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Chapter 7 Sums and Products of Trigonometric Functions 107

CHAPTER 7 13. 4 cos x cos 3 x cos 5 x


1
Exercise 7A (p.166) = 4 cos x ⋅ [cos 8 x + cos( −2 x )]
2
1 = 2 cos x (cos 8 x + cos 2 x )
1. 2 sin 40° cos 20° = 2[ (sin 60° + sin 20°)] = 2 cos x cos 8 x + 2 cos x cos 2 x
2
= sin 60° + sin 20° 1 1
= 2 ⋅ [cos 9 x + cos( −7 x )] + 2 ⋅ [cos 3 x + cos( − x )]
2 2
1 = cos 9 x + cos 7 x + cos 3 x + cos x
2. 2 cos 120° sin 80° = 2[ (sin 200° − sin 40°)]
2
= sin 200° − sin 40° 14. cos 75° cos 45°
1
1 = [cos(75° + 45°) + cos(75° − 45°)]
3. 4 cos 70° cos 50° = 4[ (cos 120° + cos 20°)] 2
2 1
= 2 cos 120° + 2 cos 20° = (cos 120° + cos 30°)
2
1 1
4. sin x sin 3 x = − [cos 4 x − cos( −2 x )] cos 75° cos 45° = (cos 120° + cos 30°)
2 2
1 2 1 1 3
= − (cos 4 x − cos 2 x ) cos 75°( ) = (− + )
2 2 2 2 2
1 1
= cos 2 x − cos 4 x cos 75° =
1
(− +
1 3
)
2 2 2 2 2
2
5. cos 5 A cos 3 A =
1 = ( −1 + 3 )
(cos 8 A + cos 2 A) 4
2 1
1 1 = ( 6 − 2)
= cos 8 A + cos 2 A 4
2 2
75°+15° 75°−15°
6. 4 cos( x + 60°)sin( x − 60°) cos 75° + cos 15° 2 cos 2 cos 2
15. =
1 sin 75° − sin 15° 2 cos 75°+2 15° sin 75°−2 15°
= 4[ (sin 2 x − sin 120°)]
2 75° − 15°
= 2 sin 2 x − 2 sin 120° = cot
2
= cot 30°
7. cos 60° + cos 140° = 2 cos 100° cos( −40°) = 3
= 2 cos 100° cos 40°

8. sin 5 x − sin 3 x = 2 cos 4 x sin x 16. cos x + cos( x + 120°) + cos( x + 240°)
x + x + 120° x − x − 120°
= 2 cos cos
9. cos 2 y − cos 6 y = −2 sin 4 y sin( −2 y) 2 2
+ cos( x + 240°)
= 2 sin 4 y sin 2 y
= 2 cos( x + 60°) cos( −60°) + cos( x + 240°)
= 2 cos( x + 60°) cos 60° + cos( x + 240°)
10. sin(3 A + B) + sin( A + 3 B) 1
3 A + B + A + 3B 3 A + B − A − 3B = 2 cos( x + 60°)( ) + cos( x + 240°)
= 2 sin cos 2
2 2 = cos( x + 60°) + cos( x + 240°)
= 2 sin 2( A + B) cos( A − B) x + 60° + x + 240° x + 60° − x − 240°
= 2 cos cos
2 2
π = 2 cos( x + 150°) cos( −90°)
11. sin( − θ) + cos 3θ = cos θ + cos 3θ
2 = 2 cos( x + 150°) cos 90°
= 2 cos 2θ cos( −θ) =0
= 2 cos 2θ cos θ
3
12. sin A + cos B 17. sin( A + B) =
7
π
= cos( − A) + cos B sin A cos B + sin B cos A =
3
..............(1)
2 7
1 π 1 π
= 2 cos ( − A + B) cos ( − A − B) sin( A − B) =
1
2 2 2 2 7
108 Chapter 7 Sums and Products of Trigonometric Functions

1 A+ B
sin A cos B − sin B cos A = ..............(2) (b) sin( A + B) = sin 2( )
7 2
3 1 4 A+ B A+ B
(1) + (2), 2 sin A cos B = + = = 2 sin( ) cos( )
7 7 7 2 2
a b
sin A cos B =
2 = 2⋅ ⋅
7 ± a + b ± a + b2
2 2 2
2 ab
3 1 2 = 2
(1) − (2), 2 sin B cos A = − = a + b2
7 7 7
1 A+ B
sin B cos A = (c) cos( A + B) = cos 2( )
7 2
2 A+ B
sin A cos B = 2 cos 2 ( ) −1
= 7
1 2
sin B cos A 7 2b 2
tan A = 2 −1
=2 a + b2
tan B
b2 − a2
= 2
a + b2
18. sin A + sin B = a
A+ B A− B
2 sin cos =a π 3π 5π 7π 9π
2 2 19. Let y = cos + cos + cos + cos + cos
A+ B A− B a 11 11 11 11 11
sin cos = ..............(1)
2 2 2 π π π π 3π
2 y sin = 2 sin cos + 2 sin cos
A+ B A − B a2 11 11 11 11 11
sin 2 cos 2 = ............(2) π 5π π 7π
2 2 4 + 2 sin cos + 2 sin cos
cos A + cos B = b 11 11 11 11
π 9π
A+ B A− B + 2 sin cos
2 cos cos =b 11 11
2 2 2π 1 4π −2 π
A+ B A− B b = sin + 2 ⋅ (sin + sin )
cos cos = ..............(3) 11 2 11 11
2 2 2 1 6π −4 π
A + B A − B b2 + 2 ⋅ (sin + sin )
cos 2 cos 2 = ...........(4) 2 11 11
2 2 4 1 8π −6 π
+ 2 ⋅ (sin + sin )
(2) + (4), 2 11 11
1 10 π −8π
A− B A+ B A+ B a2 b2 + 2 ⋅ (sin + sin )
cos 2 (sin 2 + cos 2 )= + 2 11 11
2 2 2 4 4 2π 4π 2π
= sin + (sin − sin )
A − B a2 + b2 11 11 11
cos 2 = 6π 4π
2 4 + (sin − sin )
A − B ± a2 + b2 11 11
cos = 8π 6π 10 π 8π
2 2 + (sin − sin ) + (sin − sin )
11 11 11 11
From (1),
π 10 π
A+ B a 2 a 2 y sin = sin
sin = ⋅ = 11 11
2 2 ± a +b
2 2
± a + b2
2 π
= sin( π − )
From (3), 11
π
= sin
A+ B b 2 b 11
cos = ⋅ =
2 2 ± a2 + b2 ± a2 + b2 2y = 1
1
a y=
A+ B sin( A +2 B ) ± a2 +b2 a
2
(a) tan( )= = = π 3π 5π 7π 9π 1
2 cos( A +2 B ) b b ∴ cos + cos + cos + cos + cos =
± a2 +b2 11 11 11 11 11 2
Chapter 7 Sums and Products of Trigonometric Functions 109

