, and a melting pot of realism, symbolism, expressionism, and existentialism. B776. Mayer, Gerhard. Krzysztof Penderecki: Realitt und Halluzination. Die Bhne, no. 335 (August 1986): 8-11. In this lengthy article published just prior to the world premiere of The Black Mask, Mayer reviewed Pendereckis previous accomplishments and included quotations from the composer. Penderecki discovered the subject matter for The Black Mask by accident, when a friend gave him Gerhard Hauptmanns play to read. The composer was fascinated by the idea that, in this play, the boundary between reality and hallucination does not proceed clearly. He has been involved in theater since his youthful days in Krakw. Indeed, few people know that he had composed music for about 80 films and 42 plays. B777. Mayer, Tony. France. Cat-calls for 'The Devils'. Opera 23, no. 5 (May 1972): 408-409. The French premiere of The Devils of Loudun was greeted with orange peels, turnips, and leeks, cat-calls, and foot stamping. Mayer, however, thought highly of the Marseilles production, specifically praising its set design and performers. B778. McAllister, R. and Winton Dean. Edinburgh. Musical Times 122, no. 1653 (November 1980): 718. Penderecki's Second Symphony is totally devoid of creative substance. It had all the attributes of the Romantic symphony...yet it provoked none of the familiar responses. B779. McCabe, John. The Condition of Music. In The Black Rainbow: Essays on the Present Breakdown of Culture, 114-33, edited by Peter Abbs (London: Heinemann, 1975). McCabe criticized the superficiality of the music of Penderecki and other composers, a trait that he attributed to the growing internationalism of 20th century music.

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B780. McDermott, Vincent. Milwaukee. Musical Quarterly 54, no. 4 (1968): 524. The two outer movements of the Three Miniatures for Clarinet and Piano are rhythmically active, while the middle one is slower and more meditative. Nevertheless, the set as a whole was dull. B781. Mendes, Larry. Penderecki and Shostakovich: Death Affirms Life. Christian Century 104, no. 9 (March 18-25, 1987): 287-88. Although Penderecki purportedly would not even discuss the music of fervently Communist composers because of his own Christian, anti-Communist beliefs, he was willing to talk about and perform the music of Shostakovich. Mendes theorized that this was because Shostakovich was sensitive to Christian values and concepts...[despite being] a sincere Communist. B782. Mercer, Ruby. Lyric Opera of Chicago. Opera Canada 20, no. 1 (Spring 1979): 23-24. Mercer enthusiastically reviewed the world premiere of Paradise Lost. She praised nearly all of the performers, but especially applauded the dancers. Six productions of the opera are already planned, and the premiere has been broadcast via radio in Europe and the United States. B783. Merten, Werner. Das geistliche Vokalschaffen Matthias Kerns. Gedanken und Reflexionen zum 50. Geburtstag des Komponisten. Musik und Kirche 48, no. 3 (1978): 118-23. According to Merten, German composer Matthias Kern was influenced by Pendereckis use of form. B784. Mertins, Uwe. Ein Schaf im Wolfspelz: Krzysztof Pendereckis Anaklasis. Saarbrucken: Pfau, 1995. In this analysis of Anaklasis, Mertins discussed its serialist passages and his theory that the piece is less avant-garde than it seems at first hearing. B785. Mertl, Monika. Leitbilder zum Anfassen. Die Bhne, no. 315 (December l984):l4-l5. Mertl reviewed a performance of the Polish Requiem. She reviewed the works compositional history, alluding to the historical events that triggered the writing of several of its movements. According to Penderecki, the Requiem marked the end of his immersion in 19th-century musical styles and the start of another period of enrichment and enlargement of his compositional language. B786. Neuer Sinn aus alten Formen: Musikalisch-dramatische Darstellung im Kirchenraum. Parnass (Austria) 2 (March-April 1985): 62-67. Pendereckis sacred dramatic works are among those becoming increasingly popular in Austria. B787. Meyer, Krzysztof. Pendereckiego. In Quartetto per archi No. 2 i tradycja w muzyce Krzysztofa Krzysztofa

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Pendereckiego, edited by Regina and Krzysztof Szwajgier, 78-93. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1983. The Second String Quartet bears a close relationship to the sonoristic works of Penderecki, written in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Meyer found it interesting that the notation, or at least the indicated durations of particular sections, were different in the Schott publication than in the PWM score. B788. Meyer, Thomas. 'Man kann nur einmal Avantgardist sein. Gesprche mit Krzysztof Penderecki. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 150, no. 12 (December 1989): 17-22; excerpts in tylko raz. Ruch muzyczny 34, no. 5 (March 11, 1990): 4 This interview is based on two conversations that Meyer had with Penderecki in Zurich. Penderecki acknowledged that Strophes bore the influence of Boulezs Improvisations sur Mallarm. However, he said that his so-called avant-garde works had been written in reaction both to the Darmstadt school of serialist composition and to the conservative music education that he had received. He also noted that religion had played an important role in his childhood life, which, in turn, had contributed to his lifelong interest in sacred music. B789. Meyer-Janson, Burkhard. Pendereckis 'Lukas-Passion' in Hamburg. Musik und Kirche 40, no. 5 (September-October 1970): 356-57. A successful performance of the St. Luke Passion took place in Hamburg. Meyer-Janson was not entirely satisfied with the music itself, although he admitted that it was impressive. B790. M. Jozef. A jednak Penderecki! Dziennik Zachodni, no. 225 (September 24, 1974). Canticum Canticorum Salomonis bears the mark of the composer's unusual use of timbre. According to the piece is one of Penderecki's best compositions. B791. Michalski, Grzegorz. Music. In Polish Realities. The Arts in Poland 1980-1989, edited by Donald Pirie, Jekaterina Young, and Christopher Carrell, 114-19. Changing Perspectives Series. Glasgow: Third Eye Centre, 1990. In one succinct paragraph, Michalski summarized Penderecki's compositional style and cited several of his pieces. B792. Nowa muzyka. In Dzieje muzyki polskiej w zarysie, edited by Tadeusz Ochlewski, 134-98. Second edition. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Interpress, 1983. Penderecki's music is mentioned frequently in this chapter. Although Michalski did not discuss any piece in detail, he did communicate the general characteristics of Penderecki's musical style. B793. Minear, Paul S. Death Set to Music. Masterworks by Bach, Brahms, Penderecki, and Bernstein. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1987. Latin and English versions of Pendereckis St. Luke Passion's text, plus a list of its Biblical sources, precede Minear's discussion of this work. He spent much of his essay interpreting Penderecki's selections of texts, for they do not come solely from the Gospel

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of Luke. In fact, Penderecki seemed to change Luke's perspective on the Passion story by including material from Mark and John. B794. Mirka, Danuta. Some Semiotic Problems of Krzysztof Pendereckis Sonoristic Style. Musical Semiotics in Growth (1996): 73-81. Mirka analyzed Pendereckis sonoristic style in Threnody, Polymorphia, and Fluorescences. B795. Sonorystyczny strukturalizm Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. In Muzyka polska 1945-1995, edited by Krzysztof Droba, Teresa Malecka, and Krzysztof Szwajgier, 235-48. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1996. In contrast to the widely perceived notion of Pendereckis sonoristic works as merely a collection of special effects, Mirka asserted that these pieces were systematically structured. The basic elements of Pendereckis system incorporated the idea of binary opposition (e.g., high register vs. low register, static sound vs. moving sounds). She then claimed that Pendereckis works from about 1962-1973 combined this system with a serialist system based on sounds en masse rather than individual pitches. B796. mk. Pendereckiego w Holandii. Ruch muzyczny 24, no. 25 (December 14, 1980): 2. The Penderecki Festival, co-sponsored by the Rotterdam Orchestra, Rotterdam Conservatory, and the Rotterdam Artistic Foundation, included performances of Miniatures for Violin and Piano, String Quartets Nos. 1 and 2, Capriccio per Siegfried Palm, De Natura Sonoris No. 2, the Violin Concerto, Anaklasis, Adagietto, Capriccio for Tuba, and Psalms of David. The Hamburg production of The Devils of Loudun was also shown on television. B797. Moevs, Robert. Penderecki: Utrenia. Musical Quarterly 58, no. 2 (1972): 330-33. In his review of the RCA recording of Utrenia, Pt. 1 (RCA LSC-3180), Moevs asserted that despite the piece's rudimentary tendencies and superficial complexity, it conveyed a sense of drama and an almost otherworldly quality. B798. Monson, Karen. Penderecki's 'Paradise Lost'. High Fidelity/Musical America 29 (March 1979): MA30-31, 39. Monson discussed in some detail the travails that accompanied the birth of Paradise Lost at the Lyric Opera. In her opinion, both the composition and the Lyric's production were excellent. B799. Monts, John. Europische Avantgarde in Buenos Aires. Melos 34, nos. 7-8 (July-August 1967): 274. Penderecki's Psalmus and String Quartet No. 1 were among the highlights of a contemporary music festival organized by Alberto Ginastera. In Monts opionion, the Quartet had vitality and, frequently, a rich sounding contrast of percussive characters.

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B800. Buenos Aires hat moderne Konzerte in Hlle und Flle. Melos 38, no. 4 (April 1971): 157-161. The Argentinian premiere of the Capriccio for Violin and Orchestra occurred in the presence of the composer. Monts did not consider this work to be one of Pendereckis finest, yet he described it as genuine Penderecki, with its concentrations of sounds, clusters, glissandos, and...numerous percussion effects. B801. Buenos Aires wird mit neuer Musik berschttet. Melos 37, no. 5 (May 1970): 200-205. The St. Luke Passion was performed at the Teatro Colon in Buenos Aires. Monts praised Henryk as a conductor of eloquence and concentration whose expertise was crucial to the works success. B802. Moor, Paul. The Devils Rehabilitated. Financial Times, July 2, 1969, p. 3. Moor condemned the Hamburg world premiere of The Devils of Loudun. In his opinion, neither the sets nor the conducting did the piece justice. In contrast, he considered the Stuttgart production of the work, premiered two days after that in Hamburg, to be an enormous success. It was especially daring in its staging, to the point of having partial nudity in one scene. B803. Donaueschingen...Where Kinetic Music Happened. High Fidelity/Musical America 18 (February 1968): MA28-29. The final concert of the 1967 Donaueschingen Festival included the world premiere performance of Penderecki's Capriccio for Violin. B804. Gulbenkian Festival: Penderecki Premiere. High Fidelity/Musical America 23, no. 10 (October 1973): MA27, 32. Moor perceived Canticum Canticorum Salomonis as providing an impression, rather than a detailed portrayal of Solomon's songs. Each of the sixteen parts called for improvisation and other unusual vocal techniques typical of Penderecki's music. B805. The Israel Festival Trims Its Wings. High Fidelity/Musical America 25 (December 1975): MA38-39. Penderecki conducted the Jerusalem Symphony in three of his piecesThe Awakening of Jacob, Partita, and the First Symphony. The orchestra, comprised primarily of recent Soviet immigrants, had difficulty dealing with the notation in these works. B806. Krzysztof Penderecki. Musical America 108, no.3 (July 1988): 8, 10-12. Moor reflected on his long friendship with Penderecki and on the composer's relationship with the Communist authorities in Poland. Penderecki flaunted the dictatorial powers of the Polish government by accepting invitations to Israel (with which Poland had no diplomatic relations) and by openly showing his support of the Solidarity movement.

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B807. Penderecki's Te Deum: Another Milestone froma Modern Master. High Fidelity/Musical America 34, no. 5 (May 1984): 63-64. In this review of the EMI/Angel recording of Te Deum and Lacrimosa (DS 38060), Moor remarked on Penderecki's frequent compositional connections to Christian liturgy. For Polish citizens, Penderecki's occasional use of religious texts that evoke images of a free Poland is emotionally stirring. B808. Krzysztof Penderecki. Polens Grter seit Chopin? Der Monat 22, no. 264 (September 1970): 86-93. Although Moor never answered the question posed in his title, he did acknowledge his admiration for Penderecki's music and his friendship with the composer. During the course of the article, Moor reviewed Pendereckis childhood, his early influences of Schnberg and Boulez, his popularity in both Poland and the West, and his methods of composing. He also related the story of why Penderecki created the graphic notation that appears in his early works and why he had chosen to imitate the sound of a streetcar in Threnody. B809. Sexual Hysteria Set to Music. Life, August 15, 1969, p. 12. Moor summarized Penderecki's catapult to fame, then turned to The Devils of Loudun, to be presented in the near future by the Santa Fe Opera. He briefly described its plot and music and discussed its two previous productions in Hamburg and Stuttgart. B810. Talent and Trash from I.S.C.M. High Fidelity/Musical America 16, no. 12 (1966): MA26. The Warsaw premiere of the St. Luke Passion was imposing...it simple and quite sincerely moves you. B811. Moore. Denver. Music Journal 35, no. 7 (September 1977): 45. Penderecki was the Composer-in-Residence for the Conference on Contemporary Music at the 1977 Aspen Festival. Part II of Utrenia received its U. S. premiere at that time. Moore gave the piece a mixed review, saying that its music was overstated, although the solo writing was marvelous and there was appropriate religious exultation. B812. Moore, D. Contemporary Solo Cello. American Record Guide 55, no. 4 (July/August 1992): 257. This mentions Per Slava, recorded by Ivan Monighetti on Chant du Monde 2781059. B813. Penderecki: Quartets 1 + 2; Prelude for Clarinet Solo; The Interrupted Thought; String Trio; Clarinet Quartet. American Record Guide 57, no. 6 (November/December 1994): 167. In this review of a recording by the Tale Quartet (BIS 652), Moore traced a history of Penderecki's compositional twists and turns. B814. Hindemith: Violin Concerto. Penderecki: Violin Concerto. American Record Guide 59, no. 1 (January/February 1996): 124. Moore implied that Pendereckis Violin Concerto No. 1 was important primarily because it was written for soloist Isaac Stern.

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B815. Penderecki: Violin Concerto; Cello Concerto 2. American Record Guide 57, no. 2 (March-April 1994): 131. In this review of Orfeo 285 931, Moore remarked that the pieces on the CD seemed to be a continuation of the romantic portions of the St. Luke Passion. For him, this was a positive development, since he had not enjoyed the composer's more adventurous style representative of his early career. B816. Morrison, Richard. Penderecki Festival. The Times (London), March 5, 1986, p. 9. Two works performed at a festival of Penderecki's music at the Royal Academy of Music represented the composer's two major compositional trends. The first, Canticum Canticorum Salomonis, sums up Penderecki's early experiments with sound resources. The second, selections from Paradise Lost, is an example of his later ventures into romanticism. B817. Motte, Diether de la. Warschauer Herbst 25 Jahre jung. Musica 36, no. 1 (January-February 1982): 52-53. Penderecki's affinity to the music of Bruckner can be heard in his Te Deum and Symphony No. 2, which were performed at the 1981 Warsaw Autumn Festival. B818. Muggier, Fritz. Donaueschinger Musiktage 1970. Melos 38, no. 1 (January 1971): 23-25. A schedule performance of Actions at the 1970 Donaueschingen Music Days was cancelled because the work was not yet completed. B819. Donaueschinger Musiktage 1971: Sinfonie orchester in verwandelter Welt. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 111, no. 6 (NovemberDecember 1971): 359-61. Muggier described Actions, performed at the 1971 Donaueschingen Music Days, as an unimpressive Big Band composition. B820. Karlheinz Stockhausen trumt fr die Donaueschinger Musiktage. Melos 38, no. 12 (December 1971): 531-33. Actions has nothing to do with free jazz and leaves little to the imagination. B821. Zrich whrend der Juni-Festwochen. Melos 36, no. 10 (October 1969): 440-41. The Swiss premiere of the St. Luke Passion was a colossal success. B822. Mller, Karl-Josef. Bedeutende geistliche Werke der musikalischen Avantgarde. Musica sacra 95, no. 3 (1975): 160-72. Pendereckis St. Luke Passion is one of three works analyzed by Mller. Mllers thesis is that this piece is not as closely related to Bachs historical model as has been claimed by other critics. He asserted that the B-A-C-H motive should be viewed only as part of the works overarching 12-tone row rather than a more conscious use of an historical reference. He also thought its treatment of vowels favored a more modern interpretation of the piece.

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B823. Informationen zu Pendereckis Lukas-Passion. Frankfurt: Moritz Diesterweg, 1973. Mllers 56-page book on the St. Luke Passion consists primarily of a description of each of the works many sections. He discussed its twelve-tone rows, Biblical sources, text settings, similarities to Bachs Passions, and exploration of the limits between sound and noise. A selected discography and bibliography conclude the book. B824. Krzysztof Penderecki (1933): Anaklasis (1959-1960) fr Streicher und Schlagzeuggruppen. In Perspektiven Neuer Musik. Material und didaktische Information, edited by Dieter Zimmerschied, 215-33. Mainz: Schotts Shne, 1974. Recording information, biographical data, excerpts from published reviews, and a brief bibliography form the peripheral portions of this article. Mllers main focus was Anaklasis. Illustrating his points with numerous musical examples, he described its opposing roles of the strings and percussion and its counterpoint of surface sounds versus pointillistic settings. He also delineated the works various notational devices. B825. Krzysztof Penderecki (1933): Aus den Psalmen Davids fr gemischten Chor und Instrumental-ensemble (1958). In Perspektiven Neuer Musik. Material und didaktische Information, edited by Dieter Zimmerschied, 201-214. Mainz: Schotts Shne, 1974. The central portion of this article is an analysis of the Psalms of David. Here Mller discussed Pendereckis serial technique, his incorporation of jazz and sacred musical elements into an otherwise overtly avant-garde piece, and his text setting. Numerous musical examples and a German translation of the text are provided. B826. Pendereckis Musik im mobilen Netz trigonometrischer Punkte. Musik und Bildung 7, no. 12 (December 1975): 622-231. Mller took as his point of departure the concept of a mobile network of trigonometrical points. In Pendereckis music these points include notation, sound, form, aesthetics, and reception. Mller chose to discuss the ideas of sound and reception in further detail. Using examples from Anaklasis, De Natura Sonoris No. 2, the Cello Sonata, Dimensions of Time and Silence, and the Second String Quartet, he demonstrated how Pendereckis music differed from Ligetis, and how it explored the boundary between musical sound and noise. B827. Traditionnelles bei Penderecki. Das Orchester 20, nos. 7-8 (1972): 377-80. Also published in Musik und Bildung 4, no. 5 (May 1972): 234-37. Penderecki's compositions are related to those of Webern in two ways: symmetrical row structures and chromatic links between parts. Both techniques are used in Strophes, Psalms of David, and the St. Luke Passion. Mller provided musical examples from these pieces. B828. Mllman, B. Siegfried Heinrichs Einstudierung von Krzysztof Pendereckis 'Lukas-Passion' in Bad Hersfeld. Das Orchester 17 (June 1969): 261-63. Also published as Dramatische Leidenscharft und Stille Klage. Neue Zeitschrifi fr Musik 130, no. 5 (May 1969): 214-16.

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The St. Luke Passion was presented in in several German cities. In Mllmans words, one wonders again and again why Pendereckis Lukas Passion addressed the listener so directly that the question about the quality of the soloists becomes...insignificant. B829. Munstermann, H. J. Dsseldorf macht szenische Experimente mit Pendereckis Lukaspassion. Melos 36, no. 6 (June 1969): 262-63. A staged performance of the St. Luke Passion was premiered in Dusseldorf the evening before Palm Sunday. Erich Walter choreographed the limited stage movements of the soloists. Lighting and video projections enhanced the production. B830. Murdock, Katherine. The Pittsburgh Overture' by Krzysztof Penderecki and 'Forging the Circle (Original composition). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Rochester, 1986. Penderecki's free use of dodecaphony and his methods of creating blocks of sounds in the Pittsburgh Overture are discussed in this dissertation. The piece's formal structure is non-traditional, but the composer's sense of dramatic pacing and gesture contribute to its effectiveness. B831. Murray, Bain. 'Paradise Lost' - A New Opera of Krzysztof Penderecki. Polish Music 14, nos. 1-2 (1979):37-43. This review of the world premiere production of Paradise Lost includes a list of cast members, a summary of the work's compositional history, a plot synopsis, and a critique of the performance. Murray applauded much of the music, especially its choral writing and successful blending of diverse styles. He claimed, however, that many directions contained in the libretto were ignored. B832. Warsaw Autumn. High Fidelity/Musical America 30, no. 1 (1980): MA37-38. The Polish premiere of Paradise Lost took place in September 1979. Presented by the Stuttgart State Opera, this production was an hour shorter than the world premiere production by the Chicago Lyric Opera in 1978. Murray was disappointed that the ballet was cut in this version. B833. Warsaw Autumn 1971. Polish Music 6, no. 4 (1971): 3-11. Warsaw's St. John Cathedral was full to overflowing for a performance of Utrenia. Murray noted that the antiphonal choral writing was the most effective aspect of the piece. B834. Warsaw Autumn 1975. Polish Music 11, no. 1 (1976): 2229. Penderecki's Magnificat contains striking sonorities, eerie choral glissandos, keening chants and [a] soaring panoply of choral and orchestral lines. B835. Warsaw Autumn 79. Polish Music 14, no. 4 (1979): 10-17. The Violin Concerto and Paradise Lost were performed at the 1979 Warsaw Autumn Festival. The Stuttgart production of the opera, the version seen in Warsaw, is preferable to the Chicago Lyric Opera's world premiere presentation. It is shorter by more an hour and has improved staging and scenery.

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B836. Warsaw Autumn: A Lab for New Sounds. High Fidilty/Musical America (February 1976): MA38-39. Two of Penderecki's compositions were presented at the 1976 Warsaw Autumn Festival. Both The Awakening of Jacob [here called Jacob's Dream) and the Magnificat contain astounding sonorities. Those in the Magnificat seemed to be enhanced by the architecture and atmosphere of the Cathedral in which it was performed. B837. Musielak, Henryk. Le Xe Festival de musique contemporaine de Varsovie. Journal musical francais musica disques 57 (May 1967): 26-28. One of the highlights of the 1966 Warsaw Autumn Festival was a performance of Penderecki's St. Luke Passion. Musielak briefly discussed the work's commissioning and its relationship to earlier Passion settings. B838. mww [Marian Wallek-Walewski]. Pasja po 10 latach. Ruch muzyczny 20, no. 24 (1976): 10-11. The author reflected on the St. Luke Passion, now ten years old. He no longer found its sounds shocking and he wondered if others knew the work as intimately as he did. His recent thoughts about the piece concerned its relationship to earlier Passions. B839. Mycielski, Zygmunt. Capriccio Pendereckiego: czy smutna zabawa? Ruch muzyczny 12, no. 5 (1968): 8-9. Mycielski's point of departure is the concept of musical games. He compared the serious, puzzle-like aspects of fugues, variations, and canons to the playful nature of madrigals and dances. In his opinion, Penderecki's Capriccio for Violin is a serious game. Mycielski referred to another writer, Ludwik Erhardt, who claimed that Penderecki had originally called this work a concerto, but after composing much of it, had changed its title to Capriccio. B840. 'Dies Dies Irae Pendereckiego. Tygodnik Powszechny, April 30, 1967, p. 3. Mycielski discussed Dies Irae after hearing it at rehearsals. He linked the piece to the religious music of previous centuries, reaching as far back as Gregorian chant. He also discussed its textual sources and Penderecki's imaginative settings of the texts. B841. ' Dies Irae' Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 11, no. 14 (1967): 3. Mycielski contemplated the swiftness with which composers write new pieces and the corresponding speed with which analysts must dissect and decipher them. For example, during the last three years Penderecki wrote the St. Luke Passion, De Natura Sonoris No. 1, Dies Irae, and a Violin Concerto (the Capriccio for Violin). Mycielski cited the text in the Passion and Dies Irae as one of the common bonds between these two pieces. B842. Dziwne Ruch muzyczny 15, no. 18 (1971): 14-15. In responding to and Wallek-Walewski's discussion of Cosmogony (Kosmogonia Krzysztofa Pendereckiego), Mycielski took issue with their assertion that the text of a composition has no bearing on the works success. He referred to the poignant texts of Bach's cantatas, and asked is it better to pay as much attention as

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possible to texts in order to hear what the composer did with this material? Penderecki, for example, has said that he takes great care in selecting his texts. B843. O co nam chodzi w tym sporze? Ruch muzyczny 16, no. 1 (1972): 10. In this final communication regarding Cosmogony's texts, Mycielski reaffirmed his earlier opinions (Dziwne Ruch muzyczny, no. 18, 1971; see also and Wallek-Walewski, Kosmogonia Krzysztofa Pendereckiego, Wallek-Walewski, List do Zygmunta Mycielskiego, and Spr czy qui pro quo?). In particular, he stated that the latter half of the 20th century has not been the only period in which texts in musical compositions have been difficult to understand. He pointed to the Renaissance as a period of similar practices. B844. Pasja po latach. Ruch muzyczny 21, no. 2 (1977): 10-11. According to Mycielski, the St. Luke Passion has become a classic after only ten years of existence. Its richness of invention and colors [and] its musical dimensions no longer surprise audiences, and it has been widely analyzed in the press. Mycielski briefly discussed the work's underpinnings in the compositions of Bach, Gesualdo, Schtz, Liszt, and Stravinsky and speculated about other possible influences in Penderecki's background. He also compared the inventiveness of the Passion to the stagnation of other compositions written in the last twenty years. B845. Passio et mors domini nostri Jesu Christi secundum Lucam Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 10, no. 10 (1966): 3-7. Mycielski offered several thoughts about the St. Luke Passion immediately after its world premiere. First, he believed that this work should always be performed in a cathedral, or, in Poland, perhaps Warsaw's Wielki Teatr. Secondly, although he had feared that this Passion could never surpass, or even equal, the greatness of Bach's efforts in that genre, he now admitted that it was indeed an authentic Passion. Finally, Mycielski thought Czyz's interpretation of the piece was definitive. B846. Penderecki w Katedrze Sw. Jana. Ruch muzyczny 19, no. 23 (1975): 6-7. The performance of the Magnificat in Warsaw's St. John's Cathedral prompted this review. Mycielski considered this piece to be one of Penderecki's finest achievements. B847. 'Stabat Mater' Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 7, no. 2 (1963): 12-13. Reprinted in Zygmunt Mycielski. Postludia, 239-43. Krakw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1977. The Stabat Mater is based on major and minor seconds. The use of other intervals is so rare that the most rigorous line of a Gregorian chorale sounds almost lyrical. The central portion of the article is a detailed discussion of the choral parts. B848. Tradycja i Polska, no. 12 (December 1970); excerpts in Clavis. Muzyka w prasie. Ruch muzyczny 15, no. 2 (1971): 2. This article includes a discussion of Penderecki's links to Baroque music.

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B849. Warszawska 1961. Ruch muzyczny 5, no. 21 (1961): 1-4. Penderecki's Threnody consists of many unusual sounds made by 52 string instruments. In Mycielskis opinion, these sounds helped to create a truly musical piece. B850. mz [Zwyrzykowski, Marek]. Labirynt czasu. Studio (June 1998): 35. This is an announcement of the publication of Labyrinth of Time in Polish and English. B851. Nagley, Judith. Proms. Musical Times 124, no. 1688 (October 1983): 629. Penderecki conducted the St. Luke Passion for the first time. Nagley noted its unmistakably twentieth-century musical language as well as its links to Bach's Passions. B852. Negrey, Maciej. II symfonia Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 27, no. 24 (November 24, 1983): 3-4. Negrey devoted his essay to an almost measure-by-measure analysis of the form of the Second Symphony. It is not clear whether Negrey used the original or the revised score for his analysis. B853. Nelson, David K. Penderecki, Volumes One to Five. Muza PNCD 017-021. Fanfare 13, no. 5 (May/June 1990): 242-46. Nelson briefly summarized each piece in the five volumes (comprising seven CDs) of Pendereckis music issued by Polskie Nagrania, Polands state music company. B854. Nestler, Gerhard. Dreimal Penderecki. Melos 35, no. 12 (December 1968): 469-70. Nestler's thesis is that three chamber pieces written by Penderecki early in his career display a progression from an early emphasis on traditional sounds and forms to a later stress on timbre. The works he examined were Three Miniatures for Clarinet and Piano, Miniatures for Violin and Piano, and String Quartet No. 1. B855. Neuer, Adam, ed. Polish Opera & Ballet of the Twentieth Century. Translated by Jerzy Zawadzki. Krakw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1986. The Devils of Loudun, Paradise Lost, and The Most Valiant Knight are listed in this chronicle. Among the details provided for each piece are their characters, vocal parts, instrumentation, world premiere and subsequent performances, discography, and publishing information. Excerpts from reviews are given for The Devils of Loudun and Paradise Lost; the TV version of Devils is also listed. Photos from productions of Devils and Paradise Lost accompany the citations. B856. Newell, Robert. Choral Conductors Forum. Penderecki's 'Passio': Structure and Performance. American Choral Review 16, no. 3 (1974): 13-19. In this commentary on the St. Luke Passion, Newell discussed the symmetrical placement of its orchestral interludes and a capella sections and elaborated upon Penderecki's skillful incorporation of vocal sounds into otherwise instrumental passages.

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B857. Newman, Michael. Cadenza for Solo Viola. The Strad 99, no. 1182 (October 1988): 817. The Cadenza shares a ternary structure and musical material with the Viola Concerto, but it is not a miniature version of that work. Newman discussed the piece's notation, form and motivic features. B858. Niehaus, Manfred. Krzysztof Penderecki: 'Lukas-Passion' -- eine Schallplattenaufnahme. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 128, no. 3 (March 1967): 113-14. Niehaus reviewed the St. Luke Passion on the basis of its first recording, which features the world premieres performers (Harmonia Mundi 3101/02). He is an ardent admirer of the piece, stating that with this recording music history has captured a remarkable event. In his opinion, Penderecki had met Christs Passion with the dual inspirations of religion and intellect, creating a unified piece that speaks to the spirit of our times. B859. Niemoller, Klaus Wolfgang. Zur musikalischen Ausdruckswelt der religiosen Oper im 20. Jahrhundert. In Das Religiose in Opern des 20. Jahhunderts zum Domfest 1980, 23-46. Bonn: Theater-Rundshau, 1981. Pendereckis Paradise Lost is included in this discussion of religiosity in 20th-century operas. B860. Nikolska, Irina. O ewolucji instrumentalnej Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Muzyka 32, no. 1 (1987): 31-53. In this lengthy essay on the evolution of Penderecki's compositional style, Nikolska touched on several important points. First, she noted that Penderecki's music was intensely emotional and often based on the concepts of the greatness of humanity, the tragedy of war, or other aspects of human life. Next, she stressed the composer's faithfulness to the customary rules of form and drama in composition, even while changing other aspects of his musical style. Finally, she divided his works into three periods (1958-1962, 1964-1973, 1974-) and discussed his stylistic evolution in detail. B861. On Some Symphonic Works within the 80s. In Krzysztof Penderecki: Poetics and Reception, edited by Tomaszewski, 4553. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1995; Z niektrych twrczosci symfonicznej lat Muzyka Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Poetyka i Recepcja, edited by Tomaszewski, 45-54. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1996. Despite a lack of fluency in its translation, this article offers several provocative ideas about Pendereckis symphonism. The composer is depicted as the logical successor to 19th-century romantic symphonism. Nearly constant development is apparent in his symphonies of the 1980s and he is able to create the auras of earlier styles without directly imitating them. B862. Penderecki w ZSRR. Ruch muzyczny 25, no. 3 (1981): 3-4. During his twelve-day stay in Moscow and Leningrad, Penderecki visited many museums and architectural monuments, trying to learn as much as possible about Russia's cultural background. His biggest discovery was Grigorii Zhislin, who performed the solo part in his Violin Concerto. Penderecki found Soviet orchestral

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musicians to be much more receptive to his music than those he had met elsewhere. Having previously heard only his sonoristic works, these musicians were surprised to hear the style of the Violin Concerto and the Adagietto from Paradise Lost. B863. Ponowne spotkanie z Krzysztofem Pendereckim. Ruch muzyczny 27, no. 14 (July 10, 1983): 18-19. Penderecki conducted three of his works (Threnody, Capriccio for Violin, and the Second Cello Concerto) in Moscow and Leningrad in April 1983. Nikolska's comments about Threnody focused on the work's progression towards a climax, which consisted of a three-octave cluster of quarter-tones. She was impressed with the kaleidoscopic images in the Capriccio. The Cello Concerto is related stylistically to Penderecki's Violin Concerto, since both pieces use motives of tritones and minor seconds within a neo-romantic setting. It differs from its violin counterpart, however, in its free treatment of form. B864. Recepcja polskiej muzyce w Rosji (19601980). In Dziedzictwo europejskie a polska kultura muzyczna w dobie przemian, edited by Anna Czekanowska, 261 -74. Krakw: Musica Iagellonica, 1995. Nikolska discussed the reception of Polish music in the Soviet Union. She mentioned the favorable response of the St. Luke Passion in its first performance in that country in 1979 and noted the high regard that Penderecki had there from the 1960s until the early 1980s, when his neo-romantic Violin Concerto became a topic of much deliberation. B865. Utrenya in Moscow. Studies in Penderecki 1 (1998): 11516. Pendereckis inspiration for Utrenia came from the Orthodox liturgies of southeastern Europe, not from Russia. Its Russian premiere did not occur until 1995, having been forbidden by Soviet authorities until then. B866. N., K. Krzysztof Penderecki: Capriccio No. 2 for Violin and Orchestra. Polish Music 3, no. 3 (1968): 11-12. Virtuosity is required of both soloist and orchestra in the Capriccio for Violin. The violin part contains undefined pitches, glissandos, percussive effects, and other extremely difficult passages. The orchestral writing includes complex solo parts and unexpected timbral and dynamic effects. B867. nn. 3. Konzert der Musica viva Herkulessal. Oper und Konzert 8 (May 1970): 31-32. Dies Irae, a jarring, profoundly impressive work, was given an immensely entrancing performance by the Bavarian Radio Orchestra and Choir and soloists Colette Lorand, Eduard Wollitz, and Hans-Ulrich Mielsch. B868. Noble, David. 'The Black Mask' a Feverish, Exciting Production at SFO. Albuquerque Journal, August 1, 1988, Section B, p. 5. According to Noble, The Black Mask, given its American premiere by the Santa Fe Opera, is based on a truly weird play and contains explosive, angular avant-garde music that often was at the same time spacious and beautiful.

