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# BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/1

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS

OBJECTIVES

General Objective : To understand the concept of units and dimensions

Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:

state the difference between fundamentals and derived
quantities

describe the physical quantities of thermodynamics

understand the conversion units of thermodynamics

calculate the examples of conversion factors

UNIT 1

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/2

1.0 INTRODUCTION

id you realize that the work of an engineer is limited unless he has a source
of power to drive his machines or tools? However, before such a study can
begin, it is necessary to be sure of the number of definitions and units, which
are essential for a proper understanding of the subject. We are familiar with most of
these items in our everyday lives, but science demands that we have to be exact in
our understanding if real progress is to be made.

When engineering calculations are performed, it is necessary to be concerned with
the units of the physical quantities involved. A unit is any specified amount of a
quantity by comparison with which any other quantity of the same kind is measured.
For example, meters, centimeters and millimeters are all units of length. Seconds,
minutes and hours are alternative time units.

D
10 Kilometer + 5 Feet +
25 Yard + 100 Inches
= ? Meter

Could you give me an

INPUT

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/3

1.1 Fundamental and Derived Quantities

In the present discussion, we consider the system of units called SI (International
System of Units) and it is a legally accepted system in many countries. SI units will
be used throughout this module.

Length, mass, time, electric current, thermodynamic temperature and luminous
intensity are the six fundamental physical quantities. These six quantities are
absolutely independent of one another. They are also called the Indefinables of
mechanics. The SI base units are listed in Table 1.1-1.

Table 1.1-1 Fundamental units
Quantity Unit Symbol
Mass kilogram kg
Time second s
Length meter m
Thermodynamic temperature degree Kelvin K
Electric current ampere A
Luminous intensity candela cd

All other physical quantities, which can be expressed in terms of one or more of
these, are known as derived quantities. The unit of length, mass, time, electric
current, thermodynamic temperature and luminous intensity are known as
fundamental units. Physical quantities like area, volume, density, velocity,
acceleration, force, energy, power, torque etc. are called derived quantities since
they depend on one or more of these fundamental quantities. The units of the derived
quantities are called derived units as shown in Table 1.1-2.
Table 1.1-2 Derived units
Quantity Unit Symbol Notes
Area meter square m
2

Volume meter cube m
3
1 m
3
= 1 x 10
3
litre
Velocity meter per second m/s
Acceleration Meter per second
squared
m/s
2

Density kilogram / meter cube kg/m
3

Force Newton N 1 N = 1 kgm/s
2
Pressure Newton/meter square N/m
2
1 N/m
2
= 1 Pascal
1 bar = 10
5
N/m
2
= 10
2
kN/m
2

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/4

1.1.1 Force

Newtons second law may be written as force (mass x acceleration), for a
body of a constant mass.

i.e. F = kma (1.1)

(where m is the mass of a body accelerated with an acceleration a, by a force
F, k is constant)
In a coherent system of units such as SI, k = 1, hence:

F = ma (1.2)
The SI unit of force is therefore kgm/s
2
. This composite unit is called the
Newton, N.
i.e. 1 N = 1 kg.m/s
2

1.1.2 Energy

Heat and work are both forms of energy. The work done by a force is the
product of the force and the distance moved in the same direction.

The SI unit of work = force x distance in the Newton meter, Nm.
A general unit for energy is introduced by giving the Newton meter the name
Joule, J.

i.e. 1 Joule = 1 Newton x 1 meter
or 1 J = 1 Nm

A more common unit for energy in SI is the kilo joule (1 kJ = 10
3
J)

1.1.3 Power

The use of an additional name for composite units is extended further by
introducing the Watt, W as the unit of power. Power is the rate of energy
transfer (or work done) by or to a system.

i.e. 1 Watt, W = 1 J/s = 1 N m/s

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/5

1.1.4 Pressure

Pressure is the force exerted by a fluid per unit area. We speak of pressure
only when we deal with gas or liquid. The pressure on a surface due to
forces from another surface or from a fluid is the force acting at 90
o
to the
unit area of the surface.

i.e. pressure = force/ area
P = F/A (1.3)

The unit of pressure, is N/m
2
and this unit is sometimes called the Pascal, Pa.
For most cases occurring in thermodynamics the pressure expressed in Pascal
will be a very small number. This new unit is defined as follows:

1 bar = 10
5
N/m
2
= 10
5
Pa

1.1.5. Density

Density is the mass of a substance per unit volume.

The unit of density is kg/m
3
.

Force, F = ma
Pressure, P = F/A
Work, W = F x L
Density, = m/V
(1.4)
volume
mass
Density
V
m

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/6

Calculate the pressure of gas underneath the piston in equilibrium for a 50 kg
mass that reacts to a piston with a surface area of 100 cm
2
.
A density of = 850 kg/m
3
of oil is filled to a tank. Determine the amount of
mass m in the tank if the volume of the tank is V = 2 m
3
.

Example 1.1

Solution to Example 1.1

2
N/m 05 . 49
0.01
9.81 x 50

area
force
(P) Pressure

Example 1.2

Solution to Example 1.2

We should end up with the unit of kilograms. Putting the given information into
perspective, we have
= 850 kg/m
3
and V = 2 m
3

It is obvious that we can eliminate m
3
and end up with kg by multiplying these
two quantities. Therefore, the formula we are looking for is

V
m

Thus, m = V
= (850 kg/m
3
)(2 m
3
)
= 1700 kg

Force = mass x acceleration
Pressure = force/area

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/7

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT!

1.1 What is the work done by an expanding gas if the force resisting the motion
of the piston is 700 N and the length of the stroke is 0.5 m ?

1.2 What is the force required to accelerate a mass of 30 kg at a rate of 15 m/s
2
?

1.3 The fuel tank of a large truck measures 1.2m x 0.9m x 0.6m. How many litres
of fuel are contained in the tank when it is full?

1.4 A weather research instrument is suspended below a helium filled balloon
which is a 3.8m diameter sphere. If the specific volume of helium is
5.6m
3
/kg, what is the weight of helium in the balloon? Explain briefly why
the balloon rises in the atmosphere.
Activity 1A

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/8

Feedback to Activity 1A

1.1 Work = Force x Distance
= (700 N)(0.5 m)
= 350 Nm or J

1.2 Force = mass x acceleration
F = ma
= (30 kg)(15 m/s
2
)
= 450 kg.m/s
2
or N

1.3 Volume = 1.2 x 0.9 x 0.6 = 0.648 m
3

Since 1m
3
= 1000 litres
Then, contents of full tank = 0.648 x 1000
= 648 litres

1.4 Radius of volume, r =
2
d

=
2
3 . 3
= 1.9 m
Volume of balloon, V =
3

3
4
r
=
3
) 9 . 1 (
3
4

= 28.73 m
3

Mass of helium in balloon, m =
v
V

= 28.73/5.6
= 5.13 kg

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/9

w = mg
= 5.13 x 9.81
= 50.3 N

Density of helium, =
v
1

=
6 . 5
1

= 0.1786 kg/m
3

The balloon rises in the atmosphere because the density of helium is less than
the density of atmosphere.

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/10

1.2 Unit Conversions

We all know from experience that conversion of units can give terrible
headaches if they are not used carefully in solving a problem. But with some
attention and skill, conversion of units can be used to our advantage.

Measurements that describe physical quantities may be expressed in a variety of
different units. As a result, one often has to convert a quantity from one unit to
another. For example, we would like to convert, say, 49 days into weeks. One
approach is to multiply the value by ratios of the equivalent units. The ratios are
formed such that the old units are cancelled, leaving the new units.

The Dimensional Homogeneity

Despite their causing us errors, units/dimensions can be our friends.
All terms in an equation must be dimensionally homogeneous.
That is, we cant add apples to
oranges
Neither can we add J/mol to J/kg s.
By keeping track of our units/dimensions,
we can automatically do a reality check
on our equations.
But the fun doesnt stop there
A dimensional analysis can help to determine the form of an equation
that we may have forgotten.

The example of unit conversions are:
1 kg = 1000 g
1 m = 100 cm = 1000 mm
1 km = 1000 m = (100 000 cm @ 10
5
cm) = (1 000 000 mm @ 10
6
mm)
1 hour = 60 minutes = 3600 seconds
1 m
3
= 1000 litre, or 1 litre = 1 x 10
-3
m
3

1 bar = 1 x 10
5
N/m
2
= 1 x 10
2
kN/m
2

INPUT

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/11

Multiple and sub-multiple of the basic units are formed by means of prefixes, and the
ones most commonly used are shown in the following table:

Table 1.2 Multiplying factors
Multiplying Factor Prefix Symbol
1 000 000 000 000 10
12
tera T
1 000 000 000 10
9
giga G
1 000 000 10
6
mega M
1 000 10
3
kilo k
100 10
2
hector h
10 10
1
deca da
0.1 10
-1
desi d
0.01 10
-2
centi c
0.001 10
-3
milli m
0.000 001 10
-6
micro

0.000 000 001 10
-9
nano n
0.000 000 000 001 10
-12
pico p

Example 1.3

Convert 1 km/h to m/s.

Solution to Example 1.3

m/s 278 . 0
s 3600
m 1000

s 3600
j 1
x
km 1
m 1000
x
j
km 1
j
km 1

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/12

Example 1.4

Convert 25 g/mm
3
to kg/m
3
.

Solution to Example 1.4

1 kg = 1000 g
1 m = 1000 mm
1 m
3
= 1000 x 1000 x 1000 mm
3

= 10
9
m
3

3 6
3
9
3
3 9
3 3
kg/m 10 x 25
m 1000
kg 1 x 10 x 25

g 1000
kg 1
x
m 1
mm 10
x
mm
g 25
mm
g 25

How could I convert
g/mm
3
to kg/m
3
?

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/13

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT!

1.5 Convert the following data:
a) 3 N/cm
2
to kN/m
2

b) 15 MN/m
2
to N/m
2

1.6 Convert 15 milligram per litre to kg/m
3
.

I hope youve learnt something
from this unit. Lets move on to
the next topic.
Activity 1B

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/14

Feedback To Activity 1B

1.5 a) 1 kN = 1000 N
1 m
2
= 100 x 100 = 10
4
cm
2

b) 1 MN = 10
6
N/m
2

1.6 1 kg = 1 000 000 mg
1 m
3
= 1000 litre

2
2
4
2
2 4
2 2
kN/m 30
m 1000
kN 10 x 3

N 1000
kN 1
x
m 1
cm 10
x
cm
N 3
cm
N 3

2 6
6
2 2
N/m 10 x 15
MN 1
N 10
x
m
MN 15

m
MN 15

3 3 -
3
kg/m 10 x 15
m 1
litre 1000
x
mg 000 000 1
kg 1
x
litre
mg 15
litre
mg 15

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/15

You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section
and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to Self-Assessment on the
next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.

1. A gas is contained in a vertical frictionless piston-cylinder device. The
piston has a mass of 4 kg and a cross-sectional area of 35 cm
2
. A compressed
spring above the piston exerts a force of 60 N onto the piston. If the
atmospheric pressure is 95 kPa, determine the pressure inside the cylinder.

2. A force of 8 N is applied continuously at an angle of 30
o
to a certain mass.
Find the work done when the mass moves through a distance of 6 m.

3. A man weighing 60 kg goes up a staircase of 5 m in height in 20 secs.
Calculate his rate of doing work and power in watts.

4. The density of water at room temperature and atmospheric pressure is
1.0 g/cm
3
. Convert this to kg/m
3
. Find also the specific volume of water.

SELF-ASSESSMENT

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/1/16

1. 123.4 kPa

2. 41.57 J

3. 147 J, 147 watt.

4. 1000 kg/m
3
; 0.001 m
3
/kg

CONGRATULATIONS!!!!..
May success be with you
always.
Feedback to Self-Assessment
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/1

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS

OBJECTIVES

General Objective : To understand the basic concept and the First Law of
Thermodynamics

Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:

Define the fundamental concepts of system, boundary,
surrounding, open system and close system

explain the property, state and process of the working fluid
and provide example

state the definitions of the First Law of Thermodynamics

describe the differences between work and heat transfer

define the definitions and show the application of internal
energy

UNIT 2
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/2

2.0 Introduction

Every science has a unique vocabulary associated with it, and thermodynamics is no
exception. Precise definition of the basic concepts forms a sound foundation for the
development of science and prevents possible misunderstandings. In this unit, the
systems that will be used are reviewed, and the basic concepts of thermodynamics
such as system, energy, property, state, process, cycle, pressure and temperature are
explained. Careful study of these concepts is essential for a good understanding of
the topics in the following units.

2.1 Definitions of system, boundary, surrounding, open system and close system

A thermodynamic system, or simply a system, is defined as a quantity of matter or
a region in space chosen for study. The fluid contained by the cylinder head,
cylinder walls and the piston may be said to be the system.

The mass or region outside the system is called the surroundings. The surroundings
may be affected by changes within the system.

The boundary is the surface of separation between the system and its surroundings.
It may be the cylinder and the piston or an imaginary surface drawn as in Fig. 2.1-1,
so as to enable an analysis of the problem under consideration to be made.

Boundary
Surrounding

System

Figure 2.1-1 System, surroundings and boundary
INPUT
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/3

A system can either to be close or open, depending on whether a fixed mass or a
fixed volume in space is chosen for study. A close system (also known as a control
mass) consists of a fixed amount of mass, and no mass can cross its boundary. That
is, no mass can enter or leave a close system, as shown in Fig. 2.1-2. But energy,
in the form of heat or work can cross the boundary, and the volume of a close system
does not have to be fixed.

SURROUNDINGS

BOUNDARY

Fig. 2.1-2 A closed system with a moving boundary

An open system, or a control volume, as it is often called, is a properly selected
region in space. It usually encloses a device, which involves mass flow such as a
boiler, compressor, turbine or nozzle. Flow through these devices is best studied by
selecting the region within the device as the control volume. Both mass and energy
can cross the boundary of a control volume, as shown in Fig. 2.1-3.

Q
OUT

W
OUT

Fig 2.1-3 Open system in boiler

2.2 Property, State and Process
S
I
S
T
E
M
SYSTEM
Fluid Inlet
Fluid Outlet
SYSTEM
SURROUNDINGS
BOUNDARY
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/4

Properties are macroscopic characteristics of a system such as mass,
volume, energy, pressure, and temperature to which numerical values can be
assigned at a given time without knowledge of the history of the system.
Many other properties are considered during the course of our study of
engineering thermodynamics. Thermodynamics also deals with quantities
that are not properties, such as mass flow rates and energy transfers by work
and heat. Properties are considered to be either intensive or extensive.