π 2π 4π 25. cos( x + y + z ) + cos( x + y − z )


20. cos cos cos
7 7 7 + cos( x − y + z ) + cos( − x + y + z )
1 π 2π π 2π 4π = 2 cos( x + y) cos z + 2 cos z cos( x − y)
= [cos( + ) + cos( − )]cos
2 7 7 7 7 7 = 2 cos z[cos( x + y) + cos( x − y)]
1 3π −π 4π = 2 cos z[2 cos x cos y]
= (cos + cos ) cos
2 7 7 7 = 4 cos x cos y cos z
1 3π 4π 1 π 4π
= cos cos + cos cos
2 7 7 2 7 7 26. tan( A + B) + tan( A − B)
1 1 3π + 4 π 3π − 4 π
= [ (cos + cos )] sin( A + B) sin( A − B)
2 2 7 7 = +
1 1 π + 4π π − 4π cos( A + B) cos( A − B)
+ [ (cos + cos )] sin( A + B) cos( A − B) + cos( A + B)sin( A − B)
2 2 7 7 =
1 −π 1 5π −3π cos( A + B) cos( A − B)
= (cos π + cos ) + (cos + cos ) 1 (sin 2 A + sin 2 B) + 1 (sin 2 A − sin 2 B)
4 7 4 7 7
π 3π 5π = 2 2
1
= (cos π + cos + cos + cos ) cos( A + B) cos( A − B)
4 7 7 7 sin 2 A
= 1
1 1
= ( −1 + ) (by example 3, p.164) 2
(cos 2 A + cos 2 B)
4 2 2 sin A
1 =
=− cos 2 A + cos 2 B
8
sin A + sin 3 A + sin 5 A
sin 2 A + sin 2 B 27.
21. cos A + cos 3 A + cos 5 A
cos 2 A + cos 2 B 2 sin 3 A cos 2 A + sin 3 A
2 sin( 2 A +2 2 B ) cos( 2 A −2 2 B ) =
= 2 cos 3 A cos 2 A + cos 3 A
2 cos( 2 A +2 2 B ) cos( 2 A −2 2 B ) sin 3 A(2 cos 2 A + 1)
=
sin( 2 A +2 2 B ) cos 3 A(2 cos 2 A + 1)
= = tan 3 A
cos( 2 A +2 2 B )
= tan( A + B)
28. sin(3 A + B) + sin( A + 3 B)
= 2 sin 2( A + B) cos( A − B)
sin(θ + 30°) + sin(θ + 60°) = 2[2 sin( A + B) cos( A + B)]cos( A − B)
22.
cos(θ + 30°) + cos(θ + 60°) = 2 sin( A + B)[2 cos( A + B) cos( A − B)]
2 sin(θ + 45°) cos 15° = 2 sin( A + B)(cos 2 A + cos 2 B)
=
2 cos(θ + 45°) cos 15°
= tan(θ + 45°) 29. sin( x − 40°) + sin( x + 80°) = 1
tan θ + tan 45° x − 40° + x + 80° x − 40° − x − 80°
= 2 sin( ) cos( ) =1
1 − tan θ tan 45° 2 2
1 + tan θ 2 sin( x + 20°) cos( −60°) = 1
=
1 − tan θ 1
2 sin( x + 20°)( ) = 1
2
23. 2 sin( 45° + A)sin( 45° − B) sin( x + 20°) = 1
1 x + 20° = 90°
= 2 ⋅ − [cos(90° + A − B) − cos( A + B)]
2 x = 70°
= cos( A + B) − cos[90° − ( B − A)]
= cos( A + B) − sin( B − A) 30. cos(2 x + 10°) + cos(2 x − 10°) = 0
= cos( A + B) + sin( A − B) 2 x + 10° + 2 x − 10° 2 x + 10° − 2 x + 10°
2 cos( )cos( )
2 2
24. sin 2( x + y) − sin 2 x − sin 2 y =0
= 2 sin( x + y) cos( x + y) cos 2 x cos 10° = 0
− 2 sin( x + y) cos( x − y) cos 2 x = 0 (Q cos10° ≠ 0 )
= 2 sin( x + y)[cos( x + y) − cos( x − y)] 2 x = 90°, 270°, 450°, 630°
= 2 sin( x + y)[ −2 sin x sin y] x = 45°, 135°, 225°, 315°
= −4 sin( x + y)sin x sin y
110 Chapter 7 Sums and Products of Trigonometric Functions