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B869. Nordwall, Trygve. Krzysztof Penderecki - studium notacji i instrumentacji. Translated by Zofia Stankiewicz. Res Facta 2 (1968): 79-112; originally published as Notation och Instrumentteknik i Krzysztof Pendereckis Verk samt en studio ver Pendereckis 'Polymorphia. Trygve Nordwall, 1965. The first part of Nordwall's essay provides details about notation and instrumentation in Strophes, Emanations, Miniatures for Violin, Anaklasis, Dimensions of Time and Silence, Fluorescences, Threnody, Polymorphia, and String Quartet No. 1. Its central portion is an in-depth analysis of pitch structure, articulations, and clock-time notation in Polymorphia. In the final section, Nordwall discussed Penderecki's aesthetics, incorporating quotes from an interview with the composer in Nutida Musik [Tonsattaren infr traditionen, no. 1 (1963/64), pp. 14-17.] B870. Norris, Geoffrey. 'Passion' with Power. The Times (London), August 1, 1983, p. 7. A performance of the St. Luke Passion at the Proms was a huge success, as the richness of the score's orchestral and choral palette resulted in a performance of strength, energy and control. B871. Penderecki, Tippet. Musical Times 121, no. 1652 (October 1980): 645-46. In Norris's opinion, Penderecki's Violin Concerto is problematic. Although the piece is meant to revive the lyricism and virtuosity of the typical nineteenth-century concerto, it succeeds in sounding only tired and worn. B872. North, James H. Penderecki: St. Luke Passion. Fanfare 14, no. 5 (May/June 1991): 245. An Argo recording of the St. Luke Passion is the first new recording of the piece to be released since the two made shortly after the works premiere. North thought the work still made a tremendous impact. B873. Penderecki: Symphony No. 2. Bruzdowicz: Concerto for Double Bass and Orchestra. Concerto for Violin and Orchestra. Fanfare 13, no. 2 (November/December 1989): 312. In this review of an Olympia CD (OCD 329), North mentioned that both critics and audience member were baffled by Pendereckis Symphony No. 2 at its world premiere. North is still mystified by the piece. B874. Norton-Welsh, Christopher. First Performances. Vienna. Opera 46, no. 5 (May 1995): 540-42. The horror of the The Devils of Louduns plot was displayed to full effect in a Viennese production. B875. Austria. Vienna. Opera 37, no. 12 (December 1986): 137374; reprinted in Opera News 51, no. 9 (1987): 39-40. As part of the joint commissioning of The Black Mask by the Salzburg Festival and the Vienna State Opera, the world premiere of the opera was given in Vienna in September 1986. Norton-Welsh gave it a mixed review, criticizing the music's failure to provide dramatic impact, but complimenting the singers performances.

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B876. Graz. Opera 22, no. 12 (December 1971): 1075-76. In the opinion of this reviewer, The Devils of Loudun does not become musically interesting until its third and final act. Until then, its short scenes convey the basic story line but do not create much dramatic impact. B877. Nowak, Anna. Idee koncertowania w polskich koncertach instrumentalnych. Muzyka 41, no. 4 (1996): 43-60. Pendereckis Violin Concerto No. 1 is an example of a dramatic concerto, in which virtuosity is less important than the works dramatic flow. B878. Oberc, Anna. Concerto per flauto ed orchestra da camera. In The Music of Krzysztof Penderecki: Poetics and Reception, edited by Tomaszewski, 65-69. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1995; Koncert na flet i Muzyka Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Poetyka i Recepcja, edited by Tomaszewski, 65-68. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1996. Motivic structures and form dominate this discussion of the Flute Concerto. The works slow-fast-slow formal structure is a reversal of Pendereckis earlier practice of using a classical fast-slow-fast sequence. B879. Te Deum. In i tradycja w muzyce Krzysztofa Pendereckiego, edited by Regina and Krzysztof Szwajgier, 246-70. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna w Krakwie, 1983. In this lengthy article, Oberc reviewed what she believed to be the stylistic influences apparent in Te Deum: medieval chant, Renaissance polyphony, Baroque rhetorical expressions, Neapolitan opera, and the romanticism of Bruckner, Wagner, and Richard Strauss. She also discussed the harmony and principal melodic motives of the work, and delineated the intricacies of its tripartate form. B880. Oesch, Hans. Lautsprecher rechts, Lautsprecher links in Donaueschingen 1964. Melos 31, no. 11 (November 1964): 401-404. The Sonata for Cello and Orchestra was the most original work of the 1964 Donaueschingen Music Days. B881. Oestreich, James R. The Pittsburgh Symphony Brings a Premiere. New York Times, October 19, 1993. The Symphony No. 4 Adagio was given its New York premiere by the Pittsburgh Symphony. This movement brought Penderecki the 1992 Grawemeyer Award for Music Composition. According to Oestreich, the piece evokes Mahler...Bruckner, Bartk, and others in an idiom firmly rooted in tonality. B882. Joachim. O IV Festiwalu Muzyki i nowej muzyce polskiej. no. 21 (November 1-15, 1960). In Olkusnik's opinion, Penderecki showed concern for detail and avoided brutality in Dimensions of Time and Silence.

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B883. Opalski, J. Polish Premire: 'The Black Mask'. Theatre en Pologne/Theatre in Poland 30, nos. 3-5 (1988). In this review of the the Polish premiere of The Black Mask, Opalski included several comments by Penderecki. Among other things, the composer said that rhythm played a much more important role in this piece than it had in his earlier works and that some rhythmic patterns act as leitmotifs. Harmonically, the piece is built on two circles of fifths displaced by a second. B884. Oppens, Kurt. Doppel-Strauss, Novitt, Repertoire. Pendereckis 'Schwarze Maske'. Opern Welt 29, no. 10 (October 1988): 38-39. In Oppens' opinion, the 1988 Santa Fe Opera production of the The Black Mask was flawed. Its text could not be understood and its drama was both too compact and chaotic and too flagrant and overly concerned with spectacle. Penderecki treated the members of the orchestra as virtuosos, providing music that was both dissonant and sensual. B885. Noch einmal: das Martyrium des Urbain Grandier. Opern Welt, no. 10 (1969): 18-19. The Santa Fe Operas production of The Devils of Loudun compared favorably to those given in Europe. The stage itself, created by Ter-Arutunian, contributed to the magic of the presentation, as a construction of encapsulated squares contained visions of a nunnery, a street, a prison, a church, etc. B886. Orga, Ates. BBC Symphony Concert in the Royal Festival Hall. Penderecki's St. Luke Passion. Radio Times (London), May 18, 1967, p. 2. The St. Luke Passion and other sacred pieces by Penderecki evoke atmospheres that are different from the composer's other works. B887. A Case of Mass Hysteria. Music and Musicians 22, no. 3 (November 1973): 40-43. Orga began this article by attempting to rebut the negative opinions that had been frequently expressed about The Devils of Loudun. The majority of his discussion, however, was devoted to a summary of the historical facts of the operas plot and a scene-by-scene description of its action, complete with excerpts from the libretto. B888. 'The Devils'. Music and Musicians 22, no. 5 (January 1974): 51-52. Despite Orga's own critical acclaim for The Devils of Loudun, he did not like the Sadler's Wells Opera's version of the opera given in November 1973. He noted that the program book failed to mention that the three acts of the original version of the opera had been redistributed over two acts for this production. B889. Early Penderecki. Musical Opinion 91, no. 1085 (February 1968): 267-71. Orga took as his point of departure a February 1968 London performance of Penderecki's Strophes and First String Quartet. Each piece was given comparatively lengthy commentary. Orga described their extended playing techniques and lack of conventional melodies and meters.

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B890. Electronic Music in Poland. Composer (London) no. 32 (Summer 1969): 22-27. Orga provided a rarely-seen description of the Brigade of Death: its colors and textures are related to those of Pendereckis later works, including, for example, Anaklasis, Polymorphia, and the St. Luke Passion, while its portrayal of human passions can be compared to the emotions of Threnody, the Passion, and Dies Irae. Brigades text came from the diary of an 18-year-old Jewish boy who was forced by the Nazis to help burn bodies in concentration camps. B891. Exaggerated Passion. Music and Musicians 16 (October 1967): 36-37. Orga's effusive praise of the St. Luke Passion on the occasion of its London Proms presentation did not extend to the performance itself. In his opinion, the tempos that evening were so slow they produced excruciating boredom. B892. London Premieres. Music and Musicians 22, no. 4 (December 1973): 68. For the London premiere of Symphony No. 1, five pages of the last section (Arche II) were cut. This resulted in a weaker focus on the work's tonal center of A. B893. Krzysztof Penderecki. The Listener (London), May 18, 1967, p. 664. Orga described the compositions written by Penderecki before 1965 as representing a totally new approach in Polish music. The St. Luke Passion has a simpler musical language, not because Penderecki had entered a less adventurous phase of his compositional career, but because he had wanted to reflect the devotional nature of the text. B894. Krzysztof Penderecki. Music & Musicians 22, no. 2 (1973): 38-41. The central portion of this article consists of quotations by Penderecki. The composer refuted the oft-repeated claims that he had been influenced by Xenakis and Stockhausen. In fact, he stated that he did not care for the music of either composer. When preparing a new work, he planned all the details about its form before writing its actual notes. He is also concerned with the notion of harmonic tension and the way certain combinations of pitch will react. Orga referred to Penderecki's hand-drawn diagrams (some of which are printed with the article), when he described the form of the First Symphony B895. Penderecki: Composer of Martyrdom. Music and Musicians 18, no. 1 (September 1969): 34-38, 76. In this extensive article, Orga reviewed the history of socialist realism in Polish music and provided a short biography of Penderecki. He then sketched a line of development in Penderecki's music by exploring the composer's graphic notation, microtonality, innovative sonorities and textures, and dramatic expressiveness. Orga provided succinct, cogent analyses for many of the composers avant-garde works. Among the many works cited were such little-known ones as the Polish Ballad, the Brigade of Death, and Mensura sortis.

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B896. Saint Luke for Moderns. Music and Musicians 15 (May 1967): 28, 149. In this analysis of the St. Luke Passion, Orga commented on its orchestration, pitch structure, tonal implications, and dramatic structure. Although he thought that certain techniques, such as ostinatos and certain string sonorities, had been overused, he still believed that the piece may well prove one of the great works of our time. B897. Orski, Pawel. Cieszyn. Opera 49, no. 1 (January 1998): 96-97. A wonderful performance of the Polish Requiem opened the Viva Il Canto festival in Poland. B898. Na rok przed Ruch muzyczny 37, no. 20 (October 3, 1993): 3. The Krakw Philharmonic performed Te Deum during the Wratislavia Cantans festival. B899. Odrobina luksusu. Dni Krzysztofa Pendereckiego w Krakowie, 10-12 grudnia 1993. Ruch muzyczny 38, no. 2 (January 23, 1994): 1, 4. A staged performance of the Polish Requiem during the Penderecki Days festival was the artistic scandal of the festival. The musical sense of the piece was minimized, while its inclusion of such figures as Jerzy and Pope John Paul II as part of the staging did not yield a satisfactory dramatic solution. B900. p. Sztokholm zapowiada festiwal Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 37, no. 8 (April 18, 1993): 5. Among the scheduled pieces at a Stockholm festival commemorating Pendereckis sixtieth birthday are Symphonies 2 -4, the St. Luke Passion, the Polish Requiem, the concertos for flute, violin and viola, and Threnody. B901. pa. Koncerty kompozytorskie Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 20,no. 19 (1976): 12. This is a brief notice about concerts of Penderecki's music in Guelph, Canada, Osaka and Tokyo, Japan, and Nuremberg, West Germany. B902. Zagraniczne koncerty kompozytorskie Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 21, no. 20 (1977): 15. This article consists primarily of a list of foreign concerts of Penderecki's compositions. These works include Magnificat, Polymorphia, The Awakening of Jacob, Capriccio for Violin, Symphony No. 1, Violin Concerto, Stabat Mater, Psalms of David, and De Natura Sonoris No. 2. B903. Page, Frederick. Warsaw. Penderecki's Passion. Musical Times (December 1966): 1079. The first Warsaw performance of the St. Luke Passion was a tremendous occasion for the Catholic country of Poland. The piece has brilliant, inventive writing.

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B904. Palmer, Robert V. Conducting Music Provides 'Respite'. Rochester (NY) Democrat and Chronicle, November 15, 1987. Penderecki admitted that he does not compose for an audience, but enjoys it when audiences praised his music. He thought that his Viola Concerto might be the most difficult piece ever written for that solo instrument. Penderecki also talked about his composing habits and his conducting schedule. B905. Fans Fill Eastman House For Composer's Visit. Rochester (NY) Democrat and Chronicle, November 16, 1987. According to Palmer, the Second String Quartet is a tightly organized miniaturenot just a catalog of experimental sounds, but an emotive, carefully structured whole. Other works performed on a Rochester concert included Cadenza for Solo Viola, Miniatures for Violin and Piano, and Three Miniatures for Clarinet and Piano. B906. Panek, Karawana idzie dalej. Tygodnik kulturalny, no. 43 (October 28, 1979). On the occasion of the performance of Paradise Lost at the 1979 Warsaw Autumn Festival, Panek focused on the critical reception given that work. In particular, he discussed the remarks made by Izabella Bodnar in an article published in Student [Note: a bibliographic reference for this article could not be established]. Bodnar criticized Paradise Lost, stating that if it had been written slightly earlier, it would have been recognized unanimously as a masterpiece. But it was composed now, therefore it arouses controversy...principally due to the treatment of its orchestra. B907. par. z Loudun z Krefeld. Ruch muzyczny 20, no.1 (1976): 23. The Krefeld and Mnchengladbach productions of The Devils of Loudun used many of the same personnel both on and off-stage. B908. Parsons, Charles H. Britten: War Requiem, Berg: Violin Concerto, Penderecki: Threnody. American Record Guide 58, no. 5-6 (May-June, 1995): 95. Threnody is heard in startlingly clear sound in this recording (Berlin 1012). B909. Pataki, Ladislaus. Musik-Festival in Israel. Das Orchester 23, no. 9 (1975): 554-55. Three works by Penderecki presented in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv (Symphony No. 1, The Awakening of Jacob, and Partita) feature tone clusters, bizarre glissandi, and harsh harmonics. B910. Patkowski, Jzef. Klaster i masa Horyzonty muzyki, edited by Jozef Patkowski and Anna Krakw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczny, 1970. In this article abstracted from a Feburary 22, 1968 radio broadcast, Patkowski used Threnody as an example of cluster technique.

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B911. Pawlak-Mihai, Jadwiga. premiera Requiem Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 40, no. 1 (January 14, 1996): 25. Penderecki conducted his Polish Requiem in Bucharest on November 29, 1995. Prior to 1989 his music had been banned from performance in that country. He and the soloists performed for free, and his publisher provided the orchestral parts gratis as well. B912. Payne, Anthony. New Music. Musical Times 109, no. 1502 (April 1968): 352. In Paynes opinion, the initial ideas heard in Penderecki's First String Quartet were not developed to their full potential. B913. Penchansky, Alan. New Paradise Lost' Opera Will Surprise. Billboard (October 28, 1978): 87. In comments made prior to the world premiere of Paradise Lost, Penderecki confirmed that elements common to his early compositions would be less apparent in this new piece. He also revealed that he went to Israel seeking inspiration for the music used for character of God. B914. Penderecki, Krzysztof. Arka. Rzeczpospolita, no. 52 (1996): 9-11. This is the text of a lecture given by the composer in Munich on December 18, 1996. Penderecki lamented the expansion of the visual media in society and the accompanying regression of verbal or written means of communication. He offered the symphony as a means of conveying the best of 20th century composition. B915. The Black Mask. Contemporary Dance of Death from Idea to Performance, edited by Teresa and Regina Krakw: Centrum Kultury: 1998. This volume accompanied an exhibit held during the Krzysztof Penderecki Festival in 1998. Included are essays by Tadeusz Chrzanowski, Tomaszewski, and Regina all of which are given in both Polish and English; reproductions of artistic works and poetic excerpts on the topic of death; and excerpts from Pendereckis own sketches and published score to The Black Mask. B916. Czy Warszawska jest potrzebna? Opcje (September 1996): 10. Penderecki provided several reasons for his continued support of the Warsaw Autumn Festival. He called it a world-renowned event and wondered why it was not being given better financial support in Poland. B917. Krzysztof Penderecki doktorem honoris causa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu. Puls (London) 35 (Autumn 1987): 7377. This is a transcription of the speech given by Penderecki at Adam Mickiewicz University in after he was granted an honorary doctorate there on October 26, 1987. His remarks focused on the positive and negative aspects about European life during the last century. Under the guise of socialist realism, composers had the choice of adhering in their compositions either to Simplicity and Popular Character or Freedom and Experiment. Many honest musicians selected the latter. Penderecki eventually realized

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that a third option, that of following a tradition based on sacred values, was the correct one to follow. He considered that decision to be a turning point in his life, and one that resulted in such works as the St. Luke Passion, Utrenia, Cosmogony, Paradise Lost, and Te Deum. B918. Labyrinth of Time. Five Addresses for the End of the Millenium. Expanded English version, edited by Ray Robinson. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Hinshaw Music, 1998; Labirynt czasu. na koniec wieku. Warsaw: Presspublica publishers, 1997. The English edition is an expanded, translated version of the original Polish publication, which is itself a compilation of addresses published individually in Plus Minus and Tygodnik powszechny. These addresses form a major statement by the composer on the state of the arts at the close of the 20th century. Among the symbols embraced by Penderecki are the tree, labyrinth, forest, and ark. The composers Christian roots serve as a recurring theme, as does his belief that while contemporary art (especially music) is in danger of decay and self-destruction, it also possesses the ability to resurrect itself. Included are English translations of the texts for Dies Irae, Cosmogony, and Seven Gates of Jerusalem. B919. regeneracji sztuki jest dla mnie pewnikeim. Ruch muzyczny 39, no. 2 (January 22, 1995): 2-3. This lecture was given by Penderecki when he was awarded an honorary doctorate by the Academy of Music in Warsaw. He pointed to the United States as the epitome of a society of mass culture and warned that Poland was slipping into a similarly faulty path. B920. My Iliad and Odyssey. Studies in Penderecki 1 (1998): 9-12. Penderecki lamented the homogeneity of todays culture and questioned how artists could achieve their goals in a chaotic world. He suggested that the answer lies inutilizing ones intelligence and inner world to free art from its current stagnation. B921. Strofy. Music and Musicians 18 (September 1969): 40-42. The first three pages of Strophes are reproduced here. B922. [Sketches]. Schott 8244. This untitled collection contains color reproductions from the manuscripts of Cosmogony, Utrenia, and The Black Mask. B923. Perlmutter, Donna. Penderecki: Universal Themes, Enduring Music. Los Angeles Times, March 27, 1986, Section 6, p. 2. In this interview with Perlmutter, Penderecki mused on the causes of his celebrity. He found it impossible to compose in a traditional manner in the face of the human tragedies that have occurred during his lifetime. At the same time, he claimed that his music could be listened to abstractly, without knowledge of or reference to programmatic associations. He specifically mentioned Threnody in this context.

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B924. Peterson, Melody. Alla Breve: Passionate Tensions. Los Angeles Times, October 14, 1973, Calendar section, p. 48. Peterson briefly commented on the Vox Candide recording of Emanations, Sonata for Cello and Orchestra, Miniatures for Violin and Piano, Stabat Mater, String Quartet No. 1, and Miserere from the St. Luke Passion (CE 31071). B925. Los Angeles Philharmonic: Penderecki Premiere. High Fidelity/Musical America 25, no. 5 (1975): MA22. Symphony No. 1, heard in its U.S. premiere, is marked by a logic of events, a wellspring of passion, an abundance of timbral color, and the (by now) predictably ingenious orchestration of its creator. B926. Pettitt, Stephen. BBCSO/Penderecki. Festival Hall. Radio 3. The Times (London), January 26, 1987, p. 9. Polish Requiem was given a poor evaluation after its British premiere. Pettitt deplored Penderecki's use of rather suffocating romanticism, self-conscious avant-garde effects, and obsessive incorporation of the old Polish hymn B927. Cracow RSO/Penderecki. St. Bartholemew's, Brighton/Radio 3. The Times (London), May 17, 1984, p. 9; expanded version Diversity All Too Ill at Ease. The Times (London), May 18, 1984, p. 9. Penderecki was faulted for his alleged inability to intertwine successfully both the disparate characteristics of atonality and tonality and the similarly contrasting ideas of stasis and development in Te Deum. B928. Philharmonic/Penderecki. Snape Maltings. The Times (London), August 10, 1984, p. 7. Pettitt regarded the Second Cello Concerto as a continuation of Penderecki's move towards a more conservative musical style. B929. Pfannkuch, Wilhelm. Pendereckis Lukas-Passion in Kiel. Musik und Kirche 39, no. 3 (May-June 1969): 132. A successful rendition of the St. Luke Passion was given in Kiel. The choir had 30 rehearsals of this technically demanding piece. B930. Pfeifer, Ellen. Premiere Has Heart, Not Soul. Boston Herald, January 28, 1986. The author discussed the political significance of the Polish Requiem before turning to a critique of its musical content. In particular, she felt that its vocal writing was too difficult and its nearly continuous dense polyphony too much to absorb. B931. Phillips, Gordon. Penderecki Festival. Royal Academy of Music, London. Musical Opinion 109, no. 1302 (May 1986): 156. Two concerts devoted almost exclusively to Penderecki's music were offered in London. The first included Canticum Canticorum Salomonis and Prelude, Vision, and Finale from Paradise Lost, the second the British premiere of the Viola Concerto, Awakening of Jacob, and Symphony No. 1. A succinct analysis of each piece is also provided.

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B932. Pilarski, Bohdan. Dziennik Festiwalowy. Ruch muzyczny 6, no. 21 (1962): 8-12; also published in Pilarski. Szkice o muzyce, 40-50. Warsaw: Instytut Wydawniczy PAX, 1969. Pilarski characterized Penderecki's String Quartet as a good work that is formally compact and contains a long section of murmuring articulations. Canon is a fascinating design of a three-layered canon for 208 voices that expanded upon the techniques used in Threnody. Orfeusz na nowej drodze. Warszawska 1959. kulturalny, no. 43 (October 22, 1959): 6-7. Strophes, performed at the 1959 Warsaw Autumn Festival, is a typical example of Penderecki's search for subtlety and control in his music; it is full of glittering thoughts. B934. Plon Jesiennej fali. no. 1 (1962); Pilarski, Szkice o muzyce, 30-39. Warsaw: Instytut Wydawniczy PAX, 1969. Penderecki and Schffer belong to the terrorist group in Polish music, even though they have different musical philosophies and compositional styles. Penderecki, an impressionist, shows an interest in varied styles. Schffer, an expressionist, prefers to maintain a single line of development. B935. Piotrowska, Maria. Polska muzyka religijna po II wojnie In Stan nad w kulturze polskiej, 95-103. Warsaw: Akademia Teologii Katolickiej, 1973. Piotrowska mentioned Pendereckis music in the context of an increasing amount of Polish religious music composed since 1956. B936. Pirckmayer, Georg. Avantgarde 1970 (I). Musikerzeihung 24, no. 4 (1971): 147-51. The last half of the 1960s began with a bang: with Penderecki's famous major chord that concludes the St. Luke Passion. Pirckmayer raised doubts about the compositional practices of the last fifty years. B937. Jeszcze raz Ruch muzyczny 36, no. 6 (1992): 1-2. Capriccio for Oboe and Der unterbrochene Gedanke were presented at Musica Polonica Nova. B938. Pisarenko, Olgierd . Musica Polonica Nova od poniedzialku do soboty. Ruch muzyczny 38, no. 7 (April 3, 1994): 1, 5. Pendereckis Flute Concerto was presented at the Musica Polonica Nova festival. In the course of a year, this work has become a standard in the flute literature. B939. Penderecki w Ruch muzyczny 41, no. 9 (May 4, 1997): 14-16. This European (and Polish) premiere of Seven Gates of Jerusalem took place at the Third Forum in Warsaw. This work synthesized elements from all of the composers compositional styles as well as those of other composers (Orff, Bruckner, and Verdi). B933.

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B940. w dzczu. Ruch muzyczny 27, no. 22 (October 30, 1983): 21-22. The second festival sponsored by Penderecki took place in September 1983. Subtitled Romantic Songs, it consisted of works by young composers from Poland, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and Armenia. B941. Standing Ovation dla Festiwalu. Ruch muzyczny 42, no. 22 (November 1, 1998): 26-29. Paradise Lost was performed at the 1998 Wratislavia Cantans in honor of the composers 65th birthday. B942. Pisarenko, Olgierd, Ludwik Erhardt, and Josef o 'Czarnej Masce'. Ruch muzyczny 32, no.2 (1988): 3-4. These three authors gave their impressions of the production of The Black Mask given by Teatr Wielki. In Pisarenko's opinion, the opera has links to those of Richard Strauss. He also believed that the music of The Black Mask could stand alone successfully, without Hauptmann's text. For Erhardt, the oft-repeated criticisms that Penderecki frequently changed his compositional style were the result of insufficient acquaintance with his music. Yes, his style has evolved, but its main features have been present in all of his compositions. In The Black Mask, for example, such technical means as clusters and glissandos, which are characteristic of Penderecki's music from the 1960s, are fused with his later emphases on melody and quotation. Kanski surmised that history would recognize [The Black Mask] as one of the best operas of the last quarter of our century. Its text, however, was one of Hauptmann's weakest endeavors. B943. Pitt, Charles. France. Strasbourg. Opera 36, no. 6 (June 1985): 66768. Strasbourg was the site of a Lige Opera production of The Devils of Loudun. Pitt was impressed with the solution devised by set designer Serg Creuz, who was faced with the challenge of coordinating thirty scene changes. B944. Pleasants, Henry. Penderecki's Devils. Music and Musicians 18, no. 1 (September 1969): 53. Pleasants gave a scathing review of The Devils of Loudun: I cannot recall ever hearing a major theatre score so utterly devoid of music of any kind, so abjectly poverty-ridden in terms of melody, harmony and rhythm. B945. Pociej, Bohdan. Festiwal wielkiej muzyki. Ruch muzyczny 20 (October 1971): 13-15. Pendereckis music was included in the Wratislavia Cantans festival held in B946. Krzystof Penderecki--en traditionell kompositr. Nutida musik 9, nos. 1-2 (1965-1966): 15-18. Pociej discussed the relationship between musical experimentation and tradition in Penderecki's compositions.

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B947. Ruch muzyczny 34, no. 19 (1990): 7. One of the recordings reviewed by Pociej was Penderecki's Second Symphony (Olympia OCD 329). This piece invited interesting questions about style: Is it a pastiche? Stylization? Archaism? A personal synthesis of the styles and symphonic idioms of Wagner, Bruckner, Mahler, and Sibelius? B948. Z sali koncertowej. Szabelski, Penderecki, Bartk. Ostatnie dni Festiwalu. Express Wieczorny (September 25, 1961). Threnody, performed at the recent Warsaw Autumn Festival, is concentrated in mood and utilizes all possible string timbres. Anna. XXV Warszawska na strunach no. 199 (October 15, 1981). Te Deum has the ability to cleanse the mind of life's daily difficulties and to arouse emotions from deep within the soul. B950. Polaczek, Dietmar. Der Musik-Nuntius. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, April 30, 1979, p. 10. In this written on the occasion of the German premiere of Paradise Lost, described the connections between Penderecki and religious topics. For instance, the Bible was the almost exclusive source of texts and themes for Penderecki up to and including the composition of Paradise Lost. B951. Romuald. Krzysztof Penderecki doktorem honoris causa Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu. Ruch muzyczny 31, no. 25 (1987): 3-4. Penderecki was granted an honorary doctorate from Adam Mickiewicz University in the composer's first such honor from a Polish university. During his acceptance speech, Penderecki described the dilemma that had faced Polish composers at the beginning of his career: whether to follow the ideology of socialist realism advocated by the government or accept the esthetics of the so-called bourgeois ideology. For him, the proper path was one based on sacred values. B952. Wiosenne muzykowanie w Wiesbaden i Ruch muzyczny 32, no. 15 (1988): 18-19. The Teatr Wielki's performance of The Black Mask in Wiesbaden in May 1988 was a great success, as was a concert version of the opera given in West Berlin. B953. Polony, Leszek. Kompozytor w blasku. Ruch muzyczny 32, no. 16 (1988): 8-9. In this article, Polony attempted to ascertain Penderecki's place in the history of the twentieth-century music. He acknowledged that Penderecki's music had aroused much controversy. Amid the political and artistic crises of the second half of the twentieth century, Penderecki chose to pursue a path in which his music could be associated with time-honored religious and humanitarian values. The role of drama in Penderecki's music should be the key point in any discussion of his music. A schedule of the Penderecki Festival held in June 1988 in Krakw, and was provided. B949.

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B954. Muzyka Gazeta Krakowska, no. 198 (October 11, 1981). Although some of Penderecki's compositions display problems with form, Te Deum and Second Symphony contain no such difficulties. In particular, the Symphony is a seemingly natural mixture of nineteenth and twentieth-century elements. B955. 'Pasja' Pendereckiego w Oldenburgu. Ruch muzyczny 27,no. 11 (May 29, 1983): 22. The St. Luke Passion was presented in Oldenburg, West Germany as part of the celebrations for the 150th anniversary of that town's Staatstheater. Polony gave a detailed account of the performance. B956. Pod Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 30, no. 4 (1986): 11. The Adagietto from Paradise Lost and the Second Cello Concerto were performed on a New York concert presented by the Krakw Philharmonic. B957. Pond, Elizabeth. Penderecki's Stirring New 'Polish Requiem': Unabashedly Sacred. Christian Science Monitor, October 5, 1984, p. 28. This is an anecdotal review of the world premiere of the complete Polish Requiem. Pond followed the piece step by step, discussing the hardships of the life of the conductor, Mstislav Rostropovich, and the different events for which the individual movements were written. She emphasized the heartfelt emotions that come forth as one contemplates the meaning of the words in the context of Poland's recent history. B958. Porter, Andrew. Musical Events: Catching Up. New Yorker (March 21, 1977): 120, 123-27. Carnegie Hall was the setting for an all-Penderecki concert. Porter was struck by the composer's exquisite use of ocarinas in The Awakening of Jacob. He compared the Magnificat to the St. Luke Passion, stating that the former work is more ceremonial, but less dramatic than the Passion. The Capriccio for Violin is a compendium of fashionable orchestral effects. He belittled Polymorphia's score as being made largely of encephalographs of mental patients recorded while they listened to Penderecki's earlier composition Threnody, and rounded off by a chord of C major. He finished by stating that few of Penderecki's compositions are worth hearing more than once or twice. B959. Die schwarze Maske. New Yorker (October 10, 1988): 8283. Porter thought The Black Mask, which he saw in Santa Fe, was a useless work. B960. Post, Nora. Monophonic Sound Resources for the Oboe. Interface 11, no. 3 (1982): 131-76. The Capriccio for Oboe features some of the sound techniques in contemporary oboe repertoire. Post offered several classifications of these techniques.

