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II

2011

Georgian Ministry of Education and Sciences


Shota Rustaveli State University
International Center of Sociocultural Anthropology and Ethnolinguistic Study of
Georgian People

Linguocultural Researches
First Linguocultural and Anthropological International
Conference
II
Shota Rustaveli State University Press
Batumi

2011

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XIIXI . . ., 2.

41. 1949 = . . .
I . . . .
42. 1905 = . . . o (

. XXV, 1-.). .
43. Allen 1960 = W. E. D. Allen. Ex Ponto, V. Heniochi-Aea-Hayasa. Bedi
Kartlisa, Revue de kartvlologie, VIII-IX, 34-35.
44. Astour 1987 = M. C. Astour. Semites and Hurrians in Northern Transtigris,
Studies on the Civilization and Culture of Nuzi and the Hurrians, vol. 2.
General Studies and Excavations at Nuzi 9/1. Edited by D. J. Owen & M. A.
Morrison. Winana Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns.
45. Clavjo 1928 = R. G. Clavjo. Embassy to Tamerlane 1403-1406 (trans. G. Le
Strange. New York & London.
46. Diakonoff 1984 = M. Diakonoff. The Pre-History of the Armenian People.
Translated from the Russian by Lori Jennings. With revisions by the Author.
Delmar, New York: Caravan Books.
47. Diakonoff & Kashkai 1981 = I. M. Diakonoff & S. M. Kashkai. Geographical
Names According to Urartian Texts. Rpertoire Gographique des Textes
Cuniformes IX. Beihefte zum Tbinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients, Reihe B,
Nr. 7. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag.
48. Hewsen 1992 = Hewsen, R. H. The Geography of Ananias of irak
(Axarhac'oyc'), The Long and Short Recensions. Introduction, Translation
and Commentary by R. H. Hewsen. Beihefte zum Tbinger Atlas des Vorderen
Orients, Reihe B, Nr. 77. Wiesbaden.
49. Hsing 1933 = G. Hsing. Die Vlker alt-Kleinasiens und am Pontos. Wien.
50. Kleiss & Hauptmann 1976 = W. Kleiss & H. Hauptmann. Topographische
Karte von Urartu. Verzeichnis der Fundorte und Bibliographie. Berlin.
51. Knig 1955 = F. W. Knig. Handbuch der chaldischen Inschriften, I. Graz.
52. Knig 1957 = F. W. Knig. Handbuch der chaldischen Inschriften, II. Graz.

53. Lehmann-Haupt 1931 = C. F. Lehmann-Haupt. Armenien einst und jetzt. Band


II, 2. Hlfte. Berlin/Leipzig.
54. Nashef 1982 = Kh. Nashef. Die Orts- und Gewssernamen der
mittelbabylonischen und mittelassyrischen Zeit. Rpertoire Gographique des
Textes Cuniformes V. Beihefte zum Tbinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients,
Reihe B, Nr. 7. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag.
55. zkaya 1994 = V. zkaya. Erzurum-Horasan-Alieyerek Ky Yzey
Aratrmas. Aratrma Sonular Toplants, XI. Ankara.
56. Sagona 2004 = C. Sagona. Did Xenophon Take the Aras High Road?
Observations on the Historical Geography of North-East Anatolia, in: A View
from the Highlands. Archaeological Studies in Honour of Charles Burney.
Edited by Antonio Sagona. (Ancient Near Eastern Studies. Supplement 12).
Leuven: Peeters Press.
57. Salvini 1967 = M. Salvini. Nairi e Ur(u)ari, contribuo alla storia della
formazione del regno di Uraru (Incunabula Graeca, vol. XVI). Roma, edizioni
dellAteneo.
58. Salvini 1995 = M. Salvini. Geschichte und Kultur der Urarter. Darmstadt:
wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
59. Sinclair 1989 = T. A. Sinclair. Eastern Turkey: an Architectural and
Archaeological Survey, vol. II. London: The Pindar Press. /. 143/
60. Wagner 1852 = M. Wagner. Reise nach Persien und dem Lande der Kurden .
Erster Band. Leipzig.
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Worlds Ancient Languages. Edited by Roger D. Woodard. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
62. Yakar 2000 = J. Yakar. Ethnoarchaeology of Anatolia. Rural Socio-Economy in
the Bronze and Iron Ages. Tel Aviv University Sonia and Marco Nadler
Institute of Archaeology, Monograph Series 17. Tel Aviv: Emery and Claire
Yass Publications in Archaeology.

Giorgi Leon Kavtaradze (Tbilisi)


Ancient Tao from the View-Point of Historical Geography

Summary
The Historical Geography of Ancient Tao, i.e., the land of Daiaeni of
Assyrian cuneiform inscriptions and the land of Diaukhi of the Urartian
written sources is one of the most controversial problems of the modern
historiography. The scholars are still not in complete agreement with the
problem - is there only a chronological or also, at the same time, a
geographical difference between these two lands. The land of Daiaeni
existed already in the late second millennium B.C. It is mentioned in the
inscription of the middle of 9th century of the king of the New Assyrian
period, Shalmanasar III too, where he informs us about the fact that he
erected his statue in the anonymous city of the king of Daiaeni, Asia,
when the latter came to him to the source of the Euphrates and "fell
before his feet". This event is dated 844 B.C. Therefore it becomes clear
that at that time the "Royal City" of Daiaeni was located near the source
of the Kara-su (the Western Euphrates), in the territory which is known
by Georgian and Armenian tradition as Tao or Taik.
An additional information from the point of view of the location of
the Asias "capital" might be provided by the name of the Royal city of
Diaukhi "ailu. The name of the main city of the land of Diaukhi ailu is known from the inscriptions of Yazlitash and Zivin (both villages
are east of Horasan) of Urartian king Menua of the late 9th and early 8th
centuries B.C. As Menua's inscriptions mentioned this city only half a
century after the Shalmanasars campaign, there is a strong probability
that the Asia's "Royal City" is as same as ailu of Menua's inscriptions. It
seems, that "ailu was situated on the place of the Medieval Georgian

village of Sasire (immediately west of the well known castle of Tortomi


or Tortum-kale, ca 20-30 km north-west of the Dumlu-su, the source
river of the Euphrates). When identifying ailu as Sasire we take into
account the fact that in Urartian cuneiform script it is impossible to
distinguish from each other the sounds and s, l and r, u and o and the
information of the above inscription of Shalmanasar III that he erected
his statue in the anonymous city of Asia when the latter came to him
exactly to the source of the Euphrates.
The ethnic belonging of the population of Daiaeni/Diaukhi is still a
moot point among the specialists. Except for the obvious similarity
between the archaeological material of the Early Iron Age of the central
part of eastern Georgia and south-western part of hstorcal Georgia
which perhaps indicates on the close ethnic affinity between the
populations of these two areas, some toponyms characteristic of
Daiaeni/Diaukhi are also often considered of Kartvelian origin. A new
evidence in this connection might be provided by the above-mentioned
name of old Georgian village, Sasire, which means in the old Georgian
language - the place of birds.

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