31. 2 sin( x + 15°) cos( x − 15°) = 1 36. sin x + sin 2 x + sin 3 x + sin 4 x = 0
1
2 ⋅ (sin 2 x + sin 30°) = 1 3x x
2 sin cos + 2 sin
7x x
cos = 0
2 2 2 2 2
1
sin 2 x + = 1 x
cos (sin
3x 7x
+ sin ) = 0
2 2 2 2
1
sin 2 x = x 3x 7x
2 cos = 0 or sin + sin =0
2 x = 30°, 150°, 390°, 510° 2 2 2
x = 15°, 75°, 195°, 255° x 5x
= 90° or 2 sin cos x = 0
2 2
32. sin 2 x + sin 3 x = 0 5x
x = 180° or sin = 0 or cos x = 0
5x −x 2
2 sin cos =0
2 2 5x
5x x = 0°, 180°, 360°, 540°, 720° or x = 90°, 270°
sin cos = 0 2
2 2 ∴ x = 0°, 72°, 90°, 144°, 180°, 216°, 270°, 288°
5x x
sin = 0 or cos = 0
2 2
5x x 37. sin 2 A + sin 2 B + sin 2C
= 0°, 180°, 360°, 540°, 720° or = 90° = 2 sin( A + B) cos( A − B) + 2 sin C cos C
2 2
= 2 sin C cos( A − B) + 2 sin C[ − cos( A + B)]
x = 0°, 72°, 144°, 180°, 216°, 288°
= 2 sin C[cos( A − B) − cos( A + B)]
3x x = 4 sin A sin B sin C
33. cos = cos
2 2
3x x 38. sin A + sin B + sin C
cos − cos = 0
2 2 1 1 1 1
x = 2 sin ( A + B) cos ( A − B) + 2 sin C cos C
−2 sin x sin = 0 2 2 2 2
2 1 1 1 1
x = 2 cos C cos ( A − B) + 2 cos ( A + B) cos C
sin x = 0 or sin = 0 2 2 2 2
2 1 1 1
x = 2 cos C[cos ( A − B) + cos ( A + B)]
x = 0°, 180° or = 0°, 180° 2 2 2
2 A B C
x = 0°, 180° = 4 cos cos cos
2 2 2
34. sin 3 x + cos 3 x = sin x + cos x
39. cos 2 A + cos 2 B − cos 2C − 1
sin 3 x − sin x = cos x − cos 3 x
2 cos 2 x sin x = 2 sin 2 x sin x = 2 cos( A + B) cos( A − B) − 2 cos 2 C
sin x (cos 2 x − sin 2 x ) = 0 = −2 cos C cos( A − B) + 2 cos C cos( A + B)
sin x = 0 or cos 2 x − sin 2 x = 0 = 2 cos C[cos( A + B) − cos( A − B)]
x = 0°, 180° or tan 2 x = 1 = −4 sin A sin B cos C
2 x = 45°, 225°, 405°, 585°
x = 22.5°, 112.5°, 202.5°, 292.5° 40. cos 2 A + cos 2 B + cos 2 C − 1
1
x = 0°, 22.5°, 112.5°, 180°, 202.5°, 292.5° = (cos 2 A + cos 2 B) + cos 2 C
2
= cos( A + B) cos( A − B) + cos 2 C
35. cos x + cos 2 x + cos 3 x = 0
= − cos C cos( A − B) − cos C cos( A + B)
2 cos 2 x cos x + cos 2 x = 0
= − cos C[cos( A − B) + cos( A + B)]
cos 2 x (2 cos x + 1) = 0
= −2 cos A cos B cos C
cos 2 x = 0 or 2 cos x + 1 = 0
1 π π
2 x = 90°, 270°, 450°, 630° or cos x = − 41. (a) y = sin( x + ) cos( x − )
2 8 24
1 π π
x = 45°, 135°, 225°, 315° or x = 120°, 240° = [sin(2 x + ) + sin ]
2 12 6
∴ x = 45°, 120°, 135°, 225°, 240°, 315° 1 π 1
= sin(2 x + ) +
2 12 4
Chapter 7 Sums and Products of Trigonometric Functions 111

1 π 1 3 3 3
(b) y = sin(2 x + ) + ∴ sin A = 0 or sin B = 0 or sin C = 0
2 12 4 2 2 2
π 3
As −1 ≤ sin(2 x + ) ≤1 Let sin A = 0 ,
12 2
∴ A = 0° or 120°
π
When sin(2 x + ) = 1 , y is maximum. Since A is an interior angle of a triangle,
12
3 ∴ one of the angles = 120°
∴ Maximum of y is .
4
π 44. (a) Let a be the length of ladder.
When sin(2 x +
) = −1 , y is minimum. x = a cos β − a cos α
12
1 1
1
∴ Minimum of y is − . = a[( −2)sin (β + α )sin (β − α )]
4 2 2
1 1
= 2 a sin (α + β)sin (α − β)
2 2
42. (a) 1 + cos( A − B) cos( A + B)
y = a sin α − a sin β
1
= 1 + (cos 2 A + cos 2 B) 1 1
2 = 2 a cos (α + β)sin (α − β)
1 2 2
= 1 + (2 cos 2 A + 2 cos 2 B − 2)
2 x 1
= cos 2 A + cos 2 B (b) ∴ = tan (α + β)
y 2
(b) 3 + cos( P − Q) cos( P + Q) 1
+ cos(Q − R) cos(Q + R) x = y tan (α + β)
2
+ cos( R − P) cos( R + P)
= [1 + cos( P − Q) cos( P + Q)] (c) From (b),
1 π
+ [1 + cos(Q − R) cos(Q + R)] 15 = 20 tan ( + β)
2 3
+ [1 + cos( R − P) cos( R + P)] 1 π 3
= cos 2 P + cos 2 Q + cos 2 Q tan ( + β) =
2 3 4
+ cos 2 R + cos 2 R + cos 2 P 1 π
( + β) = 0.643 5
= 2(cos 2 P + cos 2 Q + cos 2 R) 2 3
β = 0.240 (corr. to 3 sig. fig.)