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B961. Ptz, Werner. Tendenzen in der Musik der Gegenwart und ihre Bedeutung fr den Musikunterricht. Musik und Bildung 3 (May 1971): 23542; Das Orchester 19, no. 6 (June 1971): 294-301. Ptz discussed the form of Fluorescences in some detail. Differences between tension and relaxation and between similarity and variation were created by contrasts in timbre, sound density, rhythm, and dynamics. By juxtaposing colors and materials, Penderecki effectively gave a spatial character to this piece. B962. Quinke, Josef. Lukas-Passion von Penderecki. Musik und Kirche 36, no. 3 (May/June 1966): 143-44. Penderecki, the most revolutionary agent of the Polish avantgarde and...[the] boldest innovator in the new music, offered the world premiere of the St. Luke Passion, one of the most important musical creations of our century. Its non-traditional sounds were convincing and were synthesized with other techniques, such as the polyphony of the Stabat Mater. B963. Pendereckis 'Lukas-Passion'. Musica 20, no. 3 (May-June 1966): 119-21. The world premiere of the St. Luke Passion was the subject of this review. Timbre and novel orchestral techniques underscore its dramatic expression rather than act as compositional gimmicks. The piece was deeply provoking...a decisive turning point in Pendereckis career...(and) one of the most important contributions to sacred music of our time. B964. Pendereckis 'Lukas-Passion'. Kassel. Musica 23, no. 3 (May/June 1969): 271-72. Having been presented in concert halls and churches around the world, the St. Luke Passion was finally heard in Kassel, Germany. The amateur choir members mastered its unusual intonations and rhythms with impressive superiority. B965. Ramliak, Nick. Timbre and Texture in Twentieth-Century Orchestration Techniques. D.M.A. thesis, University of Miami, 1995. Ramliak analyzed orchestrational techniques in works by Penderecki, and others. B966. Rapp, Dorothea. Krzysztof Penderecki: Die Teufel von Loudun. Wege der modernen Kunst. Die Drei. Zeitschrift fr Wissenschaft, Kunst und soziales Leben 40, no. 4 (1970): 189-92. For Pendereckis interpretation of The Devils of Loudun, the drama of the story is more important than its historically accurate portrayal. Rapp viewed three dramatic levels in Pendereckis libretto: the characters of Jeanne and Grandier and the forces of morality. She thought the composer had brightened the medieval constructs of the drama by emphasizing brotherhood and the beauty of human nature. B967. Rappoport-Gelfand, Lidia. Musical Life in Poland. The Postwar Years 1945-1977. Translated by Irina Lasoff. Musicology: A Book Series, vol. 10. Edited by F. Joseph Smith. New York: Gordon and Breach, 1991.

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Rappoport-Gelfand examined many of Penderecki's compositions during the course of her study. The St. Luke Passion, Dies Irae, and Cosmogony were discussed in individual essays, while earlier pieces such as Strophes, Threnody, Emanations, Dimensions of Time and Silence, Polymorphia, and Fluorescences were treated at length elsewhere in the monograph. The author was most concerned with the dramatic interpretations of these pieces both textually and musically. Harmony, texture, and timbre were discussed frequently. She also described the blending of traditional and modern techniques in the first three pieces named. B968. Sonorism: Problems of Style and Form in Modern Polish Music. Journal of Musicological Research 4 (1983): 399-416. Sonorism in Polish music is a concept first proposed in the 1950s by Jzef Rappoport defined it as a special system of musical means, where the sound coloristic functions as the primary factor of a composition. The concept of sound coloristics includes such aspects of musical language as timbre, harmony, register and texture. In her opinion, sonorism had been a major characteristic of Polish music since 1955, particularly in the works of Serocki, Grecki, and Penderecki. B969. Raymond, David. Penderecki: Anaklasis; Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima; Fonogrammi; De Natura Sonoris 1 + 2 ; Capriccio; Song of Songs; The Dream of Jacob. American Record Guide 58, no. 2 (March/April 1995): 155-56. An indispensable...collection of 20th-century music, this EMI recording (65077) presents several of Pendereckis works in chronological order. Penderecki conducted these pieces, which makes this recording a definitive one, in Raymonds opinion. B970. Read, Gardner. Avant-garde Music...Krzysztof Penderecki's Pittsburgh Overture. MLA Notes 26, no. 3 (1970): 618-20. Pittsburgh Overture was a disappointment. It is merely a catalogue of compositional techniques used in many of the composer's previous compositions, here presented in an academic manner. B971. Krzysztof Penderecki: Capriccio per Siegfried Palm [per] violoncello solo. MLA Notes 27 (1971): 557-58. The Capriccio was one of Penderecki's first works to be published by Schott. This new piece contains almost every technical gimmick imaginable for the cello. B972. Krzysztof Penderecki: Utrenja I, The Burial of Christ. MLA Notes 31, no. 2 (December 1974): 405-407. On the occasion of Schotts publication of the score to Utrenia, Pt. I, Read described the musical syntax of this piece as being similar to that of the St. Luke Passion and Dies Irae, to such an extent that it seems as if Penderecki has been rewriting the same piece. Utrenias Russian text is rendered phonetically in the published score.

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B973. Redvall, Eva. Stockholm. Opera News 42, no. 21 (May 1978): 3840. Warsaw's Teatr Wielki gave a performance of Penderecki's The Devils of Loudun in Stockholm in January. Its libretto and music had undergone a major revision since its world premiere. B974. Regamey, Konstanty. Passio et Mors Domini nostri Jesu Christi secundum Lucam by Krzysztof Penderecki. Polish Music 1, no. 3 (1966): 5-8. Regamey rebutted those critics who claimed that in the St. Luke Passion, Penderecki had retreated from his earlier innovative style. He claimed that hints of styles from earlier centuries had already appeared in such works as Stabat Mater and Psalms of David. Moreover, he asserted that Penderecki employed techniques that revert to historical styles with the same skill and freshness as he made use of his own boldest inventions. B975. Regitz, Hartmut. Stuttgart. Gottvater Everding. Zur Inszenierung von Pendereckis Verlorenem Paradies. Die Bhne, no. 250 (July 1979): 19. The Stuttgart production of Paradise Lost was considerably shorter than Chicagos world premiere version. Projections of heaven and hell formed the backdrop for the climactic episode between Adam and Eve and other scenes alluding to sin and death. B976. Reininghaus, Frieder. Illustriertes Entsetzen--und die ewig bsen Schwarzen: Reimanns 'Troades' in Mnchen und Pendereckis Schwarze Maske in Salzburg. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 147, no. 19 (1986): 35-37. In this review of the world premiere production of The Black Mask, Reininghaus summarized the operas plot and staging. Musically, the piece contains hints of Stravinsky, Pendereckis earlier compositions, and 17th-century tafelmusik. B977. Verfremdung ohne Zielrichtung. Gnter Krmer inszenierte Pendereckis Teufel von Loudun. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 151, no. 4 (April 1990): 31. In this review of a new production of The Devils of Loudun, Reinighaus commented that the lead character, Grandier, must have been a powerful renaissance man. He lamented the directors choice to set the opera in the 1930s. B978. Reiter, R. Burkhardt. Influences of the Arch Form in Relation to the Properties of Pitch Structure and Formal Design Found within Krzysztof Music Theory: Pendereckis Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima. Explorations and Applications (Duquesne University) 6 (Fall 1997): 19-24. Threnody succeeds as a composition due to its tight formal and harmonic control. Harmonically, the [01267] pentachord is, in his opinion, the most important structure of the work, while the integration of tertial harmonies and 12-tone row techniques also play an important role. B979. Reiter, Erica Amelia. Krzysztof Pendereckis Cadenza for Viola solo as a Derivative of the Concerto for Viola and Orchestra: A Numerical Analysis and a Performers Guide. D.M.A. thesis, University of Arizona, 1997.

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The Cadenza for Viola and the Viola Concerto were treated to two types of analysis in this thesis. First, comparisons among such musical elements as rhythm, dynamics, and form were made. Second, a pitch comparison was made by assigning a number to each pitch, then examining the intervallic relationships in each piece. This latter analysis revealed similarities between the pieces that were not evident through other analyses. Finally, Reiter discussed the performance considerations of the Cadenza. B980. Rexroth, Dieter. Krzysztof Pendereckis Die schwarze Maske in Salzburg uraufgefhrt. Musica 40, no. 5 (1986): 445-46. On the occasion of the world premiere of The Black Mask, Rexroth reviewed the operas plot and characterized its music. B981. rh. Das Weltmusikfest der IGNM in Amsterdam. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 103, no. 5 (September-October 1963): 303-305. Threnody was presented at the International Society of Contemporary Music festival held in Amsterdam. It is a fascinating work, especially in its effective, but novel treatment of the strings. B982. Richards, Denby. Athens. Music and Musicians 22, no. 3 (November 1973): 72-73. The St. Luke Passion and the complete Utrenia, conceived as a triptych by Penderecki, were performed in Athens. Compared to the Passion, the first part of Utrenia (The Entombment of Christ) uses fewer avant-garde vocal techniques and more imaginative instrumental writing. Except for its final pages, the second part (The Resurrection) is an anticlimax. B983. Richardson, Rick. Three Hours in Modern History. Penderecki Birthday Concert. Warsaw Voice, December 5, 1993. Penderecki invited musical friends to perform on a 60th birthday concert in Warsaw. Jean-Pierre Rampal played the solo part on the Flute Concerto, and Mstislav Rostropovich offered an ear-catching performance of the Cello Concerto [No. 2]. The Clarinet Quartet, Lacrimosa, and Song of Cherubim were also presented. B984. Richardson, Trevor. Holland. Music and Musicians 22, no. 1 (September 1973): 64-68. Richardson reviewed a Rotterdam performance of the complete Utrenia. He considered it less interesting than Tippett's Vision of Saint Augustine, but no more boring than a great deal of other perfectly acceptable music of all periods. B985. Riemer, Franz. Neue Schallplatten. steuropische Chorkultur. Musik und Kirche 56, no. 3 (May-June 1986): 141-42. EMIs recording of Te Deum and Lacrimosa (067-143623-1) reflects the composers own interpretations of these works, since he conducted both pieces for this recording. B986. Ringo, James. The Devils of Loudun. American Record Guide 38, no. 8 (April 1972): 340-45. This article is a review of the Philips recording of The Devils of Loudun (6700042). Ringo reviewed the opera's plot in some detail, then complained that its music was

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harmonically static, lacked distinctive melodies, and in general sounded too much like the composer's earlier pieces. B987. Roberts, Gwyneth Margaret. Procedures for Analysis of Sound Masses. Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1978. De natura sonoris No. 1 is among the pieces that Roberts analysed in her study of the use of sound masses in composition. B988. Roberts, John. SFO's 'The Black Mask' Succeeds With Its Sense.

Santa Fe New Mexican, August 1, 1988, p. 3.


In this critique of The Black Mask, Roberts applauded the performers, stating that Penderecki's score was given as devoted and as well-prepared a performance as it is likely to get. In contrast to many other reviews of this opera, Roberts believed that much of the text could be understood despite the complexity of its vocal parts. B989. Roberts, Kenneth. Krzysztof Penderecki: Magnificat. MLA Notes 33, no. 4 (June 1977): 945-46. On the occasion of Schotts publication of Magnificat, Roberts briefly discussed some of its performance problems. Among the topics mentioned were the subdivision of the orchestral parts and the need for the choir to pull in and out of focus upon one pitch. However, Roberts noted that any musician who had played earlier works by Penderecki would find the Magnificats techniques to be familiar. B990. Robinson, Ray. Bach Influences in the Penderecki St. Luke Passion. In A Bach Tribute. Essays in Honor of William H. Scheide, 189-203. Chapel Hill, NC: Hinshaw Music, 1993. A broad array of subthemes was brought up by Robinson in this essay, beginning with a review of the historical relationship of Poland to Western Europe and continuing through the traditional aspects of Pendereckis musical education and early pieces to a fairly lengthy discussion of the relationship between Bachs St. Matthew and St. John Passions and Pendereckis St. Luke Passion. The final pages of the article are devoted to the use of the B-A-C-H and motives in the St. Luke Passion. B991. The Choral Works of Krzysztof Penderecki. Choral Journal 39, no. 4 (November, 1998): 35-42, 47-48. This is an annotated listing of Pendereckis choral works, including those with orchestral accompaniment. The operas are not listed. B992. Dance of Death. Opera News 53, no. 2 (August 1988): 24-25, 28. Robinson devoted the first half of this article to a discussion of Penderecki's education and his compositional style as heard in Threnody, the St. Luke Passion, and The Devils of Loudun. He emphasized the emotional qualities that permeate these pieces. For the remainder of the article, he examined The Black Mask, summarizing its plot and described its performing forces and music.

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B993. Krzysztof Penderecki: A Guide to His Works. Princeton: Prestige Publications, 1983. This book begins with a short biography and discussion of Penderecki's musical style. The next section is a works list that includes the length of each piece, its instrumentation, publisher, and pertinent commissioning or dedication information. The next section provides information on the world premiere of each piece. A discography, outline of Penderecki's life, and selected bibliograpy complete the volume. The book is a reliable source of information, although the discography is not complete and the bibliography is short. B994. Krzysztof Penderecki: An Interview and an Analysis of Stabat Mater. Choral Journal 24, no. 3 (1983): 7-16. In the interview portion of this article, the composer discussed his compositional influences and the two stylistic periods that he perceived in his output to date. The first began with Threnody and Anaklasis, both composed in 1960, and ended with the Magnificat of 1974. The second started with the The Awakening of Jacob (1974) and is still in progress. The second part of the article is an analysis of Stabat Mater. Robinson described its use of distributed text, in which individual syllables are sung by different choirs. He also discussed the work's polyphonic techniques and its call for spoken, whispered, and sung texts. B995. Krzysztof Pendereckis Seven Gates of Jerusalem. Choral Journal 38, no. 10 (May 1998): 9-13. Robinson discussed the style and numerological context of Seven Gates of Jerusalem. B996. Penderecki at 50: A Career in Retrospect. Symphony Magazine 34, no. 5 (1983): 22-23, 77. This article is similar to the one published in European American Music Distributors (see below). A biography of Penderecki's life is provided, as are descriptions of the composer's various compositional styles. B997. Penderecki at Fifty. European American Music Distributors [newsletter], vol. 11, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 1983): 2-3, 11. A biography of Penderecki's life is given, as are descriptions of the composer's various compositional styles. The biographical portion includes quotes by the composer about some of the external forces that influenced his own music, including Catholicism, the horrors of World War II, and the teaching of Artur Malawski. In the second part of the article, Robinson emphasized the roles that experimentation and tradition have played in many of Penderecki's works since Stabat Mater. B998. Pendereckis Musical Pilgrimage. Studies in Penderecki 1 (1998): 33-50. Robinson began his discussion of Pendereckis stylistic periods by citing the composers own opinions on the topic, which have changed several times over the years. Robinson took Pendereckis comments into consideration as he divided the composers output into six stylistic phases (search: 1956-1959, sonorism: 1959-1961, synthesis: 1962-1972, sophistication: 1972-1974, synchronization: 1975-1986, and stabilization: 1986-), then merged them into three style periods (search, synthesis, and stability) and, finally, into one over-arching compositional signature. In characterizing each phase, Robinson

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one over-arching compositional signature. In characterizing each phase, Robinson discussed the following musical attributes: rhythm, pitch, melody, harmony, tonality, texture, form, instrumentation, and extra-musical influences. Pendereckis Reception in the United States of America. In of Krzysztof Penderecki: Poetics and Reception, edited by Tomaszewski, 163-83. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1995; Recepcja Pendereckiego w Stanach Zjednoczonych Ameryki. Muzyka Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Poetyka i Recepcja, edited by Tomaszewski, 159-78. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1996. Robinson devoted a considerable portion of this article to reviewing the differences between the classical music scenes in Europe and the United States. He described what he considered to be the four aspects of the composers career that contributed to the positive reception of his music in the United States: Parabolic quality, aesthetic reorientation, synthesis between the old and the new and prophetic vision. B1000. The Penderecki Te Deum. Choral Journal 21, no. 8 (1981): 5-7. In this analysis of Te Deum, Robinson emphasized the prevalence in the work of the tonal intervals of a minor sixth and minor third. He also described Penderecki's signature chord: a major-minor chord with a flatted sixth in the bass. The contrapuntal sections of the piece are based on two thematic fragments. The only addition to the traditional Te Deum text is the Polish hymn whose interpolation was meant as a reference to the political oppression then evident in Poland. B1001. The Polish Requiem by Krzysztof Penderecki. Choral Journal 26, no. 4 (1985): 5-11. This discussion of the Polish Requiem encompassed a variety of topics. Robinson linked the composition's political significance to its compositional history and described its general musical traits. The piece's musical language blends elements of both neoRomanticism and the composer's earlier experimentations. Musical examples are included. B1002. String Trio and Sinfonietta. Studies in Penderecki 1 (1998): 101-12. The String Trio marked a change of direction in Pendereckis chamber compositions. The first movement features elements of arch form, sonata form, and the Baroque concerto grosso. The second movement is in an A-B-C-D-A form. As in many of his other works, Penderecki introduced the main musical material at the beginning of the first movement. The Sinfonietta per archi is a revision of the String Trio. The larger number of instruments in the Sinfonietta gave Penderecki the opportunity to create different textures and to divide motives among various instruments. B1003. Unpublished Research on Pendereckis Music by Scholars from American and Canadian Universities: An Annotated Bibliography. Studies in Penderecki 1 (1998): 141-43. B999. The Music

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B1004. Robinson, Ray and Allen Winold. A Study of the Penderecki St. Luke Passion. Celle, West Germany: Moeck, 1983. Robinson and Winold divided this book into four main sections. The first dealt with Penderecki's professional life prior to writing the St. Luke Passion, then summarized the critical reaction to the work's world premiere and subsequent performances. The second part is a review of the history of the liturgical Passion. The third section is a discussion of the texts selected for the St. Luke Passion. B1005. Roca, Octavio. Penderecki: Concerto for Violin and Orchestra. Ovation 9 (June 1988): 42. In this record review (Thorofon CTH 2017) the Violin Concerto [No. 1] was characterized as a work of rare beauty. Although dramatic interest is not maintained throughout the piece, soloist Christiane Edinger's performance was undeniably exquisite. B1006. Rockwell, John. Concert: Penderecki with the Philharmonic. New York Times, February 15, 1987, Section 1, p. 75. Rockwell summarized Penderecki's compositional career, then discussed the works that the composer was currently conducting with the New York Philharmonic. He reviewed De Natura Sonoris No. 2 favorably, but liked the Viola Concerto even more. The latter work, in its version for full orchestra, received its New York premiere during these performances. B1007. East Europe's New Academy Of Music Takes Shape. New York Times, October 22, 1992. Penderecki is scheduled to be a short-term faculty member of the Prague Mozart Foundation, which eventually will be situated in Esterhza, Hungary, but for now alternates between Vienna and Krakw. B1008. In Munich, Ooze ex Machina Causes Tragedy at Opera House. New York Times, May 26, 1992. Problems with the hydraulic system at Munich's National Theater forced the cancellation of performances of Penderecki's Ubu Rex. B1009. Long-Delayed Munich Premiere: 'Ubu Rex' From Penderecki. New York Times, July 8, 1991, pp. C11-12. Rockwell's review of the world premiere of Ubu Rex was decidedly negative. After summarizing the opera's plot and complimenting the set designer for his perverse creations, he condemned the music for being rhythmically square and almost defiantly charmless. B1010. Music: Kronos Quartet at Summerfare. New York Times, July 27, 1987. The Kronos Quartet performed Penderecki's String Quartet No. 1. Its score was projected onto a large screen that was visible to both players and audience. B1011. Rogge, Wolfgang. Neue Musik I. Kassel: Brenreiter, 1979. Penderecki is among the 20th-century composers whose works are discussed in this 64page monograph.

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B1012. Rrich, Mary. Penderecki's Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima: A Case Study in the Dangers of Expressive Aesthetics and the Limits of Formal Analysis. In Slavic Culture. Proceedings of the First Symposium on Slavic Culture, edited by I. Masig-Delic, 193-235. Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand, 1983. In the first part of her essay, Rrich offered a brief history of aesthetics in music and discussed the hazards of equating verbal expressions of aesthetic feelings with one's true emotions about music. The second half of the essay was concerned with Threnody. Rrich suggested that the intrinsic expressiveness of Penderecki's work...[is] unquestionable. It is on this expressiveness that the listener should focus rather than the direct reference implied by the title. To illustrate her thesis, she provided both visual and written analyses of the piece. The visual representation consisted of a graph denoting the work's pitches, textures, and durations. B1013. Rosenthaler, Gerhard. Gesprchskonzert Krzysztof Penderecki. sterreichisches Musikzeitschrift 42, no. 6 (June 1987): 315-16. The Varsovia Quartet played both of Pendereckis String Quartets in Vienna. Rosenthaler briefly summarized the two pieces and mentioned the shifts in Pendereckis style from an anti-serialist avant-gardism to his more recent neo-romanticism. B1014. Rostand, Claude. Avant-garde Season. Musical America 81 (July 1961): 30-31. Among the compositions presented on the Musique d'aujourd'hui concert series in Paris was Anaklasis. In Rostands opinion, it is a fascinating and unusual piece. B1015. Roth, Murray. Penderecki's 'Paradise Lost'. Variety, December 6, 1978: 100. In Roth's view, the world premiere of Paradise Lost was a disappointment. The only bright spot was the dancing of Dennis Wayne and Nancy Thuesen. B1016. Rothon, Greville. Germany. 'Devils' in Munich. Opera 21, no. 6 (June 1970): 532, 549. The Stuttgart version of The Devils of Loudun was brought to Munich in February. The majority of the audience greeted it favorably, but many also voiced their disapproval of both Penderecki and the producer, Gnther Rennert. Rothon questioned why Rennert was criticized, since his work made the opera interesting, while the music itself was inferior to the background score of a good western. B1017. Rothstein, Edward. Concert: Rostropovich in Penderecki 'Te Deum'. New York Times, February 1, 1981, p. 48. Penderecki's Te Deum was deemed a major work of the human spirit, passionately asserting moral and physical claims. Reminiscences of Threnody and Dies Irae (here called the work on...Auschwitz) could be heard in the piece. B1018. Rozbicki, Kazimierz. no. 22 (1962): 9-10. Na Festiwalu bez zmian. Ruch muzyczny 6,

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B1018. Rozbicki, Kazimierz. Na Festiwalu bez zmian. Ruch muzyczny 6, no. 22 (1962): 9-10. Rozbicki characterized Canon as a work that had an interesting concept, but that crossed the line, beyond which overt display and the quest for cheap sensation begins. Its performance at the Warsaw Autumn Festival evoked both applause and derision. B1019. Ruppel, K. H. Ein Magnificat von Penderecki. Urauffhrung unter Leitung des Komponisten im Dom von Salzburg. Neue Zrcher Zeitung, September 5, 1974, p. 35. Ruppel reviewed the premiere performance of the Magnificat. Among other things, he mentioned its 55-voice triple fugue, the bass solo that makes up its fourth section, and its passacaglia. B1020. Penderecki im Dom. Der Komponist dirigiert die Urauffhrung seines Magnificat. Suddeutsche Zeitung, August 21, 1974, p. 14. The world premiere of Pendereckis Magnificat brought forth long applause. Given the Cathedrals acoustical problems, Ruppel recommended that the piece be heard elsewhere before forming a final opinion about its worth; he felt that in a different place the various elements of the pieces organization and harmony would become more transparent. B1021. Royan will ein Zentrum moderner Musik werden. Melos 33, no. 5 (May 1966): 157-61. Andrzej Markowski conducted the world premiere of De Natura Sonoris No. 1, a piece featuring intense timbres and a tension between quiet and explosive passages. B1022. Rychlik, Jozef. Krzysztof Penderecki - Psalmus. In i tradycja w muzyce Krzysztofa Pendereckiego, edited by Regina and Krzysztof Szwajgier, 41-51. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna w Krakwie, 1983. In one of the few published articles about Psalmus 1961, Rychlik described how the works source material was developed by Penderecki in Warsaws electronic music studio. Rychlik treated the topics of color, rhythm, form, and texture separately, then posed the question of whether this piece was truly experimental. B1023. Punktualizm we Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Muzyka 21, no. 4 (1976): 5-21. Rychlik described the 12-tone technique used in Emanations and the pointillist qualities of both Emanations and Strophes. Penderecki paid particular attention to the text setting of Strophes, with the rhythmic and dramatic accentuations of the music closely matching those of the text. B1024. rw. Penderecki in London. Music & Musicians 19 (May 1971): 4. In this conversation, Penderecki stated that after he completed Utrenia he planned to return to a compositional style similar to that used in Stabat Mater. He believed that Threnody had introduced a new manner of writing for strings. Although he had learned much from working in Warsaw's electronic music studio, he believed that traditional instruments would continue to be most important performance media.

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B1025. s. Koncerty kompozytorskie Pendereckiego w Stanach Zjednoczonych. Ruch muzyczny 25, no. 7 (April 5, 1981): 2. This article lists recent programs of Penderecki's music performed in New York City, Houston, West Berlin, and Leningrad. B1026. Koncerty urodzinowe Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 28, no. 3 (1984): 2. Concerts celebrating Penderecki's 50th birthday took place in Krakw, Washington, D.C., and Rome. The following works were performed: String Quartet No. 1, Three Miniatures for Clarinet and Piano, Utrenia, St. Luke Passion, Stabat Mater, Cello Concerto No. 2, and Polish Requiem. B1027. Krzysztof Penderecki laureatem Nagrody im. Honeggera 1977. Ruch muzyczny 22, no. 11 (1978): 3. Penderecki was awarded the 1977 Honegger International Music Award for his Magnificat. B1028. Wyniki konkursu kompozytorskiego Festiwalu 'MMMM'. Ruch muzyczny 23, no. 3 (1979): 2. Penderecki served as the chair of the jury for the composers' competition organized on the occasion of the Fifth Young Musicians for a Young Town Festival in Poland. B1029. S., H. Pendereckis Lob fr Nrnberg. Das Orchester 27, no. 2 (February 1979): 134. Penderecki and the Nuremberg Music Theater are trying to schedule either a concert or stage production of Paradise Lost. B1030. Saal, Hubert. Trouble in Paradise. Newsweek, Dec. 11, 1978, p. 90. Saal gave the premiere of Paradise Lost a negative review. In the process, however, he provided information on the work's staging and singing, as well as on the pre-premiere maneuverings regarding directorial and design positions. B1031. Sadie, Stanley. Editorial. Musical Times 108, no. 1495 (1967): 793. Sadie wondered why the performance of the St. Luke Passion at the Proms had been such a moving experience, while its earlier presentation at Festival Hall had made a doubtfull [sic] impression. B1032. Salzman, Eric. Contemporary Music: Two Unquiet Streams. Stereo Review 22, no. 2 (February 1969): 106. The Nonesuch recording of Capriccio for Violin and De Natura Sonoris No. 1 was reviewed. The Capriccio uses contemporary sounds within a neoclassic framework, while De Natura Sonoris No. 1 was more abstract and probing. B1033. Samson, Jim. Recent Polish Music. Music and Letters 62, nos. 3-4 (1981): 478-81. Samson described De Natura Sonoris No. 1 as one-dimensional but exhilarating, and a piece that helped to put Polish music on the musical map.

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B1034. Sandner, Wolfgang. Der Kunstanspruch der Rockmusik Beziehungen zwischen populare und ernster Musik. Universitas 32, no. 11 (1977): 1185-90. Sandner explored the relationships between rock music and contemporary art music. He cited the works of Penderecki and many other composers. B1035. Sandner, Wolfgang. Warschau: 17. Musikfestival 'Warschauer Herbst'. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 134, no. 11 (November 1973): 726-27. Sandner characterized Pendereckis First Symphony, performed at the 1973 Warsaw Autumn Festival, as being favorable to other Polish and foreign works. B1036. Sandow, Gregory. Faking It. Village Voice, July 3, 1984: 88-89. Sandow denounced Penderecki's First Symphony as a fraudulent work. In his view, the composer failed to create precise and subtly flavored kinds of turbulence and serenity and any cohesive relationship within the work. B1037. Sacred Sounds. Stagebill (July 1998): 24, 46. On the occasion of its U.S. premiere, Keller praised Seven Gates of Jerusalem for its exquisite moments of simplicity and symbolism that reflect Pendereckis flexible and free compositional style. B1038. Piotr. Co pod Polityka 32, no. 40 (October 1, 1988): 9. Sarzynski summarized the reception given to The Black Mask after its first four productionsthe world premiere version given in Salzburg and Vienna, and the Santa Fe, and Warsaw presentations. B1039. S[atz], A. Los Angeles Philharmonic: Penderecki Premiere. High Fidelity/Musical America 21, no. 1 (January 1971): MA16-17. The first public performance of Cosmogony occurred five days after its world premiere at an invitation-only event at the United Nations. The text, taken from sources such as Copernicus, Ovid, and John Glenn, is concerned with man's attempt to understand the vastness of the universe. B1040. Sawa, Rozmowa z Krzysztofem Pendereckim. Gwiazda Polarna, May 17, 1986. In this interview with Penderecki, Sawa elicited comments about the history of the Polish Requiem, the festivals founded by the composer, and the Krakw Philharmonic on the occasion of its first tour of the United States in 1986. Penderecki noted that more people attended concerts of his music in the U.S. than in his own country of Poland. B1041. Sawicka, Alina. Polish Composers After Szymanowski. Polish Music, edited by Stefan 238-60. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1965. This includes a list of Pendereckis compositions completed prior to 1964.

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B1042. Schiffer, Brigitte. Englische Firmen, englische Orchester und englische Festivals vergeben Kompositionsauftrge. Melos 40, no. 6 (June 1973): 375-83. Pendereckis First Symphony moves through five [sic] sections, using material derived predominantly from sound effects. These effects, which to some critics signified a link with the Perkins factory that commissioned the piece, were similar to those used in Anaklasis and Fluorescences, among other works. B1043. Schillaci, Daniel. Penderecki Lead a Passionate Passion. Los Angeles Herald Examiner, March 31, 1986. The Los Angeles Philharmonic's performance of the St. Luke Passion on Good Friday was ideal. The composition's remarkable claustrophobic atmosphere...mirrors the imprisonment of our own soul. B1044. Schiller, Henry. generacja kompozytorw polskich na III Festiwalu Muzyki 'Warsawska Chapter 2 in Horyzonty muzyki, edited by Jzef Patkowski and Anna Krakw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1970. In this article, derived from a October 21, 1959 radio broadcast, Schiller described Strophes as having a serial, pointillist technique. He also mentioned several of its unusual vocal and instrumental techniques and briefly discussed its textual sources. Finally, he made a distinction between Penderecki's modernist features and those employed by Boulez, Stockhausen, and Cage. B1045. Po prawykonaniu Wymiarw czasu i ciszy Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 4, no. 21 (1960): 5. Schiller divided Penderecki's compositional output into two periodsone lasting from approximately 1955-1958, the other beginning in 1958 and still continuing in 1960. The compositions of the first period emanated from traditional values, but with more modern treatments of texture, timbre, and form. These pieces include a String Quartet (unnumbered), Three Miniatures for Clarinet and Piano, Songs to Texts by Staff [Two Songs], Symphonic Scherzo, Miniatures for Flute, songs to texts by [Request for the Joyous Islands], and Epitaph Artur Malawski in Memoriam. The second period is characterized by a more uniform, but more avant-garde style. Emanations uses intervals of 1/3 step, and one of its string groups is tuned a half-step higher than the other. These pieces include Strophes and Dimensions of Time and Silence. B1046. Z faktury chralnej muzyki polskiej. Ruch muzyczny 8, no. 3 (1964): 8-9. Reprinted as Chapter 32 of Horyzonty muzyki, edited by Jzef Patkowski and Anna Krakw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1970. Schiller's thesis was that contemporary music was moving towards the automation of sonorities or, in other words, an emphasis on sonoristic techniques. One example of this trend is Penderecki's Dimensions of Time and Silence, which includes clusters of varying thicknesses and intensities, indications for highest and lowest possible pitches, whistles, and an abandonment of the traditional metric system. An excerpt from Dimensions is included.