Intensive properties are those which are independent of the size of the
system such as temperature, pressure and density.

Extensive properties are those whose values depend on the size or extent of
the system. Mass, volume and total energy are some examples of extensive
properties.

The word state refers to the condition of system as described by its
properties. Since there are normally relations among the properties of a
system, the state often can be specified by providing the values of a subset of
the properties.

When there is a change in any of the properties of a system, the state changes
and the system are said to have undergone a process. A process is a
transformation from one state to another. However, if a system exhibits the
same values of its properties at two different times, the state remains the
same at these times. A system is said to be at a steady state if none of its
properties changes with time. A process occurs when a systems state (as
measured by its properties) changes for any reason. Processes may be
reversible or actual (irreversible). In this context the word reversible has a
special meaning. A reversible process is one that is wholly theoretical, but
can be imagined as one which occurs without incurring friction, turbulence,
leakage or anything which causes unrecoverable energy losses. All of the
processes considered below are reversible and the actual processes will be
dealt with later.

Processes may be constrained to occur at constant temperature (isothermal),
constant pressure, constant volume, polytropic and adiabatic (with no heat
transfer to the surroundings).
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/5

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT!

2.1 Fill in the blanks with suitable names for the close system in the diagram
below.

2.2 Study the statements in the table below and decide if the statements are
TRUE (T) or FALSE (F).

STATEMENT TRUE or FALSE
i. The mass or region inside the system is called
the surroundings.

ii. In a close system, no mass can enter or leave
a system.

iii. Intensive properties are those which are
independent of the size of the system

iv. Mass, volume and total energy are some
examples of intensive properties.

Activity 2A
S
I
S
T
E
M
ii. _________
i. _____________
iii. _____________
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/6

Feedback To Activity 2A

2.1 i. Surroundings
ii. System
iii. Boundary

2.2 i. False
ii. True
iii. True
iv. False

PROCEED TO THE NEXT INPUT..
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/7

2.3 The First Law of Thermodynamics

Figure 2.3 Pictures showing types of energy

The first law of thermodynamics is simply a statement of conservation of
energy principle and it asserts that total energy is a thermodynamic property.
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed; it can only change forms. This
principle is based on experimental observations and is known as the First
Law of Thermodynamics. The First Law of Thermodynamics can therefore be
stated as follows:

When a system undergoes a thermodynamic cycle then the
net heat supplied to the system from its surroundings is
equal to the net work done by the systems on its surroundings.
The First Law of Thermodynamics

In symbols,
dQ = dW (2.1)

where represents the sum of a complete cycle.

Energy can exist in
many forms such as
thermal, kinetic,
potential, electric,
chemical,
INPUT
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/8

2.4 Work and Heat Transfer

Work transfer is defined as a product of the force and the distance moved in
the direction of the force. When a boundary of a close system moves in the
direction of the force acting on it, then the system does work on its
surroundings. When the boundary is moved inwards the work is done on the
system by its surroundings. The units of work are, for example, Nm or J. If
work is done on unit mass of a fluid, then the work done per kg of fluid has
the units of Nm/kg or J/kg. Consider the fluid expanding behind the piston
of an engine. The force F (in the absence of friction) will be given by
F = pA (2.2)
where
p is the pressure exerted on the piston and
A is the area of the piston
If dx is the displacement of the piston and p can be assumed constant
over this displacement, then the work done W will be given by,
W = F x dx
= pA x dx
= p x dV
= p(V
2
V
1
) (2.3)
where dV = Adx = change in volume.

Figure 2.4 Work transfer

When two systems at different temperatures are in contact with each other,
energy will transfer between them until they reach the same temperature (that
is, when they are in equilibrium with each other). This energy is called heat,
or thermal energy, and the term "heat flow" refers to an energy transfer as a
consequence of a temperature difference.

Heat is a form of energy which crosses the boundary of a system during a
change of state produced by the difference in temperature between the system
F
S
I
S
T
E
M
PRESSURE
dx
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/9

and its surroundings. The unit of heat is taken as the amount of heat energy
equivalent to one joule or Nm. The joule is defined as the work done when
the point of application of a force of one newton is displaced through a
distance of one meter in the direction of the force.

2.5 Sign Convention for Work Transfer

It is convenient to consider a convention of sign in connection with work
transfer and the usual convention adopted is:
if work energy is transferred from the system to the surroundings, it is
donated as positive.
if work energy is transferred from the surroundings to the system, it is
donated as negative.

WORK W
2

+ ve
SYSTEM
SURROUNDINGS
BOUNDARY
Figure 2.5 Sign Convention for work transfer
WORK W
1

-

ve
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/10

2.6 Sign Convention for Heat Transfer

The sign convention usually adopted for heat energy transfer is such that :
if heat energy flows into the system from the surroundings it is said to
be positive.
if heat energy flows from the system to the surroundings it is said to be
negative. It is incorrect to speak of heat in a system since heat energy
exists only when it flows across the boundary. Once in the system, it is
converted to other types of energy.

Figure 2.6 Sign convention for heat transfer

2.7 Internal Energy

Internal energy is the sum of all the energies a fluid possesses and stores
within itself. The molecules of a fluid may be imagined to be in motion
thereby possessing kinetic energy of translation and rotation as well as the
energy of vibration of the atoms within the molecules. In addition, the fluid
also possesses internal potential energy due to inter-molecular forces.

Suppose we have 1 kg of gas in a closed container as shown in Figure 2.7.
For simplicity, we shall assume that the vessel is at rest with respect to the
earth and is located on a base horizon. The gas in the vessel has neither
macro kinetic energy nor potential energy. However, the molecules of the gas
are in motion and possess a molecular or 'internal' kinetic energy. The term is
usually shortened to internal energy. If we are to study thermal effects then
HEAT ENERGY
Q
2

-ve
SURROUNDINGS
HEAT
ENERGY
Q
1
+
ve

SYSTEM
BOUNDARY
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/11

we can no longer ignore this form of energy. We shall denote the specific
(per kg) internal energy as u J/kg.

Now suppose that by rotation of an impeller within the vessel, we add work
dW to the closed system and we also introduce an amount of heat dQ. The
gas in the vessel still has zero macro kinetic energy and zero potential
energy. The energy that has been added has simply caused an increase in the
internal energy.

The change in internal energy is determined only by the net energy that has
been transferred across the boundary and is independent of the form of that
energy (work or heat) or the process path of the energy transfer. In molecular
simulations, molecules can of course be seen, so the changes occurring as a
system gains or loses internal energy are apparent in the changes in the
motion of the molecules. It can be observed that the molecules move faster
when the internal energy is increased. Internal energy is, therefore, a
thermodynamic property of state. Equation 2.4 is sometimes known as the
non-flow energy equation and is a statement of the First Law of
Thermodynamics.

or,

Figure 2.7 Added work and heat raise the internal energy of a close system

dQ
dW
12 12 1 2
d - d
W Q U U
W Q dU

(2.4)
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/12

The figure above shows a certain process, which undergoes a complete cycle
of operations. Determine the value of the work output for a complete cycle,
W
out
.
Example 2.1

Solution to Example 2.1

Q = Q
in
+ Q
out

= (10) + (-3)
= 7 kJ

W = W
in
+ W
out

= (-2) + (W
out
)

Hence Q - W = 0
W = Q
(-2) + (W
out
) = 7
W
out
= 9 kJ

Q
in
= +10 kJ W
out
= (+) ?
W
in
= -2 kJ
Q
out
= -3 kJ
SYSTEM
Q
in
is +10 kJ
Q
out
is 3 kJ
W
in
is 2 kJ
W
out
is +ve
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/13

A system is allowed to do work amounting to 500 kNm whilst heat energy
amounting to 800 kJ is transferred into it. Find the change of internal energy
and state whether it is an increase or decrease.
Example 2.2

Solution to Example 2.2

U
2
U
1
= Q
12
W
12

now,
W
12
= +500 kNm = 500 kJ
Q
12
= +800 kJ

U
2
U
1
= 800 500
= 300 kJ

Since U
2
U
1
, the internal energy has increased.

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/14

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT!

2.3 During a complete cycle operation, a system is subjected to the following:
Heat transfer is 800 kJ supplied and 150 kJ rejected.
Work done by the system is 200 kJ.
Calculate the work transferred from the surrounding to the system.

2.4 Each line in Table 2.4 gives information about a process of a closed system.
Every entry has the same energy unit i.e. kJ. Fill in the empty spaces in the

PROCESS Q
12
W
12
(U
2
U
1
)
a. +50 -20 i. ________
b. +100 ii. _______ -30
c. iii. _______ -70 +130
d. -50 +20 iv. _______

2.5 A close system undergoes a process in which there is a heat transfer of 200 kJ from
the system to the surroundings. The work done from the system to the surroundings
is 75 kJ. Calculate the change of internal energy and state whether it is an increase
or decrease.

Activity 2B
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/15

Feedback To Activity 2B

2.3 Q = Q
in
+ Q
out
= (800) + (-150) = 650 kJ
W = W
in
+ W
out
= (W
in
) + (200)

Hence Q - W = 0
W = Q
(W
in
) + (200) = 650
W
in
= 450 kJ

2.4 i. 70
ii. 130
iii. 60
iv. -70

2.5 U
2
U
1
= Q
12
W
12

now,
Q
12
= -200 kJ
W
12
= 75 kJ

U
2
U
1
= (-200) (75) = -275 kJ
(Since U
2
- U
1
= -ve, the internal energy is decreased)

ARE SUCCESSFUL.
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/16

Problem Solving Methodology
There are several correct and effective steps to problem solving. There are many
variations as to what various authors give for their problem solving strategy.
Some of these steps are:

Read the ENTIRE problem carefully and all the way through before starting work on the
problem. Make sure that you understand what is being asked.

List the data based on the figures given in the question. This will include both explicit
and implicit data items. Note that not all of the explicitly given data are always
necessarily involved in the problem solution. Be wary of introducing implicit conditions
that may be unnecessary for the problem solution.

Draw a diagram of the physical situation. The type of drawing will depend upon the
problem.

Determine the physical principles involved in the particular problem. What are the
pertinent equations and how can they be used to determine either the solution or
intermediate results that can be further used to determine the solution. Often one
equation will be insufficient to solve a particular problem.

Simplify the equations as much as possible through algebraic manipulation before
plugging numbers into the equations. The fewer times numbers are entered into
equations, the less likely numerical mistakes will be made.

Check the units on the quantities involved. Make sure that all of the given quantities are
in a consistent set of units.

Insert the given data into the equations and perform the calculations. In doing the
calculations, also manipulate the units. In doing the calculations, follow the rules for
significant figures.

Is the result reasonable and are the final units correct?

!
Tips
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/17

You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment
section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to Self-
Assessment on the next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your
lecturer. Good luck.

1. A thermodynamic system undergoes a process in which its internal energy decreases
by 300 kJ. If at the same time, 120 kJ of work is done on the system, find the heat
transferred to or from the system.

2. The internal energy of a system increases by 70 kJ when 180 kJ of heat is transferred
to the system. How much work is done by the gas?

3. During a certain process, 1000 kJ of heat is added to the working fluid while 750 kJ
is extracted as work. Determine the change in internal energy and state whether it is
increased of decreased.

4. If the internal energy of a system is increased by 90 kJ while the system does 125 kJ
of work to the surroundings, determine the heat transfer to or from the system.

SELF-ASSESSMENT
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/2/18

1. Q = - 420 kJ
2. W = 110 kJ
3. U
2
U
1
= 250 kJ (Since U
2
- U
1
= +ve, the internal energy is increased)
4. Q = 215 kJ

CONGRATULATIONS!!!!..
May success be with you
always.
Feedback to Self-Assessment
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/1

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS

OBJECTIVES

General Objective : To understand the laws of thermodynamics and its constants.

Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:

define the definitions of Boyles Law, Charles Law and
Universal Gases Law

define and show the application of the specific heat capacity at
constant pressure

define and apply the specific heat capacity at constant volume

UNIT 3
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/2

3.0 Definition Of Perfect Gases

Did you know, one important type of fluid that has many applications in
thermodynamics is the type in which the working temperature of the fluid remains
well above the critical temperature of the fluid? In this case, the fluid cannot be
liquefied by an isothermal compression, i.e. if it is required to condense the fluid,
then cooling of the fluid must first be carried out. In the simple treatment of such
fluids, their behavior is likened to that a perfect gas. Although, strictly speaking, a
perfect gas is an ideal which can never be realized in practice. The behavior of many
permanent gases, e.g. hydrogen, oxygen, air etc is very similar to the behavior of a
perfect gas to a first approximation.

A perfect gas is a collection of particles that:
are in constant, random motion,
have no intermolecular attractions (which leads to elastic collisions in which
no energy is exchanged or lost),
are considered to be volume-less points.

You are more familiar with the term ideal gas. There is actually a distinction
between these two terms but for our purposes, you may consider them
interchangeable. The principle properties used to define the state of a gaseous system
are pressure (P), volume (V) and temperature (T). SI units (Systems International)
for these properties are Pascal (Pa) for pressure, m
3
for volume (although liters and
cm
3
are often substituted), and the absolute scale of temperature or Kelvin (K).

Two of the laws describing the behavior of a perfect gas are Boyles Law and
Charles Law.

INPUT
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/3

3.1 Boyles Law

The Boyles Law may be stated as follows:
Provided the temperature T of a perfect gas remains constant, then volume, V of a
given mass of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure P of the gas, i.e. P 1/V
(as shown in Fig. 3.1-1), or P x V = constant if temperature remains constant.

Figure 3.1-1 Graph P 1/V

If a gas changes from state 1 to state 2 during an isothermal process, then

P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2
= constant (3.1)

If the process is represented on a graph having axes of pressure P and volume V, the
results will be as shown in Fig. 3.1-2. The curve is known as a rectangular
hyperbola, having the mathematical equation xy = constant.

P

P
1
1

P
2
2
3
P
3

V
1
V
2
V
3
V

Figure 3.1-2 P-V graph for constant temperature

P
1/V
P 1/V
PV = constant
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/4

A quantity of a certain perfect gas is heated at a constant temperature from an
initial state of 0.22 m
3
and

325 kN/m
2
to a final state of 170 kN/m
2
. Calculate
the final pressure of the gas.
Example 3.1

Solution to Example 3.1

From equation P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2

3.2 Charles Law

The Charless Law may be stated as follows:
Provided the pressure P of a given mass of gas remains constant, then the volume V
of the gas will be directly proportional to the absolute temperature T of the gas, i.e.
V T, or V = constant x T. Therefore V/T = constant, for constant pressure P.