43. (a) cos 3 A + cos 3 B + cos 3C


45. (a) (i) Let P(n) be the proposition
= cos 3 A + cos 3 B + cos 3( π − A − B)
3 3 °ßsin x + sin 2 x + L + sin nx
= 2 cos ( A + B) cos ( A − B) ( n +1) x
2 2 sin sin nx
− cos 3( A + B) = 2 2 °®.
3 3 sin 2x
= 2 cos ( A + B) cos ( A − B)
2 2 When n = 1 ,
2 3 L.H.S. = sin x
− 2 cos ( A + B) + 1
2
3 3 sin x sin 2x
= 2 cos ( A + B)[cos ( A − B) R.H.S. = = sin x = L.H.S.
2 2 sin 2x
3
− cos ( A + B)] + 1 ∴ P(1) is true.
2
3 3 3 Assume P(k) is true for any positive
= 4 cos ( A + B)sin A sin B + 1 integer k.
2 2 2
3 3 3 i.e. sin x + sin 2 x + L + sin kx
= 1 − 4 sin A sin B sin C
2 2 2 ( k +1) x
sin sin kx
(b) If cos 3 A + cos 3 B + cos 3C = 1 , then by (a), = 2 2
sin 2x
3 3 3
4 sin A sin B sin C = 0
2 2 2
112 Chapter 7 Sums and Products of Trigonometric Functions

then = {12 [sin 12 (2 k + 1) x − sin 12 x ]


sin x + sin 2 x + L + sin kx + sin(k + 1) x + 12 [sin(k + 23 ) x − sin(k + 12 ) x ]} ÷ sin 2x
sin 12 ( k + 1) x sin 12 kx
= + sin(k + 1) x 1 [sin 1 (2 k + 3) x − sin 12 x ]
sin 2x = 2 2
sin 2x
sin 12 ( k + 1) x sin 12 kx + sin(k + 1) x sin 12 x
= cos 12 ( k + 2) x sin 12 ( k + 1) x
sin 2x =
sin 2x
1 1 1
= { [cos x − cos (2 k + 1) x ] cos
[( k +1) +1] x ( k +1) x
sin 2
2 2 2 = 2
1 1 3 sin 2x
+ [cos(k + ) x − cos( k + ) x ]}
2 2 2 Thus assuming Q(k) is true for any
x positive integer k, Q( k + 1) is also true.
÷ sin
2 By the principle of mathematical
1 [cos 1 x − cos 1 (2 k + 3) x ] induction, Q(n) is true for all positive
= 2 2 2
integer n.
sin 2x
sin π6 + sin 2( π6 ) + sin 3( π6 ) + L + sin 11( π6 )
sin 12 ( k + 2) x sin 12 ( k + 1) x (b)
= cos π6 + cos 2( π6 ) + cos 3( π6 ) + L + cos 11( π6 )
sin 2x
(11+1)( π ) 11( π )
[( k +1) +1] x ( k +1) x sin 6
sin 6
sin sin 2 2

= 2 2 sin 12π
sin 2x = (11+1)( π ) 11( π )
cos 2 6 sin 26
Thus assuming P(k) is true for any sin 12π
positive integer k, P( k + 1) is also true. π
By the principle of mathematical = tan 6( )
induction, P(n) is true for all positive 6
= tan π
integer n.
=0
(ii) Let Q(n) be the proposition
°ß cos x + cos 2 x + L + cos nx
( n +1) x Exercise 7B (p.170)
cos sin nx
= 2 2 °®.
sin 2x 1. sin θ = a − 1 , cos θ = b + 1

When n = 1 , sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ = ( a − 1)2 + (b + 1)2


L.H.S. = cos x ( a − 1)2 + (b + 1)2 = 1
cos x cos 2x
R.H.S. = = cos x = L.H.S. 2. x = a sec θ , y = b tan θ
cos 2x x y
= sec θ , = tan θ
∴ Q(1) is true. a b
Assume Q(k) is true for any positive x 2 y2
integer k. − = sec 2 θ − tan 2 θ = 1
a2 b2
i.e. cos x + cos 2 x + L + cos kx
b2 x 2 − a2 y2 = a2b2
( k +1) x
cos sin kx
= 2 2
sin 2x 3. x = cos θ + sin θ + 1, y = cos θ − sin θ + 1
then cos θ + sin θ = x − 1, cos θ − sin θ = y − 1
cos x + cos 2 x + L + cos kx + cos( k + 1) x ( x − 1)2 + ( y − 1)2
( k +1) x kx = (cos θ + sin θ)2 + (cos θ − sin θ)2
cos sin
= 2
x
2 + cos( k + 1) x = (cos 2 θ + 2 sin θ cos θ + sin 2 θ)
sin 2
( k +1) x + (cos 2 θ − 2 sin θ cos θ + sin 2 θ)
cos 2 sin kx + cos( k + 1) x sin 2x
= 2 =2
sin 2x ∴ ( x − 1)2 + ( y − 1)2 = 2
Chapter 7 Sums and Products of Trigonometric Functions 113

4. sin θ − cos θ = x , cos 2θ = y 2 (b) mn = (tan A + sin A)(tan A − sin A)