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B1047. Schmidt-Garre, Helmut. Mnchen: Crankos Debt. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 129, no. 4 (April 1968): 148-50. A dance version of Polymorphia presented at Munichs National Theater was choreographed by Lother Hfgen. Since the musicians refused to play this noise music, it was presented using a tape recording. B1048. Mnchen: 'Musica Viva'. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 127, no. 6 (June 1966): 230. One of the novelties of the fifth Musica Viva festival in Munich was Pendereckis Sonata for Cello and Orchestra. Siegfried Palm gave a virtuosic performance as soloist. B1049. Mnchen Reichgefcherte Musica Viva. Melos/Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 1, no. 2 (March-April 1975): 115-16. Schmidt-Garre briefly described Pendereckis First Symphony as having an arch form and modernist sound materials. B1050. Pendereckis 'Magnificat' und Debussys 'Le Martyre de Saint Sebastien'. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 135, no. 10 (October 1974): 632-33. Pendereckis Magnificat featured quarter-tones, clusters, and whirring passages. Although passacaglias and triple fugues were mentioned in the program note for the work, such devices were not audible. The Cathedrals echoing acoustics helped to create the diffuse sounds desired by Penderecki. B1051. Schneider, June. Penderecki, HonRAM. Music and Musicians 23, no. 8 (April 1975): 43-44. Penderecki was granted an honorary membership in the Royal Academy of Music. The concert following his induction comprised works spanning his career: Miniatures for Violin and Piano, Polymorphia, String Quartet No. 2, Pittsburgh Overture (in its European premiere), and The Awakening of Jacob. Schneider questioned whether the composer is able to provide anything other than superficial sound manipulations. B1052. Schonberg, Harold. Can Anyone Live in This Building? New York Times, October 11, 1970, Section 2, p. 15. In this discourse, Schonberg cited Utrenia as an example of simple music that avoided the complexities of serialism and chance music. Although Penderecki utilized such modern devices as dense textures, choral shrieks and howls, and athematic writing, he succeeded in making a distinct emotional statement. B1053. Did Menotti beat 'The Devils'? New York Times, Aug. 24, 1969, Section 2, p. 15; excerpts in Menotti's Globolinks Invade Santa Fe. Opera Journal 2, no. 4 (1969): 34-35. Critical opinion following the Santa Fe Operas presentation of The Devils of Loudun was that this production was more like a play than an opera. Schonberg claimed that it was an example of an operatic disaster area.

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B1054. Mester Leads the Juilliard in Premiere of Penderecki's 'De Natura Sonoris II. New York Times, December 5, 1971, p. 83. The world premiere of De Natura Sonoris No. 2 benefited from a virtuoso performance. The piece contained all the types of sonorities expected from a work of its name and had a good deal of vitality. B1055. Music: Philadelphia With Johansen. January 15, 1969, p. 37. A short description of Threnody is given in this review. New York Times,

B1056. Music: 'St. Luke Passion'. New York Times, March 7, 1969, p. 30. According to Schonberg, the St. Luke Passion is not really a far-out piece. Although it incorporated everything from Gregorian chant to a kind of stylized serialism, it sounded much different than many other modern compositions. B1057. ' Paradise Lost' Was Not Made in Heaven. New York Times, December 10, 1978, Section 2, p. 21. Schonberg provided detailed information about the commissioning of Paradise Lost and the changes made in directorial personnel before the work's world premiere. Schonberg also paraphrased some of Dr. Janel Mueller's comments about the differences between the depictions of God and Satan in the libretto and the poem. Finally, Schonberg critiqued the music of Paradise Lost, stating that it suffered from a lack of lyricism, of musical concentration, of variety. B1058. Penderecki's Aggressive Modernism. New York Times, January 30, 1968, p. 34. The Pennsylvania Ballet premiered a dance titled Ceremony that was set to three pieces by Penderecki: Anaklasis, the Sonata for Cello and Orchestra, and Fluorescences. Schonberg could not tell if the performers had played the pieces correctly, given the musics inherently chaotic sounds. B1059. Philadelphians Perform Wildly Eclectic 'Utrenia'. New York Times, October 1, 1970, p. 52. Utrenia was characterized as a compendium of postwar techniques in which the theories of Cage, Stockhausen, Xenakis, Boulez and others are used. Its shock value is greater than its substance. Despite these misgivings about the piece, Schonberg asserted that it is important that it be heard. B1060. Romanticism Coming Up? New York Times, March 16, 1969, Section 2, p. 19. Schonberg began by contrasting the active, seemingly Western-style musical life of Warsaw to the oppressive atmosphere of socialist realism in the Soviet Union. He then turned his attention to Penderecki, whose St. Luke Passion was more a compendium of devices...than an integrated whole. Schonberg felt that that it might herald a turn to neo-Romanticism in composition.

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B1061. U.S. Debut in Santa Fe: 'The Devils of Loudun'. New York Times, August 16, 1969, p. 30; Opera Journal 2, no. 4 (1969): 32-33. The American premiere of The Devils of Loudun was given by the Santa Fe Opera. Schonberg praised its staging, but thought that its music failed to support the issues or events occurring on stage. B1062. World Premiere in Chicago. New York Times, December 1, 1978, Section 3, p. 13. In this article about the premiere performance of Paradise Lost, Schonberg discussed the appropriateness of the term sacra rappresentazione for this piece, the staging and costumes used for the premiere, the libretto's epic qualities, and the music's good and bad points. B1063. Schorr, Dieter. Die Lukas-Passion von Krzysztof Penderecki. Musik und Kirche 38, no. 2 (March/April 1968): 85-86. The second German performance of the unorthodox St. Luke Passion took place in Stuttgart. The piece included everything from whistles to screams, glissandos to aleatoric passages, and Bachian imitative principles to Pendereckis trademark interval of a descending minor second. Pendereckis complete control over the proceedings makes this a dramatically effective work. B1064. Schreiber, Wolfgang. Der siebte Schpfungstag steht noch aus. Pendereckis Lukas-Passion bei der Internationalen Orgelwoche in Nrnberg. Sddeutsche Zeitung, June 15, 1978, p. 12. Hans Gierster conducted a performance of the St. Luke Passion during the International Organ Week in Nuremberg. Unfortunately, this presentation lacked the spirit and immediacy of the world premiere performance in Mnster in 1966. B1065. Schremmer, Ernst. Ein wiederentdeckter Hauptmann. Schliesien. Kunst, Wissenschaft, Volkskunde 32, no. 1 (1987): 28-33. In this essay, Schremmer focused on the relationship of Penderecki's The Black Mask to Hauptmann's play of the same name. After providing a brief history of the plays genesis, he gave a detailed synopsis of its plot, complete with descriptions of the historical figures that formed the basis of Hauptmanns characters. He then proposed that the play had many parallels with our time, particularly in its confrontation of culture, religion, and race. These parallels, plus the play's interweaving of realism and symbolism, led Penderecki to choose this subject for his opera. Of special note was the fact that the stage design used at the opera's premiere was based on directions given by Hauptmann in his play. B1066. Schubert, Werner. Die lateinische Sprache in der Musik des 20. Jahrhunderts. II: Krzysztof Pendereckis Dies Irae. International Journal of Musicology 5 (1996): 401-18. Following the example of several other 20th century composers, Penderecki incorporated non-canonical Latin texts into Dies Irae.

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B1067. Schuh, Willi. Donaueschinger Musiktage 1960. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 100, no. 6 (November/December 1960): 370-71. A performance of Anaklasis at Donaueschingen proved that a gifted mind such as Pendereckis could maneuver itself into a dead end. B1068. Donaueschinger Musiktage 1962. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 102, no. 6 (November-December 1962): 363-64. Fluorescences marked the continuation of Pendereckis experiments with organized noise. It should not, however, be linked to the futurist works of a half-century earlier. B1069. Donaueschinger Musiktage 1964. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 104, no. 6 (November-December 1964): 372-73. Pendereckis Sonata for Cello and Orchestra is not a typical example of a sonata. Melodies are rarely heard, and the soloist often serves as an acrobat, using his bow to hit the wood of the instrument or play on the wrong side of the bridge and the hand to strum or hit the cello. B1070. Donaueschinger Musiktage 1967. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 104, no. 6 (November-December 1964): 358-61. The Capriccio for Violin and Orchestra is similar in some respects to the Cello Sonata, particularly in its wide range of string effects. The solo part is technically difficult. B1071. Schuler, Manfred. Das B-A-C-H-Motiv in Pendereckis Lukaspassion. Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch 65 (1981): 105-11. In Schulers opinion, the B-A-C-H motive plays a central structural and symbolic role in the St. Luke Passion. Schuler illustrated his thesis in a wide-ranging discussion of the motives thematic development, its role within a twelve-tone row and its permutations, and its significance as a symbol of the cross. B1072. Pendereckis Hommage an Mozart. Die Musikforschung 45, no. 3 (July-September 1992): 279-82. This comparison of Mozarts Requiem and Pendereckis Polish Requiem yielded two similar motives, one of which was integrated seamlessly into several movements of the latter work. This motive, from the Recordare, Jesu pie in Mozarts Requiem, was not directly quoted by Penderecki, but was transformed as part of the primary melodic material in the Polish Requiems Recordare, Dies Irae, and Libera me, Domine. B1073. Tonale Phnomene in Pendereckis 'Lukas-Passion'. Melos/Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 6, no. 2 (November-December 1976): 457-60. In Schulers opinion, Pendereckis early avant-garde style of composition reached its zenith in the St. Luke Passiona piece that can also be analyzed tonally (at least in some passages). He pointed out tonal treatments in Stabat Mater and Crux fidelis and described Pendereckis incorporation of as a tonal phenomenon. B1074. Traditionelle Satztechniken im geistlichen Schaffen Pendereckis. Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch 75 (1991): 119-215. Citing excerpts from works such as the Psalms of David, St. Luke Passion, Magnificat, Utrenia, and Polish Requiem, Schuler described how Penderecki incorporated elements

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of traditional musical models into his modern liturgical works. Among these models were the passacaglia, canon, Gregorian chant, ostinato, and motivic development. B1075. Das Zitat in Pendereckis Lukaspassion. In Musik-Welt von innen. Festschrift fr Robert Wagner, 18-24. Munich: Strumberger, 1980. Three types of musical quotation appear in Pendereckis compositions: fragmentary, material, and stylistic. Schuler described each of these types and cited several examples from Polymorphia Stabat Mater, the St. Luke Passion, Paradise Lost, and Ubu Roi. B1076. Schumann, Karl. Drer zwingt zum Umhren. Sddeutsche Zeitung Oct. 26, 1971; Das Orchester 19, no. 12 (December 1971): 615-16. Cosmogony was performed in Nuremberg during a celebration of the 500th anniversary of the birth of Albrecht Drer. In Schumanns view, Penderecki in cosmogonic matters, is an optimist with mystical impact...who judges the world thoroughly positively. B1077. Schwarz, K. Robert. Composers Who Championed Accessibility. New York Times, July 14, 1985, Section 2, pp. 19-20. Penderecki's Te Deum, reviewed here in its recorded version (Angel DS-38060), contains tonal passages intertwined with those characterized by extreme chromaticism and emotional anguish. B1078. First a Firebrand, Then a Romantic. Now What? New York Times, October 20, 1996, Section 2, pp. 33, 41. Schwarz divided Pendereckis music into three compositional phases: avant-gardism, neo-romanticism, and an on-going synthesis of these two styles. He alluded to the composers Munich Philharmonic commission to compose four more symphonies in addition to the five already completed, and briefly described the Second Violin Concerto and Third Symphony. B1079. Penderecki: Violin Concerto...Cello Concerto No. 2; Partita. Musical America 108, no. 3 (July 1988): 80-81. This is a review of two recordings: Thorofon's cutting of the Violin Concerto (CTH 2017) and RCA Erato's pairing of Cello Concerto No. 2 and Partita (ECD 75321). Schwarz asserted that Penderecki's brand of neo-Romanticism differed from Rochberg's and Del Tredici's in that the Polish composer interwove his innovative sonorities with the forms and harmonies of earlier centuries. B1080. Schwemmer, Horts. Geglckt und milungen PendereckiUrauffhrung in Chicago. Musica 33, no. 2 (1979): 163. Although Penderecki and the performers received numerous accolades after the world premiere of Paradise Lost, Schwemmer felt that its music lacked maturity. B1081. Schwinger, Eckart. Berlin: Penderecki in der Komischen Oper. Musik und Gesellschaft 37, no. 4 (April 1987): 219-20. Schwinger deemed Pendereckis Viola Concerto to be one of Pendereckis most mature and original works. Performed in Berlin with Soviet soloist Grigori Shislin, it features the composers usual blend of meditative calm and shrill explosion. Penderecki

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concluded the Berlin concert by conducting Shostakovichs Fourteenth Symphony. Schwinger was impressed by Pendereckis professionalism, clarity, and intensity on the podium. B1082. Pendereckis Verlorenes Paradies und anderes in Stuttgart. Musik und Gesellschaft 29, no. 11 (November 1979): 691-93. The Penderecki Days festival in Stuttgart featured the German-language premiere of Paradise Lost, the German premiere of the Violin Concerto (No. 1), and performances of Fonogrammi, Capriccio for Oboe, Ecloga VIII, and String Quartet Nos. 1 and 2 . The Violin Concerto contains stylistic reminiscences of Pendereckis early avant-garde style and echoes of Beethoven, Berg, Shostakovich, Brahms, and Sibelius. Paradise Lost was equally impressive. Musically it bears the influences of Wagner and Orff, while dramatically it speaks of the importance of human dignity and wisdom. B1083. Schwinger, Wolfram. The Changes in Four Decades: The Stylistic Paths of Krzysztof Penderecki. Studies in Penderecki 1 (1998): 65-82. Schwinger noted the existence of five stylistic periods in Pendereckis compositional career: preludes (1951-1958), explosions (1959-1961), consolidations (1962-1974), retrospectives (1974-1980), and synthesis (1980-). Sound materials and musical structures in the larger instrumental and choral-instrumental works were the primary focus of his discussion. With respect to the avant-garde works, he spoke of their microorganic inner life,...highly complex sound-effect structures, ...[and] noise ... used to the pinnacle of excess. B1084. Dmonen, Engel und Gespenster. Oper heute 10 (1987): 175204. This article about Pendereckis three operasThe Devils of Loudun, Paradise Lost, and The Black Maskis noteworthy in several respects. Schwinger provided detailed, scene-by-scene synopses of each plot (although The Black Mask is treated somewhat differently, since it is not separated into scenes). He also discussed, for each opera, the relationship between the libretto and the play or poem upon which it is based, its dramatic highlights, and, briefly, its musical content. Sixteen pages of photographs are included, as is a list of productions and premieres for each work. B1085. Festwochenkonzerte mit Penderecki, Henze und Ligeti. Musica 24, no. 6 (November-December 1970): 560. One of Berlins Festival Week concerts featured the world premiere of Pendereckis Second String Quartet. Schwinger deemed it elegant [and] masterly. B1086. Fortgesetzte Magie. Zu Gast beim Komponisten Krzysztof Penderecki. Stuttgarter Zeitung, April 14, 1979, p. 41. This contains excerpts from Schwingers recently published book on Penderecki, including such topics as the composers interest in antiques and gardening, his personal library, his work as rector of the Krakw music conservatory, and rehearsals for upcoming performances.

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B1087. Germany/The Avant-Garde. Musical America 84 (December 1964): 78. Penderecki's Sonata for Cello and Orchestra with soloist Siegfried Palm was the hit of the 1964 Donaueschingen Festival of Contemporary Music. A virtuosic piece, the super-Paganinilike [sic] escapades in its second movement were applauded so vigorously that the movement was repeated immediately. B1088. Magische KlanglandschaftenKrzysztof Penderecki und die polnische Avantgarde. Musica 22, no. 1 (1968): 4-7. After describing the explosion of musical activity that occurred in Poland beginning in 1956, Schwinger turned to Pendereckis music. The composer's early exploration of the distinctions between sound and noise led him to write the St. Luke Passion. Schwinger perceived a line of development in the elements that occurred in Psalms of David and then reappeared in the St. Luke Passion. He also described other links between the Psalms and Stravinsky's Les Noces and Symphony of Psalms. B1089. Musiktage mit Trumen und Ragas. Musica 26,no. 1 (1972): 39. Penderecki had his conducting debut and a world premiere at the 1971 Donaueschingen Music Days, both with his jazz piece Actions. The composition has few of the improvisational passages typical of jazz pieces. B1090. Neues von Ligeti und Penderecki. Musica 26, no. 2 (1972): 149-50. Pendereckis Prelude is a work of calm and rebellion. B1091. Penderecki: Begegnungen, Lebensdaten, Werkkommentare. Mainz: Schott, 1994; Krzysztof Penderecki. His Life and Works. Encounters, Biography and Musical Commentary. Expanded edition, translated by William Mann. New York: Schott, 1989. Originally published as Penderecki: Begegnungen, Lebensdaten, Werkkommentare. Stuttgart: Deutsche VerlagsAnstalt, 1979. Schwingers biography of Penderecki and analysis of his compositions is the seminal work on the composer. This tome, whose German edition is currently the most up-todate, is a valuable source of information on the dating of Pendereckis piecesnot just their world premieres but also the dates of subsequent performances. Furthermore, its analytical section is the most comprehensive in print. A works list and discography are included, as are numerous photographs and score excerpts. B1092. Penderecki and 'The Devils'. Opera 24, no. 11 (November 1973): 961-66. Schwinger devoted much of the first half of this article to a discussion of Penderecki's musical career, emphasizing the composer's exploration of new sound resources in his early works, his later utilization of more traditional elements, and his predilection for composing pieces on the topic of man's inhumanity to man. Schwinger then turned to The Devils of Loudun, summarizing its plot and describing its high points.

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B1093. Pendereckis 'Dies Irae'. Musica 22 no. 3 (1968): 181-82. Schwinger briefly discussed the textual sources of Dies Irae, its form and instrumention, and its various emotional levels. B1094. Pendereckis 'Grablegung Christ'. Musica 24, no. 3 (May/June 1970): 264-66. In this review of the world premiere of Utrenia, Part I, Schwinger described, in nonmusical terms, the substance of each of the works five sections. It draws on the equivalent of the Matins service that was used in the old Holy Saturday liturgy of Russian Orthodoxy, a liturgy that Penderecki had studied in the convents of southeast Poland, Russia, and Bulgaria. B1095. Pendereckis 'Lukaspassion'. Musica 22, no. 1 (JanuaryFebruary 1968): 15-16. A Stuttgart performance of the St. Luke Passion was highly impressive, although it did not match the caliber of the Mnster world premiere. B1096. Pendereckis 'Teufel von Loudon'. Hamburg, Stuttgart. Musica 23, no. 4 (July/August 1969): 352-55. Schwinger shared the nearly unanimous opinion of critics that the Stuttgart production of The Devils of Loudun was far superior to that given in Hamburg. In Hamburg, conductor Henryk had failed to provide a dramatic impetus, creating instead a tableau of soft passages. In Stuttgart, however, the music became a dramatic component in its own right under conductor Janos Kulka. B1097. Pendereckis 'Utrenia'. Musica 25, no. 4 (July/August 1971): 376-77. The world premiere of the complete Utrenia was given in the Mnster Cathedral. In contrast to Part I, in which an aura of mystery and meditation prevailed, the newly completed Part II exudes an atmosphere of radiating splendor, achieved to some degree by the addition of the crystalline voices of a boys choir. B1098. Pendereckis Violinkonzert. Das Orchester 27, no. 5 (May 1979): 356-61. This article is excerpted from an advance copy of Schwingers Penderecki: Begegnungen, Lebensdaten, Werkkommentare. In it, he highlighted the primary features of the Violin Concerto No. 1, characterizing it as a romantic piece in the mold of Beethoven, Brahms, Tchaikovsky, Sibelius, Berg, and Shostakovich. Its form and development are based on classical models, although such modern tendencies as clusters and glissandos also play a role. B1099. Die Rezeption von Pendereckis Musik in Deutschland. In The Music of Krzysztof Penderecki: Poetics and Reception, edited by Tomaszewski, 161-62. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1995; Recepcja muzyki Pendereckiego w Niemczech. Muzyka Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Poetyka i Recepcja, edited by Tomaszewski, 15758. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1996.

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Many of Pendereckis works were premiered in Germany. These and others were featured on German subscription concerts in later years. Pendereckis turn to romanticism in the late 1970s brought a split in German critics perception of his music. Schwarze Maske im Kontext seiner szenischen Musik. In of Krzysztof Penderecki. Poetics and Reception, edited by Tomaszewski, 19-20. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1995; : Czarna maska w kontekscie muzyki scenicznej kompozytora. Muzyka Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Poetyka i Recepcja, edited by Tomaszewski, 157-58. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1996. The Black Mask is a true opera, as opposed to the oratorio-like works such as The Devils of Loudun, Paradise Lost, and St. Luke Passion. It possesses a sort of musical pluralism and features an atonal harmonic structure, with occasional forays into tonality. B1101. Der Todeshauch einer Mittagsstunde. Vorbemerkungen zu Pendereckis neuer Oper Die schwarze Maske. Das Orchester 34, nos. 7-8 (1986): 787-88. On the occasion of the world premiere of The Black Mask, Schwinger described its plot and musical contents. The composer quoted not only himself (from his Te Deum and Polish Requiem), but also 17th-century dance music and hymns. Clusters and glissandos, polyphonic chromaticism, disjunct intervals, and a wide variety of vocal writing were successfully intertwined. B1102. Seidel, Jozef. Co gra w Tygodnik kulturalny 30, no. 9 (March 2, 1986): 1, 4. In this conversation with Seidel, Penderecki described his desire to maintain a link with musical traditions. He also related several stories about his work habits, including the circumstances surrounding the writing of Agnus Dei (in less than a day) and Stabat Mater (as a long-promised gift for Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, the state-run Polish music publisher). He always began a composition by sketching a one-page graph of the piece. Although he has the entire piece in his head before he starts, he does not write the actual score from beginning to end, but usually starts somewhere in the middle. B1103. Jestem bezkompromisowy i Polityka 31, no.48 (November 28, 1987): 8. Penderecki began this interview by talking about his incorporation of stylistic traits from earlier centuries into his own compositions. He admitted that his turn to a romantic musical style had been prompted by a desire to do something other than shock people with modernistic developments. In a lengthy discussion about his operas, he stated that The Devils of Loudun was linked musically and topically to the St. Luke Passion, while The Black Mask could be related conceptually to Salome or Elektra. Concerning Paradise Lost, Penderecki explained how he solved the problem of writing the music for Gods character after hearing the music of the Samaritans during a trip to Israel. In The Black Mask, he was concerned with the theme of intolerance. B1100. The Music

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B1104. Shankovich, Robert. Contemporary Music in Poland Today: Spotlight on Krzysztof Penderecki. Music Theory: Explorations and Applications (Duquesne University School of Music) 3 (Fall 1994): 19-22. Shankovich takes as his point of departure the Penderecki Symposium held in Krakow a year earlier. His presentation at that Symposium described how he taught his college students to analyze a work by Penderecki, and by extension, any composer. B1105. Penderecki and the American Student of Music. In The Music of Krzysztof Penderecki: Poetics and Reception, edited by Tomaszewski, 185-89. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1995; Penderecki w oczach studenta muzyki: o Muzyka Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Poetyka i Recepcja, edited by Tomaszewski, 179-83. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1996. Shankovich described how he approaches the analysis of Pendereckis music in a university setting. He favored a fairly eclectic approach, taking into the account the methods set forth by various 20th-century theorists, with his principle focus being a response to the question How does music mean? (sic). B1106. Symphony No. 5 in Pittsburgh. Studies in Penderecki 1 (1998): 113-14. This symphony, performed in Pittsburgh in what Shankovich called its world premiere of the revised version, was the object of admiration by the audience and musicians. Penderecki himself was pleased with the performance. Unfortunately, Shankovich did not give a date for this performance nor he did describe the revisions. B1107. Siegele, Ulrich. Entwurf einer Musikgeschichte der sechziger Jahre. In Die Musik der sechziger Jahre, edited by Rudolf Stephan, 9-25. Mainz: Schotts Sohne, 1972. Penderecki is described as a composer whose compositions incorporate dodecaphonic principles and explore the area between sound and noise. B1108. Sielicki, Edward. Warszawska '88. Ruch muzyczny 32, no. 23 (1988): 5-6. Warsaw's Teatr Wielki presented The Black Mask in Polish during the Warsaw Autumn Festival. Penderecki described his opera as a continuous dance macabre; musically it synthesizes his avant-garde and romantic styles with new elements. Sielicki felt that there were too many characters in the opera to whom Penderecki tried to give equal importance. B1109. Siemdaj, Ewa. Trio and Sinfonietta. In The Music of Krzysztof Penderecki: Poetics and Reception, edited by Tomaszewski, 5563. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1995; Od Tria do Sinfonietty. Muzyka Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Poetyka i Recepcja, edited by Tomaszewski, 55-63. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1996. The focus of this article, ostensibly a comparison of the String Trio and Sinfonietta No. 1, is actually on the latter work, an orchestral arrangement of the Trio. Several musical examples are included.

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B1110. Sienkiewicz, Marian. T h e World Premire. 'Our God's Brother' by Karol Woytyla. Theatre en Pologne/Theater in Poland 23, no. 4 (April 1981): 3-11. Sienkiewicz's article about Pope John Paul II's play Our God's Brother is primarily an exposition of the theatrical and writing career of the playwright before his ascent to the papacy. The plays moral and spiritual meaning was commented upon, and a description of its three scenes is provided. Concerning the world premiere production given at Krakws Theatre, Sienkiewicz thought that its theatrical artificiality and a superficial religiosity are alien to the spirit of Wojtyla's work. His only comment about Penderecki's music was that it is oratorian. The precise dates of the play, the music, and the premiere were not given. B1111. Sills, David. Krzysztof Penderecki. Concerto for Viola ed Orchestra. Cadenza per viola solo. MLA Notes 46,no. 1 (1989): 230-31. The one-movement Concerto consists of seven sections, with some having quasicadenza writing for viola juxtaposed with orchestral passages, and others having the soloist play against a thinly textured contrapuntal background. The Cadenza is not as difficult as the Concerto, but it is related stylistically to the larger piece. B1112. Simmons, D. London Music. Musical Opinion 97, no. 1155 (December 1973): 119-21. A London Symphony Orchestra performance of Penderecki's First Symphony was reviewed here. Simmons did not think the piece was an important addition to the repertoire. B1113. Sivell, Halina. premiera Pendereckiego. Teatr, no. 10 (1974): 23-24. This article contains Polish translations from British reviews of a production of The Devils of Loudun presented at Sadler's Wells. Overall, reviews were mixed. The production was considered a new type of musical theater rather than an opera. B1114. Siwek, Marian. Pasja w Teatrze Wielkim. Ruch muzyczny 23, no. 6 (1979): 11. A semi-staged production of the St. Luke Passion was premiered at Warsaw's Teatr Wielki in January 1979. Previous stagings of the work in Dusseldorf, Adelaide, and La Plata had been unsuccessful, as was this one. Siwek criticized the poor preparation of the chorus, the loudness of the orchestra, and the inappropriateness of the scenery, scant though it was. Moreover, the program book lacked a translation of the Latin text. The applause after the performance was weak and mixed with hisses and boos. B1115. Sjostrom, Joseph. 'Paradise Lost' Winner at Premiere. Chicago Tribune, November 30, 1978, Section 1, p. 1. Following the world premiere of Paradise Lost, several audience members offered their opinions of the production. In general, it was well-liked, although one person lamented the lack of memorable melodies.

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B1116. Skulska, Anna. Los mi Ze Stefanem Kamasa rozmowia Anna Skuluska. Ruch muzyczny 42, no. 6 (March 22, 1998): 11-13. Stefan Kamas claimed that he urged Penderecki to turn a piece called Elegy for Viola and Orchestra into a two-movement work. This work became the Viola Concerto. B1117. Smith, Christopher. Aldeburgh. Musical Times 125, no. 1700 (October 1984): 586. The Second Rostropovich Festival featured the British premiere of Penderecki's Second Cello Concerto. Smith found its details a bit perplexing. B1118. Smith, Patrick J. New York. Musical Times 121, no. 1649 (July 1980): 460. Symphony No. 2, heard in its world premiere performance, was characterized as an academic dodo in which the only sounds produced are echoes from a distant past. B1119. N. Y. Philharmonic: Penderecki Premiere. High Fidelity/Musical America 30, no. 8 (August 1980): MA26. Smith lamented Penderecki's loss of the compositional fire that he had shown in his early works. His most recent work, Symphony No. 2, is nothing but a series of alternating louds and softs. B1120. Penderecki & Menotti: Pros and Cons. High Fidelity/Musical America 19, no. 11 (November 1969): MA24-25, 32; Opera News 34, September 20, 1969, p. 23. The Santa Fe Opera's production of The Devils of Loudun contained some minor revisions from its premiere performances in Hamburg and Stuttgart, but in Smith's opinion, it is still a compound of faults, both musical and librettistic. B1121. Sobolewski, Kazimierz. inny. Warszawy, no. 274 (November 24-25, 1990); excerpts in Clavis. Muzyka w prasie. Ruch muzyczny 34, no. 26 (1990): 2. In this conversation with Sobolewski, Penderecki asserted that he did not wish to become actively involved in Polish politics, even in the countrys post-Communist era. In his opinion, music is an abstract art and musicians should find their place more among sounds than among politicians. Currently, he was working on a comic opera about King Ubu (Ubu Rex), which he had begun in 1969, and then set aside. He returned to it in 1980, but could not bring himself to finish it after martial law was declared in Poland in 1981. B1122. prapremiera opery Pendereckiego. Warszawy, August 8, 1991, pp. 1, 5. The world premiere of Ubu Rex (here called Krl Ubu) was transmitted via radio in Poland. Sobolewski thought the opera's set designs were controversial, but otherwise felt that the work was a huge success.

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B1123. Sokolov, Raymond. Dark Passions in the Desert. Wall Street Journal, August 5, 1988. The American premiere of The Black Mask was met with a certain amount of derision by Sokolov. Specifically, he lamented the incomprehensibility of so many texts being sung simultaneously and the plethora of orchestral tricks. B1124. Sol. Premiera 'Czarnej maski' Pendereckiego. Warszawy, no. 218 (September 19, 1988): 1, 2. The premiere of the Polish-language version of The Black Mask was presented as part of the Warsaw Autumn Festival. B1125. Ewa. Drzemki i przebudzenia. Po XXIII Warszawskiej Jesieni. Sztandar no. 235 (October 2, 1979). The production of Paradise Lost given by the Stuttgart State Theater at the Warsaw Autumn Festival was somewhat disappointing, although both Penderecki and the performers received huge ovations. The work's staging did not meet the audience's expectations and the cuts made in the music were also unfortunate. B1126. 'Raj utracony'. XXIII Warszawska Sztandar no. 227 (September 22-23, 1979). The author briefly described the scenery and initial stage actions of Paradise Lost, which was presented by the Stuttgart State Theater at the Warsaw Autumn Festival. She also noted that its music might shock some people because it was normal, not experimental. B1127. nastroje Sztandar no. 220 (September 22, 1981). believed that Te Deum was Penderecki's attempt to create a piece in the style of late nineteenth-century romanticism. Later in the article, she quoted Andrzej Hiolski as saying that Penderecki's music was difficult to sing because of its extreme tessitura. Bl128. Ewa and Bogdan Nie interesuje mnie Sztandar no. 300 (December 16, 1976); excerpts in Clavis. Muzyka w prasie. Ruch muzyczny 21, no. 3 (1977). In this conversation, Penderecki reflected upon his independence as a composer. He composed only to please himself, not his audiences or his critics. He realized that his compositions now served as models for other composers. He conducted and recorded many of his own works in order to provide correct interpretations. In his opinion, Zubin Mehta was the conductor who best understood his music. B1129. Sommerville, C. John. The Religious Music of the 20th and 21st Centuries. Religion 14 (1984): 245-67. Sommerville considered the many compositions that twentieth-century composers have associated with religious themes. He concentrated on the music of Stravinsky, Schnberg, Webern, and Messiaen, but also mentioned other composers. His discussion of Penderecki was limited to a list of his religious works, and a quote from the composer about his need to believe in God while living in the Communist country of Poland.