If gas changes from state 1 to state 2 during a constant pressure process, then

If the process is represented on a P V diagram as before, the result will be as shown
in Fig. 3.2.

( )
3
2
2
3
2
1
1 2
m 0.421
kN/m 170
kN/m 325
m 0.22 x =
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
P
P
V V
constant
2
2
1
1
= =
T
V
T
V
(3.2)
1 2
P
V
0
V
1
V
2
Figure 3.2 P-V graph for constant pressure process
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/5

A quantity of gas at 0.54 m
3
and 345
o
C undergoes a constant pressure process
that causes the volume of the gas to decreases to 0.32 m
3
. Calculate the
temperature of the gas at the end of the process.

Example 3.2

Solution to Example 3.2

From the question
V
1
= 0.54 m
3

T
1
= 345 + 273 K = 618 K
V
2
= 0.32 m
3

3.3 Universal Gases Law

Charles Law gives us the change in volume of a gas with temperature when the
pressure remains constant. Boyles Law gives us the change in volume of a gas with
pressure if the temperature remains constant.

The relation which gives the volume of a gas when both temperature and the
pressure are changed is stated as equation 3.3 below.

i.e. (3.4)

( )
K 366
m 0.54
m 0.32
K 618
x
3
3
1
2
1 2
2
2
1
1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
=
V
V
T T
T
V
T
V
R
T
PV
= = constant (3.3)
2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V P
T
V P
=
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/6

No gases in practice obey this law rigidly, but many gases tend towards it. An
imaginary ideal that obeys the law is called a perfect gas, and the equation
is called the characteristic equation of state of a perfect gas.

The constant, R, is called the gas constant. The unit of R is Nm/kg K or J/kg K.
Each perfect gas has a different gas constant.

The characteristic equation is usually written
PV = RT (3.5)

or for m kg, occupying V m
3
,
PV = mRT (3.6)

Another form of the characteristic equation can be derived using the kilogram-mole
as a unit. The kilogram-mole is defined as a quantity of a gas equivalent to m kg of
the gas, where M is the molecular weight of the gas (e.g. since the molecular weight
of oxygen is 32, then 1 kg mole of oxygen is equivalent to 32 kg of oxygen).

From the definition of the kilogram-mole, for m kg of a gas we have,
m = nM (3.7)

(where n is the number of moles).
Note: Since the standard of mass is the kg, kilogram-mole will be written simply as
mole.

Substituting for m from equation 3.7 in equation 3.6,

PV = nMRT or (3.8)

R
T
PV
=
nT
PV
MR =
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/7

0.046 m
3
of gas are contained in a sealed cylinder at a pressure of 300 kN/m
2
and a temperature of 45
o
C. The gas is compressed until the pressure reaches
1.27 MN/m
2
and the temperature is 83
o
C. If the gas is assumed to be a perfect
gas, determine:

d) the mass of gas (kg)
e) the final volume of gas (m
3
)

Given:
R = 0.29 kJ/kg K
Now Avogadros hypothesis states that the volume of 1 mole of any gas is the same
as the volume of 1 mole of any other gas, when the gases are at the same temperature
and pressure. Therefore V/n is the same for all gases at the same value of P and T.
That is the quantity PV/nT is constant for all gases. This constant is called the
universal gas constant, and is given the symbol R
o
.

i.e. (3.9)

or since MR = R
o
then,
R
R
M
o
= (3.10)

Experiment has shown that the volume of 1 mole of any perfect gas at 1 bar and 1
o
C
is approximately 22.71 m
3
. Therefore from equation 3.8

From equation 3.10 the gas constant for any gas can be found when the molecular
weight is known, e.g. for oxygen of molecular weight 32, the gas constant is

K J/kg 8 . 259
32
4 . 8314
= = =
M
R
R
o

Example 3.3

T nR PV
nT
PV
R MR
o o
= = = or
K J/mole 8314.4
273.15 x 1
22.71 x 10 x 1
5
0
= = =
nT
PV
R
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/8

Solution to Example 3.3

From the question
V
1
= 0.046 m
3

P
1
= 300 kN/m
2
T
1
= 45 + 273 K = 318 K
P
2
= 1.27 MN/m
2
= 1.27 x 10
3
kN/m
2

T
2
= 83 + 273 K = 356 K
R = 0.29 kJ/kg K

From equation 3.6
PV = mRT

From equation 3.4, the constant volume process i.e. V
1
= V
2

kg 0.1496
318 x 0.29
0.046 x 300
1
1 1
= = =
RT
V P
m
( ) ( ) K 1346
300
10 x 1.27
318
3
1
2
1 2
2
2
1
1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
P
P
T T
T
P
T
P
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/9

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT!

3.1 Study the statements in the table below. Mark the answers as TRUE or
FALSE.

STATEMENT TRUE or FALSE
i. Charles Law gives us the change in volume
of a gas with temperature when the
temperature remains constant.

ii. Boyles Law gives us the change in volume of
a gas with pressure if the pressure remains
constant.

iii. The characteristic equation of state of a
perfect gas is .

iv. R
o
is the symbol for universal gas constant.
v. The constant R is called the gas constant.
vi. The unit of R is Nm/kg or J/kg.

3.2 0.04 kg of a certain perfect gas occupies a volume of 0.0072 m
3
at a pressure
6.76 bar and a temperature of 127
o
C. Calculate the molecular weight of the
gas (M). When the gas is allowed to expand until the pressure is 2.12 bar the
final volume is 0.065 m
3
. Calculate the final temperature.

Activity 3A
R
T
PV
=
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/10

Feedback To Activity 3A

3.1 i. False
ii. False
iii. True
iv. True
v. True
vi. False

3.2 From the question,
m = 0.04 kg
V
1
= 0.072 m
3
V
2
= 0.072 m
3

P
1
= 6.76 bar = 6.76 x 10
2
kN/m
2
P
2
= 2.12 bar = 2.12 x 10
2
kN/m
2

T
1
= 127 + 273 K = 400 K

From equation 3.6
P
1
V
1
= mRT
1

Then from equation 3.10
R
R
M
o
=

i.e. Molecular weight = 27

K kJ/kg 3042 . 0
400 x 0.04
0.0072 x 10 x 6.76
2
1
1 1
= = =
mT
V P
R
kg/kmol 27
3042 . 0
3144 . 8
= = =
R
R
M
o
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/11

From equation 3.6
P
2
V
2
= mRT
2

i.e. Final temperature = 1132.5 273 = 859.5
o
C.

PROCEED TO THE NEXT INPUT..
K 1132.5
0.3042 x 0.04
0.065 x 10 x 2.12
2
2 2
2
= = =
mR
V P
T
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/12

3.4 Specific Heat Capacity at Constant Volume (C
v
)

The specific heat capacities of any substance is defined as the amount of heat energy
required to raise the unit mass through one degree temperature raise. In
thermodynamics, two specified conditions are used, those of constant volume and
constant pressure. The two specific heat capacities do not have the same value and it
is essential to distinguish them.

If 1 kg of a gas is supplied with an amount of heat energy sufficient to raise the
temperature of the gas by 1 degree whilst the volume of the gas remains constant,
then the amount of heat energy supplied is known as the specific heat capacity at
constant volume, and is denoted by C
v.
The unit of C
v
is J/kg K or kJ/kg K.

For a reversible non-flow process at constant volume, we have
dQ = mC
v
dT (3.11)

For a perfect gas the values of C
v
are constant for any one gas at all pressures and
temperatures. Equations (3.11) can then be expanded as follows :
Heat flow in a constant volume process, Q
12
= mC
v
(T
2
T
1
) (3.12)

Also, from the non-flow energy equation
Q W = (U
2
U
1
)
mc
v
(T
2
T
1
) 0 = (U
2
U
1
)
(U
2
U
1
) = mC
v
(T
2
T
1
) (3.13)

i.e. dU = Q

Note:
In a reversible constant volume process, no work energy transfer can take
place since the piston will be unable to move i.e. W = 0.

INPUT
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/13

3.4 kg of gas is heated at a constant volume of 0.92 m
3
and temperature 17
o
C
until the temperature rose to 147
o
C. If the gas is assumed to be a perfect gas,
determine:

a) the heat flow during the process
b) the beginning pressure of gas
c) the final pressure of gas

Given
C
v
= 0.72 kJ/kg K
R = 0.287 kJ/kg K

The reversible constant volume process is shown on a P-V diagram in Fig. 3.4.

Figure 3.4 P-V diagram for reversible constant volume process

Example 3.4

Solution to Example 3.4

From the question
m = 3.4 kg
V
1
= V
2
= 0.92 m
3

T
1
= 17 + 273 K = 290 K
T
2
= 147 + 273 K = 420 K
C
v
= 0.72 kJ/kg K
R = 0.287 kJ/kg K

P
2

P
1

1
2
P
V
V
1
= V
2
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/14

a) From equation 3.13,
Q
12
= mC
v
(T
2
T
1
)
= 3.4 x 0.72(420 290)
= 318.24 kJ

b) From equation 3.6,
PV = mRT

Hence for state 1,
P
1
V
1
= mRT
1

2
3
1
1
1
kN/m 6 . 307
m 92 . 0
K 290 kJ/kgK x 287 . 0 x kg 4 . 3
= = =
V
mRT
P

c) For state 2,
P
2
V
2
= mRT
2

2
3
2
2
2
kN/m 5 . 445
m 92 . 0
K 0 42 kJ/kgK x 287 . 0 x kg 4 . 3
= = =
V
mRT
P

3.5 Specific Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure (C
p
)

If 1 kg of a gas is supplied with an amount of heat energy sufficient to raise the
temperature of the gas by 1 degree whilst the pressure of the gas remains constant,
then the amount of heat energy supplied is known as the specific heat capacity at
constant pressure, and is denoted by C
p.
The unit of C
p
is J/kg K or kJ/kg K.

For a reversible non-flow process at constant pressure, we have
dQ = mC
p
dT (3.14)

For a perfect gas the values of C
p
are constant for any one gas at all pressures and
temperatures. Equation (3.14) can then be expanded as follows:

Heat flow in a reversible constant pressure process Q = mC
p
(T
2
T
1
) (3.15)

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/15

3.6 Relationship Between The Specific Heats

Let a perfect gas be heated at constant pressure from T
1
to T
2
. With reference to the
non-flow equation Q = U
2
U
1
+ W, and the equation for a perfect gas
U
2
U
1
= mC
v
(T
2
T
1
), hence,
Q = mC
v
(T
2
T
1
) + W

In a constant pressure process, the work done by the fluid is given by the pressure
times the change in volume, i.e. W = P(V
2
V
1
). Then using equation PV = mRT,
we have
W = mR(T
2
T
1
)

Therefore substituting,
Q = mC
v
(T
2
T
1
) + mR(T
2
T
1
) = m(C
v
+ R)(T
2
T
1
)

But for a constant pressure process from equation 3.15,
Q = mC
p
(T
2
T
1
)

Hence, by equating the two expressions for the heat flow Q, we have
mC
p
(T
2
T
1
) = m(C
v
+ R)(T
2
T
1
)
C
p
= C
v
+ R
Alternatively, it is usually written as

R = C
p
- C
v
3.16

3.7 Specific Heat Ratio ()

The ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure to the specific heat at constant
volume is given the symbol (gamma),

i.e. =
v
p
C
C
(3.17)

Note that since C
p
- C
v
= R, from equation 3.16, it is clear that C
p
must be greater
than C
v
for any perfect gas. It follows therefore that the ratio C
p
/C
v
= , is always
greater than unity. In general, is about 1.4 for diatomic gases such as carbon
monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H
2
), nitrogen (N
2
), and oxygen (O
2
). For monatomic
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/16

gases such as argon (A), and helium (He), is about 1.6, and for triatomic gases such
as carbon dioxide (CO
2
), and sulphur dioxide (SO
2
), is about 1.3. For some hydro-
carbons the value of is quite low (e.g. for ethane (C
2
H
6
), = 1.22, and for iso-
butane (C
4
H
10
), = 1.11.

Some useful relationships between C
p
, C
v
, R, and can be derived.
From equation 3.17

C
p
- C
v
= R

Dividing through by C
v

v v
p
C
R
C
C
= 1
Therefore using equation 3.17, =
v
p
C
C
, then,

v
C
R
= 1

) 1 (
=

R
C
v
3.18
Also from equation 3.17, C
p
= C
v
hence substituting in equation 3.18,

C
p
= C
v
=
) 1 (
R

C
p
=
) 1 (
R
3.19

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/17

Example 3.5

Solution to Example 3.5

From equation 3.16

R = C
p
- C
v

i.e. R = 0.846 0.657 = 0.189 kJ/kg K
or R = 189 Nm/kg K

From equation 3.10

M =
R
R
0

i.e. M = 44
189
8314
=

A certain perfect gas has specific heat as follows

C
p
= 0.846 kJ/kg K and C
v
= 0.657 kJ/kg K

Find the gas constant and the molecular weight of the gas.
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/18

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT!

3.3 Two kilograms of a gas receive 200 kJ as heat at constant volume process. If
the temperature of the gas increases by 100
o
C, determine the C
v
of the
process.

3.4 A perfect gas is contained in a rigid vessel at 3 bar and 315
o
C. The gas is
then cooled until the pressure falls to 1.5 bar. Calculate the heat rejected per
kg of gas.
Given:
M = 26 kg/kmol and = 1.26.