= tan 2 A − sin 2 A
(sin θ − cos θ)2 = x 2
= tan 2 A − tan 2 A cos 2 A
sin 2 θ − 2 sin θ cos θ + cos 2 θ = x 2
= tan 2 A(1 − cos 2 A)
1 − sin 2θ = x 2
= tan 2 A sin 2 A
sin 2θ = 1 − x 2 m+n 2 m−n 2
=( ) ( ) (by (a))
(1 − x 2 )2 + ( y 2 )2 = sin 2 2θ + cos 2 2θ 2 2
(1 − x 2 )2 + ( y 2 )2 = 1 ∴ 16 mn = ( m 2 − n 2 )2
x 4 + y4 = 2x2 m − n 2 = 4 mn (as m ≥ n > 0 )
2

sin θ cos θ
5. tan θ − sec θ = m , tan θ + sec θ = n 9. (a) From (1), =
x y
(tan θ − sec θ)(tan θ + sec θ) = mn x
tan θ = x2+y2
tan 2 θ − sec 2 θ = mn y x
mn + 1 = 0 x θ
∴ sin θ = and
y
x + y2
2

6. x = a(csc θ − cot θ) , y = b(csc θ + cot θ) y


cos θ =
xy = a(csc θ − cot θ) ⋅ b(csc θ + cot θ) x + y2
2

= ab(csc 2 θ − cot 2 θ) (b) From (a),


= ab
x2 y2
∴ xy = ab sin 2 θ = , cos 2
θ =
x 2 + y2 x 2 + y2
Substitute into (2),
7. sin θ + cos θ = m
1 x2 1 y2 2
sin θ + 2 sin θ cos θ + cos θ = m
2 2 2 ( )( ) + ( )( )= 2
y 2
x +y
2 2
x 2
x +y
2 2
x + y2
1 + 2 sin θ cos θ = m 2
x 2 y2 1 2
1 ( + 2) 2 = 2
sin θ cos θ = ( m 2 − 1) ....................(1) y 2
x x +y 2
x + y2
2
tan θ + cot θ = n x 2 y2
∴ + =2
sin θ cos θ y2 x 2
+ =n
cos θ sin θ x
sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ = n sin θ cos θ Let t = ( )2 = tan 2 θ ,
y
1
1 ∴ t+ =2
sin θ cos θ =.................................(2) t
n
t 2 − 2t + 1 = 0
From (1) and (2), ∴ t =1
1 2 1 x 2
( m − 1) = ∴ ( ) =1
2 n y
n( m − 1) = 2
2
x
tan θ = = ±1
y
8. (a) tan A + sin A = m .........(1) π
As 0 < θ < ,
tan A − sin A = n .........(2) 2
m+n tan θ = 1
(1) + (2), tan A = π
2 ∴ θ=
4
m−n
(1) − (2), sin A =
2
114 Chapter 7 Sums and Products of Trigonometric Functions

Revision Exercise 7 (p.172) 6. (a) (b + c) cos A + (c + a) cos B + ( a + b) cos C


1. sin( A + C )sin( A + D) = 2 R(sin B cos A + sin C cos A + sin C cos B
= sin[360° − ( B + D)]sin[360° − ( B + C )] + sin A cos B + sin A cos C + sin B cos C )
= [ − sin( B + D)][− sin( B + C )] = 2 R[sin( A + B) + sin( B + C ) + sin(C + A)]
= sin( B + C )sin( B + D) = 2 R(sin A + sin B + sin C )
= a+b+c
2. sin A = 2 cos B sin C (b) (b + c) cos A + (c + a) cos B + ( a + b) cos C
sin[180° − ( B + C )] = sin( B + C ) = 2 cos B sin C = a+b+c
( a + b + c) cos A + ( a + b + c) cos B + ( a + b + c) cos C
sin B cos C + cos B sin C = 2 cos B sin C
= a + b + c + a cos A + b cos B + c cos C
sin B cos C = cos B sin C
( a + b + c)(cos A + cos B + cos C − 1)
tan B = tan C
= a cos A + b cos B + c cos C
∴ B=C
A+ B A− B
( a + b + c)[2 cos( ) cos( ) + cos C − 1]
2 2
3. cos 2 ( x − y) − sin 2 ( x + y) = a cos A + b cos B + c cos C
1 1
= [1 + cos 2( x − y)] − [1 − cos 2( x + y)] A+ B A− B C
( a + b + c)[2 cos( ) cos( ) − 2 sin 2 ]
2 2 2 2 2
1
= [cos 2( x + y) + cos 2( x − y)] = a cos A + b cos B + c cos C
2 C A− B C
= cos 2 x cos 2 y ( a + b + c)(2 sin )[cos( ) − sin ]
2 2 2
= a cos A + b cos B + c cos C
C A− B A+ B
4. (a) 2 sin A cos 3 A ( a + b + c)(2 sin )[cos( ) − cos( )]
1 2 2 2
= 2 ⋅ [sin( A + 3 A) + sin( A − 3 A)] = a cos A + b cos B + c cos C
2
= sin 4 A + sin( −2 A) A B C
4( a + b + c)sin sin sin
= sin 4 A − sin 2 A 2 2 2
= a cos A + b cos B + c cos C
(b) 2 sin A[cos A + cos 3 A + cos 5 A
+ cos 7 A + cos 9 A] 7. cos 2 nθ − cos 2 mθ
= 2 sin A cos A + 2 sin A cos 3 A + 2 sin A cos 5 A = (cos nθ + cos mθ)(cos nθ − cos mθ)
+ 2 sin A cos 7 A + 2 sin A cos 9 A n+m n−m
= sin 2 A + (sin 4 A − sin 2 A) + (sin 6 A − sin 4 A) = (2 cos θ cos θ)
2 2
+ (sin 8 A − sin 6 A) + (sin 10 A − sin 8 A) n+m n−m
= sin 10 A ⋅ [( −2)sin θ sin θ]
2 2
∴ cos A + cos 3 A + cos 5 A + cos 7 A + cos 9 A n+m n+m
= (2 cos θ sin θ)
sin 10 A 2 2
= n−m n−m
2 sin A ⋅ ( −2 sin θ cos θ)
2 2
n+m n+m
5. cos 2 A + cos 2 B − cos 2 C − 1 = (2 cos θ sin θ)
2 2
1 1
= (cos 2 A + 1) + (cos 2 B + 1) − cos 2 C − 1 m−n m−n
⋅ (2 sin θ sin θ)
2 2 2 2
1
= (cos 2 A + cos 2 B) − cos 2 C = sin(n + m)θ sin( m − n)θ
2 Substitute n = 2 , m = 3 into the above result,
= cos( A + B) cos( A − B) − cos 2 C
= cos(180° − C ) cos( A − B) sin 5θ sin θ = cos 2 2θ − cos 2 3θ
− cos C cos[180° − ( A + B)] ∴ sin 5θ sin θ − sin 5θ = 0
= − cos C cos( A − B) + cos C cos( A + B) sin 5θ(sin θ − 1) = 0
= cos C[cos( A + B) − cos( A − B)] sin 5θ = 0 or sin θ = 1
= −2 sin A sin B cos C π
∴ 5θ = 0, π, 2 π, 3π, 4 π, 5π or θ =
2
π 2 π π 3π 4 π
θ = 0, , , , , , π
5 5 2 5 5
Chapter 7 Sums and Products of Trigonometric Functions 115