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B1130. Sosnowska, Izabella. Notatki z Salzburga 1974. Ruch muzyczny 18, no. 21 (October 13, 1974): 10-11. On the occasion of the world premiere of the Magnificat, the Salzburg Cathedral's 500 seats were full and 400 more people were standing. Sosnowska briefly described the seven parts of the piece and provided excerpts from reviews by several German, Swiss, and Austrian critics. She summed up her thoughts as follows: It is a piece that was excellently prepared and performed. I preserved it in my memory as a sacred composition that is entirely unconventional and that maintains the listener's attention from beginning to end. B1131. Spangemacher, Friedrich. Hiroshima in der Musik. Bemerkungen zu einigen Kompositionen mit dem Thema der nuklearen Bedrohung. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 120, no. 2 (March/April 1980): 78-88. Spangemacher considered three pieces in his essay on music memorializing the bombing of Hiroshima: Pendereckis Threnody, Aikichi Kuboyas Epitaph, and Luigi Nonos Canti di vita e damore. He acknowledged that Threnody had caused a sensation in the musical world, but wondered if it would really achieve a lasting place in music history. B1132. Spencer, Piers. Set Works for GCSE. Penderecki: 'Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima'. Music Teacher 67, no. 10 (October 1988): 35, 37-38. Threnody was selected by the Welsh Joint Education Committee to be part of its 1989 GCSE examination. Spencer provided details about the piece's instrumentation, notation, form, and style and gave a brief summary of Penderecki's place in contemporary music. He erroneously stated that Penderecki wrote this piece to reflect the bombing of Hiroshima, when, in fact, the title Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima was given to the piece only after its completion. B1133. Spingel, Hans Otto. Journal des Monats. Opern Welt, no. 6 (June 1969): 11-13. Choreographed by the renowned trio of Georg Reinhardt, Erich Walter and Heinrich Wendel, a staged production of St. Luke Passion in Dsseldorf distracted Spingel from the essence of the piece, which he believed was the music. B1134. Verfolgung und Tod des Urbain Grandier, verursacht durch die sexuelle Hysterie der Nonnen des Klosters zu Loudun. Opern Welt, no. 8 (August 1969): 22-25. In this review of the Stuttgart and Hamburg productions of The Devils of Loudun, Spingel clearly favored the Stuttgart version, praising its deviant, perverse staging Spingel was not impressed with the music, fearing that the opera had been written too quickly and that it depended too much on devices such as clusters, glissandos, and sound masses. B1135. Stachowski, Marek. Violin Concerto No. 2 in Katowice. Studies in Penderecki 1 (1998): 121-22. Penderecki's Second Violin Concerto reflects the synthesized approach of the composer's later works. The intervals of the minor second, minor third, and tritone are structurally important in this one-movement piece.

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B1136. Stanek-Peszkowska, Gabriela. Inauguracja Roku Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 42, no. 6 (March 22, 1998): 17-18. The inaugural concert of the 2000 Penderecki Year in Krakw featured performances of Adagietto and Stabat Mater. Stanek-Peszkowska noted that Adagietto, written after the world premiere of Paradise Lost, prefaced a lament by the character of Adam. B1137. Konkurs pod patronatem Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 41, no. 19 (September 21, 1997): 19-21. The Penderecki International Chamber Music Competition is intended to promote young musicians and Polish compositions written after 1945. Stanek-Peszkowska reviewed the competitions rules and procedures, and named the winning performers and their repertoire at the first of these events. B1138. Siedem bram Jerozolimy w Krakowie. Ruch muzyczny 41, no. 14 (July 13, 1997): 27. The second Polish performance of Seven Gates of Jerusalem took place in Krakw. The piece, which contains allusions to Utrenia and the St. Luke Passion, was masterfully written. B1139. Ten festiwal do kompozytorw. Ruch muzyczny no. 14 (July 13, 1997): 16-19. This review of the Krakw Music Days festival contains a brief mention of the Polish premiere of the clarinet transcription of Pendereckis Viola Concerto, featuring clarinetist Wojciech Komst. The exact date was not provided. B1140. Stearns, David Patrick. National Symphony: Penderecki, 'Polish Requiem' [U.S. premiere]. High Fidelity/Musical America 36, no. 4 (April 1986): MA26. The Polish Requiem received a wonderful performance at its U. S. premiere. As a composition, however, Stearns felt that it has little, if anything, to say that has not been said in other works by the same composer. This is regrettable, for the composer has, at other times, proven himself to be a master at writing for large choral-orchestral ensembles. B1141. Steger, Hellmuth. Pendereckis 'Lukas-Passion'. Musica 22, no. 5 (September-October 1968): 357-58. As part of Kiel Week, Hans Gebhard conducted the St. Luke Passion. Even after 31 rehearsals, each singer was given a tuning fork to use at the performance. B1142. Stein, Leonard. New Music on Mondays. Perspectives of New Music 2, no. 1 (Fall-Winter 1963): 142-50. Strophes is closely related to Boulez's Improvisations sur Mallarm. Each piece includes pointillist sections and both arioso and recitative-like vocal lines. B1143. Stephens, Kevin. Glasgow. Music and Musicians 25, no. 4 (December 1976): 62. At the 1976 Musica Nova festival, audiences were small except at a concert featuring Iain Hamilton's Epitaph For This World and Time and Penderecki's Magnificat.

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Penderecki, as conductor, gave a clear and sensible interpretation of the complex score. B1144. Sterritt, David. Penderecki: Two Modern Masterworks. Christian Science Monitor, September 24, 1971, p. 4. Recordings of Utrenia (RCA LSC-3180) and The Devils of Loudun (Philips 6700 042) were reviewed here. Sterritt devoted most of his article to comments on the religious and moral meanings of both pieces. B1145. Stevens, David. Paris. Opera News 36 (April 1, 1972): 35. The Devils of Loudun, given its French premiere in Marseillesin February, was applauded by both the audience and this critic. Stevens described the set design and singled out Hlia T'Hzan, in her role of Jeanne, as the best vocalist. B1146. Stilz, Ernst. Pendereckis 'Lukas-Passion.' Versuch einer Gegenberstellung mit Teilen der Matthus-Passion von Bach. Musik und Bildung 2, nos. 7-8 (1970): 319-25. After a brief review of Pendereckis career, Stilz compared the division of vocal parts in the St. Luke Passion and Bachs St. Matthew Passion. He then noted several similarities between the St. Luke Passion and Stravinskys Symphony of Psalms. In the main portion of the article, Stilz compared several of the major dramatic parts of the St. Luke Passion to their counterparts in the St. Matthew Passion. In this section, he provided information on the orchestration and text settings of each part of the piece. B1147. Stckl, Rudolf. 'Musica sacra britannica'. Konzertante Auffhrung von Pendereckis: Sacra rappresentazione Das verlorene Paradies. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 141, no. 5 (September/October 1980): 458. A concert presentation of Paradise Lost allowed Stckl to realize just how graphically the music of this opera reflects its plot. B1148. Rauschen auf G. Bei den Donaueschinger Musiktagen 1971; etablierte Avantgarde von gestern. Das Orchester 19, no. 12 (1971): 615. Also in Nrnberger Nachrichten, Oct.19, 1971. Stckl briefly described Actions as a mixture of jazz and symphonic music. B1149. Renaissance der Melodie: Urauffhrungen im Drerjahr. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 133, no. 2 (February 1972): 88-89. This brief report on a performance of Cosmogony in Nuremberg included a mention of the pieces multiplicity of texts. B1150. Stone, Kurt. Reviews of Records. Musical Quarterly 50, no. 2 (1964): 260-71. Stone preceded his review of the five records issued during the 1963 Warsaw Autumn Festival with an enlightening commentary on the state of musical life in Poland in recent years and the role of the Festival in exhibiting the avant-garde nature of many new Polish compositions. The live recordings contain compositions by fourteen Polish composers. Penderecki's contribution was Polymorphia.

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B1151. Stroh, Wolfgang. Penderecki und das Hren erfolgreicher Musik. Melos 37, no. 11 (1970): 452-60. Stroh put forth several reasons for the success of the St. Luke Passion. One possible interpretation attributed this success to the fact that its audiences have experienced Auschwitz, Hiroshima, Vietnam, and other similar horrors, and therefore understood the screams and cries heard in the Passion. Stroh rejected this interpretation as being too superficial, arguing instead that the works tone clusters were a natural development of musical language in the early 1960s. He also argued that Pendereckis harmonies based on minor thirds were a sort of foreign language in this piece, upsetting the expections of listeners. B1152. Strongin, Theodore. Baton of Mehta Evokes 2 Moods. New York Times, October 31, 1970, p. 36. Cosmogony includes many of Penderecki's familiar gesturesavoidance of melody, chaotic choral speech, and unusual instrumental techniqueswhich are arranged in successive blocks of sound in a surprisingly accessible manner. B1153. Clarion Concerts Unearth Old Work. New York Times, January 14, 1970, p. 40. Capriccio for Oboe was described as being full of various sound effects, yet rather square. B1154. Stuckenschmidt, H[ans]. H. Der Auftritt der Stars und ein Magnificat. Musik in Salzburg. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, August, 21, 1974, p. 19. The Salzburg Cathedral was the site of the world premiere of Magnificat. Its scoring ranged from the a cappella Sicut locutur est to the seven-part Et misericordia ejus, a choral passage in 55 parts, and a lengthy, thinly accompanied bass solo. Stuckenschmidt praised the piece as a work of power and originality. B1155. Les fondements techniques et mathmatiques de la musique moderne et spcialement chez Xenakis et Penderecki. Coloquio artes 16, no. 18 (1974): 55-63. After discussing several works by Xenakis, the compositional system espoused by Joseph Schillinger, and the history of electronic music, Stuckenschmidt turned to Pendereckis compositions. He claimed that the Polish composer had been influenced by the music of Varse and Xenakis, then briefly described the sound sources and harmonic systems of Anaklasis, Canon, and the St. Luke Passion. B1156. Glissandos, Tontrauben, Elektronenschall in Warschau. Melos 29, no. 4 (November 1962): 363-64. Stuckenschmidt noted that Pendereckis Canon was the most provocative of the world premieres given at the Warsaw Autumn Festival. In his opinion, the music of Varse and Xenakis had paved the way for Pendereckis own ventures, which in this piece yielded an assortment of knocking, rubbing, and other unconventional means of producing sounds on string instruments. The audiences reaction was a mixture of applause and condemnation.

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B1157. Musikalische Kraftakte in Berliner Konzerten. Melos 34, no. 6 (June 1967): 212. De Natura Sonoris No. 1 is an apocalyptic poster,... in part tragic, in part laughing,...brilliantly made from contrasts of colors and dynamics. B1158. Musik der Letzten Dinge. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, January 13, 1983 The Second Cello Concerto, heard in its world premiere, is more symphony with solo obligato than a concerto. Stuckenschmidt briefly described the piece, and declared that it appears empty and meaningless. B1159. Nachwuchssorgen auch in Donaueschingen. Melos 34 (December 1967): 456-62. The Capriccio for Violin and Orchestra is an example of virtuosic music. Formally, the piece contains a lyric center section followed by a waltz. B1160. Polnische Passion im Dom zu Munster. Melos 33, no. 5 (May 1966): 152-55. On the occasion of its premiere, Stuckenschmidt described the texts and general musical characteristics of the St. Luke Passion and called it a most important bridge between liturgical spirit and new music. B1161. Ten Premieres. Musical America (January 1961): 34, 148. A decade after Southwest German Radio resuscitated the Donaueschingen Festival both artistically and financially, ten premieres were presented. Penderecki's Anaklasis was the most radical of these works. Imbued with grating clusters of quarter-tones, glissandos, harmonics, and coloristic inspirations, the piece was met by some sort of audience rebellion. Hans Rosbaud, the conductor, then repeated the work, this time to a more positive response. Stuckenschmidt reminded readers to note the name of this composer. B1162. Die Teufel von Loudun' in Hamburg. Urauffhrung von Pendereckis erster Oper. Melos 36, nos. 7/8 (July-August 1960): 322-25. The world premiere of The Devils of Loudun was greeted somewhat derisively by Stuckenschmidt. Spoken dialogue and monologues go on endlessly, a choir offers a variety of cries, laughters and roars, and a large orchestra presents glissandos, tone clusters and pitches at the extreme ends of instruments ranges. In the St. Luke Passion, these same techniques were used to good dramatic effect; however, in the Devils, they were limited to manufacturing atmosphere. B1163. Westberliner Festwochen zwischen Fracks und Blue jeans. Melos 37, no. 12 (December 1970): 512-13. The premiere of Pendereckis Second String Quartet was presented by the Parrenin Quartet to a handful of listeners. The 10-minute piece employs narrow intervals, rough sounds, and scurrying figures within a primitive formal plan.

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B1164. Stuhr, Barbara. Czy koniec prosperity? Ruch muzyczny 16, no. 10 (1972): 6; reprinted from Student, no. 5 (March 1-14, 1972). Penderecki sees the need to hire a more qualified group of faculty members than presently exist at the college-level music schools in Poland. He also declared that although Poland's citizens are not well-trained in music, its music schools must be used only to educate a musical elite. B1165. Suerland, Harald. Dirigent Penderecki stahl Komponisten Penderecki glattweg die Schau. Das Orchester 33, no. 1 (January 1985): 34-35. In this excerpt of an article from Ruhr-Nachrichten Dortmund, Suerland reviewed a Bochum Symphony concert in which Penderecki conducted his own Second Cello Concerto and Shostakovichs Sixth Symphony. B1166. Sulek, Andrzej. Mutter czyli kilka po nagraniu Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 42, no. 10 (May 17, 1998): 36. Sulek quoted from an interview with Anne-Sophie Mutter published in the April issue of Gramophone, in which she discussed the premiere performance of the Second Violin Concerto. B1167. Suppan, Wolfgang. Die Pittsburgh Ouverture (1967) von Krzyztof Penderecki. Musikerziehung 48, no. 4 (April 1995): 168-76. In this analysis of the Pittsburgh Overture, Suppan examined Pendereckis use of a twelve-tone row and his exploration of the boundary between noise and sound. B1168. Sutcliffe, James Helme. Devil's Advocate. Opera News 33, no. 27 (June 14, 1969): 14-15. In this conversation with Sutcliffe, Penderecki discussed the religious aspects of The Devils of Loudun and the contempt that some European orchestras had for the playing techniques required in Threnody. He also recalled that he had played a tape of Threnody for the patients at a Krakw nerve clinic, then used the encephalograph of the patients' reactions as a formal diagram for part of Polymorphia. B1169. Double Bow For 'The Devils of Loudun'. High Fidelity/Musical America (September 1969): MA22-23, 26. Sutcliffe began his article by enumerating some of the differences between Penderecki's libretto for The Devils of Loudun and the play on which is basedJohn Whiting's The Devils. He then reviewed the Hamburg and Stuttgart productions of the opera. He disliked the interpretation given by the changes made in the libretto, and the sets created by the Skarzynskis. The Stuttgart Opera's version represented a great improvement in each of these matters. B1170. East Berlin. Opera News 40, no. 5 (November 1975): 54. Penderecki revised The Devils of Loudun for its Warsaw production. These changes, which included the shortening of some scenes and a staging change, were apparently made to win the approval of the Catholic Church and Polish government censors. An East Berlin production by the Staatsoper reinstated some of these changes, but still retained a rather Victorian flavor.

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B1171. Hamburg. Stuttgart. Opera News 34, no. 1 (September 6, 1969): 27-28. Sutcliffe clearly favored the Stuttgart production of The Devils of Loudun over the Hamburg world premiere version. Sutcliffe did not particularly like the music itself, stating that it is far removed from anything called opera up until now. Nevertheless, he predicted that it would remain an important part of the operatic repertory. B1172. West Berlin. Opera 21, no. 8 (August 1970): 734-36. A slightly revised version of the Stuttgart production of The Devils of Loudun was brought to West Berlin. Sutcliffe stated that this presentation was an electrifying, unforgettable experience. B1173. Teresa. Technika chralna w dzietach wokalnoinstrumentalnych Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Prace Specjalne 9. Muzyczna, 1976. Swiercz analyzed the choral writing in five of Penderecki's works: Psalms of David, Dimensions of Time and Silence, Cantata in honorem Almae Matris , St. Luke Passion, and Dies Irae. Among her chief conclusions: aleatoric and traditional techniques are used both simultaneously and separately; the chromatic scale is Penderecki's basic source of pitch material; his polyphonic writing often included free imitation; meter, tempo, and sometimes rhythm are often undefined in aleatoric passages; and the precise selection of musical means is closely connected to the meaning of the chosen texts. B1174. Swolkien, Henryk. 'Raj utracony' i odzyskany. Kurier polski, no. 204 (September 25, 1979). The music of Paradise Lost reminded Swolkien of Wagner's Ring cycle. B1175. Requiem polskie na Ruch muzyczny 28, no. 20 (1984): 8. gave her initial impressions of the portions of the Polish Requiem completed to date: Agnus Dei, Dies Irae, Quid sum miser, and Lacrimosa. She noted its abundance of polyphony and some tonal tendencies, especially in the Agnus Dei and Lacrimosa.

B1176. Szmolyan, Walter. Neue Musik in Polen. sterreichische Musikzeitschrift 22, no. 7 (1967): 406-14. Szmolyan labelled Penderecki as the leading contemporary Polish composer. He reviewed the composers output, mentioning the Stravinskian influences of his three early worksStrophes, Emanations, and Psalms of Davidand the bold innovations in sounds and notation found in Anaklasis and Dimensions of Time and Silence. Beginning with Stabat Mater, Penderecki began a new stylistic phase marked by clear designs and a propensity towards spiritual works. B1177. Szwajgier, Krzysztof. De natura sonoris No. 1 i No. 2 Krzysztofa Pendereckiego Studium porwnawcze. In Krakowska kompozytorska 1888-1988, edited by Teresa Malecka, 215-26. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1992.

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In this comparison of De Natura Sonoris No. 1 and De Natura Sonoris No. 2, Szwajgier asserted that each piece complemented the other in mood, although the later piece had more sophisticated orchestration. B1178. Szwarcman, Dorota. Festiwal la mode. XXX Wiosna Muzyczna. Ruch muzyczny 34, no. 9 (1990): 1, 4. The 1990 Poznan contemporary music festival Musical Spring included a performance of The Superhero (Najdzielniejszy), with music by Penderecki and Marek Stachowski. B1179. Nasi w Holandii czyli Nowej Muzyki w Hadze. Ruch muzyczny 32, no. 10 (1988): 14-15. Penderecki's Miniatures for Violin and Piano was performed in March in The Hague. B1180. Penderecki podsumowuje 3000 lat. Ruch muzyczny 51, no. 4 (February 23, 1997): 8-9. The Seven Gates of Jerusalem, heard in its world premiere performance, contains clear allusions to Orthodox church music, unusual coloristic effects, and motives similar to those in the composers Clarinet Quartet, Flute Concerto, Symphony No. 3 and the Sanctus from the Polish Requiem. Penderecki admitted that links exist between this piece and his St. Luke Passion. He also designed a new instrument for the piece, a tubaphone, which is modeled after traditional Australian instruments. B1181. Prywatny polski festiwal w Niemczech. Szlezwik-Holsztyn '93. Ruch muzyczny 37, no. 19 (1993): 3. Several of Penderecki's compositions were presented at the 1993 Szlezwik-Holsztyn Festival. The world premiere of his piece for clarinet quartet [Quartet for Clarinet and String Trio], commissioned by the Festival, was given, as were Threnody, Three Miniatures, Prelude, Cadenza, Per Slava, Sinfonietta per archi, String Quartet No. 2, and the cello version of the Viola Concerto. B1182. Tagliabue, John. Jaruzelski and Solidarity Leaders Honor the Victims of World War II. New York Times, September 2, 1989, p. 5. Penderecki conducted excerpts from the Polish Requiem at a memorial concert in Warsaw. B1183. Targosz, Jacek. 'Dies Irae' Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. In Muzyka instrumentalno-wokalna kompozytrow Krakowskich. sesji naukowej, 1-16. Krakw: Wyzsza Muzyczne, 1979. In Targosz's opinion, the form and meaning of the texts of Dies Irae are so closely connected to the music itself that it is impossible to discuss one without the other. He also discussed the acoustical properties of selected passages from the first third of the piece. B1184. Tarnowski, Karol. IV Warszawska. Tygodnik Powszechny 42 (October 16, 1960): 6. Dimensions of Time and Silence, performed at the 1960 Warsaw Autumn Festival, features wonderfully contrasting instrumental sections.

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B1185. Tawaststjerna, Erik. A Handful of Impressions of the 'Warsaw Autumn'. Polish Music 2, no. 4 (1967): 13-16. Dies Irae contains many innovative features, including aleatoric writing and spontaneous explosions in the brass and vocal sections. Penderecki united expressions of suffering by the victims of Auschwitz with those representing the suffering and torture experienced by many humans in our world. B1186. Terakowska, Dorota. Po prostu Penderecki. Przekj, no. 1820 (February 24, 1980); excerpts in Clavis. Muzyka w prasie. Ruch muzyczny 24, no. 7 (1980): 13. In the excerpted parts of this interview, Penderecki described the price that he has paid for his constant traveling and composing: he has not had time to spend with his children, to read, or to do other non-musical things. Although he is often abroad, he does most of his composing in Poland, where he feels most comfortable. B1187. Terry, Kenneth. Caught. Downbeat 44, no. 9 (May 5, 1977): 39. The North American premiere of Magnificat was combined with performances of Polymorphia and Capriccio for Violin. Terry did not like the Magnificat, stating that neither the structure nor the length...fit that work's content. B1188. Ttaz-Gramegna, Myriam. Des clusters l'accord parfait. En cration Lausanne, un Concerto pour flte de Penderecki. Revue Musicale de suisse romande 46, no. 1 (March 1993): 45-47. In this review of the world premiere of Penderecki's Flute Concerto, Ttaz-Gramegna incorporated several comments made by the composer about both this piece and contemporary music in general. Penderecki felt that contemporary composition was currently at a crossroads. Composers have discovered that they cannot always compose completely new piecesthat it was necessary at times to gain inspiration from the past. Penderecki also related the story of how he had copied the three pieces that had won him prizes at the 1959 Polish Composers Union Competition. One he had notated with his right hand, one with his left hand, and the third had been copied by a friend. B1189. tg. Polska premiera Krola Ubu. Ruch muzyczny 37, no. 26 (December 26, 1993): 5. This is an announcement of a production of Ubu Rex by the Teatr Wielki in B1190. Thaler, Lotte. Prsident und Verleger. Gedenkkonzert fr Arvo Volk. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 149, no. 4 (April 1988): 47. The Kreuzberg Quartet premiered Der unterbrochene Gedanke at a memorial concert for Arno Volk. B1191. Thiel, Klaus. Interesse frs Kriminalstck. Theater der Zeit, no. 2 (1988): 6-7. The Polish premiere of the German-language version of The Black Mask was given by the Opera. Director Ryszard Peryt focused on the works criminal aspects, in contrast to the more magical aura that had been portrayed in Harry Kupfers Stuttgart production.

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B1192. Thistle, Lauretta. Penderecki Finds Paradise Lost. Fugue (March 1979): 24, 26. Thistles comments on Paradise Lost included the interesting note that Penderecki had no objection to having a German translation of the English libretto, but that he would not permit a Polish translation, since Polish is a difficult language to sing. Thistle also discussed the musical borrowings in the pieceexcerpts from Lohengrin, Penderecki's Dies Irae, Bach's St. John Passion, and Babylonian chant. B1193. Thomas, Ernst. Boulez: Poesie und Musik. Zu den Musiktagen fr zeitgenssische Tonkunst. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 123 (December 1962): 562. Fluorescences, performed at the Donaueschingen Music Days, is virtually insatiable in its collection of sound effects. B1194. ISCM Meeting. Musical America 81 (September 1961): 3132. Dimensions of Time and Silence, performed at the 35th ISCM Festival in Vienna, was described as entertaining in a dangerously nonartistic manner which could end in the noise fetishism of the American dilettante, Cage. B1195. Musiktage fr zeitgenssische Tonkunst. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 121,no. 12 (December 1960): 430. The 1960 Donaueschingen Music Days included a performance of Anaklasis. Thomas described this piece as one inspired by the timbral and textural possibilities of electronic music. Quarter tones and blocks of sound appear within an atmosphere of nearless continuous vibrato. B1196. Pendereckis erster Oper 'Die Teufel von Loudun'. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 130, no. 9 (September 1969): 378-81. Thomas expounded upon his belief that The Devils of Loudun is more derivative of an oratorio than of an opera. In his opinion, Penderecki provided atmosphere at the expense of melody and developed a contradictory relationship with the text. B1197. tk Tadeusz]. Polskie Requiem w warszawskiej Katedrze. Ruch muzyczny 32, no. 5 (1988): 8. along with the audience of at least 2,000, was moved by the patriotic and religious overtones of the Polish Requiem. B1198. tkacz Tadeusz], Penderecki laureatem nagrody im. Honeggera. Ruch muzyczny 23, no. 19 (September 23, 1979): 2. Penderecki was awarded the biennial Honneger Prize in 1973 for his Magnificat. B1199. Tomaszewski, Penderecki. Dysonanse (Warsaw Autumn Festival Special Issue, 1997): 25-32. This commentary on Pendereckis Labyrinth of Time is accompanied by an excerpt from the composers book of essays. Tomaszewski aptly described Labyrinth in several ways: as the expressions of a composer, creator, philosopher, and moralist and as the words of a man who is much more widely read than most of us, having referred in his book to the

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writings of Rilke, Milosz, Kandinski, Kantor, and Brodsky, among others. Tomaszewski also hinted that Penderecki may have written these essays at least in part to answer his musical critics, although this idea carried little weight in the overall tone of this article. B1200. Penderecki: Alles aufnehmen, was entstanden ist... In The Music of Krzysztof Penderecki: Poetics and Reception, edited by Tomaszewski, 91-118. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1995; Penderecki: wszystko, co Muzyka Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Poetyka i Recepcja, edited by Tomaszewski, 89-115. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1996; Stare v Novom/Das Alte im Neuen, 72-80. Bratislava: Litera, 1996. In this lengthy article, Tomaszewski expounded upon the role that tradition has played in Pendereckis music. He mentioned the many musical models that have inspired the composer, including Netherlandish polyphony, variation techniques, and choral recitative. He emphasized that Pendereckis use of historical models did not extend to direct imitation or even naive stylization, but instead reached to the transformation and invocation of the spirit of the model. Numerous musical examples are included. B1201. Krzysztof Penderecki i jego muzyka. Cztery eseje. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1994. The four essays published here are titled Listening to Penderecki, Pendereckiego), Word and Sound in Pendereckis Music, i u Krzysztofa Pendereckiego), Absorb All That Has Come to Be, wszystko, co and Pendereckis Dialogs and Games with Time and Space on Earth (Pendereckiego dialogi i zabawy z czasem i miejscem na ziemi). Written over the course of eight years (1986-1993), these essays serve to both document and interpret Pendereckis oeuvre. Tomaszewskis interpretations are fascinating, for he eloquently illuminated Pendereckis music as a living, viable art that draws on both the past and present and that often reflects upon the conditions of human existence. B1202. Pendereckis Dialogues and Games with Time and Place on Earth. Studies in Penderecki 1 (1998): 13-32; Krzysztof Penderecki Festival 18 September-10 October 1998. Krakw: Krakw 2000 Festival Bureau, 1998. The author divided Pendereckis stylistic evolution into six phases: effective entry (1958-1960), time of trials and experiments (1960-1966), breakthrough and the first synthesis (1965-1971), years of sublimation (1971-1975), dialog with the rediscovered past (1976-1985), and threshold of new synthesis (1985-1993). He described the major works composed during each phase, emphasizing their stylistic synthesis of old (especially 19th-century) and new compositional techniques, their themes of evil and darkness, injustice and intolerance, and since 1986, their reduction of means. B1203. Pendereckiego. In Penderecki, Krzysztof. The Black Mask. Contemporary Dance of Death from Idea to Performance, edited by Teresa and Regina 24-39. Krakw: Centrum Kultury: 1998. This article is given in both Polish and English in the current publication. Tomaszewski elaborated upon Pendereckis richness of material and expression, return to models of the past, preponderance of sacred subjects, internalization of forms, and tendency to

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incorporate contrasts (religion and eroticism, serialism and sonorism) within a single piece. B1204. u Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. In Krakowska kompozytorska 1888-1988, edited by Teresa Malecka, 305-33. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1992; Das Wort-Ton-Verhaltnis bei Krzysztof Penderecki. In Zum Verhltnis von zeitgenssischer Musik und zeitgenssischer Dichtung, edited by Otto Kolleritsch, 154-67. Vienna: Universal Edition, 1989. Tomaszewski provided numerous musical examples in his exposition of the relationship between words and music in Pendereckis oeuvre. Among the composers primary means of musical expression were allusions to various genres, unconventional means of playing and singing, a varying intelligibility of texts within pieces, and the formal evolution of these different elements. B1205. Tomek, Otto. Pendereckis erste Oper Die Teufel von Loudun. Stuttgart. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 130, no. 9 (September 1969): 381-82. The Stuttgart production of The Devils of Loudun was well rehearsed and followed the score more precisely than had been the case in the Hamburg production. Tomek described several differences between the two productions and remarked that conductor Janos Kulka provided a chamber music quality to the music, which enabled the text to be understood clearly. B1206. Tommasini, Anthony. Resum: From Buzz and Rattle to Mahler. New York Times, November 1, 1997. Penderecki conducted Threnody and Symphony No. 5 with the New York Philharmonic. Threnody seemed to be an experiment in sound that lacks structure. The Symphony seems to be a sequence of events rather than an integral whole. B1207. Trapp, Klaus. Penderecki Anaklasis. In Werkanalyse im Beispielen, 412-23, edited by Siegmund Helms and Helmuth Hopf. Regensburg: Gustav Bosse, 1986. Trapp opened his analysis of Anaklasis by remarking that this piece marked a turning point in Pendereckis compositional career. He then described the mixture of both traditional and experimental effects in the piece, emphasizing its form, tonal nuances, playing techniques, and dramatic effects. B1208. Trebor. Philharmonic Hall. Music Journal 28, no 10 (December 1970): 88. Terbor sharply criticized Utrenia, Part I, heard in its New York premiere, stating that it consisted of moaning, wailing and shouting. B1209. Trilling, Ossia. ...und zum ersten Mal in Warschau. Opern Welt 16, no. 9 (September 1975): 46-47. The Polish premiere of The Devils of Loudun was given more than five years after its world premiere. Penderecki and stage director Kazimierz Dejmek made substantial revisions to the original piece. Two new scenes were composed, one concerning King Ludwig XII and Cardinal Richeliu, and the other presenting the secret wedding of

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Grandier and Philippe. One scene from the first act was cut, as were the roles of Ninon and De Cerisay. The texts were sung in Polish rather than German or English. B1210. Tritt, Henryk. lat Festiwalu w Lucernie. Ruch muzyczny 32, no. 21 (1988): 21-22. Penderecki conducted the world premiere of his Passacaglia and Rondo at the Lucerne Festival. The composer took maximal advantage of the technical and timbral possibilities of specific groups of instruments...particularly the violas and percussion. B1211. Trumpff, G. A. Report from Germany. Americal Choral Review 9, no. 2 (1967): 39-40. Penderecki's Stabat Mater, the highlight of this year's Donaueschingen Festival, was presented in a reduced scoring of sixteen voices, rather than its original forty-eight. According to Trumpff, the composition is a blend of Gregorian melodies, twelve-tone passages, and intricate traditional harmonies. B1212. ts. Gala Agnieszki Duczmal. Ruch muzyczny 32, no. 26 (1989): 14. Agnieszka Duczmal led the Polish Radio and Television Chamber Orchestra in a performance of Penderecki's Aria and Two Minuets. B1213. Tschulik, Norbert. Die Konzerte der Salzburger Festspiele 1974. sterreischische Musikzeitschrift 29, no. 10 (1974): 505-506. This contains a brief mention of the world premiere of Magnificat. B1214. Tubeuf, Andre. Krystof Penderecki. Diapason-Harmonie, no. 346 (February 1989): 18. The Salzburg/Vienna production of The Black Mask received high praise from Tubeuf. He suggested that audience members should be provided with the opera's text in order to enhance their comprehension of the work. B1215. Turner. Carnegie Hall. Music Journal 30, no. 4 (April 1972): 74. The Partita contains many of Penderecki's musical trademarks. It was performed in Carnegie Hall when Penderecki received an honorary doctorate from the University of Rochester. B1216. Turska, Irena. Almanach baletu polskiego 1945-1974. Krakw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1983. Choreographed performances of Polymorphia, Capriccio per Siegfried Palm, and a heretofore unknown work titled H are listed here. The authenticity and alternate title of H remain open to question. B1217. Tuska, Jon. Bach: Brandenburg Concerto No. 4 in G, BWV 1049. Beethoven: Symphony No. 3 in Eb, op. 55 (Eroica). Penderecki: Polymorphia for Eighteen Strings. Fanfare 14, no. 6 (July/August 1991): 9798. Polymorphia is no more than a musical novelty.