3.5 A mass of 0.18 kg gas is at a temperature of 15
o
C and pressure 130 kN/m
2
.
If the gas has a value of C
v
= 720 J/kg K, calculate the:

i. gas constant
ii. molecular weight
iii. specific heat at constant pressure
iv. specific heat ratio

Activity 3B
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/19

Feedback To Activity 3B

3.3 From the question,
m = 2 kg
Q = 200 kJ
(T
2
T
1
) = 100
o
C = 373 K

Q = mC
v
(T
2
T
1
)

( )
kJ/kgK 268 . 0
) 373 ( 2
200
1 2
= =

=
T T m
Q
C
v

3.4 From the question,
P
1
= 3 bar
T
1
= 315
o
C = 588 K
P
2
= 1.5 bar
M = 26 kg/kmol
= 1.26

From equation 3.10,
K J/kg 8 . 319
26
8314
= = =
M
R
R
o

From equation 3.18,
K kJ/kg 1.230 K J/kg 1230
1 26 . 1
8 . 319
) 1 (
= =

R
C
v

During the process, the volume remains constant (i.e. rigid vessel) for the
mass of gas present, and from equation 3.4,
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/20

Therefore since V
1
= V
2
,
K 294
3
5 . 1
x 588
1
2
1 2
= = =
P
P
T T
Then from equation 3.12,
Heat rejected per kg gas, Q = C
v
(T
2
T
1
)
= 1.230(588 294)
= 361.6 kJ/kg

3.5 From the question
m = 0.18 kg
T = 15
o
C = 288 K
V

= 0.17 m
3

C
v
= 720 J/kg K = 0.720 kJ/kg K

i. From equation 3.6,
PV = mRT

kJ/kgK 426 . 0
288 x 18 . 0
17 . 0 x 130
= = =
mT
PV
R

ii. From equation 3.10,
kg/kmol 52 . 19
426 . 0
3144 . 8
= = =
=
R
R
M
M
R
R
o
o

iii. From equation 3.16,
R = C
p
- C
v

C
p
= R + C
v
= 0.426 + 0.720 = 1.146 kJ/kg K

iv. From equation 3.17,
59 . 1
720 . 0
146 . 1
= = =
v
p
C
C

2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V P
T
V P
=
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/21

You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment
section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to Self-
Assessment on the next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer.
Good luck.

1. 1 m
3
of air at 8 bar and 120
o
C is cooled at constant pressure process until the
temperature drops to 27
o
C.
Given R = 0.287 kJ/kg K and C
p
= 1.005 kJ/kg K, calculate the:

i. mass of air
ii. heat rejected in the process
iii. volume of the air after cooling.

2. A system undergoes a process in which 42 kJ of heat is rejected. If the
pressure is kept constant at 125 kN/m
2
while the volume changes from
0.20 m
3
to 0.006 m
3
, determine the work done and the change in internal
energy.

3. Heat is supplied to a gas in a rigid container.The mass of the container is 1 kg
and the volume of gas is 0.6 m
3
. 100 kJ is added as heat. If gas has
C
v
= 0.7186 kJ/kg K during a process, determine the:

i. change in temperature
ii. change in internal energy

SELF-ASSESSMENT
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS J2006/3/22

1. i. m = 7.093 kg
ii. Q = 663 kJ
iii. V
2
= 0.763 m
3

2. W = -24.25 kJ
(U
2
U
1
) = -17.75 kJ

3. i. (T
2
T
1
) = 139.2 K
ii. (U
2
U
1
) = 100 kJ

CONGRATULATIONS!!!!..
May success be with you
always.
Feedback To Self-Assessment
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/4/1

NON - FLOW PROCESS

OBJECTIVES

General Objective : To understand and apply the concept of non-flow process in
thermodynamics

Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:

define and describe the differences between the flow and the
non-flow processes

identify heat and work in reversible process

define and calculate the following non-flow processes :

- constant temperature (Isothermal)

UNIT 4
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/4/2

4.0 INTRODUCTION

nce a fluid has entered a system, it may be possible for it to undergo a series
of processes in which the fluid does not flow. An example of this is the
cylinder of an internal combustion engine. In the suction stroke, the working
fluid flows into the cylinder in which it is then temporarily sealed. Whilst the
cylinder is sealed, the fluid is compressed by the piston moving into the cylinder,
after which heat energy is supplied so that the fluid possesses sufficient energy to
force the piston back down the cylinder, causing the engine to do external work. The
exhaust valve is then opened and the fluid is made to flow out of the cylinder into the
surroundings. Processes which are undergone by a system when the working fluid
cannot cross the boundary are called non-flow process. This process occurs during
the compression and the working stroke as mentioned in the above example (refer to
Fig. 4.0).

O

What is a non
flow process?
INPUT
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/4/3

4.1 Differences Between The Flow and Non-flow processes

4.1.1 Flow Process
In an open system, not only the energy transfers take place across the
boundary, the fluid may also cross the boundary. Any process undergone by
an open system is called a flow process. This process may be sub-divided
into an unsteady flow process and steady flow process. The general equation
is shown below,

W
C
v P u gZ Q
C
v P u gZ + + + + = + + + +
2 2
2
2
2 2 2 2
2
1
1 1 1 1

4.1.2 Non-flow process
In a close system, although energy may be transferred across the boundary in
the form of work energy and heat energy, the working fluid itself never
crosses the boundary. Any process undergone by a close system is referred to
as the non-flow process.

If the fluid is undergoing a non-flow process from state (1) to state (2) then
the terms from the general equation for p
1
V
1
and p
2
V
2
(which represent the
amount of work energy required to introduce and expel the fluid from the
system) will be zero, since the fluid is already in the system, and will still be
in the system at the end of the process. For the same reason, the changes in
SUCTION
STROKE
COMPRESSION
STROKE
WORKING
STROKE
EXHAUST
STROKE
Figure 4.0 The cycle of an internal combustion engine
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/4/4

kinetic and potential energies of the fluid will also be zero. Thus the equation
becomes

U
1
+ Q = U
2
+ W

or, U
2
U
1
= Q W (4.1)

In words, this equation states that in a non-flow process, the change in the
internal energy of the fluid is equal to the nett amount of heat energy
supplied to the fluid minus the nett amount of work energy flowing from the
fluid.

This equation is known as the non flow energy equation, and it will now be
shown how this may apply to the various non-flow processes.

4.2 Constant temperature (Isothermal) process (pV = C)

If the change in temperature during a process is very small then that process may be
approximated as an isothermal process. For example, the slow expansion or
compression of fluid in a cylinder, which is perfectly cooled by water may be
analysed, assuming that the temperature remains constant.

Figure 4.2 Constant temperature (Isothermal) process

W
Q
P
v
v
1
v
2
W
1
2
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/4/5

The general relation properties between the initial and final states of a perfect gas are
applied as follows:

2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V p
T
V p
=
If the temperature remains constant during the process, T
1
= T
2
and the above
relation becomes

2 2 1 1
V p V p =

From the equation we can know that an increase in the volume results in a decrease
in the pressure. In other words, in an isothermal process, the pressure is inversely
proportional to the volume.

Work transfer:
Referring to the process represented on the p V diagram in Fig.4.2 it is noted that
the volume increases during the process. In other words the fluid is expanding. The
expansion work is given by

}
=
2
1
pdV W
=
}
2
1
dV
V
c
(since pV = C, a constant)
=
}
2
1
V
dV
c
=
}
2
1
1 1
V
dV
V p
=
1
2
1 1
ln
V
V
V p
(

lume smaller vo
ume larger vol

=
1
2
1
ln
V
V
mRT (since p
1
V
1
= mRT
1
)
=
2
1
1
ln
p
p
mRT (since
2
1
1
2
p
p
V
V
= ) (4.2)

Note that during expansion, the volume increases and the pressure decreases. On the
p V diagram, the shaded area under the process line represents the amount of work
transfer.

Since this is an expansion process (i.e. increasing volume), the work is done by the
system. In other words the system produces work output and this is shown by the
direction of the arrow representing W.

NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/4/6

Heat transfer:
Energy balance to this case is applied:

U
1
+ Q = U
2
+ W

For a perfect gas

U
1
= mc
v
T
1
and U
2
= mc
v
T
2

As the temperature is constant

U
1
= U
2

Substituting in the energy balance equation,

Q = W (4.3)

Thus, for a perfect gas, all the heat added during a constant temperature process is
converted into work and the internal energy of the system remains constant.

For a constant temperature process
W =
1
2
1
ln
V
V
mRT = Q
or
W =
2
1
1
ln
p
p
mRT = Q

NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/4/7

4.3 Adiabatic process (Q = 0)

If a system is thermally well insulated then there will be negligible heat
transfer into or out of the system. Such a system is thermally isolated and a
process within that system may be idealised as an adiabatic process. For
example, the outer casing of steam engine, steam turbines and gas turbines
are well insulated to minimise heat loss. The fluid expansion process in such
machines may be assumed to be adiabatic.

Figure 4.3 Adiabatic (zero heat transfer) process

For a perfect gas the equation for an adiabatic process is

pV

= C

where = ratio of specific heat =
v
p
C
C

The above equation is applied to states 1 and 2 as:

2 2 1 1
V p V p =

=
2
1
1
2
V
V
p
p
(4.4)

W
P
v
v
1
v
2
W
1
2
Thermal insulation
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/4/8

Also, for a perfect gas, the general property relation between the two states is given
by the equation below

2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V p
T
V p
= (4.5)

By manipulating equations 4.4 and 4.5 the following relationship can be determined:

1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2

=
(

V
V
p
p
T
T
(4.6)

By examining equations 4.4 and 4.6 the following conclusion for an adiabatic
process on a perfect gas can be drawn:
An increase in volume results in a decrease in pressure.
An increase in volume results in a decrease in temperature.
An increase in pressure results in an increase in temperature.

Work transfer:
Referring to the process represented on the p-V diagram (Fig.4.3) it is noted that the
volume increases during the process.
In other words, the fluid expanding and the expansion work is given by the formula:

}
=
2
1
pdV W
=
}
2
1
dV
V
c

(since pV

= C, a constant)
=
}
2
1

V
dV
c
=
1
2 2 1 1

V p V p
[larger pV- small pV] (4.7)

Note that after expansion, p
2
is smaller than p
1
. In the p V diagram, the shaded
area under the process represents the amount of work transfer.
As this is an expansion process (i.e. increase in volume) the work is done by the
system. In other words, the system produces work output and this is shown by the
direction of the arrow representing W (as shown in Fig 4.3).

NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/4/9

Heat transfer:
In an adiabatic process, Q = 0.
Applying an energy balance to this case (Fig.4.3):

U
1
- W = U
2

W = U
1
U
2

Thus, in an adiabatic expansion the work output is equal to the decrease in internal
energy. In other words, because of the work output the internal energy of the system
decreases by a corresponding amount.

For a perfect gas, U
1
= mc
v
T
1
and U
1
= mc
v
T
1

On substitution
W = mc
v
(T
1
-T
2
) [larger T- smaller T] (4.8)

We know
c
p
- c
v
= R
or
c
v
=
1
R

Substituting in equation 4.8

1
(
) 2 1

T T mR
W (4.9)

But, mRT
2
= p
2
V
2
and mRT
1
= p
1
V
1

Then the expression for the expansion becomes

1
2 2 1 1

V p V p
W (4.10)

Referring to the process represented on the p-V diagram it is noted that during this
process the volume increases and the pressure decreases. For a perfect gas, equation
4.6 tells that a decrease in pressure will result in a temperature drop.

NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/4/10

In an industrial process, 0.4 kg of oxygen is compressed isothermally from
1.01 bar and 22
o
C to 5.5 bar. Determine the work done and the heat transfer
during the process. Assume that oxygen is a perfect gas and take the molecular
weight of oxygen to be M = 32 kg/kmole.
Example 4.1

Solution to Example 4.1

Data: m = 0.4 kg; p
1
= 1.01 bar; t
1
= 22
o
C
p
2
= 5.5 bar; W = ? Q = ?

From the equation
R =
M
R
0

=
32
8314

= 260 J/kgK
= 0.260 kJ/kgK

For an isothermal process
Work input,
W = mRTln
1
2
p
p

=
01 . 1
5 . 5
ln ) 273 22 ( x 260 . 0 x 4 . 0 +
= 52 kJ

In an isothermal process all the work input is rejected as heat.
Therefore, heat rejected, Q = W = 52 kJ

NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/4/11

In a thermally insulated reciprocating air compressor, air at 0.98 bar and 20
o
C
is compressed into one sixth of its original volume. Determine the pressure and
temperature of the air after compression. If the compressor cylinder contains
0.05 kg of air, calculate the required work input. For air, take = 1.4 and
c
v
= 0.718 kJ/kgK.
Example 4.2

Solution to Example 4.2
Data : p
1
= 0.98 bar; T
1
= 20 + 273 = 293 K
;
6
1
1
2
=
V
V
m = 0.05 kg; W = ?

As the cylinder is well insulated the heat transfer is negligible and the process may
Considering air as a perfect gas
From equation 4.4,

=
2
1
1
2
V
V
p
p

p
2
= 0.98 x 6
1.4

= 12 bar
From equation 4.6,
1
2
1
1
2

=

V
V
T
T

T
2
= 293 x 6
0.4

= 600 K
= 327
o
C

Re-writing equation 4.8 for an adiabatic compression process

W = mc
v
(T
2
-T
1
) [larger T- smaller T]
= 0.05 x 0.718 (600-293)
= 11 kJ
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/4/12

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT!

4.1 In the cylinder of a large engine, 1.0 kg of carbon dioxide at 527
o
C and
20 bar expands isothermally to a pressure of 1.4 bar. What is the final volume
of the gas?
Take R = 189 Nm/kgK for carbon dioxide.

4.2 1 kg of nitrogen (molecular weight 28) is compressed reversibly and
isothermally from 1.01 bar, 20
o
C to 4.2 bar. Calculate the work done and the
heat flow during the process. Assume nitrogen to be a perfect gas.

4.3 Air at 1.02 bar, 22
o
C, initially occupying a cylinder volume of 0.015 m
3
, is
compressed reversibly and adiabatically by a piston to a pressure of 6.8 bar.
Calculate the final temperature, the final volume, and the work done on the
mass of air in the cylinder.
Activity 4
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/4/13

Feedback to Activity 4

4.1 Data: m = 1.0 kg; T
1
= 527 + 273 = 800 K
p
1
= 20 bar; p
2
= 1.4 bar; V
2
= ?

Carbon dioxide is a perfect gas and we can apply the following characteristic
gas equation at state 1.
p
1
V
1
= mRT
1

V
1
=
1
1
p
mRT

=
5
10 20
800 189 1
x
x x

= 0.0756 m
3

Applying the general property relation between state 1 and 2

2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V p
T
V p
=

For an isothermal process T
1
= T
2

Hence,

2 2 1 1
V p V p =
V
2
= 0756 . 0 x
4 . 1
20

V
2
= 1.08 m
3

NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/4/14

4.2 Data: m=1kg; M= 28 kg/kmole p
1
= 1.01 bar;
T
1
= 20 + 272 = 293 K; p
2
= 4.2 bar

From equation
R =
M
R
0

=
28
314 . 8

= 0.297 kJ/kgK

The process is shown on a p-v diagram below. When a process takes place
from right to left on a p-v diagram the work done by the fluid is negative.
That is, work is done on the fluid.