8. cos 2θ + cos 4θ + cos 6θ (b) sin A + sin B + sin C


2 θ + 4θ 2θ − 4θ A+ B A− B
= 2 cos( ) cos( ) + cos 6θ = 2 sin cos + sin[π − ( A + B)]
2 2 2 2
= 2 cos 3θ cos θ + cos 6θ A+ B A− B
= 2 sin cos + sin( A + B)
= 2 cos 3θ cos θ + 2 cos 2 3θ − 1 2 2
= 2 cos 3θ(cos θ + cos 3θ) − 1 A+ B A− B
= 2 sin cos
θ + 3θ θ − 3θ 2 2
= 2 cos 3θ[2 cos( ) cos( )] − 1 A+ B A+ B
2 2 + 2 sin cos
= 4 cos θ cos 2θ cos 3θ − 1 2 2
A+ B A− B A+ B
π = 2 sin (cos + cos )
Substitute θ = into the above result, 2 2 2
12 A+ B A B
π π π π π π = 4 sin cos cos
cos + cos + cos = 4 cos cos cos − 1 2 2 2
6 3 2 12 6 4 A B C
= 4 cos cos cos
3 2 2 2
π + 1 +1 3 +3 6+ 2
∴ cos = 2 2 = = (c) From (a),
12 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 2 2 6 4
2 2 a+b+c
a= ⋅ sin A
sin A + sin B + sin C
9. (a) Since α, β are the roots of the equation, =
2m A
⋅ 2 sin cos
A
∴ a cos α + b sin α + c = 0 .........(1) 4 cos A2 cos B2 cos C2 2 2
a cos β + b sin β + c = 0 ..........(2) A B C
= m sin sec sec
2 2 2
(1) − (2),
a(cos α − cos β) + b(sin α − sin β) = 0
cos β
α +β α −β α +β α −β 11. (a) 1 + k = 1 +
(b) −2 a sin sin + 2 b cos sin cos(2α + β)
2 2 2 2
=0 cos(2α + β) + cos β
=
cos(2α + β)
α−β α+β α+β
2 sin (b cos − a sin )=0 2 cos(α + β) cos α
2 2 2 =
cos(2α + β)
Q α ≠ β , and α, β lie within 0 and π,
α −β (b) ( k + 1) tan(α + β) tan α
∴ sin ≠0 2 cos α cos(α + β)
2 = tan(α + β) tan α
cos(2α + β)
α+β α+β 2 sin(α + β)sin α
∴ a sin = b cos =
2 2 cos(2α + β)
α+β 2( − 12 )[cos(2α + β) − cos β]
Q a ≠ 0 , cos ≠ 0, =
2 cos(2α + β)
α+β b cos β − cos(2α + β)
∴ tan = =
2 a cos(2α + β)
cos β
= −1
a b c cos(2α + β)
10. (a) = = =k = k −1
sin A sin B sin C
a+b+c π π
∴ (c) Put α = , β=
sin A + sin B + sin C 4 6
k sin A + k sin B + k sin C π
= cos 6
sin A + sin B + sin C k= =− 3
cos(2 ⋅ π4 + π6 )
=k
a
=
sin A
116 Chapter 7 Sums and Products of Trigonometric Functions