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B1218. Tuttle, Raymond. Penderecki: A Polish Requiem. The Dream of Jacob. Fanfare 20, no. 2 (November/December 1996). In this review of Chandos 9459/60, Tuttle cited the existence of the Sanctus, premiered in 1993 and included in this recording, as a worthy addition to the Polish Requiem. B1219. Tyra, Thomas. An Analysis of Penderecki's 'Pittsburgh Overture'. Journal of Band Research 10, no. 1 (Fall 1973): 37-48; no. 2 (Spring 1974): 512. This two-part article is divided into three 'chapters': historical considerations (a biography of the composer and background information about the Pittsburgh Overture), stylistic analysis, and performance problems. Some of the dates and pages in the bibliography are incorrect. B1220. The Analysis of Three Twentieth-Century Compositions for Wind Ensemble. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1971. Tyra described the use of serial techniques, unmetered rhythms, and opportunities for improvisation in Penderecki's Pittsburgh Overture. He used the piece as a model for examining other contemporary wind compositions. B1221. Tyszkiewicz, Jan. Po premierze kompozytor Ruch muzyczny 35, no. 16 (1991): 5. Tyszkiewicz, a correspondent with Radio Free Europe, interviewed Penderecki following the world premiere of Ubu Rex. The composer discussed his choice of August Everding as the operas stage director, and the non-literal musical borrowings he incorporated in the piece. He noted that Ubu Rex was to be given its Polish premiere in on November 18, and that several other theaters were also interested in the opera. (Note: the opera was not presented in at the aforementioned time.) B1222. UGK. Mnchengladbach. Oper und Konzert 13, no. 7 (1975): 1718. Paul Hager's staging of The Devils of Loudun seemed harmless in comparison with that seen at the premiere in Hamburg, for he concentrated on the story of Urbain Grandier rather than on other, more erotic details of the libretto. Penderecki's score was characterized as vague. Indeed, the wedding scene is not composed at all, and needs to be reworked for future productions. B1223. uh. Donaueschinger Musiktage 1966. Schweizerische Musikzeitung 106, no. 6 (November-December 1966): 374-77. The author summarized the musical content of Stabat Mater, performed recently at the Donaueschinger Music Days. B1224. Umbach, Klaus. Mit Gloria und Glykos in den Rckwrtsgang. Der Spiegel 41, no. 2 (January 5, 1987): 142-44. Umbach expounded on Pendereckis turn from experimental techniques, such as those heard in Fluorescences, to tonal music. He called Penderecki the prophet of this shift, which had been imitated by other composers and derided by still others.

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B1225. 'Ich beherrsche alle Stile'. Der Spiegel 45, no. 28 (July 8, 1991): 180-81, 183. In this interview with Umbach, Penderecki compared the relationship of his comic opera, Ubu Rex, to those of Verdi and Rossini. In response to more general questions about 20th-century music, he said that he would be proud to be known as the Gustav Mahler of that period, since both he and Mahler had created a synthesis of styles from their respective centuries. B1226. Unverricht, Hubert. Pendereckis Stabat Mater. Kirchemusikalisches Jahrbuch 75 (1991): 127-31. After a brief review of previously published articles about Pendereckis Stabat Mater, Unverricht described this piece as a successful blend of tradition and modernity. He then compared its text-setting to several historical models. He also discussed the differences between the text setting of Stabat Mater dolorosa as seen in Pendereckis sketches and in Moecks published score. B1227. Urmetzer, Reinhold. Im Hhenflug zurck. Zur deutschen Erstauffhrung von Pendereckis Violinkonzert. Das Orchester 27, nos. 7-8 (July-August 1979): 544-55. For his Violin Concerto, Penderecki turned to the musical traditions of the nineteenth century. He did not directly imitate those traditions, however, since this piece was predominantly atonal or freely tonal. B1228. Pendereckis Polnisches Requiem in Stuttgart uraufgefhrt. Das Orchester no. 12 (1984): n.p. Urmetzer reviewed the world premiere of the complete Polish Requiem. He was fascinated with the piece, and described it in part as a summary of modern and traditional musical techniques, without resorting to collage technique. B1229. Vermeulen, Ernst. Zimmermanns 'Soldaten' und Requiem sind die strksten Eindrcke bein Holland-Festival. Melos 38, no. 11 (November 1971): 486-90. Prelude is a typical coloristic work by a Polish composer. B1230. Vogt, Hans. Krzysztof Penderecki: Lukas-Passion. In Neue Musik seit 1945, 358-71. Stuttgart: Philipp Redam, 1982. Vogt prefaced his article about Pendereckis St. Luke Passion with a short biographical note on the composer, a selected works list, and a discussion of his musical style in the works preceding the Passion. He divided the main part of the article into sections on form, linearity, polyphony, harmony, and rhythm and meter. Among his most important points were his assertions that the Passions form depended on its text and that its linearity included elements of Gregorian melodies, a florid appassionato style, and the BA-C-H motive. Harmonically, Penderecki wrote in a quasi-tonal manner, meaning that his harmonies revolved around one or more central pitches.

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B1231. Von Rhein, John. At Last: The Lyric Finds Its 'Paradise Lost'. Chicago Tribune, November 26, 1978. In an article written just prior to the world premiere of Paradise Lost, Von Rhein discussed Penderecki's history of writing religious music, his shift towards a more romantic musical style in this piece, and the problems faced by the composer in his attempts to depict the almost metaphysical characterizations of Milton's original poem. Von Rhein also alluded to the last-minute resignation of the stage director and the huge expense of producing this premiere. B1232. Credits and Debits: 'Paradise' Revisited. Chicago Tribune, December 10, 1978, pp. 22, 24. Von Rhein placed the blame for the failure of the Lyric Opera's production of Paradise Lost on its staging. He believed that its nearly static stage movements failed to measure up to the sonorous force of Penderecki's score or the dramatic specifications of Fry's libretto. He gave several examples of these failings, then questioned whether Penderecki, given his close supervision of this production, should accept some of the blame for the poor staging. B1233. Polish Composer Renews Musical Ties to Chicago. Chicago Tribune, January 13, 1986, p. 6. Penderecki proved himself to be a worthy conductor in his appearance with the Krakw Philharmonic in Orchestra Hall. He led the orchestra in his own The Awakening of Jacob and Second Cello Concerto, as well as in Shostakovich's Sixth Symphony. B1234. A Taste For the Offbeat Provides Many Flavors. Chicago Tribune, August 21, 1988. Von Rhein reviewed the Santa Fe Operas presentation of The Black Mask. He summarized its plot, and explained that in this opera, Penderecki has blended his 1960s' modernist techniques with a newer romantic style, to no avail. The main characters were shrieking caricatures and the overall production heavy-handed. The total effect was one of empty sensationalism. B1235. W., A. Penderecki: Das Teufel von Loudun. Gramophone (June 1996): 95-96. The author, in this review of the Philips recording of Pendereckis first opera (Philips 446 328), lamented the composers tendency to rely so much on speech-like declamations, even in moments of heightened emotions and action. B1236. Penderecki: St. Luke PassionStabat Mater; Miserere; In pulverum mortis. MagnificatSicut locutus est. Agnus Dei. Song of Cherubim. Veni creator. Benedicamus domino. Benedictus. Gramophone (March 1996): 86. The author remarked upon the economical intensity of Pendereckis choral works, a feature that was absent in many of his other works.

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B1237. W., J. S. Palermo: The New Fairground for Contemporary Music. Music Review 22, no. 3 (August 1961): 235-39. Anaklasis features a pointillist treatment of timbres and expanded sound resources. A concerto-like effect was produced by contrasting masses of string sounds with sections for percussion and instruments producing modulated frequencies. B1238. W., K. W. Ereignisreiche Festkonzerte. Musik und Gesellschaft 15 (December 1965): 855-58. Threnody was performed by the Leipzig Radio Symphony Orchestra. The reviewer described the piece derisively as one in which the strings whine, scream, howl, squeal, chirp, [and] knock. It is not far removed from being a comedy, albeit an unintentional one. Among the piece's few redeeming values was its introduction of new sound effects that could be used in film, radio plays, and stage music. B1239. Wagner, Klaus. Revision durch Regie. Rennert inszeniert Pendereckis 'Teufel von Loudon' in Stuttgart. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, June 25, 1969, p. 28; Melos 36, nos. 7/8 (July/August 1969): 322-25. The Stuttgart production of The Devils of Loudun was strikingly different from its Hamburg world premiere. Stuttgart stage director Gnter Rennert provided a more operatic and rational interpretation than did his counterpart in Hamburg, Konrad The interpretative variations of the individual characters were so pronounced that one of the protagonists, Grandier, seemed like a completely different person in Stuttgart than he had been in Hamburg. B1240. Wagner, Rainer. Als das Fluchen noch geholfen hat. Pendereckis Ubu Rex in Mnchen uraufgefhrt. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 152, no. 9 (September 1991): 41-42. After a brief description of the various attempts and delays encountered by Penderecki in completing Ubu Rex, Wagner turned to the music and drama of the newly completed opera. Musically it is highly reminiscent of Rossini, Mozart, and even Mussorgsky. B1241. Adam. po raz trzeci. Ruch muzyczny 28, no. 24 (1984): 8-10. Among the works selected for performance at the third Festival were Penderecki's Cadenza for solo viola and his Capriccio per Siegfried Palm. B1242. Waldorff, Jerzy. z Loudun'. In Taniec ze 206-28. Krakw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1984; the first half also appears as z Loudun'. In Harfy na 212-23. Krakw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1970. This first half of this article provides historical background about the plot of The Devils of Loudun and describes the atmosphere surrounding both its world premiere in Hamburg and its second production given shortly thereafter in Stuttgart. The second half is a biography of Penderecki. Waldorff concluded with comments about the Polish premiere of Devils, which took place six years after the world premiere and was decidedly less risqu than its earlier productions.

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B1243. Dwie opery Krzysztofa P. Polityka 32, no. 41 (October 8, 1988): 8. Waldorff reviewed the Warsaw and productions of The Black Mask, both of which had been given at the 1988 Warsaw Autumn Festival. He clearly favored the presentation, citing the closer adherence of its music to the operas score and its more modest set designs. In contrast, the Warsaw production suffered from bright lights, continuously loud music, and amplified voices. B1244. Krzysztof Apostata. Polityka, no. 42 (October 17, 1981). Waldorff was disappointed with the Second Symphony. He found it difficult to believe that Penderecki, or any contemporary composer, would find something new to say in a composition based on nineteenth-century aesthetics, as the Second Symphony is. He suggested that Penderecki take a break from composing to think about what he really wants to express. B1245. Magnificat. Polityka, no. 40 (October 4, 1975):9. A standing-room only audience filled St. John's Cathedral for the Warsaw premiere of the Magnificat. Waldorff was impressed by the works incorporation of tonal intervals, use of traditional forms, and the wonderful images created by murmurs and whispers. B1246. Nasza Jesienna. Polityka no. 41 (October 10, 1993): 10. At the 1993 Warsaw Autumn Festival, Penderecki conducted his own Flute Concerto and Bacewiczs Concerto for Strings, Trumpets, and Percussion. B1247. Odkryjmy panowie! In Harfy na 15158. Krakw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1970. The last half of this article is a review of the world premiere of the St. Luke Passion. Waldorff made general comments about the pieces musical language, the difficulty of its vocal parts, and the high quality of the performance. B1248. Raj utracony. Polityka, no. 40 (October 6, 1979): 13. The Polish premiere of Paradise Lost was presented by the Stuttgart State Opera during the Warsaw Autumn Festival. Billed by Waldorff as the most important and most sensational phenomenon of the Festival, this sacra rappresentazione is devoid of any tension and release, and the Stuttgart Opera's staging did little to ensure its success. B1249. Some New Composers. Musical America 81 (July 1961): 3435. Dimensions of Time and Silence, performed at the 1960 Warsaw Autumn Festival, was praised even by opponents of avant-garde music. Strophes (here titled Stanzas) had been performed in 1960 in Palermo and Paris. B1250. swoje. Polityka, no. 49 (Dec. 3, 1983); excerpts in Clavis. Muzyka w prasie. Ruch muzyczny 28, no. 1 (1984): 12. In celebration of Penderecki's fiftieth birthday, a performance of the St. Luke Passion was given at the National Philharmonic in Warsaw, while in Washington, D. C., Penderecki conducted his Stabat Mater, Second Cello Concerto, and Polish Requiem.

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Waldorff used nearly half of the article to defend his comments made in a previous article about Penderecki's restoration of his home. B1251. w swj czas. Polityka no. 5 (January 30, 1988): 8; excerpts in Clavis. Muzyka w prasie. Ruch muzyczny 32, no. 6 (1988): 13. The first Warsaw performance of Penderecki's Polish Requiem was greeted enthusiastically by Waldorff. He reviewed the premieres and dedicatees of the various parts of the Requiem that had been performed separately durimg the 1980s. He then recalled that the Polish government previously had wanted Penderecki to write so-called commissioned worksthat is, pieces that were stylistically acceptable to the government. The composer had responded with pieces that were often linked symbolically, if not musically, to the fate of the nation. B1252. Wallace, Helen. Penderecki 60th-Birthday Concert. The Strad 104, no. 1421 (September 1993): 872; Musical Times 134, no. 1805 (July 1993): 419. Tim Hughs generally passionate rendering of the solo role in Pendereckis Second Cello Concerto overshadowed the uninspired accompaniment of the Leipzig Radio Orchestra, directed by the composer. B1253. Wallek-Walewski, Marian. Impresje z 'Warszawskiej Jesieni. Gazeta Krakwska, no. 224 (September 21, 1959). Strophes was given its world premiere performance at the 1959 Warsaw Autumn Festival. Wallek-Walewski called it the most individual and independent work by young composers performed at the Festival to date. B1254. 'Jutrznia' czyli skok o tyczce. Odra (March 1971): 69-73; excerpts in Clavis. Muzyka w prasie. Ruch muzyczny 15, no. 11 (1971): 2. Wallek-Walewski's opinion of Utrenia was mostly negative. He discussed the dilemma of evaluating the success of a composition against a framework of literature, religion, and moral values, then pronounced this piece tiring and...boring. He acknowledged that he would be attacked for his assessment of this piece, since Penderecki was revered as a national hero in Poland. B1255. List do Zygmunta Mycielskiego. Ruch muzyczny 16, no. 1 (1972): 8-9. Wallek-Walewski responded to Mycielski (see Ruch muzyczny no. 18, 1971) by questioning why a great composer such as Penderecki would set so many texts in one piece, Cosmogony. He wondered if this excess of texts was a sign of a composer who had nothing to say. B1256. W Penderecki. Ruch muzyczny 4, no. 17 (1960): 1-2. The author began by suggesting that the development of electronic music and musique concrte had led many composers, including Penderecki, to explore new sounds and new treatments of traditional sounds for acoustic instruments. Penderecki had also developed new notational signs for these sounds and articulations. Musical examples were drawn from Strophes, Anaklasis, Emanations, Dimensions of Time and Silence, 8' 37 (later

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called Threnody), Psalms of David (here titled Psalms), and Fluctuations, a manuscript piece for three instruments, including one flute. (Note: The latter work is possibly an early version of Fonogrammi.) B1257. Walsh, Michael. Let the Secrets of Glory Open. Time, December 12, 1983, pp. 105-106. After hearing the U. S. premiere of the eight completed movements of the Polish Requiem, Walsh compared the piece to Messaien's Saint d'Assise, which received its world premiere a month later. B1258. Munich. Opera News 56, no. 4 (October 1991): 52. Walsh lambasted Ubu Rex, especially its over-the-top staging that was vulgar, tasteless and repulsive. B1259. Warnaby, John. Penderecki's 'Ubu Rex'. Tempo, no. 179 (December 1991): 56-68. Following the world premiere of Ubu Rex, many critics perceived an imbalance between the opera's flamboyant staging and the music's ability to hold the audiences interest. Warnaby responded to these criticisms by discussing the operas gestational history and musical material. In his opinion, Penderecki had successfully created a world of satire through his juxtaposition of musical styles and the rhythmic energy that accompanied rapidly changing events on stage. Warnaby wondered whether the demise of Communism in Poland enabled Penderecki to feel free to complete this opera, which was first conceived in the 1960s and which satirizes the absurdities of power and its abuse in totalitarianism. B1260. Warsaw Autumn Festival, 1992. Tempo, no. 184 (March 1993): 59-60. A performance of Pendereckis Partitia at the 1992 Warsaw Autumn Festival served as a benchmark for evaluating other works on the program. B1261. Wasita, Ryszard. Awantgarda i dziedzictwo. Polska, no. 7 (1966). In this conversation with Wasita, Penderecki remarked that he was neither an enemy of tradition nor an indiscriminate enthusiast of the avant-garde. He remarked that the St. Luke Passion was the most important of his compositions. A rare reference to his unpublished Violin Concerto (1962/63) was made in this article. Wasita described the piece as having a romantic style. B1262. Weaver, William. Old and New at the Umbrian Festival. High Fidelity/Musical America 17 (December 1967): MA 27, 29. A performance of Dies Irae at the Sagra Musicale Umbra festival re-established Penderecki's place of prominence in European music. B1263. Weber, Gerhard. Leipzig: Pendereckis 'Dies Irae' im Rundfunk. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 135, no. 8 (August 1974): 510. The 1974 May Day festivities in East Berlin included the East German premiere of Pendereckis Dies Irae. Weber noted that its texts offer a humanistic message.

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B1264. Webster, E. M. Cheltenham: Blight on the Band-Wagon. Musical Opinion 90, no. 1080 (September 1967): 677-85. The Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra presented Penderecki's Threnody as part of the 1967 Cheltenham Festival. Webster gave a vivid description of the work's hypnotic,...astonishing sounds. B1265. The Three Choirs Festival: Tradition versus Trend. Musical Opinion 96, no. 1141 (October 1972): 13-15. Stabat did not meet the expectations of this reviewer. Webster theorized that the work's dependence on Gregorian chant and open harmonies contributed to its failure. B1266. Wechsler, Bert. New York. Music Journal 38, no. 3 (May-June 1980): 31. Wechsler criticized the First Symphony for its banality, but noted that the piece would be played on the New York Philharmonic's upcoming European tour. B1267. Weickert, Christian. Zwei Opern mit religisem Staff in Hamburg. Musik und Kirche 41, no. 2 (March-April 1971): 102. This reviewer was not impressed with the Hamburg premiere of The Devils of Loudun. He blamed the music for being too complicated and for illustrating rather than interpreting the drama. B1268. Weigend, Friedrich. Klageruf eines Volkes. Krzysztof Pendereckis Polnisches Requiem uraufgefhrt. Der Tagesspiegel (Berlin), October 20, 1984, p. 4. Wiegend began by describing the origins of the Lacrimosa section of the Polish Requiem: Penderecki was planning to write a ballet for the Schwetzingen Festival, but while at that event in 1970, he received word of the bloody revolt in and realized that he had to write a piece in memory of the dead there. This became Lacrimosa. B1269. Meister der Qualmusik. Hoheheimer Gesprche nach der Oper Pendereckis. Stuttgarter Zeitung, May 2, 1979, p. 34. Following the premiere of Paradise Lost in Stuttgart, Penderecki participated in a conference at a Catholic Academy. A relationship between art and religion was acknowledged by the participants, although the difficulty of Paradises score made a reconciliation between these two areas problematic. B1270. Weissmann, John S. Krzysztof Penderecki. Musical Events 28 (October 1973): 10-11. Penderecki's stature of composer will rest on his religious music. This, Weissmann's introductory statement, was followed by brief notes about Penderecki's compositions to date. Of special note was his remark that the composer's use of tone clusters was imitated by many other composers and had become a common language. B1271. Curt B. M. Premiere sud-americane de la Passion selon saint Luc de Krzysztof Penderecki. Revue musicale de Suisse romande 22, no. 3 (1960): 20. Also published as Buenos Aires. Sdamerikanische

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Erstauffhrung der Lukas-Passion von Penderecki. Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik 130, no. 7 (July-August 1969): 349. The Buenos Aires premiere of the St. Luke Passion took place at the Teatro Coln. Threnody, Dies Irae, and Polymorphia had been heard previously in Buenos Aires. B1272. Welanyk, a Prba analizy Partity. In i tradycja w muzyce Krzysztofa Pendereckiego, edited by Regina and Krzysztof Szwajgier, 149-75. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna w Krakwie, 1983. Welanyk examined the structure of Partita in detail, then explored its links with the traditions of the Baroque. These connections can be seen primarily in the areas of instrumentation (concertino and tutti), form (rondo), and treatment of musical material (repetitions, trills). B1273. Werba, Erik. Premieren bei den Mnchner Opernfestspielen. sterreichische Musikzeitschrift 34, no. 9 (September 1979): 444-45. The Stuttgart State Opera presented Paradise Lost during the Munich Opera Festival. In Werbas opinion, the piece would work better if it were staged as an oratorio. B1274. White, Chapell. Atlanta. American Choral Review 12, no. 4 (1970): 197-98. In his St. Luke Passion, Penderecki succeeded in articulating the universal human tragedy of bigotry, hate, and violence in contemporary musical terms that are understandable to an average contemporary audience. Its music is eclectic, utilizing plainchant, Renaissance polyphonic techniques, sprechstimme, hints of Stravinsky, and the B-A-C-H motive. The work's formal structure is derived from Bach's Passions. B1275. Widrich, Hans. Penderecki--Urauffhrung in Salzburg. esterreichische Musikzeitschrift 34, nos. 7-8 (July-August 1979): 357-58. The Prologue, Visions and Finale from Paradise Lost is to be premiered at the Salzurg Festival in August 1979. For this new suite, Penderecki extracted the operas prologue, which concerns Adam and Eve and their expulsion from the garden; the visions of fraticide, plague, war, and flood; and the comforting finale. Widrich concluded by quoting a lengthy excerpt from Wolfram Schwingers biography of the composer that referred to the musical traditions reflected in this music, including those of Wagner, Berg, Stravinsky, and Bartk. B1276. Wiese, Klaus Martin. Am meisten Echo fand Penderecki Orgelwoche Nrnberg 1987. Musik und Kirche 58, no. 2 (March-April 1988): 105-106. Penderecki conducted his Polish Requiem during Nurembergs Organ Week festivities. B1277. Wilkening, Martin. Eine Passion unserer Zeit. Pendereckis LukasPassion in der Philharmonie. Der Tagesspiegel, February 12, 1985, p. 4. Almost twenty years after its premiere, the St. Luke Passion was performed in Berlin. Wilkening confirmed the prevailing opinion that this work is impressive for both its theological subject matter and its shocking musical ideas.

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B1278. Wilkey, Jay W. Krzysztof Penderecki's 'Dies Irae'. A Conductor's Introduction. Choral Journal 10, no. 6 (March 1970): 14-16. Wilkey opened his article with a summary of twentieth-century Polish musical life, then briefly described Penderecki's overall musical style before proceeding to a detailed discussion of Dies Irae. The sources of text for this piece were delineated, as were the various instrumental and vocal techniques called for in its score. B1279. Williams, Nicholas. LSO/Rostropovich. Musical Times 128,no. 1738(December 1987):704-705. As part of his 60th birthday celebrations, Mstislav Rostropovich performed the solo part of a piece written for himPenderecki's Second Cello Concerto. Williams praised the works dramatic scheme...and extrovert scoring, but criticized its brash writing and neo-expressionist style. B1280. Willis, Thomas. T h e Lyric's Banking on a Superstar. Chicago Tribune, October 14, 1973, Section 6, p. 4. In response to the widespread dismay over the Lyric Opera's commissioning of Penderecki to write an opera for America's Bicentennial, Willis said that he supported the Opera's choice. In his view, the Opera needed a composer of international stature, one who had already written a successful opera (The Devils of Loudun), and one whose music would not keep audiences away, since full houses for each performance would be necessary to pay the company's expenses. Penderecki fit all of these requirements. B1281. Penderecki to Composer Opera-Oratorio for Lyric. Chicago Tribune, May 17, 1973, Section 2, p. 3. Willis mentioned Penderecki's most recent compositions when he announced that the Lyric Opera had commissioned the Polish composer to write an opera for the American Bicentennial. The subject of the new piece was unknown when this article was written. B1282. Wilmington, Michael. Wojciech Has Whimsical The Saragossa Manuscript. Chicago Tribune, January 16, 1998. Prior to a showing of The Saragossa Manuscript, Wilmington gave a somewhat humorous accounting of the movies plot and stated that Penderecki had provided a wittily eclectic score. B1283. Wimbush, Roger. Here and There. Gramophone 50, no. 600 (May 1973): 2037. A recording of the First Symphony was to be made by EMI the day after its world premiere. The composer remarked that the piece was in five inter-related movements, with the fourth being a recapitulation of the second, and the fifth movement containing material from the first. He also mentioned that an early interest in electronic music delayed his work with orchestras. B1284. Winkler, Gerhard. Das Magnificat von Krzysztof Penderecki und seine Stellungn im Vokalschaffen des Komponisten: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Klangflachenkomposition. Ph.D., University of Salzburg, 1986. The Magnificat is analysed as an example of sound surface composition.

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B1285. Krzysztof Penderecki: 'Die Schwarze Maske', Oper. sterreichische Musikzeitschrift 41, nos. 7-8 (July-August 1986): 389-90. In this essay written on the occasion of the world premiere of The Black Mask, Winkler pointed out some of the musical similarities between this opera and Penderecki's earlier compositions, and between this opera and those of other composers, most notably Stravinsky. In particular he discussed rhythm, timbre, and capriccio-style writing. B1286. Krzysztof Penderecki, 1. Sinfonie: Versuch uber ein musikalisches Ur-Material-Einzelton und Repetition. Melos 49, no. 4 (1987): 34-58. Winklers analysis of Pendereckis First Symphony relied heavily on comparisons with other works by composers as diverse as Mahler, Ligeti, Monteverdi, and Rihm. A works list and selected bibliography are included. B1287. Winold, Allen. Violin Concerto No. 2: A Descriptive Analysis. Studies in Penderecki 1 (1998): 83-100. Formally, Pendereckis Second Violin Concerto is suggestive of the exposition and development sections of a sonata form movement, preceded by an introduction and followed by a series of character pieces and an epilogue. Motto passages demarcate the primary sections. Harmonically, the piece revolves around the pitches D and A, and its orchestration is based on constantly changing, small groups of instruments. B1288. Violin Concerto No. 2 in Leipzig. Studies in Penderecki 1 (1998): 117-18. The world premiere performance of Violin Concerto No. 2 elicited a standing ovation in Leipzig. Its blend of trandition and innovation and its overall sense of unity, along with the virtuosic performances offered by both violinist Anne-Sophie Mutter and the Middle German Radio Symphony Orchestra, contributed to Winolds conclusion that this piece deserves a place among the masterpieces of this century. B1289. Wiser, John. Szymanowski: String Quartets. String Quartet. Penderecki: String Quartet No. 2. Fanfare 13, no. 2 (November/December 1989): 379. Pendereckis Quartet, summarized as a menacing, swaggering seven-minute firework, was part of an Olympia recording (OCD 328). B1290. Wiszniewski, Zbigniew. Pendereckis Festival in Krakau. Das Orchester 28, no. 10 (1980): 823-84. Wiszniewski named the performers and works heard at the Penderecki Festival held in Krakw in June 1980. Included were some of the composer's major works, such as the St. Luke Passion, Utrenia, excerpts from Paradise Lost, the Violin Concerto and The Awakening of Jacob. Among the chamber pieces performed were the First, and Second String Quartets, Miniatures for Violin and for Clarinet , Capriccio for Siegfried Palm, Capriccio for Tuba, and De Natura Sonoris Nos. 1 and 2 . Psalmus 1961, an electronic composition, was also presented.

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B1291. Witkowska, Jadwiga. Nie tradycji. Fakty, no. 8 (February 23, 1980); excerpts in Clavis. Muzyka w prasie. Ruch muzyczny 24, no. 7(1980): 13. In this interview, Penderecki discussed his interests in musical traditions, architecture, painting, theatre, and philosophy. He also said that the negative reactions given his music by some orchestras did not bother him. B1292. Wnuk-Nazarowa, Joanna. O Koncercie skrzypcowym Pendereckiego. In Tomaszewskiemu w 60-lecie edited by Teresa Malecka, 76-99. Zeszyt Naukowy Nr. 7. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna, 1984. The first part of Wnuk-Nazarowa's discussion of the Violin Concerto was shaped as a question and answer session. Questions pertained to the roles of harmony, melody, texture, and rhythm in the piece. The second section was an analysis of the Concerto, laid out in four columns: a prose account of the piece's moods and expectations, the measures under discussion, details concerning its thematic construction, and together in one column, a measure-by-measure account of the harmonic action, orchestration, and suggested names for the leitmotives described by Wnuk-Nazarowa. B1293. Szatana w Raju utraconym. In i tradycja w muzyce Krzysztofa Pendereckiego, edited by Regina and Krzysztof Szwajgier, 221-32. Krakw: Akademia Muzyczna w Krakwie, 1983. Wnuk-Nazarowa juxtaposed the geopolitical eras and religious backgrounds of Milton and Penderecki. She then used this information to dissect the differences between Miltons Paradise Lost and Pendereckis adaptation of the same poem, with her focus being to determine the basic role of Satan in each work. At the same time, she pointed out various musical highlights of Pendereckis composition, including its Satan chord and the use of major chords as symbols. In conclusion, she described the piece as a monumental work such as has been lacking in contemporary music. B1294. Wocker, Karl Heinz. Pendereckis Erste Sinfonie. Musica 27, no. 5 (September-October 1973): 458-59. Wocker thought Peterborough, England was an out-of-the way location for such an important premiere as Pendereckis First Symphony. He did not seem overly impressed with the work. B1295. Wolf, Werner. Leipzig: Pendereckis Lukas-Passion. Musik und Gesellschaft 29, no. 1 (January 1979): 20. Wolf discussed a recent Leipzig performance of the St. Luke Passion. In his opinion, the composition was even more impressive in person than it was in its recorded version. The piece was appropriately dramatic while the use of a twelve-tone row resulted in an austere expressiveness that was handled well by the performers. B1296. Wrdehoff, Thomas. Abschied von der Atonalitt. Die provakative Wende des Komponisten Krzysztof Penderecki. Die Weltwoche, March 12, 1987. Pendereckis attitude towards politics was the primary topic of this article. The composer remarked that he had supported the Polish Catholic Church in its struggle

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against the Communist government. The composition of Te Deum, the St. Luke Passion, and the Polish Requiem could be directly related to this aspect of Pendereckis life. Despite this, Penderecki did not think of himself as a political composer, even though Westerners often tried to give a political interpretation to his music. B1297. Wrdehoff, Thomas. Natrlich mchte er die erste Geige spielen. Rheinischer Merkur, March 20, 1987, p. 15. In this interview, Penderecki stated that he had composed 83 film and stage scores early in his career. He also discussed his Christian upbringing, his opposition to the Communist government in Poland, his distaste for the charge that he is an eclectic composer, and his successful experiences working with Gnter Rennert and Harry Kupfer. B1298. Wrner, Karl. Musikalisches Panorama von Ost und West. Musica 15 (November 1961): 604-605. After hearing Threnody at the 1961 Warsaw Autumn Festival, Wrner thought the piece reflected a mood of hopelessness and despair. B1299. Poland. Musical Quarterly 48, no. 1 (1962): 109-14. In this essay on recent Polish music, Wrner focused on the compositions of Witold Kazimierz Serocki, Tadeusz Baird, and Krzysztof Penderecki. He described the musical style of Anaklasis and stated that in this and other compositions by Penderecki, there stands an instinct for music...that is of unprecedented sureness. B1300. Germany. Musical Quarterly 47, no. 2 (1961): 243-47. After hearing Anaklasis for the first time, Wrner concluded that the piece was a shrewdly and effectually planned demonstration of sonorous impressions originating in musical instruments but often resembling electronic music. He thought that the piece was suitable only for use as film music. B1301. Anna. Udana inauguracja. Ruch muzyczny 42, no. 21 (October 18, 1998): 32-33. A performance of Seven Gates of Jerusalem opened the 1998 Krakw Philharmonic season. The only other work in Pendereckis oeuvre to match Seven Gates in expression and drama is the St. Luke Passion. B1302. Krakowskie Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 42, no. 24 (November 29, 1998): 14-19. This rather lengthy report on the Penderecki Festival held in Krakw in September and October covered both the major concerts and a musicological symposium that focused on the composers theater music. B1303. Hubertus. A Cultural Milestone. 25th Warsaw Autumn Festival (September 18-27, 1981). Polish Music, nos. 3-4., 1981): 13-20. In opinion, the fact that Penderecki's Symphony No. 2 contains elements of past musical forms does not mean that the piece is a failure. Indeed, the use of past styles in a contemporary piece can be innovative and even revolutionary.