From equation 4.2
W =
2
1
1
ln
p
p
mRT
= 1 x 0.297x293x ln
2 . 4
01 . 1

= -124 kJ/kg

For an isothermal process for a perfect gas,
Q = W = -124 kJ/kg

p
v
4.2
1.01
pV=C
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/4/15

4.3 Data: p
1
=1.02 bar; T
1
=22 + 273 = 295 K;
v
1
= 0.015 m
3
; p
2
= 6.8 bar

From equation 4.6

1
1
2
1
2

=
p
p
T
T

T
2
= 295 x
4 . 1 / ) 1 4 . 1 (
02 . 1
8 . 6

|
.
|

\
|

= 507.5 K
(where for air = 1.4)
i.e. Final temperature = 507.5 273 = 234.5
o
C

From equation 4.4

=
2
1
1
2
V
V
p
p
or
/ 1
1
2
2
1
(

=
p
p
v
v

4 . 1 / 1
2
02 . 1
8 . 6 015 . 0
|
.
|

\
|
=
v

i.e. Final volume
v
2
= 0.0038 m
3

W = u
1
u
2

and for a perfect gas,
W = c
v
(T
1
-

T
2
)
= 0.718(295-507.5)
= - 152.8 kJ/kg

i.e. work input per kg = 152.8 kJ

The mass of air can be found using equation pV = mRT

kg
x
x x
RT
v p
m 018 . 0
195 10 287 . 0
015 . 0 10 02 . 1
3
5
1
1 1
= = =
i.e. Total work done = 0.0181 x 152.8 = 2.76 kJ
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/4/16

You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section
and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to Self-Assessment on the
next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.

1. 0.05 m
3
of a perfect gas at 6.3 bar undergoes a reversible isothermal process
to a pressure of 1.05 bar. Calculate the heat flow to or from the gas.

2. Nitrogen (molecular weight 28) expands reversibly in a perfectly thermally
insulated cylinder from 2.5 bar, 200
o
C to a volume of 0.09 m
3
. If the initial
volume occupied was 0.03 m
3
, calculate the work done during the expansion.
Assume nitrogen to be a perfect gas and take c
v
= 0.741 kJ/kg K.

3. A mass of 0.05 kg of air at a temperature of 40
o
C and a pressure of 1 bar is
compressed adiabatically to 5 bar. Determine the following:
a) final temperature
b) final volume
c) work transfer
d) heat transfer
e) change in internal energy

4. A quantity of gas occupies a volume of 0.3 m
3
at a pressure of 100 kN/m
2

and a temperature of 20
o
C. The gas is compressed isothermally to a pressure
of 500 kN/m
2
and then expanded adiabatically to its initial volume.
For this quantity of gas determine the following:
a) the heat received or rejected (state which) during the compression,
b) the change of internal energy during the expansion,
c) the mass of gas.

SELF-ASSESSMENT
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/4/17

1. 56.4 kJ

2. 9.31 kJ

3. 222.7
o
C, 14230 cm
3
, 6.56 kJ input, 0 kJ, 6.56 kJ increase.

4. 48.3 kJ (heat rejected), -35.5 kJ, 0.358 kg

Feedback to Self-Assessment

CONGRATULATIONS!!!!
You can now move on to
Unit 5
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/1

NON-FLOW PROCESS

OBJECTIVES

General Objective : To understand and apply the concept of non-flow process in
thermodynamics

Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:

define and calculate the following non-flow processes:

- polytropic

- constant volume

- constant pressure

UNIT 5
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/2

5.0 NON-FLOW PROCESS

In a close system, although energy may be transferred across the boundary in the
form of work energy and heat energy, the working fluid itself never crosses the
boundary. Any process undergone by a close system is referred to as non-flow
process.

The equation for non-flow process is given as follows:

U
1
+ Q = U
2
+ W

or, U
2
U
1
= Q W

In words, this equation states that in a non-flow process, the change in the internal
energy of the fluid is equal to the nett amount of heat energy supplied to the fluid
minus the nett amount of work energy flowing from the fluid.

This equation is known as the non-flow energy equation, and it will now be
shown how this may apply to the various non-flow processes.

Processes, which are
undergone by a system
when the working fluid
cannot cross the
boundary, are called
non-flow process.

INPUT
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/3

5.1 Polytropic process (pV
n
= C)

This is the most general type of process, in which both heat energy and work
energy cross the boundary of the system. It is represented by an equation in the
form

pV
n
= constant (5.1)

If a compression or expansion is performed slowly, and if the piston cylinder
assembly is cooled perfectly, then the process will be isothermal. In this case the
index n = 1.

If a compression or expansion is performed rapidly, and if the piston cylinder
assembly is perfectly insulated, then the process will be adiabatic. In this case the
index n = .

If a compression or expansion is performed at moderate speed, and if the piston
cylinder assembly is cooled to some degree, then the process is somewhere
between those discussed above. Generally, this is the situation in many
engineering applications. In this case the index n should take some value, which is
between 1 and depending on the degree of cooling.

Some practical examples include:
compression in a stationary air compressor (n = 1.3)
compression in an air compressor cooled by a fan (n = 1.2)
compression in a water cooled air compressor (n = 1.1)

Figure 5.1 Polytropic process

W
Q
loss

P
v
v
1 v
2
W
1
2
P
1
P
2
pV
n
=C
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/4

Equation 5.1 is applied at states 1 and 2 as:

n n
V p V p
2 2 1 1
=
or

n
V
V
p
p
(

=
2
1
1
2
(5.2)

Also, for a perfect gas, the general property relation between the two states is
given by

2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V p
T
V p
= (5.3)

By the manipulation of equations 5.2 and 5.3 the following relationship can be
determined:

1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2

=
(

=
n
n
n
V
V
p
p
T
T
(5.4)

By examining equations 5.2 and 5.4 the following conclusions for a polytropic
process on a perfect gas can be drawn as:

An increase in volume results in a decrease in pressure.
An increase in volume results in a decrease in temperature.
An increase in pressure results in an increase in temperature.

Work transfer:
Referring to the process represented on the p-V diagram (Fig.5.1) it is noted that
the volume increases during the process.
In other words the fluid is expands and the expansion work is given by

}
=
2
1
pdV W
=
}
2
1
dV
V
c
n
(since pV
n
= C, a constant)
=
}
2
1
n
V
dV
c
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/5

=
1
2 2 1 1

n
V p V p
[larger pV- small pV] (5.5)

Note that after expansion p
2
is smaller than p
1
. In the p V diagram, the shaded
area under the process represents the amount of work transfer.
Since this is an expansion process (i.e. increase in volume), the work is done by
the system. In other words, the system produces work output and this is shown by
the direction of the arrow representing W as shown in Fig. 5.1.

Heat transfer:

Energy balance is applied to this case (Fig.5.1) as:

U
1
Q
loss
- W = U
2

Q
loss
= (U
1
U
2
) W
or
W = (U
1
U
2
) - Q
loss

Thus, in a polytropic expansion the work output is reduced because of the heat
loses.

Referring to the process represented on the pV diagram (Fig.5.1) it is noted that
during this process the volume increases and the pressure decreases. For a perfect
gas, equation 5.4 tells us that a decrease in pressure will result in a temperature
drop.

W=
1
2 2 1 1

V p V p

For polytropic process:
W=
1
2 2 1 1

n
V p V p

NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/6

The combustion gases in a petrol engine cylinder are at 30 bar and 800
o
C
before expansion. The gases expand through a volume ratio (
1
2
V
V
) of (
1
5 . 8
)
and occupy 510 cm
3
after expansion. When the engine is air cooled the
polytropic expansion index n = 1.15. What is the temperature and pressure of
the gas after expansion, and what is the work output?
Example 5.1

Solution to Example 5.1

State 1 State 2

Data: p
1
= 30 bar; T
1
= 800 + 273 = 1073 K; n = 1.15

1
2
V
V
= 8.5; V
2
= 510 cm
3
;

t
2
= ? p
2
= ? W = ?

Considering air as a perfect gas, for the polytropic process, the property relation is
given by equation 5.4 as:

1
2
1
1 2

=
n
V
V
T T

=
1 15 . 1
5 . 8
1
1073

x

= 778.4 K
= 505.4
o
C

P
1
= 30 bar
t
1
= 800
o
C
Q
loss
W
V
2
= 510 cm
3

p
2
= ?
t
2
= ?
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/7

From equation 5.2

n
V
V
p p
(

=
2
1
1 2

=
15 . 1
5 . 8
1
x 30
(

= 2.56 bar

Now,
V
2
= 510 cm
3
= 510 x 10
-6
m
3

and,

1
2
V
V
= 8.5
Then,

5 . 8
10 510
6
1

=
x
V
= 60 x 10
-6
m
3

Work output during polytropic expansion is given by equation 5.5 as:

W =
1
2 2 1 1

n
V p V p
[larger pV- small pV]
=
1 15 . 1
) 10 510 ( ) 10 56 . 2 ( ) 10 60 )( 10 30 (
6 5 6 5

x x x x

= 330 J
= 0.33 kJ

NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/8

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT!

5.1 0.112 m
3
of gas has a pressure of 138 kN/m
2
. It is compressed to
690 kN/m
2
according to the law pV
1.4
= C. Determine the new volume of
the gas.

5.2 0.014 m
3
of gas at a pressure of 2070 kN/m
2
expands to a pressure of
207 kN/m
2
according to the law pV
1.35
= C. Determine the work done by
the gas during expansion.

5.3 A cylinder containing 0.07 kg of fluid has a pressure of 1 bar, a volume of
0.06 m
3
and a specific internal energy of 200 kJ/kg. After polytropic
compression, the pressure and volume of the fluid are 9 bar and 0.011 m
3

respectively, and the specific internal energy is 370 kJ/kg.
Determine
a) the amount of work energy required for the compression
b) the quantity and direction of the heat energy that flows during the
compression.

Activity 5A
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/9

Feedback To Activity 5A

5.1 Since the gas is compressed according to the law pV
1.4
= C, then,

4 . 1
2 2
4 . 1
1 1
V p V p =

4 . 1
1
2
2
1
(

=
V
V
p
p
or
4 . 1 / 1
2
1
1
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
p
p
V
V

from which,

4 . 1 / 1
2
1
1 2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
p
p
V V = 4 . 1
2
1
1
p
p
V

= 0.012 x
4 . 1
690
138

= 0.0348 m
3

5.2 The work done during a polytropic expansion is given by the expression:

W =
1
2 2 1 1

n
V p V p
[larger pV- small pV]

In this problem V
2
is, as yet, unknown and must therefore be calculated.
Now

n n
V p V p
2 2 1 1
=

n
p
p
V V
/ 1
2
1
1 2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

or V
2
= 0.014 x
35 . 1 / 1
207
2070
|
.
|

\
|

V
2
= 0.077 m
3

NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/10

Work done =
1 35 . 1
) 077 . 0 10 207 014 . 0 10 2070 (
3 3

x x x x

= 37.3 x 10
3
Nm
= 37.3 x 10
3
J
= 37.3 kJ

5.3 a) For a polytropic process,

n n
V p V p
2 2 1 1
=

In the given case
1 x 0.06
n
= 9 x 0.011
n

9
011 . 0
06 . 0
= |
.
|

\
|
n

n = 1.302

W =
1
2 2 1 1

n
V p V p

=
1 302 . 1
) 0111 . 0 10 9 ( ) 06 . 0 10 1 (
5 5

x x x x

= -13.2 kJ

system during the process.

b) The non-flow energy equation gives

Q W = U
2
U
1
Q (- 13.2) = ( 370 x 0.07 ) ( 200 x 0.07 )
Q = - 1.3 kJ

The negative sign indicates that heat energy will flow out of the
fluid during the process.
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/11

5.2 Constant volume process

If the change in volume during a process is very small then that process may be
approximated as a constant volume process. For example, heating or cooling a
fluid in a rigid walled vessel can be analysed by assuming that the volume
remains constant.

a) Heating b) Cooling

Figure 5.2 Constant volume process (V
2
=V
1
)

The general property relation between the initial and final states of a perfect gas is
applied as:

2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V p
T
V p
=
If the volume remain constant during the process, V
2
= V
1
and then the above
relation becomes

2
2
1
1
T
p
T
p
=
or

1
2
1
2
p
p
T
T
= (5.6)

From this equation it can be seen that an increase in pressure results from an
increase in temperature. In other words, in constant volume process, the
temperature is proportional to the pressure.

p
v
2
1
Q
p
v
2
1
Q
INPUT
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/12

Work transfer:
Work transfer (pdV) must be zero because the change in volume, dV, during the
process is zero. However, work in the form of paddle-wheel work may be
transferred.

Heat transfer:
Applying the non flow energy equation

Q W = U
2
U
1
gives Q 0 = U
2
U
1
i.e. Q = U
2
U
1
(5.7)

This result, which is important and should be remembered, shows that the nett
amount of heat energy supplied to or taken from a fluid during a constant volume
process is equal to the change in the internal energy of the fluid.

5.3 Constant pressure process

If the change in pressure during a process is very small then that process may be
approximated as a constant pressure process. For example, heating or cooling a
liquid at atmospheric pressure may be analysed by assuming that the pressure
remains constant.

Figure 5.3 Constant pressure process

W
Q
P
v
v
1
v
2
W
1 2
v
2
v
1
p
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/13

Consider the fluid in the piston cylinder as shown in Figure 5.2. If the load on the
piston is kept constant the pressure will also remain constant.

The general property relation between the initial and final states of a perfect gas is
applied as:

2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V p
T
V p
=
If the pressure remain constant during the process, p
2
= p
1
and then the above
relation becomes

2
2
1
1
T
V
T
V
=
or

1
2
1
2
V
V
T
T
= (5.8)

From this equation it can be seen that an increase in volume results from an
increase in temperature. In other words, in constant pressure process, the
temperature is proportional to the volume.

Work transfer:
Referring to the process representation on the p-V diagram it is noted that the
volume increases during the process. In other words, the fluid expands. This
expansion work is given by

}
=
2
1
pdV W

}
=
2
1
dV p (since p is constant)

= p (V
2
V
1
) (larger volume smaller volume) (5.9)

Note that on a p-V diagram, the area under the process line represents the amount
of work transfer. From Figure 5.3

W = area of the shaded rectangle
= height x width
= p (V
2
V
1
) (larger volume smaller volume)

This expression is identical to equation 5.9

NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/14

Heat transfer:
Applying the non flow energy equation

Q W = U
2
U
1

or Q = (U
2
U
1
) + W (5.10)

Thus part of the heat supplied is converted into work and the remainder is utilized
in increasing the internal energy of the system.