From (b), A C B
k − 1 = ( k + 1) tan(α + β) tan α 2 − 2 sin 2 − 2 sin 2 = 4 sin 2
2 2 2
π π π 2 A 2 C 2 B
− 3 − 1 = ( − 3 + 1) tan( + ) tan 1 − sin − sin = 2 sin
4 6 4 2 2 2
5π − 3 − 1 2 A 2 B 2 C
tan = ∴ sin + sin + sin
12 − 3 + 1 2 2 2
3 +1 = 1 − sin 2 B
= cos 2 B
=
3 −1 2 2
=2+ 3 (b) cos A + cos C = 2(1 − cos B)
A+C A−C B
2 cos cos = 2(1 − 1 + 2 sin 2 )
2 2 2
Enrichment 7 (p.173) 2 B
= 4 sin
2
1. (a) (i) a − b = k sin A − k sin B
2 π A+C
= k (sin A − sin B) = 4 sin ( − )
2 2
cos C2 A+C
(ii) cot C = = 4 cos 2 ( )
2 sin C2 2
A−C A+C
cos( π2 − A+ B ) ∴ cos = 2 cos
= 2 2 2
sin( π2 − A+ B ) A C A C A C
2 cos cos + sin sin = 2 cos cos
sin( A +2 B ) 2 2 2 2 2 2
= A
− 2 sin sin
C
cos( A +2 B ) 2 2
A+ B A+ B A C A C
∴ cos
C
cot = sin 3 sin sin = cos cos
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
A C 1
C ∴ tan tan =
(b) (i) ( a − b) cot 2 2 3
C tan 2 + tan 2
2 A C
A
C (c) (i) cot + cot =
= k (sin A − sin B) ⋅ cot 2 2 tan A2 tan C2
2
A+ B A + tan C2
A+ B A − B sin 2 =
tan 2
= 2 k cos sin ⋅
cos A +2 B
1
2 2 3
A+ B A− B = 3(tan
A C
+ tan )
= 2 k sin sin
2 2 2 2
= − k (cos A − cos B) B A+C
(ii) 2 cot = 2 tan
(ii) Similarly, 2 2
A 2(tan A2 + tan C2 )
(b − c) cot = − k (cos B − cos C ) =
2 1 − tan A2 tan C2
B
(c − a) cot = − k (cos C − cos A) 2(tan A2 + tan C2 )
2 =
C A 1 − 13
∴ ( a − b) cot + (b − c) cot
2 2 A C
B = 3(tan + tan )
+ (c − a) cot 2 2
2 tan 2 + tan 2
A C
= − k (cos A − cos B) =
−k (cos B − cos C ) − k (cos C − cos A) tan A2 tan C2
=0 A
= cot + cot
C
2 2
2. (a) cos A + cos C = 2(1 − cos B)
A C 3. (a) cos(θ − φ) = cos θ cos φ + sin θ sin φ ............(1)
∴ (1 − 2 sin 2 ) + (1 − 2 sin 2 )
2 2 a 2 = (cos θ + cos φ)2
2 B
= 2(1 − 1 + 2 sin ) = cos 2 θ + 2 cos θ cos φ + cos 2 φ ............(2)
2
Chapter 7 Sums and Products of Trigonometric Functions 117

b 2 = (sin θ + sin φ)2 4. (a) (sin A + cos A)2 − (sin B + cos B)2
= sin 2 θ + 2 sin θ sin φ + sin 2 φ ...............(3) − (sin C + cos C )2
(2) + (3), = (sin 2 A + 2 sin A cos A + cos 2 A)
a2 + b2 − (sin 2 B + 2 sin B cos B + cos 2 B)
= cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ + 2(cos θ cos φ + sin θ sin φ) − (sin 2 C + 2 sin C cos C + cos 2 C )
= (1 + sin 2 A) − (1 + sin 2 B) − (1 + sin 2C )
+ cos 2 φ + sin 2 φ
= (sin 2 A − sin 2 B − sin 2C ) − 1
= 2 + 2(cos θ cos φ + sin θ sin φ) ..................(4)
(b) From (a),
Substitute (1) into (4),
(sin A + cos A)2 − (sin B + cos B)2
a + b = 2 + 2 cos(θ − φ)
2 2
− (sin C + cos C )2
1
∴ cos(θ − φ) = ( a 2 + b 2 − 2) = (sin 2 A − sin 2 B − sin 2C ) − 1
2 = 2 sin A cos A − [2 sin( B + C ) cos( B − C )] − 1
b sin θ + sin φ = 2 sin A cos A
=
a cos θ + cos φ − [2 sin(180° − A) cos( B − C )] − 1
θ+φ θ−φ = 2 sin A[cos A − cos( B − C )] − 1
2 sin cos 2
= 2
θ+φ θ−φ A+ B−C
2 cos 2 cos 2 = 2 sin A[ −2 sin( )
2
θ+φ A− B+C
= tan sin( )] − 1
2 2
180° − 2C 180° − 2 B
cos θ + cos φ = 2 ..........................(1) = −4 sin A[sin( )sin( )] − 1
(b)  2 2
sin θ + sin φ = 2 ...........................(2) = −4 sin A[sin(90° − C )sin(90° − B)] − 1
∴ a=b= 2 = −4 sin A cos B cos C − 1
θ+φ From (a) and (b), we have
From (a), cos(θ − φ) = 1 and tan =1
2 (sin 2 A − sin 2 B − sin 2C ) − 1
θ + φ π 5π = −4 sin A cos B cos C − 1
∴ θ − φ = 0 and = ,
2 4 4 sin 2 A − sin 2 B − sin 2C
π 5π
θ = φ and θ + φ = , = −4 sin A cos B cos C .............................(1)
2 2
5π Substitute A = 90° into (1),
When θ + φ = ,
2 B + C = 90°

2θ = 2 B + 2C = 180°
2
5π sin 2 B + sin 2C = sin(180° − 2C ) + sin 2C
θ= = 2 sin 2C
4
5π π
Substitute θ = into (1), Q 0<C≤
4 2
5π 0 < 2C ≤ π
2 cos =− 2 ≠ 2 ∴ 0 < sin 2C ≤ 1
4
5π 0 < 2 sin 2C ≤ 2
∴ is not a solution. 0 < 4 cos B cos C ≤ 2
4
π 1
When θ + φ = , 0 < cos B cos C ≤
2 2
π
θ=
4
π 5. (a) sin 4 x = 2 sin 2 x cos 2 x
Substitute θ = into (1) and (2), = 2(2 sin x cos x ) cos 2 x
4
π π = 4 sin x cos x cos 2 x
2 cos = 2 , 2 sin = 2
4 4
π
∴ θ=φ=
4
118 Chapter 7 Sums and Products of Trigonometric Functions