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B1304. Warsaw Autumn 1980. Did the 24th Festival of Contemporary Music Bring Anything That Was Essentially New? Polish Music 15, no. 4 (1980): 44-50. In the Capriccio for Tuba, soloist Zdzislaw Piernik could let himself run riot on his instrument...at the same time he could entertain the public. B1305. Zajaczkowski, Waclaw. Letters to the Editor...'Foreigners'. Washington Post, October 14, 1973, p. C7. In response to Hume's article of September 23, Zajaczkowski argued that it was not unAmerican for the Chicago Opera to commission a Polish composer to write an opera for the 1976 Bicentennial. He pointed out that George Washington had entrusted the defense of strategic military sites to Tadeusz Kosciuszko and given the command of America's first calvary brigade to Kazimierz Pulaski. He also asserted that the American Revolution had offered a beacon of hope for the oppressed people of Central Europe and that the Bicentennial Committee should also reach out to these and other foreigners. B1306. Zakariasen, Bill. Is This Really Necessary? New York Daily News, August 8, 1988. Zakariasen proposed an alternative interpretation of The Black Maskthat the disease threatening the main characters was not the black plaque, but AIDS, carried by a former black slave from central Africa. This interpretation was suggested, perhaps, by the huge pictures of African children that were used as the backdrop for the Sante Fe Opera production of this opera. B1307. This Composer Unmasks His Ideas. New York Daily News, September 14, 1988. Penderecki stated that living in Communist-controlled Eastern Europe had made the topic of death a haunting one for him. In his opinion, the tension created merely by living there comes through clearly in his music. In the recently premiered The Black Mask, the composer's early shocking style of composition and his later romanticism were combined successfully, according to Zakariasen. B1308. Santa Fe Opera: Penderecki 'The Black Mask' [U.S. premiere]. Musical America 109, no. 1 (January 1989): 44-45. This article is similar to the one published in the New York Daily News on August 8, 1988. In Zakariasens opinion, the stage director and designer of the Santa Fe production of The Black Mask presented the opera as a metaphor for AIDS and the indifference with which it is treated by so many people. Penderecki disagreed with this interpretation as well as with the decision to have the opera's character of a black slave played by a white man in blackface. B1309. Zelechowski, VI Warszawska Kierunki, no. 39 (September 30, 1962): 3, 10. Penderecki's Canon, performed at the 1962 Warsaw Autumn Festival, contains shockingly new sounds. Among its features are a 208-voice stretto and the use of a retrograde canon.

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B1310. VII Warszawska a Vista. Kierunki, no. 40 (October 6, 1963): 5. Zelechowski responded favorably to a performance of Polymorphia at the Warsaw Autumn Festival. Penderecki attempted to obtain as many different string effects as possible in this piece, while simultaneously creating a meaningful musical form. B1311. Ziarno, Jacek. Podczas zdobywania Batylii na klawesynie, Gazeta wyborcza (July 8, 1994); excerpted in Clavis. Muzyka w prasie. Ruch muzyczny 38, no. 16 (August 7, 1994): 2. Penderecki mentioned that he had turned down several requests to run for the Polish Parliament because he did not want to be involved in politics. Some of his works had been politicized by others. As an example, he cited Threnody, which had been castigated by the Soviets in Shostavichs presence. He also mentioned that the West Germans often presented his works, both to promote Polish culture in that country and to repay, in a sense, for what Hitler had done to Poland. B1312. Tadeusz. Autumn and the Avant-Garde. Musical America (December 1962): 18-19. Canon and String Quartet No. 1 were among the highlights of the 1962 Warsaw Autumn Festival. The first of these pieces was powerful and dramatic, while the second was subtle, finely etched and cohesive...probably the most modern composition for string quartet to date. B1313. Casus Penderecki. Ruch muzyczny 42, no. 19 (September 20, 1998): 13-17. took as his point of departure an article by Andrzej published in Tygodnik Powszechny (Otwieranie drzwi za March 8, 1998). According to this article presented a scathing indictment of Pendereckis shift from being a member of the avant-garde to being part of the non-contemporaryindeed, to being on a musical island. response to was based on his belief that Penderecki is one of the greatest living composers. In his opinion, Pendereckis penchant for using the musical models of the past does not imply that his music is permeated with traditional sounds, for it is not. Rather, his music is distinctively his own, both melodically and harmonically. B1314. Der einsame Weg des Krzysztof Penderecki. Melos 29, no. 4 (September 1962): 318-23. provided a clear summary of Pendereckis musical style to date. He described some of the innovations found in Anaklasis, Dimensions of Time and Silence, and Fluorescences, and stressed that Penderecki did not view the development of new sounds as a goal in itself, but rather as an opportunity to enrich his vocabulary for the purposes of musical development. B1315. Fluorescencje Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 7, no. 2 (1964): 5-6. Also published in Spotkania z 15259. Krakw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1975. Fluorescences is a clear example of Penderecki's revolutionary style. It contains new nuances in sound, particularly in its treatment of the wind instruments and its use of such

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non-traditional sound sources as a typewriter and parchment paper. In the last portion of the article, Zielinski described each of the works six sections. B1316. 'Magnificat' Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 19, no. 7(1975): 5-6. Penderecki's Magnificat was given an overwhelmingly positive review. The rigor of its counterpoint and its harmonic material in general was particularly impressive. The author also provided general comments on Penderecki's compositional style, linking it to the traditions of Liszt and Berlioz, and briefly described the Magnificat's seven parts. B1317. Nowe utwory Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 5, no. 12 (1961): 17-18, 24. focused on three of the works by Penderecki that had yet to be heard publicly in Poland: Anaklasis, Threnody, and Psalmus 1961. In his opinion, the most interesting feature of Anaklasis was its large percussion section, which enriched the composition's timbral possibilities. He described Threnody's form and innovative string techniques and the sound sources and form of Psalmus 1961. He then divided Penderecki's output to date into two categories: neo-impressionist (Strophes, Dimensions of Sound and Silence, and Fonogrammi) and expressionist (Anaklasis, Threnody, and Psalmus 1961). B1318. O polskiej muzyce na Festiwalu. Dobrze i Ruch muzyczny 6, no. 22 (1962): 3-5. Penderecki's development of musical language has followed a consistent path. Initially, many listeners were shocked by its originality, but they quickly realized that it was also quite expressive. Both Canon and String Quartet No. 1 were performed at the 1962 Warsaw Autumn Festival. With the latter piece, the string quartet literature was expanded to include a work whose sounds were chosen chiefly for their coloristic qualities. B1319. Poland. The Latest Styles. Musical America 84 (January 1964): 57. Penderecki's Polymorphia was performed at the 1963 Warsaw Autumn Festival. In opinion, this work is not equal in quality to the composer's earlier works for strings, such as Threnody, Canon, and String Quartet No. 1. B1320. Polska muzyka na 'Warszawskiej Przeglqd kulturalny, no. 41 (October 6, 1960): 7. Dimensions of Time and Silence is a fresh and mature composition. The strings' timbres sounded at times like birdsongs, while the chorus hissed, whistled, and murmured. Penderecki is probably the greatest colorist among young composers, and his individuality in this area is beginning to be truly striking. B1321. Style, kierunki i twrcy muzyki XX wieku. Warsaw: Centralny Metodyki Upowszechnienia Kultury, 1973. devoted four pages to a discussion of Pendereckis compositions. He described his revolutionary treatment of sound within specific dramatic settings.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
B1322.

277

Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. In Spotkania z 68-82. Krakw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1975. In this article, originally written in 1962, considered the changes in compositional style and technique already apparent in Penderecki's short career. He began by discussing dynamics and instrumentation in Anaklasis, the composer's first piece in a new style. From there he described timbre in Dimensions of Time and Silence, new methods of treating string instruments in Threnody, new sound sources in Canon and Psalmus 1961, and the synthesis of these elements in Fluorescences. Finally, he made a distinction between Penderecki's neoimpressionistic and expressive works.

B1323. Technika operowania instrumentami smyczkowymi w utworach Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Muzyka, no. 1 (1968): 74-92. examined the role of the string instruments in Threnody, String Quartet No. 1, Polymorphia, Canon, Anaklasis, and Fluorescences, which feature Penderecki's most novel compositional ideas. He divided his discussion into the areas of material, sound forms (lines, clusters, and individual points of sound), layers (combinations of lines, clusters, and points), and form. B1324. 'Utrenia'. Nowy utwr Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. Ruch muzyczny 14, no. 12 (1970): 3-5; also in Tadeusz Spotkania z 176-82. Krakw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1975. gave his impressions about Utrenia, Pt. 1 after hearing a tape recording of its world premiere. For him, the work was spontaneous and direct. It quickly appealed to the listener's emotions and imagination. In the central part of the article, related Utrenia to the St. Luke Passion both musically and liturgically. He concluded with a discussion of the style and character of Utrenia's choral, orchestral, and solo parts. B1325. The 'Warsaw Autumn' Festival and the Polish Contemporary Music. Musical Events 16 (December 1961): 23-24. Threnody contains new articulations and extraordinary sounds. B1326. kompozytor a tradycja. Rozmowa z Krzysztofem Pendereckim. Ruch muzyczny 7, no. 12 (1963): 8-9. In response to questions, Penderecki expressed his belief that his compositions and those of many other contemporary composers were, at least in part, reflections of their predecessors. However, today's audiences focused more on discovering the novel aspects of new works than on hearing any of their links to earlier pieces. Penderecki considered form to be the most important element of music: Only the medium changes in music: the sound material and the method of making it. The general principles concerning the consistency of style in a work, the logic and economy of its progress...remain the same. The concept of what makes a good piece of music is exactly the same today as it was earlier.

278

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

B1327. Zuck, Barbara. Classical Composer Faces Challenge. Columbus (OH) Dispatch, January 13, 1986. Zuck described Penderecki as a composer who is known in some circles, but was not likely to become too popular. While talking to Zuck, the composer noted that he had changed compositional styles during his career because he did not want to become bored. B1328. Zytowski, Carl B. Review. Opera Journal 3, no. 1 (1970): 23-25. After viewing the U. S. premiere of The Devils of Loudun, Zytowski thought the compositions one noteworthy weakness was its inability to sustain drama over a long period of time.

Appendix A Chronological List of Compositions

Sonata for Violin and Piano, 1953 Three Miniatures for Clarinet and Piano, 1954 Miniatures for Flute, c. 1954-1955 Request for the Joyous Islands o wyspy voice and piano, c. 1954-1955 Symphonic Scherzo, orchestra, c. 1953-1955 Two Songs [Cisza (Silence), Niebo w nocy (The Sky at Night)], c. 1955 Quartet for Strings, c. 1956-57 The Magic Jug ("Czarodziejski garnek"), music for puppet theatre, 1957 Psalms of David, mixed choir, percussion, keyboard, and double basses, 1958 Adventures of the Warsaw Bear ("Przygody warszawskiego misia"), music for puppet theater, 1958 The Birds Milk ("Ptasie mleczko"), music for puppet theatre, 1958 Diamond Dew ("Diamentowa rosa"), music for puppet theater, 1958 Epitaph Artur Malawski in Memoriam, string orchestra and timpani, 1958 Little Tommy Tiptoe ("Tomcio paluszek"), music for puppet theater, 1958 The Shoemakers Twine ("Szewc Dratewka"), music for puppet theater, 1958 The Swineherd music for puppet theater, 1958 Zwyrtala the Musician, or How the Mountaineer Reached Home ("O Zwyrtale muzykancie, czyli jak gral do nieba"), music for puppet theater, 1958

280

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

Emanations, two string orchestras, 1958-59 Strophes, soprano, speaker, and ten instruments, 1959 Miniatures for Violin and Piano, 1959 Legend of Bulandra the Miner o grniku Bulandrze"), music for puppet theater, 1959 The Crimson Dress ("Pasowa sukienka"), music for puppet theater, 1959 Grandfathers Wink ("Dziadek music for puppet theater, 1959 Legend of Bulandra the Miner o grniku Bulandrze"), music for puppet theater, 1959 The Masters Children ("Dzieci pana majstra"), music for puppet theater, 1959 The Most Valiant Knight ("Najdzielniejszy z rycerzy"), music for puppet theater, 1959 The Spider music for puppet theater, 1959 Anaklasis for 42 strings and percussion, 1959-60 Dimensions of Time and Silence for 40-voice mixed choir, percussion, and strings, 1959-60 Threnody, 52 strings, 1960 Quartet for Strings No. 1, 1960 About the Grinder and the Kantels Miraculous Lute ("O sampo i cudownej lutni Kantele"), music for puppet theater, c. 1960 Concert at Wawel ("Koncert wawelski"), short-film electronic music, 1960 Forms ("Formy"), short-film electronic music, 1960 Juggler Wearing a Crown ("Kuglarz w koronie"), music for puppet theater, 1960 Mr. Trumpet ("Pan short-film electronic music, 1960 Professor Serduczko ("Profesor Serduczko"), music for puppet theater, 1960 Silver Adventure przygoda"), music for puppet theater, c. 1960 Tower Clock, short-film music, 1960 The Trap, short-film music, 1960 The War Is Never Over, short-film music for jazz ensemble and electronic sounds, c. 1960 Fonogrammi, flute and chamber orchestra, 1961 Psalmus 1961, electronic music, 1961 Polymorphia, 48 strings, 1961 Balloons ("Balony"), short-film electronic music, 1961 Enemy in the Glass ("Szklany wrg"), short-film electronic music, 1961 The General and the Fly ("General i mucha"), short-film electronic music, 1961 How Little Hanna Came to an Agreement with the Bear ("Jak Hania z misiem "), music for puppet theater, 1961 Little Tiger ("Tygrysek"), music for puppet theater, 1961 Meeting with a Monster ("Spotkanie z bazyliszkiem"), short-film electronic music, 1961

APPENDICES

281

The Pocketknife ("Scyzoryk"), short-film electronic music, 1961 Song of the Fox o lisie"), music for puppet theater, c. 1961 Tour of the Cosmos ("Wycieczka w kosmos"), short-film electronic music, 1961 Canon, 52 strings and 2 tapes, 1962 Fluorescences, orchestra, 1962 Stabat Mater, three 16-part a capella choruses, 1962 Achilles and the Young Ladies ("Achiles i panny"), music for puppet theater, 1962 Bitterness ("Gorycz"), short-film electronic music, 1962 Don Juan, short-film music, 1962 Mr. Twardowski ("Pan Twardowski"), music for puppet theater, 1962 Nal and Damayanti ("Nal i Damayanti"), music for puppet theater, 1962 Pinocchio ("Pinokio"), music for puppet theater, 1962 Roland the Mad ("Roland Szalony"), music for puppet theater, 1962 The Snow Queen ("Krolwa music for puppet theater, 1962 Pinocchio ("Pinokio"), music for puppet theater, 1962 Uninhabited Planet ("Bezludna planeta"), short-film music, 1962 Concerto for Violin, withdrawn after premiere, 1962-63 Three Pieces in Antique Style ,1963 Adventure of the Frog ("Przygoda short-film music, 1963 Adventures of the Little Screws ("Przygody electronic music for puppet theater, 1963 Brigade of Death (Brigada electronic music for a radio play, 1963 Brothers Karamazov ("Braci Karamazw"), music for theater, 1963 The Coffee Grinder do kawy"), short-film music, 1963 Forefathers ("Dziady"), music for theater, 1963 The Kidnapping ("Porwanie"), short-film music, 1963 King Midas ("Krl Midas"), short-film music, 1963 The Loitering Fox ("Lis music for puppet theater, 1963 Mensura sortis, 2 pianos, 1963 Star Child ("Dziecko gwiazda"), music for puppet theater, 1963 Timothy the Bear, Rim-cim-ci! Tymoteusz Rym-cim-ci"), music for puppet theater, 1963 Cantata in honorem Almae Matris Universitatis Iagellonicae for 2 mixed choirs and orchestra, 1964 Sonata for Cello and Orchestra, 1963-64 The Blacksmith ("Kowala"), music for puppet theater, 1964 For Whom the Bell Tolls ("Komu bije dzwon"), music for theater, 1964 Funeral Song, voice and piano, 1964

282

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

I Come to Tell a Story music for theater, 1964 Mother ("Matka"), music for theater, 1964 Polish Ballad ("Ballada polska"), music for theater, 1964 The Saragossa Manuscript znaleziony w Zaragossie"), feature-film electronic music, 1964 Ubu Roi, incidental music for puppet theatre, 1964 Capriccio for Oboe and 11 Strings, 1965 The Famous Story about Troilus and Cressida historia o Troilusie i Kressydzie"), music for theater, 1965 He Left Home z domu"), electronic music for theater, 1965 The Magic Grinder ("Czarodziejski music for puppet theater, 1965 The Magic of Circles ("Czar short-film electronic music, 1965 Sport Etudes (Etiudy sportowe), short-film music, 1965 The Superhero ("Najdzielniejszy"), children's opera, 1965 Sweet Rhythms rytmy), short-film electronic music, 1965 Ungodly Comedy ("Nieboska komedia"), incidental music, 1965 Passio et mors Domini nostri Jesu Christi secundum Lucam (St. Luke Passion), soprano, baritone, and bass soloists, speaker, boys choir, three mixed choirs, and orchestra, 1965-66. Includes In pulverum mortis and Miserere De Natura Sonoris No. 1 for orchestra, 1966 The Bells Are Tolling dzwony"), 1966 Codes (Szyfry), film music, 1966 Descent to Hell, film music, 1966 Dies Irae for soprano, tenor, and bass soloists, mixed choir, and orchestra, 1967 Concerto No. 1 for Violino Grande (or Cello) and Orchestra, 1966-67, transcribed for cello 1971-72 Pittsburgh Overture, wind ensemble, 1967 Capriccio for Violin and Orchestra, 1967 Legend of the Five Brothers o braciach"), music for puppet theater, 1967 Capriccio for Siegfried Palm, cello, 1968 Quartet for Strings No. 2, 1968, revised c. 1968-1970 Je taime, je taime ("I love you, I love you"), electronic music for feature film, 1968 The Devils of Loudun, opera, 1968-69 Utrenia, Part I The Entombment of Christ, soprano, mezzo-soprano, tenor, bass, and basso profondo soloists, two mixed choruses, orchestra, 1969-70

APPENDICES

283

De Natura Sonoris No. 2, orchestra, 1970 Cosmogony, soprano, tenor, and bass soloists, mixed choir, and orchestra, 1970 Utrenia, Part II The Resurrection of Christ, five soloists, two mixed choruses, boys choir, orchestra, 1971 Prlude, winds, percussion, keyboard, and double basses, 1971 Actions, jazz ensemble, 1971 Partita for solo harpsichord, electric guitar, bass guitar, double bass, harp, and chamber orchestra, 1971-72 Ecloga VIII, 6 a capella male voices, 1972 Ekecheiria, electronic music, 1972 Canticum Canticorum Salomonis for 16-voice choir and orchestra, 1970-73 Symphony No. 1, 1972-73 Intermezzo, 24 strings, 1973 Magnificat, bass solo, seven-part male vocal ensemble, two 24-part mixed choruses, boys chorus, and orchestra, 1973-74 The Awakening of Jacob, orchestra, 1974 Concerto for Violin and Orchestra No. 1, 1976, rev. 1988 Adagietto from Paradise Lost, for orchestra, 1976-78 Paradise Lost, sacra rappresentazione, 1975-78 Prelude, Visions, and Finale from Paradise Lost, six soloists; mixed chorus, orchestra, 1979 Symphony No. 2 Christmas, 1979-80, revised 1981 Capriccio for Tuba Solo, 1979-1980 Te Deum, soprano, mezzo-soprano, tenor, and bass soloists, two mixed choruses, orchestra, 1979-80 Lacrimosa, soprano, mixed choir, and orchestra, 1980 Agnus Dei, eight-part unaccompanied mixed chorus, 1981 Concerto for Cello and Orchestra No. 2, 1982 Concerto for Viola (or Clarinet or Cello) and Orchestra, 1983 Recordare, soprano, alto, tenor, and bass solos, mixed choir, and orchestra, 1983 Cadenza for Solo Viola, 1984

284

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

Polish Requiem, four soloists, mixed choir and orchestra, 1984. Includes Lacrimosa, Agnus Dei, and Recordare The Black Mask, opera, 1984-86 Per Slava, cello, 1985-86 Song of Cherubim, a capella mixed chorus, 1986 Prelude for Clarinet, 1987 Veni Creator, 8-part a capella mixed chorus, 1987 Passacaglia and Rondo, orchestra, incorporated into Symphony No. 3, 1988 Two Scenes and Finale from The Black Mask, soprano, mezzo-soprano, mixed chorus and orchestra, 1988 Der Unterbrochene Gedanke, string quartet, 1988 Were You But a Dream? ty snem voice and piano, 1988 Symphony No. 4 Adagio, 1989 Ubu Rex, opera, 1991 Trio for Strings, 1990-91 Sinfonietta No. 1, orchestra, 1991 Benedicamus Domino, 5 men's voices, 1992 Symphony No. 5 Korean, 1991-92 Concerto for Flute (or Clarinet or Violin) and Chamber Orchestra, 1992 Benedictus, mixed chorus, 1993 Quartet for Clarinet and String Trio, 1993 Sanctus from Polish Requiem, alto, tenor, mixed chorus, orchestra, 1993 Agnus Dei from the Polish Requiem, arr. for string orchestra, 1994 Music from Ubu Rex, arranged for orchestra, 1994 Sinfonietta No. 2 for Clarinet and Strings, 1994 Entrata, brass, timpani, 1994 Divertimento for Cello Solo, 1994 Concerto for Violin and Orchestra No. 2 Metamorphoses, 1995 Agnus Dei for Requiem of Reconciliation, 4 soloists, mixed choir, and orchestra, 1995 Symphony No. 3, 1988-95. Includes Adagio, Passacaglia and Rondo Burlesque Suite from Ubu Rex, arranged for concert band, 1995 Seven Gates of Jerusalem (Symphony No. 7), 5 soloists, speaker, 3 mixed choirs, orchestra, 1996

APPENDICES

285

De profundis (a transcription of part 3 of Seven Gates of Jerusalem, 3 a cappella mixed choruses, 1996, string orchestra, 1998 Hymn to St. Adalbert, mixed chorus, winds, percussion, 1997 Hymn to St. Daniel, mixed chorus, winds, percussion, piano, 1997 Serenade, string orchestra, 1997 Credo, 5 soloists, mixed choir, boys choir, orchestra, 1998 Lucerne Fanfare, 8 trumpets and 4 percussionists, 1998 Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 2, 1999 Sextet, clarinet, horn, string trio and piano, 2000 Music for Three Recorders, Marimba, and Strings, Adagio from Symphony No. 3, 2000 Concerto Grosso for Three Cellos and Orchestra, 2000 Concerto for Piano and Orchestra Resurrection, 2002 Largo, cello and orchestra, 2003

arrangement of the

Appendix B Compositions by Genre

Film Music Concert at Wawel ("Koncert wawelski"), short-film electronic music, 1960 Forms ("Formy"), short-film electronic music, 1960 Mr. Trumpet ("Pan short-film electronic music, 1960 Tower Clock, short-film music, 1960 Trap, short-film music, 1960 The War Is Never Over, short-film music for jazz ensemble and electronic sounds, c. 1960 Balloons ("Balony"), short-film electronic music, 1961 Enemy in the Glass ("Szklany wrg"), short-film electronic music, 1961 The General and the Fly ("General i mucha"), short-film electronic music, 1961 Meeting with a Monster ("Spotkanie z bazyliszkiem"), short-film electronic music, 1961 The Pocketknife ("Scyzoryk"), short-film electronic music, 1961 Tour of the Cosmos ("Wycieczka w kosmos"), short-film electronic music, 1961 Bitterness ("Gorycz"), short-film electronic music, 1962 Don Juan, short-film music, 1962 Uninhabited Planet ("Bezludna planeta"), short-film music, 1962 Adventure of the Frog ("Przygoda short-film music, 1963 The Coffee Grinder do kawy"), short-film music, 1963 The Kidnapping ("Porwanie"), short-film music, 1963 King Midas ("Krl Midas"), short-film music, 1963 The Saragossa Manuscript znaleziony w Zaragossie"), feature-film electronic music, 1964

288

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

The Magic of Circles ("Czar short-film electronic music, 1965 Sport Etudes (Etiudy sportowe), short-film music, 1965 Sweet Rhythms rytmy), short-film electronic music, 1965 Codes (Szyfry), film music, 1966 Descent to Hell, film music, 1966 Je taime, je taime ("I love you, I love you"), electronic music for feature film, 1968 Incidental Music for Theater Brothers Karamazov ("Braci Karamazw"), 1963 Forefathers ("Dziady"), 1963 For Whom the Bell Tolls ("Komu bije dzwon"), 1964 I Come to Tell a Story 1964 Mother ("Matka"), 1964 Polish Ballad ("Ballada polska"), 1964 The Famous Story about Troilus and Cressida historia o Troilusie i Kressydzie"), 1965 He Left Home z domu"), electronic music for theater, 1965 Ungodly Comedy ("Nieboska komedia"), 1965 The Bells Are Tolling dzwony"), 1966 Music for Puppet Theater The Magic Jug ("Czarodziejski garnek"), 1957 Adventures of the Warsaw Bear ("Przygody warszawskiego misia"), 1958 The Birds Milk ("Ptasie mleczko"), 1958 Diamond Dew ("Diamentowa rosa"), 1958 Little Tommy Tiptoe ("Tomcio paluszek"), 1958 The Shoemakers Twine ("Szewc Dratewka"), 1958 The Swineherd 1958 Zwyrtala the Musician, or How the Mountaineer Reached Home ("O Zwyrtale muzykancie, czyli jak gral do nieba"), 1958 The Crimson Dress ("Pasowa sukienka"), 1959 Grandfathers Wink ("Dziadek 1959 Legend of Bulandra the Miner o grniku Bulandrze"), 1959 The Masters Children ("Dzieci pana majstra"), 1959 The Most Valiant Knight ("Najdzielniejszy z rycerzy"), 1959 The Spider 1959 About the Grinder and the Kantels Miraculous Lute ("O sampo i cudownej lutni Kantele"), c. 1960 Juggler Wearing a Crown ("Kuglarz w koronie"), 1960 Professor Serduczko ("Profesor Serduczko"), 1960 Silver Adventure przygoda"), c. 1960 How Little Hanna Came to an Agreement with the Bear ("Jak Hania z misiem 1961

APPENDICES

289

Little Tiger ("Tygrysek"), 1961 Song of the Fox o lisie"), c. 1961 Achilles and the Young Ladies ("Achiles i panny"), 1962 Mr. Twardowski ("Pan Twardowski"), 1962 Nal and Damayanti ("Nal i Damayanti"), 1962 Pinocchio ("Pinokio"), 1962 Roland the Mad ("Roland Szalony"), 1962 The Snow Queen ("Krlowa 1962 Pinocchio ("Pinokio"), 1962 electronic music for puppet Adventures of the Little Screws ("Przygody theater, 1963 The Loitering Fox ("Lis 1963 Star Child ("Dziecko gwiazda"), 1963 Timothy the Bear, Rim-cim-ci! Tymoteusz Rym-cim-ci"), 1963 The Blacksmith ("Kowala"), music for puppet theater, 1964 Ubu Roi, 1964 The Magic Grinder ("Czarodziejski 1965 Legend of the Five Brothers braciach"), 1967 Electronic Music Psalmus 1961, 1961 Brigade of Death ("Brigada Ekecheiria, 1972

electronic music for a radio play, 1963

Instrumental Chamber Works Sonata for Violin and Piano, 1953 Three Miniatures for Clarinet and Piano, 1954 Miniatures for Flute, c. 1954-1955 Quartet for Strings, c. 1956-57 Miniatures for Violin and Piano, 1959 Quartet for Strings No. 1, 1960 Mensura sortis, 2 pianos, 1963 Capriccio for Oboe and 11 Strings, 1965 Capriccio for Siegfried Palm, cello, 1968 Quartet for Strings No. 2, 1968, revised c. 1968-1970 Capriccio for Tuba Solo, 1979-1980 Cadenza for Solo Viola, 1984 Per Slava, cello, 1985-86 Prelude for Clarinet, 1987 Der Unterbrochene Gedanke, string quartet, 1988 Trio for Strings, 1990-91 Quartet for Clarinet and String Trio, 1993 Divertimento for Cello Solo, 1994 Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 2, 1999

290

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

Sextet, clarinet, horn, string trio and piano, 2000 Instrumental Ensemble Pittsburgh Overture, wind ensemble, 1967 Prlude, winds, percussion, keyboard, and double basses, 1971 Actions, jazz ensemble, 1971 Entrata, brass, timpani, 1994 Burlesque Suite from Ubu Rex, arranged for concert band, 1995 Lucerne Fanfare, 8 trumpets and 4 percussionists, 1998 Orchestral Works Symphonic Scherzo, orchestra, c. 1953-55 Epitaph Artur Malawski in Memoriam, string orchestra and timpani, 1958 Emanations, two string orchestras, 1958-59 Anaklasis for 42 strings and percussion, 1959-60 Threnody, 52 strings, 1960 Fonogrammi, flute and chamber orchestra, 1961 Polymorphia, 48 strings, 1961 Canon, 52 strings and 2 tapes, 1962 Fluorescences, orchestra, 1962 Concerto for Violin, withdrawn after premiere, 1962-63 Three Pieces in Antique Style, 1963 Sonata for Cello and Orchestra, 1963-64 De Natura Sonoris No. 1 for orchestra, 1966 Concerto No. 1 for Violino Grande (or Cello) and Orchestra, 1966-67, transcribed for cello 1971-72 Capriccio for Violin and Orchestra, 1967 De Natura Sonoris No. 2, orchestra, 1970 Partita for solo harpsichord, electric guitar, bass guitar, double bass, harp, and chamber orchestra, 1971-72 Symphony No. 1, 1972-73 Intermezzo, 24 strings, 1973 The Awakening of Jacob, orchestra, 1974 Concerto for Violin and Orchestra No. 1, 1976, rev. 1988 Adagietto from Paradise Lost, orchestra, 1976-78 Symphony No. 2 Christmas, 1979-80, revised 1981 Concerto for Cello and Orchestra No. 2, 1982 Concerto for Viola (or Clarinet or Cello) and Orchestra, 1983 Passacaglia and Rondo, orchestra, 1988 Symphony No. 4 Adagio, 1989 Sinfonietta No. 1, orchestra, 1991 Symphony No. 5 Korean, 1991-92 Concerto for Flute (or Clarinet or Violin) and Chamber Orchestra, 1992 Agnus Dei from the Polish Requiem, arr. for string orchestra, 1994 Music from Ubu Rex, arranged for orchestra, 1994

APPENDICES

291

Sinfonietta No. 2 for Clarinet and Strings, 1994 Concerto for Violin and Orchestra No. 2 Metamorphoses, 1995 Symphony No. 3, 1988-95. Includes Adagio, Passacaglia and Rondo Serenade, string orchestra, 1997 Music for Three Recorders, Marimba, and Strings, arrangement of the Adagio from Symphony No. 3, 2000 Concerto Grosso for Three Cellos and Orchestra, 2000 Concerto for Piano and Orchestra Resurrection, 2002 Largo, cello and orchestra, 2003 Vocal and Instrumental Ensemble Psalms of David, mixed choir, percussion, keyboard, and double basses, 1958 Strophes, soprano, speaker, and ten instruments, 1959 Dimensions of Time and Silence for 40-voice mixed choir, percussion, and strings, 1959-60 Cantata in honorem Almae Matris Universitatis Iagellonicae for 2 mixed choirs and orchestra, 1964 Passio et mors Domini nostri Jesu Christi secundum Lucam (St. Luke Passion), soprano, baritone, and bass soloists, speaker, boys choir, three mixed choirs, and orchestra, 1965-66. Includes In pulverum mortis and Miserere Dies Irae for soprano, tenor, and bass soloists, mixed choir, and orchestra, 1967 Utrenia, Part I The Entombment of Christ, soprano, mezzo-soprano, tenor, bass, and basso profondo soloists, two mixed choruses, orchestra, 1969-70 Cosmogony, soprano, tenor, and bass soloists, mixed choir, and orchestra, 1970 Utrenia, Part II The Resurrection of Christ, five soloists, two mixed choruses, boys choir, orchestra, 1971 Canticum Canticorum Salomonis for 16-voice choir and orchestra, 1970-73 Magnificat, bass solo, seven-part male vocal ensemble, two 24-part mixed choruses, boys chorus, and orchestra, 1973-74 Prelude, Visions, and Finale from Paradise Lost, six soloists; mixed chorus, orchestra, 1979 Te Deum, soprano, mezzo-soprano, tenor, and bass soloists, two mixed choruses, orchestra, 1979-80 Lacrimosa, soprano, mixed choir, and orchestra, 1980 Recordare, soprano, alto, tenor, and bass solos, mixed choir, and orchestra, 1983 Polish Requiem, four soloists, mixed choir and orchestra, 1984. Includes Lacrimosa, Agnus Dei, and Recordare Two Scenes and Finale from The Black Mask, soprano, mezzo-soprano, mixed chorus and orchestra 1988 Sanctus from Polish Requiem, alto, tenor, mixed chorus, orchestra, 1993 Agnus Dei for Requiem of Reconciliation, 4 soloists, mixed choir, and orchestra, 1995

292

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

Seven Gates of Jerusalem (Symphony No. 7), 5 soloists, speaker, 3 mixed choirs, orchestra, 1996 De profundis (a transcription of part 3 of Seven Gates of Jerusalem, 3 a cappella mixed choruses, 1996, string orchestra, 1998 Hymn to St. Adalbert, mixed chorus, winds, percussion, 1997 Hymn to St. Daniel, mixed chorus, winds, percussion, piano, 1997 Credo, 5 soloists, mixed choir, boys choir, orchestra, 1998 Songs & A Capella Choral Music Two Songs [Cisza (Silence), Niebo w nocy (The Sky at Night)], c. 1955 Request for the Joyous Islands o wyspy voice and piano, c. 1954-1955 Stabat Mater, three 16-part a capella choruses, 1962 Funeral Song, voice and piano, 1964 Ecloga VIII, 6 a capella male voices, 1972 Agnus Dei, eight-part unaccompanied mixed chorus, 1981 Song of Cherubim, a capella mixed chorus, 1986 Veni Creator, 8-part a capella mixed chorus, 1987 Were You But a Dream? ty snem voice and piano, 1988 Benedicamus Domino, 5 men's voices, 1992 Benedictus, mixed chorus, 1993 Operas The Superhero ("Najdzielniejszy"), children's opera, 1965 The Devils of Loudun, opera, 1968-69 Paradise Lost, sacra rappresentazione, 1975-78 The Black Mask, opera, 1984-86 Ubu Rex, opera, 1991

Appendix C Dissertations by Reference Number

Albers, Bradley Gene. De Natura Sonoris I and II by Krzysztof Penderecki: A Comparative Analysis. B81. Bersano, James Richard. B123. Formalized Aspect Analysis of Sound Texture.