Substituting for W in equation 5.10

Q = (U
2
U
1
) + p(V
2
V
1
)
= U
2
U
1
+ p
2
V
2
p
1
V
1
(since p
2
= p
1
)
= (U
2
+ p
2
V
2
) (U
1
+ p
1
V
1
)

Now, we know that h = u + pv or H = U + pV
Hence
Q = H
2
H
1
(larger H smaller H) (5.11)

Referring to the process representation on the p-v diagram shown in Figure 5.3, it
is noted that heating increases the volume. In other words, the fluid expands. For
a perfect gas, equation 5.8 tells us that an increase in volume will result in
corresponding increase in temperature.

For constant volume process:
W = 0
For constant pressure process:
W = p (V
2
V
1
)
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/15

The specific internal energy of a fluid is increased from 120 kJ/kg to 180 kJ/kg
during a constant volume process. Determine the amount of heat energy
Example 5.2

Solution to Example 5.2

The non flow energy equation is
Q W = U
2
U
1

For a constant volume process
W = 0

and the equation becomes
Q = U
2
U
1
Q = 180 120
= 60 kJ/kg

Therefore for 2 kg of fluid
Q = 60 x 2 = 120 kJ

i.e. 120 kJ of heat energy would be required.

NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/16

2.25 kg of fluid having a volume of 0.1 m
3
is in a cylinder at a constant
pressure of 7 bar. Heat energy is supplied to the fluid until the volume
becomes 0.2 m
3
. If the initial and final specific enthalpies of the fluid are
210 kJ/kg and 280 kJ/kg respectively, determine
a) the quantity of heat energy supplied to the fluid
b) the change in internal energy of the fluid
Example 5.3

Solution to Example 5.3
Data: p = 7.0 bar; V
1
= 0.1 m
3
; V
2
=

0.2 m
3

a) Heat energy supplied = change in enthalpy of fluid
Q = H
2
H
1

= m( h
2
- h
1
)
= 2.25( 280 210 )
= 157.5 kJ

b) For a constant pressure process
W = P(V
2
V
1
)
= 7 x 10
5
x ( 0.2 0.1)
= 7 x 10
4
J
= 70 kJ

Applying the non-flow energy equation
Q W = U
2
U
1

gives
U
2
U
1
= 157.5 70
= 87.5 kJ
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/17

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT!

5.4 The pressure of the gas inside an aerosol can is 1.2 bar at a temperature of
25
o
C. Will the aerosol explode if it is thrown into a fire and heated to a
temperature of 600
o
C? Assume that the aerosol can is unable to withstand
pressure in excess of 3 bar.

5.5 0.05 kg of air, initially at 130
o
C is heated at a constant pressure of 2 bar
until the volume occupied is 0.0658 m
3
. Calculate the heat supplied and
the work done.

5.6 A spherical research balloon is filled with 420 m
3
of atmospheric air at a
temperature of 10
o
C. If the air inside the balloon is heated to 80
o
C at
constant pressure, what will be the final diameter of the balloon?
Activity 5B
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/18

Feedback To Activity 5B

5.4 Data: p
1
= 1.2 bar; T
1
= 25 + 273 = 298 K
T
2
= 600 + 273 = 873 K; p
2
= ?

We can idealize this process at constant volume heating of a perfect gas.
Applying the general property relation between states 1 and 2

2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V p
T
V p
=
in this case V
2
= V
1

Hence,
2
2
1
1
T
p
T
p
=
or
2
2
1 2
T
T
p p =
= 1.2 x
298
873

= 3.52 bar

Since the aerosol cannot withstand pressures above 3 bar, it will clearly
explode in the fire.

NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/19

5.5 Data: m = 0.5 kg; p = 2 bar; V
2
= 0.0658 m
3
;

T
1
= 130 + 273 =403 K

Using the characteristic gas equation at state 2

T
2
=
mR
V p
2 2

=
3
5
10 x 287 . 0 x 05 . 0
0658 . 0 x 10 x 2

= 917 K

For a perfect gas undergoing a constant pressure process, we have

Q = mc
p
(T
2
T
1
)

i.e. Heat supplied = 0.05 x 1.005(917 403)
= 25.83 kJ

W = p (V
2
V
1
)

From equation pV = RT

Work done = R (T
2
T
1
)
= 0.287(917 403)

i.e. Work done by the mass of gas present = 0.05 x 0.287 x 514
= 7.38 kJ

NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/20

5.6 Data: T
1
= 10 + 273 = 283 K; T
2
= 80 + 273 = 353 K
V
1
= 420 m
3
; V
2
= ?

Applying the general property relation between states 1 and 2

2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V p
T
V p
=
Since the air is heated at constant pressure p
1
= p
2

Then,

2
2
1
1
T
V
T
V
=
or V
2
=
1
2
1
T
T
V
= 420 x
283
353

= 523.9 m
3

Since the balloon is a sphere, V
2
=
3
3
4
r t
where r = radius of the balloon

Hence,
523.9 =
3
3
4
r t
Solving gives r = 5 m

Final diameter of balloon, d = 2r = 2 x 5 = 10 m
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/21

You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment
section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to Self-
Assessment on the next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your
lecturer. Good luck.

1. A receiver vessel in a steam plant contains 20 kg of steam at 60 bar and
500
o
C. When the plant is switched off, the steam in the vessel cools at
constant volume until the pressure is 30 bar. Find the temperature of the
steam after cooling and the heat transfer that has taken place.

2. 0.25 kg of combustion gas in a diesel engine cylinder is at temperature of
727
o
C. The gas expands at constant pressure until its volume is 1.8 times
its original value. For the combustion gas, R = 0.302 kJ/kgK and
c
p
= 1.09 kJ/kgK. Find the following:
a) temperature of the gas after expansion
b) heat transferred
c) work transferred

3. A quantity of gas has an initial pressure and volume of 0.1 MN/m
2
and
0.1 m
3
, respectively. It is compressed to a final pressure of 1.4 MN/m
2

according to the law pV
1.26
= constant. Determine the final volume of the
gas.

4. A mass of 0.05 kg of air at a temperature of 40
o
C and a pressure of 1 bar is
compressed polytropicly following the law pV
1.25
= C. Determine the
following:
a) final temperature
b) final volume
c) work transfer
d) heat transfer
e) change in internal energy

SELF-ASSESSMENT
NON-FLOW PROCESS J2006/5/22

1. 233.8
o
C; 14380 kJ rejected

2. 1527
o
C; 218 kJ added; 60.4 kJ output

3. 0.01235 m
3

4. 158.9
o
C; 12390 cm
3
; 6.82 kJ input; 2.56 kJ rejected; 4.26 kJ increase

Feedback to Self-Assessment

CONGRATULATIONS!
!!!May success be
with you always

FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/1

FLOW PROCESS

OBJECTIVES

General Objective: To understand the concept of flow process and its application in

Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:

derive the meaning and interpret the steady-flow energy
equation

apply the steady-flow energy equation to :

- boiler
- condenser

UNIT 6
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/2

In heat engine it is the steady flow processes which are generally of most interest. The
conditions which must be satisfied by all of these processes are :

i. The mass of fluid flowing past any section in the system must be constant with
respect to time.
ii. The properties of the fluid at any particular section in the system must be constant
with respect to time.
iii. All transfer of work energy and heat which takes place must be done at a uniform
rate.

A typical example of a steady flow process is a steam boiler, operating under a constant load
as shown diagrammatically in Fig. 6.0. In order to maintain the water level in the boiler, the
feed pump supplies water at exactly the same rate as that at which steam is drawn off from
the boiler. To maintain the production of steam at this rate at a steady pressure, the furnace
will need to supply heat energy at a steady rate. Under these conditions, the properties of the
working fluid at any section within the system must be constant with respect to time.
Do you know the
conditions for
Processes ?
INPUT
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/3

Figure 6.0 Steam Boiler

This equation is a mathematical statement on the principle of Conservation of
Energy as applied to the flow of a fluid through a thermodynamic system.

The various forms of energy which the fluid can have are as follows:

a) Potential energy
If the fluid is at some height Z above a given datum level, then as a result of
its mass it possesses potential energy with respect to that datum. Thus, for
unit mass of fluid, in the close vicinity of the earth,

Potential energy = g Z
~ 9.81 Z

STEAM
OUT
WATER
LEVEL
BOUNDRY
WATER
IN
FURNACE
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/4

b) Kinetic energy
A fluid in motion possesses kinetic energy. If the fluid flows with velocity C,
then, for unit mass of fluid,

Kinetic energy =
2
2
C

c) Internal energy
All fluids store energy. The store of energy within any fluid can be increased
or decreased as a result of various processes carried out on or by the fluid.
The energy stored within a fluid which results from the internal motion of its
atoms and molecules is called its internal energy and it is usually designated
by the letter U. If the internal energy of the unit mass of fluid is discussed
this is then called the specific internal energy and is designated by u.

d) Flow or displacement energy
In order to enter or leave the system, any entering or leaving volume of fluid
must be displaced with an equal volume ahead of itself. The displacing mass
must do work on the mass being displaced, since the movement of any mass
can only be achieved at the expense of work.

Thus, if the volume of unit mass of liquid (its specific volume) at entry is v
1
and its pressure is P
1
, then in order to enter a system it must displace an equal
specific volume v
1
inside the system. Thus work to the value P
1
v
1
is done on
the specific volume inside the system by the specific volume outside the
system. This work is called flow or displacement work and at entry it is

Similarly, at exit, in order to leave, the flow work must be done by the fluid
inside the system on the fluid outside the system. Thus, if the pressure at exit,
is P
2
and the specific volume is v
2
the equation is then,

Flow or displacement work rejected = P
2
v
2

During its passage through the system the fluid can have direct reception or
rejection of heat energy through the system boundary. This is designated by
Q. This must be taken in its algebraic sense.
Thus,
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/5

Q is positive when heat is received.
Q is negative when heat is rejected.
Q = 0 if heat is neither received nor rejected.

f) External work done
During its passage through the system the fluid can do external work or have
external work done on it. This is usually designated by W. This also must be
taken in its algebraic sense.
Thus if,
External work is done by the fluid then W is positive.
External work is done on the fluid then W is negative.
If no external work is done on or by the fluid then W = 0.

Figure 6.1 illustrates some thermodynamic system into which is flowing a fluid with
pressure P
1
, specific volume v
1
, specific internal energy u
1
and velocity C
1
. The
entry is at height Z
1
above some datum level. In its passage through the system,
external work W may be done on or by the fluid and also heat energy Q may be
received or rejected by the fluid from or to the surroundings.

The fluid then leaves the system with pressure P
2
, specific volume v
2
, specific
internal energy u
2
and velocity C
2
. The exit is at height Z
2
above some datum level.

Figure 6.1 Thermodynamic system
SYSTEM
(OR CONTROL VOLUME)
ENTRY
EXIT
Z
2

Z
1
W
Q
P
2
v
2

u
2
C
2
P
1
v
1

U
1
C
1

FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/6

The application of the principle of energy conservation to the system is,

Total energy entering the system = Total energy leaving the system

or, for unit mass of substance,

W
C
v P u gZ Q
C
v P u gZ + + + + = + + + +
2 2
2
2
2 2 2 2
2
1
1 1 1 1
(6.1)
This is called the steady flow energy equation.

This equation is not applicable to all energy forms. In such cases, the energy forms
concerned are omitted from the energy equation.

In equation 6.1, it was stated that the particular combination of properties of the
form, u + Pv is called specific enthalpy and is designated as h. Thus, the steady flow
energy equation is written as

W
C
h gZ Q
C
h gZ + + + = + + +
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
1
1 1
(6.2)

Potential energy + Kinetic energy +
Internal energy +Flow or Displacement
energy+ Heat or Work

FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/7

6.2 APPLICATION OF STEADY FLOW EQUATION

The steady flow energy equation may be applied to any apparatus through which a
fluid is flowing, provided that the conditions stated previously are applicable. Some
of the most common cases found in engineering practise are dealt with in detail as
below.

6.2.1 Boilers
In a boiler operating under steady conditions, water is pumped into the boiler
along the feed line at the same rate as which steam leaves the boiler along the
steam main, and heat energy is supplied from the furnace at a steady rate.

Figure 6.2.1 Steam Boiler

The steady flow energy equation gives

W
C
h gZ Q
C
h gZ + + + = + + +
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
1
1 1

and with the flow rate, m (kg/s) the equation may be written as

( ) ( )
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q (6.3)

STEAM
OUT
BOUNDRY
WATER
IN
FURNACE
SYSTEM
Q
1

1
2

2
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/8

In applying this equation to the boiler, the following points should be noted :
i. Q is the amount of heat energy passing into the fluid per second
ii. W is zero since a boiler has no moving parts capable of affecting a
work transfer
iii. The kinetic energy is small as compared to the other terms and may
usually be neglected
iv. The potential energy is generally small enough to be neglected.
v. m (kg/s) is the rate of the flow of fluid.

Hence the equation is reduced to

( )
1 2
h h m Q = (6.4)

CONDITION,

WORK = 0
KINETIC ENERGY = NEGLECTED
POTENTIAL ENERGY = NEGLECTED
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/9

6.2.2 Condensers
In principle, a condenser is a boiler reverse. In a boiler, heat energy is
supplied to convert the liquid into vapour whereas in a condenser heat energy
is removed in order to condense the vapour into a liquid. If the condenser is
in a steady state then the amount of liquid, usually called condensate, leaving
the condenser must be equal to the amount of vapour entering the condenser.

Figure 6.2.2 Condenser

The steady flow energy equation gives

( ) ( )
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q
Points to note,
i. Q is the amount of heat energy per second transferred from the
system
ii. W is zero in the boiler
iii. The kinetic energy term may be neglected as in the boiler
iv. The potential energy is generally small enough to be neglected
v. m is the rate of the flow of fluid.

Thus the equation is reduced to
( )
1 2
h h m Q = (6.5)

VAPOUR
CONDENSATE
BOUNDARY
WATER
IN
WATER
OUT
SYSTEM
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/10

A boiler operates at a constant pressure of 15 bar, and evaporates fluid at the
rate of 1000 kg/h. At entry to the boiler, the fluid has an enthalpy of 165 kJ/kg
and on leaving the boiler the enthalpy of the fluid is 2200 kJ/kg. Determine
the heat energy supplied to the boiler.