(b) Put x = 36° , then A+ B A− B


(d) sin sin
sin 4(36°) = 4 sin 36° cos 36° cos 72° 2 2
1 A+ B A− B
sin 144° = − [cos( + )
cos 36° cos 72° = 2 2 2
4 sin 36° A+ B A− B
1 − cos( − )]
= 2 2
4 1
(c) From (b), = − (cos A − cos B)
2
1 1
cos 36° cos 72° = (cos 108° + cos 36°) = (cos B − cos A)
2 2
1
=
4 2 A + 3A 2 A − 3A
cos(180° − 72°) + cos 36° = cos 36° − cos 72° 2. (a) sin 2 A + sin 3 A = 2 sin( ) cos( )
2 2
1 −A
= = 2 sin
5A
cos
2 2 2
(d) (cos 36° + cos 72°)2 = 2 sin
5A
cos
A
= (cos 36° − cos 72°)2 + 4 cos 36° cos 72° 2 2
1 1
= ( ) 2 + 4( ) (b) cos(2 A + B) + cos(2 A − B)
2 4 2A + B + 2A − B
5 = 2 cos( )
= 2
4 2A + B − 2A + B
⋅ cos( )
5 2
cos 36° + cos 72° = (Q It is positive.) = 2 cos 2 A cos B
2
(e) Solve (c) and (d), 1
(c) (sin 6 A − sin 2 A)
5 +1 5 −1 2
cos 36° = cos 72° = 1 6A + 2A 6A − 2A
4 4 = [2 cos( )sin( )]
2 2 2
= cos 4 A sin 2 A

Classwork 1 (p.165) (d) cos( A − B) − cos( A + B)


A− B+ A+ B A− B− A− B
A+ B A− B = −2 sin( )sin( )
1. (a) sin cos 2 2
2 2 = −2 sin A sin( − B)
1 A+ B A− B A+ B A− B = 2 sin A sin B
= [sin( + ) + sin( − )]
2 2 2 2 2
1
= (sin A + sin B)
2 Classwork 2 (p.166)
A+ B A− B 1. (a) 2 sin( 45° + A)sin( 45° − A)
(b) cos sin
2 2 1
1 A+ B A− B = 2{− [cos( 45° + A + 45° − A)
= [sin( + ) 2
2 2 2 − cos( 45° + A − 45° + A)]}
A+ B A− B = −(cos 90° − cos 2 A)
− sin( − )]
2 2 = cos 2 A
1
= (sin A − sin B) (b) cos 2 ( A − B) − cos 2 ( A + B)
2
= [cos( A − B) + cos( A + B)]
A+ B A− B ⋅ [cos( A − B) − cos( A + B)]
(c) cos cos
2 2 A− B+ A+ B A− B− A− B
1 A+ B A− B = (2 cos cos )
= [cos( + ) 2 2
2 2 2 A− B+ A+ B A− B− A− B
A+ B A− B ⋅ ( −2 sin sin )
+ cos( − )] 2 2
2 2 = [2 cos A cos( − B)][−2 sin A sin( − B)]
1 = 4 cos A cos B sin A sin B
= (cos A + cos B)
2 = sin 2 A sin 2 B
Chapter 7 Sums and Products of Trigonometric Functions 119

(c) 2 sin 3 A cos A + 2 cos 4 A sin 2 A x−y


(1) − (2), = cos θ
1 1 2
= 2[ (sin 4 A + sin 2 A)] + 2[ (sin 6 A − sin 2 A)]
2 2 ( x − y)2
= sin 4 A + sin 2 A + sin 6 A − sin 2 A = cos 2 θ
4
= sin 4 A + sin 6 A 4
= 2 sin 5 A cos( − A) = sec 2 θ ......(4)
( x − y) 2
= 2 sin 5 A cos A
By (3) and (4),
2. cos 2 x + cos 3 x = 0 , 0° ≤ x < 360° sec 2 θ = tan 2 θ + 1
−x 4 4
5x
2 cos cos =0 = +1
2 2 ( x − y) 2
( x + y)2
5x
2 cos cos = 0
x 4 ( x + y ) 2 = 4( x − y ) 2 + ( x 2 − y 2 ) 2
2 2 16 xy = ( x 2 − y 2 )2
5x x
cos cos = 0
2 2
5x
cos =0
2
5x
= 90°, 270°, 450°, 630°, 810°
2
x = 36°, 108°, 180°, 252°, 324°
x
or cos = 0 ( 0° ≤ x < 180° )
2
x
= 90°
2
x = 180°
∴ x = 36°, 108°, 180°, 252°, 324°

Classwork 3 (p.170)
1. sin θ + cos θ = m
(sin θ + cos θ)2 = m 2
sin 2 θ + 2 sin θ cos θ + cos 2 θ = m 2
1 + sin 2θ = m 2
sin 2θ = m 2 − 1 ........(1)
cos 2θ = n ...............(2)
(1)2 + (2)2 ,
sin 2 2θ + cos 2 2θ = ( m 2 − 1)2 + n 2
1 = ( m 2 − 1)2 + n 2
n2 = 2m2 − m 4

2. x = cot θ + cos θ ......................(1)


y = cot θ − cos θ ......................(2)
(1) + (2), x+y
= cot θ
2
( x + y)2
= cot 2 θ
4
4
= tan 2 θ ....................(3)
( x + y) 2