Brooks, Richard James G. Structural Functions of 'Musical Gesture' As Heard in Selected Instrumental Compositions of the Twentieth-century: A Graphic Analytic Method. B152. Bylander, Cynthia E. The Warsaw Autumn International Festival of Contemporary Music, 1956-1961: Its Goals, Structures, Programs, and People. B165. Delisi, Daniel. Compositional Techniques and Use of the Chorus in Five Selected Choral Works of Krzysztof Penderecki. B258. Foy, Randolph M. Textural Transformations: The Instrumental Music of Krzysztof Penderecki, 1960-73. B358. Gallaher, Christopher Summers. Density in Twentieth-Century Music. B373. Hutcheson, Robert Joseph, Jr. Twentieth century Passion settings: An analytical study of Max Baumanns Passion, Op. 63; Frank Martins

294

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

Golgotha; Krzysztof Pendereckis St. Luke Passion; and Ernst Peppings Passionsbericht des Matthaus. B516. Janzen, Wes. Performing Krzysztof Pendereckis Passio et mors Domini nostri Jesu Christs secundum Lucam: A Conductors Preparation. B539. Kovalenko, Susan Chaffins. The Twentieth-Century Requiem: an Emerging Concept. B655. Ledee, Mikel Andrew. An Analysis on the First String Quartet of Krzysztof Penderecki and an Original Composition, Symphony II. B702. Linthicum, David Howell. Penderecki's Notation: A Critical Evaluation. B725. Mandrell, Nelson Eugene, Jr. Compositional Aspects of Two Early Works for String Orchestra by Krzysztof Penderecki. B761. Murdock, Katherine. The Pittsburgh Overture' by Krzysztof Penderecki and 'Forging the Circle (Original composition). B830. Ramliak, Nick. Timbre and Texture in Twentieth-Century Orchestration Techniques. B965. Reiter, Erica Amelia. Krzysztof Pendereckis Cadenza for Viola solo as a Derivative of the Concerto for Viola and Orchestra: A Numerical Analysis and a Performers Guide. B979. Roberts, Gwyneth Margaret. Procedures for Analysis of Sound Masses. B987. Tyra, Thomas. The Analysis of Three Twentieth-Century Compositions for Wind Ensemble. B1220. Winkler, Gerhard. Das Magnificat von Krzysztof Penderecki und seine Stellungn im Vokalschaffen des Komponisten: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Klangflachenkomposition. B1285.

Appendix D Books and Monographs by Reference Number

Baran, Zbigniew, editor. Krzysztof Penderecki Itinerarium. B108. Chlopicka, Regina and Krzysztof Szwajgier, editors. i tradycja w muzyce Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. B125, B127, B207, B208, B210, B218, B377, B543, B656, B758, B775, B787, B879, 1022, B1272, B1294. and Jacek Ziaro. Pasja o Krzysztofie Pendereckim. B245. Erhardt, Ludwik. Spotkania z Krzysztofem Pendereckim. B328. Ivashkin, Aleksandr. Kshishtof Penderektskifi. B520. Teresa and Regina editors. Krzysztof Penderecki. The Black Mask. Contemporary Dance of Death from Idea to Performance. B211, B217, B914, B1203. Lisicki, Krzysztof. Szkice o Krzysztofie Pendereckim. B727. Malecka-Contamin, Barbara. Krzysztof Penderecki. Style et Matriaux. B756. Mller, Karl-Josef. Informationen zu Pendereckis Lukas-Passion. B823. Penderecki, Krzysztof. Labyrinth of Time. B918.

296 Penderecki, Krzysztof. [sketches]. B922.

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

Robinson, Ray. Krzyszt of Penderecki: A Guide to His Works. B993. Robinson, Ray, editor. Studies in Penderecki, vol. 1. B209, B533, B864, B920, B998, B1002, B1002, B1083, 1106, B1135, B1202, B1288, B1289. Robinson, Ray and Allen Winold. A Study of the Penderecki St. Luke Passion. B1004. Schwinger, Wolfram. Krzysztof Penderecki. His Life and Works. B1091. Teresa. Technika chralna w Krzysztofa Pendereckiego. B1173. Tomaszewski, B1201. wokalno-instrumentalnych

Krzysztof Penderecki i jego muzyka. Cztery eseje.

Tomaszewski, editor. The Music of Krzysztof Penderecki: Poetics and Reception. B63, B176, B180, B204, B226, B340, 415, B532, B759, 861, B878, B999, B1099, B1100, B1105, B1109, B1200.

Index of Works

About the Grinder and the Kantels Miraculous Lute, 15, 280, 288 Achiles i panny. See Achilles and the Young Ladies Achilles and the Young Ladies, 15, 281, 289 Actions, 10, 15, 49, 170, 173, 177, 180, 201, 241, 250, 283, 290 Adagietto from Paradise Lost, 15, 49, 99, 115, 122, 164, 168, 177, 198, 208, 221, 249, 283, 290 Adventure of the Frog, 16, 281, 287 Adventures of the Little Screws, 16, 281, 289 Adventures of the Warsaw Bear, 16, 279, 288 Agnus Dei, 11, 16, 36, 49, 83, 144, 172, 243, 254, 263, 283, 284, 290, 291, 292 Agnus Dei for the Requiem of Reconciliation, 13, 16, 50, 284, 291 Anaklasis, 8, 16, 50, 94, 97, 100, 115, 117, 118, 150, 155, 156, 160, 165, 169, 171, 183, 185, 187, 188, 194, 196, 198, 202, 209, 212, 223, 227, 230, 234, 236, 238, 251, 252, 254, 257, 259, 264, 266, 273, 275, 276, 277, 280, 290 Aria and Two Minuets, 17, 44, 260 Awakening of Jacob, 17, 51, 84, 93, 94, 118, 120, 122, 123, 126, 137, 139, 144, 153, 156, 164, 169, 177, 181, 183, 199, 204, 213, 214, 221, 227, 235, 263, 271, 283, 290 Ballada polska. See Polish Ballad Balloons, 17, 280, 287 Balony. See Balloons o grniku Bulandrze. See Legend of Bulandra the Miner o braciach. See Legend of the Five Brothers Bells Are Tolling, 17, 282, 288 Benedicamus Domino, 13, 17, 51, 144, 168, 184, 284, 292 Benedictus, 13, 17, 52, 144, 263, 284, 292 Bezludna planeta. See Uninhabited Planet

298

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

dzwony. See Bells Are Tolling Birds Milk, 17, 279, 288 Bitterness, 17, 281, 287 Black Mask, 12, 18, 45, 79, 81, 82, 83, 86, 87, 90, 92, 93, 95, 101, 102, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 114, 115, 117, 120, 121, 122, 124, 125, 128, 129, 130, 134, 136, 137, 141, 142, 146, 147, 151, 152, 154, 155, 160, 162, 163, 166, 167, 173, 179, 181, 185, 186, 187, 188, 191, 195, 208, 209, 211, 215, 216, 219, 220, 221, 224, 225, 226, 233, 237, 240, 243, 244, 247, 256, 258, 260, 263, 265, 271, 274, 284, 292 Blacksmith, 18, 281, 289 Braci Karamazw. See Brothers Karamozov Brat naszego Boga. See Our God's Brother Brigada See Brigade of Death Brigade of Death, 18, 168, 212, 281, 289 Brothers Karamazov, 19, 175, 281, 288 Burlesque Suite from Ubu Rex, 19, 284, 290 Cadenza, 11, 19, 52, 61, 207, 214, 224, 245, 255, 264, 283, 289, 294 Canon, 19, 52, 157, 168, 218, 231, 251, 274, 275, 276, 277, 281, 290 Cantata in honorem Almae Matris Universitatis Iagellonicae, 19, 52, 254, 281, 291 Canticum Canticorum Salomonis, 19, 53, 93, 100, 112, 130, 136, 143, 144, 164, 197, 199, 201, 217, 283, 291 Capriccio for Oboe and 11 Strings, 20, 53, 89, 102, 112, 121, 123, 124, 132, 177, 218, 221, 240, 251, 282, 289 Capriccio for Siegfried Palm, 20, 53, 112, 129, 151, 162, 184, 186, 198, 223, 260, 264, 271, 282, 289 Capriccio for Tuba Solo, 20, 54, 121, 198, 271, 274, 283, 289 Capriccio for Violin and Orchestra, 20, 54, 94, 112, 118, 129, 130, 134, 138, 141, 157, 164, 169, 176, 185, 199, 204, 208, 213, 221, 232, 238, 252, 256, 282, 290 Cisza. See Silence Codes, 20, 282, 288 Coffee Grinder, 20, 281, 287 Concert at Wawel, 21, 280, 287 Concerto for Cello and Orchestra No. 1, 21, 55, 85, 93, 98, 113, 128, 133, 157, 282, 290 Concerto for Cello and Orchestra No. 2, 14, 21, 55, 84, 92, 93, 114, 119, 121, 123, 136, 137, 153, 168, 181, 183, 186, 189, 208, 217, 221, 225, 232, 239, 246, 252, 253, 263, 266, 270, 283, 290 Concerto for Flute and Orchestra, 13, 21, 55, 88, 91, 154, 158, 168, 176, 184, 210, 213, 218, 225, 255, 256, 265, 284, 290 Concerto for Piano and Orchestra, 13, 22, 56, 285, 291 Concerto for Viola and Orchestra, 22, 56, 88, 118, 124, 136, 138, 141, 151, 158, 160, 176, 177, 182, 185, 193, 207, 213, 214, 217, 224, 229, 239, 245, 246, 249, 255, 283, 290, 294 Concerto for Violin and Orchestra No. 1, 10, 22, 57, 86, 90, 95, 97, 99, 101, 102, 104, 115, 116, 120, 139, 141, 145, 147, 149, 156, 163, 168, 187, 198, 200, 207, 210, 213, 229, 240, 242, 262, 271, 272, 283, 290 Concerto for Violin and Orchestra No. 2, 13, 23, 58, 91, 93, 154, 168, 239, 248, 253, 271, 284, 291 Concerto for Violin and Orchestra, withdrawn, 22, 135, 267, 281, 290 Concerto Grosso for Three Cellos and Orchestra, 13, 23, 58, 285, 291

INDEX

299

Cosmogony, 23, 58, 93, 99, 126, 130, 134, 163, 165, 187, 204, 205, 216, 223, 233, 239, 250, 251, 266, 282, 291 Credo, 12, 14, 23, 58, 84, 93, 107, 147, 160, 285, 292 Crimson Dress, 24, 280, 288 Czar See Magic of Circles Czarodziejski garnek. See Magic Jug Czarodziejski See Magic Grinder ty snem See Were You but a Dream? De Natura Sonoris No. 1, 24, 59, 89, 97, 132, 138, 141, 156, 161, 183, 184, 204, 231, 232, 252, 255, 271, 282, 290 De Natura Sonoris No. 2, 24, 114, 129, 136, 137, 141, 156, 174, 183, 198, 202, 213, 229, 236, 255, 271, 282, 290 De profundis, 24, 39, 284, 292 Der unterbrochene Gedanke, 12, 218, 256 Descent to Hell, 24, 282, 288 Devils of Loudun, 11, 24, 59, 80, 81, 85, 87, 88, 89, 91, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98, 100, 102, 104, 107, 109, 110, 115, 116, 117, 120, 125, 126, 127, 129, 130, 132, 133, 134, 135, 139, 141, 142, 143, 146, 147, 148, 149, 151, 152, 153, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 166, 167, 169, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 178, 179, 183, 184, 185, 186, 188, 189, 190, 191, 193, 194, 195, 198, 199, 200, 206, 209, 210, 211, 214, 219, 222, 224, 225, 226, 230, 235, 237, 240, 241, 242, 243, 245, 246, 248, 250, 252, 253, 254, 257, 259, 261, 264, 268, 270, 278, 282, 292 Diamentowa rosa. See Diamond Rose Diamond Dew, 25, 279, 288 Dies Irae, 10, 11, 25, 60, 83, 93, 113, 116, 117, 124, 126, 127, 165, 170, 171, 174, 177, 180, 184, 187, 192, 204, 208, 212, 216, 223, 230, 237, 238, 242, 254, 255, 256, 257, 267, 269, 270, 282, 291 Dimensions of Time and Silence, 25, 60, 89, 107, 123, 138, 149, 161, 166, 168, 181, 202, 209, 210, 223, 234, 254, 255, 257, 265, 266, 275, 276, 277, 280, 291 Divertimento, 13, 26, 60, 284, 289 Don Juan, 26, 281, 287 Dziadek See Grandfather's Wink Dziady. See Forefathers Dzieci pana majstra. See Master's Children, See Master's Children Dziecko gwiazda. See Star Child Ecloga VIII, 26, 60, 93, 111, 117, 182, 240, 283, 292 Ekecheiria, 26, 283, 289 Emanations, 8, 26, 61, 89, 113, 157, 209, 217, 223, 231, 234, 254, 266, 280, 290 Enemy in the Glass, 26, 280, 287 Entrata, 13, 27, 284, 290 Epitaph Artur Malawski in Memoriam, 27, 234, 279, 290 Etiudy sportowe. See Sport Etudes Exaltabo te, Domino, 67 Famous Story about Troilus and Cressida, 282, 288 Fluorescences, 9, 27, 61, 96, 106, 162, 171, 198, 209, 222, 223, 234, 236, 238, 257, 261, 275, 277, 281, 290 Fonogrammi, 27, 61, 223, 240, 267, 276, 280, 290

300
For Whom the Bell Tolls, 28, 175, 281, 288 Forefathers, 27, 281, 288 Forms, 27, 287 Formy. See Forms Funeral Song, 281, 292, See General and the Fly, 28, 280, 287 General i mucha. See General and the Fly Gorycz. See Bitterness Grandfathers Wink, 28, 280, 288

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

He Left Home, 28, 282, 288 How Little Hanna Came to an Agreement with the Bear, 28, 280, 288 Hymn to St. Adalbert, 13, 28, 93, 138, 285, 292 Hymn to St. Daniel, 13, 28, 84, 192, 285, 292 I Come to Tell a Story, 29, 281, 288 In pulverum mortis, 29, 64, 263, 282, 291 Intermezzo, 29, 61, 100, 124, 283, 290 Hania z misiem with the Bear Je taime, je taime, 29, 288 Juggler Wearing a Crown, 29, 288 Jak See How Little Hanna Came to an Agreement

Kidnapping, 29, 281, 287 King Midas, 29, 281, 287 Komu bije dzwon. See For Whom the Bell Tolls Koncert wawelski. See Concert at Wawel Kowala. See Blacksmith Krl Midas. See King Midas Krlowa See Snow Queen Kuglarz w koronie. See Juggler Wearing a Crown Lacrimosa, 11, 29, 36, 62, 83, 85, 104, 115, 117, 135, 139, 146, 168, 170, 172, 180, 181, 184, 193, 200, 225, 254, 268, 283, 291 Larghetto, 30, 39 Largo, 30, 285, 291 Legend of Bulandra the Miner, 30, 288 Legend of the Five Brothers, 30, 282, 289 Lis See Loitering Fox Little Tiger, 30, 280, 288 Little Tommy Tiptoe, 30, 288 Loitering Fox, 30, 281 Lucerne Fanfare, 13, 30, 285, 290 Magic Grinder, 31, See Magic Jug, 31, 288 Magic of Circles, 31, 282, 287

INDEX

301

Magnificat, 10, 14, 31, 62, 92, 93, 100, 102, 109, 110, 118, 126, 155, 163, 164, 191, 192, 203, 204, 205, 213, 221, 226, 227, 231, 232, 235, 238, 248, 249, 251, 256, 257, 260, 263, 265, 270, 276, 283, 291, 294 Masters Children, 31, 288 Matka. See Mother Meeting with a Monster, 31, 280 Mensura sortis, 32, 212, 281, 289 Miniatures for Flute, 32, 176, 234, 279, 289 Miniatures for Violin and Piano, 32, 62, 119, 182, 184, 198, 206, 214, 217, 235, 255, 271, 280, 289 Tymoteusz Rym-cim-ci. See Timothy the Bear, Rim-cim-ci! Miserere, 32, 64, 89, 101, 144, 217, 263, 282, 291 Misterioso, 32, 176 do kawy. See Coffee Grinder Most Valiant Knight, 32, 206, 280, 288 Mother, 32, 281, 288 Mr. Trumpet, 32, 287 Mr. Twardowski, 33, 281, 289 Music for Three Recorders, Marimba, and Strings, 33, 285, 291 Music from Ubu Rex, 33, 284, 290 Najdzielniejszy. See Superhero Najdzielniejszy z rycerzy. See Most Valiant Knight Nal and Damayanti, 33, 281, 289 Niebo w nocy. See Sky at Night Nieboska komedia. See Ungodly Comedy O crux ave; Jerusalem, convertere ad Dominum, 65 O sampo i cudownej lutni Kantele. See About the Grinder and the Kantel's Miraculous Lute O Zwyrtale muzykancie, czyli jak gral do nieba. See Zwyrtala the Musician Our Gods Brother, 33 See Spider Pan See Mr. Trumpet Pan Twardowski. See Mr. Twardowski Paradise Lost, 10, 15, 16, 33, 37, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 89, 90, 93, 94, 97, 99, 101, 104, 108, 109, 110, 112, 113, 119, 120, 123, 125, 127, 128, 130, 131, 133, 135, 136, 137, 139, 140, 142, 145, 147, 149, 150, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 161, 164, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 173, 175, 176, 180, 181, 182, 183, 186, 187, 188, 191, 196, 198, 201, 203, 206, 207, 214, 215, 216, 217, 219, 220, 224, 230, 232, 236, 237, 239, 240, 243, 245, 247, 249, 250, 254, 257, 263, 265, 268, 269, 271, 272, 283, 290, 291, 292 Partita, 34, 63, 100, 113, 144, 153, 157, 158, 173, 177, 189, 194, 199, 214, 239, 260, 269, 283, 290 Pasowa sukienka. See Crimson Dress Passacaglia and Rondo, 35, 43, 63, 73, 93, 118, 160, 169, 260, 284, 290, 291 Per Slava, 11, 35, 65, 200, 255, 284, 289 o lisie. See Song of the Fox Pinocchio, 15, 25, 28, 33, 35, 281, 289 Pinokio. See Pinocchio

302

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

Pittsburgh Overture, 35, 65, 141, 203, 223, 235, 253, 261, 282, 290, 294 Pocketknife, 36, 281, 287 Polish Ballad, 36, 212, 282, 288 Polish Requiem, 11, 12, 16, 30, 36, 38, 65, 82, 83, 84, 86, 87, 90, 93, 96, 99, 102, 107, 108, 117, 118, 123, 133, 138, 141, 144, 145, 147, 153, 154, 155, 162, 163, 167, 172, 173, 177, 178, 180, 181, 186, 188, 196, 213, 215, 217, 221, 228, 232, 233, 238, 243, 249, 254, 255, 257, 261, 262, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 273, 284, 290, 291, 294 Polymorphia, 36, 66, 83, 87, 88, 89, 103, 106, 118, 120, 162, 165, 171, 184, 187, 188, 192, 198, 209, 212, 213, 221, 223, 235, 239, 250, 253, 256, 260, 269, 275, 276, 277, 280, 290 Portrait of a Conductor, 37 Porwanie. See Kidnapping Prelude for Clarinet, 11, 37, 66, 200, 241, 255, 262, 284, 289, 290, 291 Prelude for Winds, Percussion, Keyboard, and Double Basses, 37 Prelude, Visions, and Finale, 37, 188, 217, 269, 283 Professor Serduczko, 37, 280, 288 o wyspy See Request for the Joyous Islands See I Come to Tell a Story Przygoda See Adventure of the Frog Przygody See Adventures of the Little Screws Przygody warszawskiego misia. See Adventures of the Warsaw Bear Psalms of David, 8, 37, 67, 85, 89, 106, 107, 115, 123, 137, 144, 152, 180, 183, 198, 202, 213, 224, 238, 241, 254, 267, 279, 291 Psalmus 1961, 37, 67, 80, 168, 231, 271, 276, 277, 280, 289 Ptasie mleczko. See Bird's Milk Quartet for Clarinet and String Trio, 13, 37, 40, 67, 93, 95, 141, 168, 184, 200, 225, 255, 284, 289 Quartet for Four Violins, 105 Quartet for Strings No. 1, 38, 68, 89, 96, 101, 117, 134, 136, 142, 161, 171, 183, 187, 188, 198, 206, 209, 211, 215, 217, 229, 232, 240, 271, 275, 276, 277, 280, 289, 294 Quartet for Strings No. 2, 38, 69, 112, 161, 176, 182, 197, 198, 202, 214, 235, 240, 252, 255, 271, 282, 289 Quartet for Strings, withdrawn, 38, 234, 279, 289 Recordare, 11, 36, 38, 238, 283, 291 znaleziony w Zaragossie. See Saragossa Manuscript Request for the Joyous Islands, 38, 234, 279, 292 Roland Szalony. See Roland the Mad Roland the Mad, 39, 281, 289 Saragossa Manuscript, 39, 44, 86, 153, 270, 282, 287 Scyzoryk. See Pocketknife Serenade, 30, 34, 39, 285, 291 Seven Gates of Jerusalem, 12, 24, 39, 69, 84, 92, 93, 107, 138, 154, 160, 169, 181, 216, 218, 227, 233, 249, 255, 273, 284, 292 Sextet, 13, 39, 70, 285, 289 Shoemakers Twine, 40, 279, 288 Sicut locutus est, 62, 144, 263 Silence, 45

INDEX

303

Silver Adventure, 40, 280, 288 Sinfonietta No. 1, 40, 70, 126, 168, 176, 184, 228, 244, 255, 284, 290 Sinfonietta No. 2, 40, 284, 291 Sky at Night, 45 historia o Troilusie i Kressydzie. See Famous Story about troilus and Cressida rytmy. See Sweet Rhythms, See Sweet Rhythms Snow Queen, 40, 281, 289 Sonata for Cello and Orchestra, 40, 70, 89, 98, 116, 141, 155, 185, 187, 202, 210, 217, 235, 236, 238, 241, 281, 290 Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 1, 40, 70, 168, 279, 289 Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 2, 41, 71, 184, 285, 289 Song of Cherubim, 11, 41, 71, 97, 144, 159, 168, 184, 225, 263, 284, 292 Song of the Fox, 41, 281, 289 Spider, 41, 280, 288 Sport Etudes, 41, 282, 288 Spotkanie z bazyliszkiem. See Meeting with a Monster przygoda. See Silver Adventure St. Luke Passion, 9, 10, 14, 29, 32, 35, 41, 63, 64, 65, 83, 85, 86, 88, 89, 93, 99, 100, 101, 103, 105, 110, 111, 112, 115, 119, 120, 121, 123, 126, 127, 132, 133, 134, 135, 140, 142, 143, 144, 146, 147, 151, 152, 153, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 163, 168, 170, 171, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 184, 186, 187, 189, 190, 191, 193, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 211, 212, 213, 216, 217, 218, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 229, 232, 234, 236, 237, 238, 239, 241, 242, 243, 245, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 254, 255, 262, 263, 265, 267, 268, 269, 271, 272, 273, 277, 282, 291, 293, 294 Stabat Mater, 9, 10, 12, 35, 41, 71, 89, 92, 93, 97, 100, 106, 115, 117, 122, 123, 144, 155, 159, 161, 164, 176, 177, 180, 183, 190, 193, 205, 213, 217, 222, 224, 227, 231, 232, 238, 239, 243, 249, 254, 260, 261, 262, 263, 265, 281, 292 Star Child, 41, 281, 289 Story about Troilus and Cressida, 27, 175 Strophes, 8, 41, 72, 98, 124, 149, 174, 177, 181, 197, 202, 209, 211, 216, 218, 223, 231, 234, 249, 254, 265, 266, 276, 280, 291 Superhero, 32, 42, 255, 282, 292 Sweet Rhythms, 42, 282, 288 Swineherd, 42, 279, 288 See Swineherd Symphonic Scherzo, 42, 234, 279, 290 Symphony No. 1, 10, 42, 72, 81, 89, 93, 113, 116, 127, 128, 134, 135, 139, 143, 145, 146, 158, 183, 192, 194, 199, 212, 213, 214, 217, 233, 234, 235, 245, 268, 270, 271, 272, 283, 290 Symphony No. 2, 42, 73, 80, 85, 91, 99, 102, 117, 119, 120, 136, 143, 165, 168, 170, 175, 181, 182, 191, 195, 201, 206, 209, 213, 220, 221, 246, 265, 273, 283, 290 Symphony No. 3, 33, 35, 43, 63, 73, 90, 95, 141, 154, 160, 213, 239, 255, 260, 284 Symphony No. 4, 12, 14, 43, 73, 79, 86, 210, 213, 284, 290 Symphony No. 5, 43, 74, 133, 244, 259, 284, 290 Symphony No. 7, See Seven Gates of Jerusalem Szewc Dratewka. See Shoemaker's Twine Szklany wrg. See Enemy in the Glass Szyfry. See Codes

304

KRZYSZTOF PENDERECKI

Te Deum, 11, 43, 74, 82, 83, 101, 117, 118, 119, 122, 135, 136, 137, 139, 140, 155, 159, 164, 165, 174, 175, 177, 180, 181, 186, 200, 201, 210, 213, 216, 217, 220, 221, 225, 228, 230, 239, 243, 247, 273, 283, 291 Three Miniatures for Clarinet and Piano, 44, 74, 184, 196, 206, 214, 232, 234, 255, 271, 279, 289 Three Pieces in Antique Style, 17, 39, 44, 75, 124, 281, 290 Threnody, 9, 44, 75, 89, 90, 93, 94, 96, 97, 103, 112, 119, 120, 122, 124, 133, 138, 140, 141, 145, 149, 150, 155, 156, 159, 160, 166, 168, 169, 171, 174, 176, 177, 180, 181, 183, 184, 187, 192, 193, 198, 200, 206, 208, 209, 212, 213, 214, 216, 218, 220, 221, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 230, 231, 236, 248, 253, 255, 259, 264, 267, 268, 269, 273, 275, 276, 277, 280, 290 Timothy the Bear, Rim-cim-ci!, 44, 281, 289 Tomcio paluszek. See Little Tommy Tiptoe Tour of the Cosmos, 45, 281, 287 Tower Clock, 45, 280, 287 Trap, 45, 280, 287 Trio for Strings, 39, 40, 45, 70, 76, 87, 165, 200, 228, 244, 284, 289 Two Scenes and Finale from The Black Mask, 45, 291 Two Songs, 292 Tygrysek. See Little Tiger Ubu Rex, 13, 19, 33, 45, 46, 81, 93, 104, 105, 107, 109, 110, 116, 120, 128, 131, 135, 139, 142, 146, 155, 157, 166, 167, 168, 169, 193, 229, 246, 256, 261, 262, 264, 267, 284, 292 Ubu Roi, 45, 46, 131, 139, 148, 182, 239, 282, 289 Ungodly Comedy, 46, 158, 175, 282, 288 Uninhabited Planet, 46, 281, 287 Unterbrochene Gedanke, 46, 76, 176, 284, 289 Ut quia, Domine, 64 Utrenia, 10, 46, 47, 76, 77, 85, 93, 95, 97, 100, 102, 105, 111, 112, 118, 119, 129, 137, 140, 147, 155, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 168, 172, 176, 177, 178, 179, 184, 186, 187, 189, 190, 193, 198, 200, 203, 208, 216, 223, 225, 231, 232, 235, 236, 238, 242, 249, 250, 259, 266, 271, 277, 282, 283, 291 Veni Creator, 11, 47, 77, 87, 97, 144, 263, 284, 292 War Is Never Over, 47, 280, 287 Were You But a Dream, 292 Wycieczka w kosmos. See Tour of the Cosmos z domu. See He Left Home Zwyrtala the Musician, 47, 279, 288

ABOUT THE AUTHOR CINDY BYLANDER is a musicologist who specializes in postWorld War II Polish music, particularly the Warsaw Autumn Festival and the music of Krzysztof Penderecki.

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