Example 6.1

Solution to Example 6.1

The steady flow energy equation gives

( ) ( )
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q

Q = heat energy per hour entering system
W = work energy per hour leaving system = 0
m = fluid flow rate = 1000 kg/h
h
2
= 2200 kJ/kg
h
1
= 165 kJ/kg
C
1
& C
2
= neglected
Z
1
& Z
2
= neglected

Thus, the steady flow energy equation becomes

( )
kg
kJ
h
kg
h
kJ
Q 165 2200 1000 =

h
kJ
x Q
6
10 035 . 2 =
BOUNDARY
WATER
IN
SYSTEM
Q
1

1
STEAM OUT
2
2
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/11

If 65 % of the heat energy supplied to the boiler in example 6.1 is used in
evaporating the fluid, determine the rate of fuel consumption required to
maintain this rate of evaporation, if 1 kg of fuel produces 32000 kJ of heat
energy.
Example 6.2

Solution to Example 6.2

Heat energy from fuel required per hour =
65 . 0
10 035 . 2
6
x

= 3.13 x 10
6
kJ/h

Heat energy obtained from the fuel = 32 000 kJ/kg

Fuel required =
kJ
kg
x
h
kJ
32000
10 13 . 3
6
x

= 97.8 kg/h

FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/12

Fluid enters a condenser at the rate of 35 kg/min with a specific enthalpy of
2200 kJ/kg, and leaves with a specific enthalpy of 255 kJ/kg. Determine the
rate of heat energy loss from the system.
Example 6.3

Solution to Example 6.2

The steady flow energy equation gives

( ) ( )
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q
For a condenser, W = 0, and the term representing the change in kinetic and potential
energy may be neglected. Therefore the equation is reduced to

( )
1 2
h h m Q =
From the above equation

kg
kJ kg
Q ) 2200 255 (
min
35 =

= - 68 000 kJ/min

FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/13

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT!

6.1 In an air conditioning system, air is cooled by passing it over a chilled water
coil condenser. Water enters the coil with an enthalpy of 42 kJ/kg and leaves
the coil with an enthalpy of 80 kJ/kg. The water flow rate is 200 kg/h. Find
the rate of heat absorption by the water in kilowatts.

6.2 In a steady flow system, a substance flows at the rate of 4 kg/s. It enters at a
pressure of 620 kN/m
2
, a velocity of 300 m/s, internal energy 2100 kJ/kg and
specific volume 0.37 m
3
/kg. It leaves the system at a pressure of 130 kN/m
2
,
a velocity of 150 m/s, internal energy 1500 kJ/kg and specific volume
1.2 m
3
/kg. During its passage through the system the substance has a loss by
heat transfer of 30 kJ/kg to the surroundings. Determine the power of the
system in kilowatts, stating whether it is from or to the system. Neglect any
change in potential energy.

Activity 6
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/14

Feedback to Activity 6

6.1 Data: m = 200 kg/h = kg/s 056 . 0
3600
200
=
h
1
= 42 kJ/kg; h
2
= 80 kJ/kg

Q = ?

The diameter of the water tube in a cooler is normally constant. Therefore,
there is no change in water velocity and kinetic energy. In general the change
in potential energy is also negligible.

The equation of steady flow is therefore reduced to

( )
1 2
h h m Q =
= 0.056(80 42)
= 2.13 kJ/s or kW

The rate of heat absorption by the water is 2.13 kW

FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/15

6.2 By neglecting the change in potential energy, for a unit mass of
substance, the steady flow energy equation becomes:
W
C
v P u Q
C
v P u + + + = + + +
2 2
2
2
2 2 2
2
1
1 1 1
(1)
Q is written negative since 30 kJ/kg are lost to the surroundings.
From equation (1)

Specific W = Q
C C
v P v P u u

+ + )
2
( ) ( ) (
2
2
2
1
2 2 1 1 1 1

Working in kilojoules (kJ)

Specific W = (2100-1500)+(620x0.37-130x1.2)+(
3
2 2
10 2
150 300
x

)-30
= 676.75 kJ/kg.

The substance flows at the rate of 4 kg/s

Output (since W is positive) = 676.75 x 4
= 2707 kJ/s or kW
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/16

You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section
and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to Self-Assessment on the
next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.

1. A boiler uses coal at the rate of 3000 kg/h in producing steam with a specific
enthalpy of 2700 kJ/kg from feed water with a specific enthalpy of 280 kJ/kg.
The combustion of 1 kg of coal produces 28000 kJ, of which 80% is useful in
producing steam. Calculate the rate at which steam is produced.

2. Fluid with specific enthalpy of 2280 kJ/kg enters a condenser at the rate of
4500 kg/h, and leaves with a specific enthalpy of 163 kJ/kg. If the enthalpy
of the cooling water circulating through the condenser tubes increases at the
rate of 148 000 kJ/min, determine the rate at which heat energy flows from
the condenser to the atmosphere.

SELF-ASSESSMENT
FLOW PROCESS J2006/6/17

1. 27800 kg/h

2. 646000 kJ/h

Feedback to Self-Assessment
CONGRATULATIONS!!!!..
May success be with you
always.

FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/1

FLOW PROCESS

OBJECTIVES

General Objective: To understand the application of steady flow energy equation.

Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:

apply the steady-flow energy equation to :

- turbine
- nozzle
- throttle
- pump

UNIT 7

FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/2

7.0 APPLICATION OF STEADY FLOW EQUATION

The steady flow energy equation may be applied to any apparatus through which a
fluid is flowing, provided the conditions stated in Unit 6 are applicable. Some of the
most common cases found in engineering practise will now be dealt with in detail.

Do you know the
flow equation for
turbine?
INPUT

FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/3

7.0.1 Turbine

A turbine is a device which uses a pressure drop to produce work energy
which is used to drive an external load.

Figure 7.0.1 Turbine

The steady flow energy equation gives

( ) ( )
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q

Points to note :
i. The average velocity of flow of fluid through a turbine is normally
high, and the fluid passes quickly through the turbine. It may be
assumed that, because of this, heat energy does not have time to flow
into or out of the fluid during its passage through the turbine, and
hence Q = 0 .
ii. Although velocities are high the difference between them is not large,
and the term representing the change in kinetic energy may be
neglected.
iii. Potential energy is generally small enough to be neglected.
iv. W is the amount of external work energy produced per second.
Q
W
FLUID OUT
FLUID IN
SYSTEM
1
2
BOUNDARY

FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/4

The steady flow energy equation becomes

- ( )
1 2
h h m W =

or ( )
2 1
h h m W = (7.1)

7.0.2 Nozzle

A nozzle utilises a pressure drop to produce an increase in the kinetic energy
of the fluid.

Figure 7.0.2 Nozzle

The steady flow energy equation gives

( ) ( )
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q

Points to note :
i. The average velocity of flow through a nozzle is high, hence the fluid
spends only a short time in the nozzle. For this reason, it may be
assumed that there is insufficient time for heat energy to flow into or
out of the fluid during its passage through the nozzle, i.e. Q = 0.
ii. Since a nozzle has no moving parts, no work energy will be
transferred to or from the fluid as it passes through the nozzle,
i.e. W = 0.
SYSTEM
BOUNDARY
FLUID
OUT
FLUID
IN
1
1
2
2

FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/5

iii. Potential energy is generally small enough to be neglected.

Hence the equation becomes

( )
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
0
2
1
2
2
1 2
C C
h h m
Often C
1
is negligible compared with C
2
. In this case the equation becomes

( )
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
0
2
2
1 2
C
h h m

or ( )
2 1
2
2
2
h h
C
=

or ( )
2 1 2
2 h h C = (7.2)

FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/6

A fluid flows through a turbine at the rate of 45 kg/min. Across the turbine the
specific enthalpy drop of the fluid is 580 kJ/kg and the turbine loss 2100 kJ/min
in the form of heat energy. Determine the power produced by the turbine,
assuming that changes in kinetic and potential energy may be neglected.
Example 7.1

Solution to Example 7.1

The steady flow energy equation gives

( ) ( )
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q

Q = heat energy flow into system = -2100 kJ/min
W = work energy flow from system kJ/min
m = fluid flow rate = 45 kg/min
h
2
- h
1
= -580 kJ/kg
C
1
& C
2
= neglected
Z
1
& Z
2
= neglected

Therefore the steady flow energy equation becomes

-2100 kJ/min W = 45 kg/min (-580 kJ/kg)
W = (26100 2100) kJ/min
= 24000 kJ/min
= 400 kJ/s
= 400 kW

FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/7

Fluid with a specific enthalpy of 2800 kJ/kg enters a horizontal nozzle with
negligible velocity at the rate of 14 kg/s. At the outlet from the nozzle the
specific enthalpy and specific volume of the fluid are 2250 kJ/kg and
1.25 m
3
/kg respectively. Assuming an adiabatic flow, determine the required
outlet area of the nozzle.

Example 7.2

Solution to Example 7.2

The steady flow energy equation gives

( ) ( )
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q

When applied to the nozzle, this becomes

( )
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
0
2
1
2
2
1 2
C C
h h m

Since the inlet C
1
is negligible, this may be written as

( )
2 1
2
2
2 h h C =
= [2(2800 22500]
= 1050 m/s

Applying the equation of continuity at outlet gives

2
2 2
v
C A
m =
14 kg/s =
/kg m 25 . 1
m/s 1050 x
3
2
A

A
2
= 0.01668 m
2

FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/8

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT!

7.1 Steam enters a turbine with a velocity of 16 m/s and specific enthalpy
2990 kJ/kg. The steam leaves the turbine with a velocity of 37 m/s and
specific enthalpy 2530 kJ/kg. The heat lost to the surroundings as the steam
passes through the turbine is 25 kJ/kg. The steam flow rate is 324000 kg/h.
Determine the work output from the turbine in kilowatts.

7.2 In a turbo jet engine the momentum of the gases leaving the nozzle produces
the propulsive force. The enthalpy and velocity of the gases at the nozzle
entrance are 1200 kJ/kg and 200 m/s respectively. The enthalpy of the gas at
exit is 900 kJ/kg. If the heat loss from the nozzle is negligible, determine the
velocity of the gas jet at exit from the nozzle.

Activity 7A

FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/9

Feedback to Activity 7A

7.1 Neglecting the changes in potential energy, the steady flow energy equation
is
( )
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
2
1
2
2
1 2
C C
h h W Q
Q is negative since heat is lost from the steam to the surroundings

specific W = ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
2
2
2
1
2 1
C C
h h - Q

= (2999-2530) + 25
10 2
) 37 16 (
3
2 2

x

= 434.443 kJ/kg

The steam flow rate = 324000/3600 = 90 kg/s

W = 434.443 x 90
= 39099.97 kJ/s or kW
~ 39100 kW
~ 39.1 MW

FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/10

7.2 The steady energy flow equation for nozzle gives

( )
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
0
2
1
2
2
1 2
C C
h h m

On simplification,

( )
2
1 2 1 2
2 C h h C + =
= \2(1200x 10
3
- 900x

10
3
) + 200
2

= 800 m/s

FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/11

7.0.3 THROTTLE

A throttling process is one in which the fluid is made to flow through a restriction ,
e.g. a partially opened valve or orifice, causing a considerable drop in the pressure
of the fluid.

Figure 7.0.3 Throttling process

The steady flow energy equation gives

( ) ( )
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q
Points to note:
i. Since throttling takes place over a very small distance, the available area
through which heat energy can flow is very small, and it is normally
assumed that no energy is lost by heat transfer, i.e. Q = 0.
ii. Since there are no moving parts, no energy can be transferred in the form of
work energy, i.e. W = 0.
iii. The difference between C
1
and C
2
will not be great and consequently the
term representing the change in kinetic energy is normally neglected.
iv. The potential energy is generally small enough to be neglected.

INPUT
1
2

FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/12

The steady flow energy equation becomes

0 = m (h
2
- h
1
)
or h
2 =
h
1
(7.3)

i.e. during a throttling process the enthalpy remains constant.

7.0.4 Pump

The action of a pump is the reverse of that of a turbine, i.e. it uses external
work energy to produce a pressure rise. In applying the steady flow energy
equation to a pump, exactly the same arguments are used as for turbine and
the equation becomes

- ( )
1 2
h h m W = (7.4)

Since h
2
> h
1
, W will be found to be negative.

Figure 7.0.4 Pump

Q
W
SYSTEM
1
2
BOUNDARY
OUTLET
INLET

FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/13

7.1 Equation of Continuity
This is an equation which is often used in conjunction with the steady flow
energy equation. It is based on the fact that if a system is in a steady state,
then the mass of fluid passing any section during a specified time must be
constant. Consider a mass of m kg/s flowing through a system in which all
conditions are steady as illustrated in Fig.7.5.

Figure 7.1 Mass flowing through a system

Let A
1
and A
2
represent the flow areas

in m
2
at the inlet and outlet
respectively.
Let v
1
and v
2
represent the specific volumes in m
3
/kg at the inlet and outlet
respectively.
Let C
1
and

C
2
represent the velocities in m/s, at the inlet and outlet
respectively.

Then mass flowing per sec = volume flowing per sec m
3
/s
volume per kg m
3
/kg
=
s
kg
v
C A
1
1 1
at inlet
=
s
kg
v
C A
2
2 2
at outlet

i.e.
1
1 1
v
C A
m = =
2
2 2
v
C A
(7.5)
1
1
2
2
C
1
C
2

AREA A
2

AREA A
1

FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/14

Example 7.3

Solution to Example 7.3

For a throttling process, the steady flow energy equation becomes

0 = m (h
2
- h
1
)
or h
2 =
h
1

But h
2
= u
2
+ P
2
v
2
and h
1
= u
1
+ P
1
v
1

Therefore the change in specific internal energy
= u
2
u
1

= ( h
2
- P
2
v
2
) - ( h
1
P
1
v
1
)
= ( h
2
- h
1
) ( P
2
v
2
- P
1
v
1
)
= 0 ( 1 x 1.8 10 x 0.3 ) bar m
3
/kg
= 120 x 10 Nm/kg
= 120 kJ/kg

Example 7.4

Solution to Example 7.4

The flow rate of fluid = 45 kg/min
= 0.75 kg/s

( ) ( )
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q
A fluid flowing along a pipeline undergoes a throttling process from 10 bar to 1
bar in passing through a partially open valve. Before throttling, the specific
volume of the fluid is 0.3 m
3
/kg and after throttling is 1.8 m
3
/kg. Determine the
change in specific internal energy during the throttling process.
A pump delivers fluid at the rate of 45 kg/min. At the inlet to the pump the
specific enthalpy of the fluid is 46 kJ/kg, and at the outlet from the pump the
specific enthalpy of the fluid is 175 kJ/kg. If 105 kJ/min of heat energy are lost to
the surroundings by the pump, determine the power required to drive the pump if
the efficiency of the drive is 85 %.

FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/15

Q = - 105 kJ/min = - 1.75 kJ/s
W = work energy flow (kJ/s)
h
1
= 46 kJ/kg
h
2
= 1.27 kJ/kg
m = 0.75 kg/s
The kinetic and potential energy may be neglected

Substituting the data above with the steady flow energy equation gives

- 1.75 W = 0.75 (175 46)
W = -1.75 (0.75 x 129)
= - 98.5 kJ/s
= - 98.5 kW

Since the efficiency of the drive is 85 %

Power required by the compressor = 98.5 x
85
100

= 114.8 kW

Turbine
( )
2 1
h h m W =
&
Pump
- ( )
1 2
h h m W =

FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/16

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT!

7.3 A rotary air pump is required to deliver 900 kg of air per hour. The enthalpy
at the inlet and exit of the pump are 300 kJ/kg and 500 kJ/kg respectively.
The air velocity at the entrance and exit are 10 m/s and 15 m/s respectively.
The rate of heat loss from the pump is 2500 W. Determine the power
required to drive the pump.

7.4 In activity 7A, for question No. 7.2, if the diameter of the nozzle at exit is
500 mm, find the mass flow rate of gas. The gas density at the nozzle inlet
and exit are 0.81 kg/m
3
and 0.39 kg/m
3
respectively. Also determine the
diameter of the nozzle at the inlet.

Activity 7B

FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/17

Feedback to Activity 7B

7.3 Data :
3600
900
= m = 0.25 kg/s

h
1
= 300 kJ/kg
h
2
= 500 kJ/kg
C
1
= 10 m/s
C
2
= 15 m/s
Q = 2500 W = 2.5 kW
W = ?

The steady flow energy equation gives

( ) ( )
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
gZ gZ
C C
h h m W Q
Neglecting the change in Potential energy since it is negligible

( )
(
(

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
2
1
2
2
1 2
C C
h h m W Q
-W = 0.25 [( 500- 300) + (
3
2 2
10 2
10 15
x

)] + 2.5
-W = 52.5 kW

FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/18

7.4 Data : A
2
= t
4
5 . 0
2
= 0.196 m
2

1
= 0.81 kg/m
3

2
= 0.39 kg/m
3

m = ?
d = ?

Mass flow rate at exit,

m = A
2
C
2

2

= 61.2 kg/s

From the mass balance,
Mass entering the nozzle = mass leaving the nozzle = m

m = A
1
C
1

1
= A
2
C
2

2

On substitution
A
1
x 200 x 0.81 = 61.2

On simplification
A
1
= 0.378 m
2

or
d
1
= 0.694 m
= 694 mm

FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/19

You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section
and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to Self-Assessment on the
next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.

1 Steam flows through a turbine stage at the rate of 4500 kJ/h. The steam
velocities at inlet and outlet are 15 m/s and 180 m/s respectively. The rate of
heat energy flow from the turbine casing to the surroundings is 23 kJ/kg of
steam flowing. If the specific enthalpy of the steam decreases by 420 kJ/kg in
passing through the turbine stage, calculate the power developed.

2 A rotary pump draws 600 kg/hour of atmospheric air and delivers it at a
higher pressure. The specific enthalpy of air at the pump inlet is 300 kJ/kg
and that at the exit is 509 kJ/kg. The heat lost from the pump casing is
5000 W. Neglecting the changes in kinetic and potential energy, determine
the power required to drive the pump.

3 A nozzle is supplied with steam having a specific enthalpy of 2780 kJ/kg at
the rate of 9.1 kg/min. At outlet from the nozzle the velocity of the steam is
1070 m/s. Assuming that the inlet velocity of the steam is negligible and that
a) the specific enthalpy of the steam at the nozzle exit
b) the outlet area required if the final specific volume of the steam is
18.75 m
3
/kg.

4 Fluid at 10.35 bar having a specific volume of 0.18 m
3
/kg is throttled to a
pressure of 1 bar. If the specific volume of the fluid after throttling is
0.107 m
3
/kg, calculate the change in specific internal energy during the
process.

SELF-ASSESSMENT

FLOW PROCESS J2006/7/20

1. 476 kW

2. 353 kW

3. 2208 kJ/kg; 2660 mm
2

4. 175.7 kJ/kg

Feedback to Self-Assessment
CONGRATULATIONS!!!!..
You can continue with the
next unit

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/1

PROPERTIES OF STEAM

OBJECTIVES

General Objective : To define the properties of wet steam, dry saturated steam and
superheated steam using information from the steam tables.

Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:

define the word phase and distinguish the solid, liquid and
steam phases
understand and use the fact that the vaporization process is
carried out at constant pressure
define and explain the following terms: saturation
temperature, saturated liquid, wet steam, saturated steam, dry
saturated steam, , dryness fraction and superheated steam
determine the properties of steam using the P-v diagram
understand and use the nomenclature as in the Steam Tables
apply single and double interpolation using the steam tables
locate the correct steam tables for interpolation, including
interpolation between saturation tables and superheated tables
where necessary

UNIT 8

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/2

8.0 Introduction

In thermodynamic systems, the working fluid can be in the liquid, steam or gaseous
phase. In this unit, the properties of liquid and steam are investigated in some details
as the state of a system can be described in terms of its properties. A substance that
has a fixed composition throughout is called a pure substance. Pure chemicals
(H
2
O, N
2
, O
2
, Ar, Ne, Xe) are always pure substances. We all know from experience
that substances exist in different phases. A phase of substance can be defined as that
part of a pure substance that consists of a single, homogenous aggregate of matter.
The three common phases for H
2
O that are usually used are solid, liquid and steam.

When studying phases or phase changes in thermodynamics, one does not need to be
concerned with the molecular structure and behavior of the different phases.
However, it is very helpful to have some understanding of the molecular phenomena
involved in each phase.

Molecular bonds are strongest in solids and weakest in steams. One reason is that
molecules in solids are closely packed together, whereas in steams they are separated
by great distances.

INPUT

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/3

The three phases of pure substances are: -

Solid Phase
In the solid phase, the molecules are;
(a) closely bound, therefore relatively dense; and
(b) arranged in a rigid three-dimensional pattern so that they do not easily
deform. An example of a pure solid state is ice.

Liquid Phase
In the liquid phase, the molecules are;
(a) closely bound, therefore also relatively dense and unable to expand to fill a
space; but
(b) they are no longer rigidly structured so much so that they are free to move
within a fixed volume. An example is a pure liquid state.

Steam Phase
In the steam phase, the molecules;
(a) virtually do not attract each other. The distance between the molecules are
not as close as those in the solid and liquid phases;
(b) are not arranged in a fixed pattern. There is neither a fixed volume nor a
fixed shape for steam.

The three phases described above are illustrated in Fig. 8.0 below. The following are
discovered:
(a) the positions of the molecules are relatively fixed in a solid phase;
(b) chunks of molecules float about each other in the liquid phase; and
(c) the molecules move about at random in the steam phase.

Source: Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3
rd
Ed by Cengel and Boles

Figure 8.0 The arrangement of atoms in different phases
(a) (b) (c)

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/4

8.1 Phase-Change Process

The distinction between steam and liquid is usually made (in an elementary manner)
by stating that both will take up the shape of their containers. However liquid will
present a free surface if it does not completely fill its container. Steam on the other
hand will always fill its container.

With these information, let us consider the following system:

A container is filled with water, and a moveable, frictionless piston is placed on the
container at State 1, as shown in Fig. 8.1. As heat is added to the system, the
temperature of the system will increase. Note that the pressure on the system is
being kept constant by the weight of the piston. The continued addition of heat will
cause the temperature of the system to increase until the pressure of the steam
generated exactly balances the pressure of the atmosphere plus the pressure due to
the weight of the piston.

Figure 8.1 Heating water and steam at constant pressure

At this point, the steam and liquid are said to be saturated. As more heat is added,
the liquid that was at saturation will start to vaporize until State 2. The two-phase
mixture of steam and liquid at State 2 has only one degree of freedom, and as long as
liquid is present, vaporization will continue at constant temperature. As long as
liquid is present, the mixture is said to be wet steam, and both the liquid and steam
are saturated. After all the liquid is vaporized, only steam is present at State 3, and
the further addition of heat will cause the temperature of steam to increase at
W
W
W
W
Liquid
Steam
Superheated
Steam
STATE 1 STATE 2 STATE 3 STATE 4

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/5

constant system pressure. This state is called the superheated state, and the steam is
said to be superheated steam as shown in State 4.

8.2 Saturated and Superheated Steam

While tables provide a convenient way of presenting precise numerical presentations
of data, figures provide us with a clearer understanding of trends and patterns.
Consider the following diagram in which the specific volume of H
2
O is presented as
a function of temperature and pressure
1
:

Figure 8.2-1 T-v diagram for the heating process of water at constant pressure

Imagine that we are to run an experiment. In this experiment, we start with a mass
of water at 1 atm pressure and room temperature. At this temperature and pressure
we may measure the specific volume (1/ = 1/1000 kg/m
3
). We plot this state at
point 1 on the diagram.

If we proceed to heat the water, the temperature will rise. In addition, water expands
slightly as it is heated which makes the specific volume increase slightly. We may
plot the locus of such points along the line from State 1 to State 2. We speak of
liquid in one of these conditions as being compressed or subcooled liquid.

1
Figures from Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3
rd
Ed by Cengel and Boles
20
100
300
1
2
3
4
T,
o
C
v, m
3
/kg

Compressed
liquid
Saturated
mixture
Superheated
steam

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/6

State 2 is selected to correspond to the boiling point (100
o
C). We speak of State 2
as being the saturated liquid state, which means that all of the water is in still liquid
form, but ready to boil. As we continue to heat past the boiling point 2, a
fundamental change occurs in the process. The temperature of the water no longer
continues to rise. Instead, as we continue to add energy, liquid progressively
changes to steam phase at a constant temperature but with an increasing specific
volume. In this part of the process, we speak of the water as being a saturated
mixture (liquid + steam). This is also known as the quality region.

At State 3, all liquid will have been vaporised. This is the saturated steam state.
As we continue to heat the steam beyond State 3, the temperature of the steam again
rises as we add energy. States to the right of State 3 are said to be superheated
steam.

Summary of nomenclature:

Compressed or subcooled liquid (Between States 1 & 2)
A liquid state in which the fluid remains entirely within the liquid state,
and below the saturation state.

Saturated liquid (State 2)
All fluid is in the liquid state. However, even the slightest addition of
energy would result in the formation of some vapour.

Saturated Liquid-Steam or Wet Steam Region (Between States 2 & 3)
Liquid and steam exist together in a mixture.

Saturated steam (State 3)
All fluid is in the steam state, but even the slightest loss of energy from the
system would result in the formation of some liquid.

Superheated steam (The right of State 3)
All fluid is in the steam state and above the saturation state. The
superheated steam temperature is greater than the saturation temperature
corresponding to the pressure.

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/7

The same experiment can be conducted at several different pressures. We see that as
pressure increases, the temperature at which boiling occurs also increases.
2

Figure 8.2-2 T-v diagram of constant pressure phase change processes
of a pure substance at various pressures for water.

It can be seen that as pressure increases, the specific volume increase in the liquid to
steam transition will decrease.

At a pressure of 221.2 bar, the specific volume change which is associated to a phase
increase will disappear. Both liquid and steam will have the same specific volume,
0.00317 m
3
/kg. This occurs at a temperature of 374.15
o
C. This state represents an
important transition in fluids and is termed the critical point.

2
Figures from Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3
rd
Ed by Cengel and Boles
P = 1.01325 bar
P = 5 bar
P = 10 bar
P = 80 bar
P = 150 bar
P = 221.2 bar
Critical point
374.15
T,
o
C
v, m
3
/kg
Saturated
liquid
Saturated
steam
0.00317

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/8

If we connect the locus of points corresponding to the saturation condition, we will
obtain a diagram which allows easy identification of the distinct regions
3
:

Figure 8.2-3 T-v diagram of a pure substance

The general shape of the P-v diagram of a pure substance is very much like the T-v
diagram, but the T = constant lines on this diagram have a downward trend, as shown
in Fig. 8.2-4.

Figure 8.2-4 P-v diagram of a pure substance

3
Figures from Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3
rd
Ed by Cengel and Boles
P
v
Critical
point
Saturated liquid line
Dry saturated steam line
T
2
= const.
T
1
= const.
COMPRESS
LIQUID
REGION
WET STEAM
REGION
SUPERHEATED
STEAM
REGION
T
2
> T
1

T
v
Critical
point
Saturated liquid line
Dry saturated steam line
P
2
= const.
P
1
= const.
COMPRESS
LIQUID
REGION
WET STEAM
REGION
SUPERHEATED
STEAM
REGION
P
2
> P
1

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/9

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT!

8.1 Each line in the table below gives information about phases of pure substances. Fill
in the phase column in the table with the correct answer.
Statement Phase
The molecules are closely bound, they are also relatively
dense and unable to expand to fill a space. However they are
no longer rigidly structured so that they are free to move
within a fixed volume.

i._____________

The molecules are closely bound, they are relatively dense
and arranged in a rigid three-dimensional patterns so that they
do not easily deform.

ii.____________

The molecules virtually do not attract each other. The
distance between the molecules are not as close as those in the
solid and liquid phases. They are not arranged in a fixed
pattern. There is neither a fixed volume nor a fixed shape for
steam.

iii.____________

8.2 Write the suitable names of the phases for the H
2
O in the P-v diagram below.

Activity 8A
P
v
( vi )
( ii )
( iv )
T
2
= const.
T
1
= const.
( i )
( iii)
( v )
T
2
> T
1

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/10

Feedback To Activity 8A

8.1 i) Liquid Phase
ii) Solid Phase
iii) Steam Phase

8.2 i) Compress liquid region
ii) Saturated liquid line
iii) Wet steam region
iv) Dry saturated steam line
v) Superheated steam region
vi) Critical point

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/11

8.3 Properties of a Wet Mixture

Between the saturated liquid and the saturated steam, there exist a mixture of steam
plus liquid (wet steam region). To denote the state of a liquid-steam mixture, it is
necessary to introduce a term describing the relative quantities of liquid and steam in
the mixture. This is called the dryness fraction (symbol x). Thus, in 1 kg of wet
mixture, there must be x kg of saturated steam plus (1 x) kg of saturated liquid.

Figure 8.3-1 Liquid-steam mixture

The dryness fraction is defined as follows;

where m
total
= m
liquid
+ m
steam

(8.1)
(1 - x ) kg of liquid
x kg of steam
total mass = 1 kg
mass total
steam saturated dry of mass
fraction dryness =
total
steam
m
m
x =
INPUT

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/12

8.3.1 Specific volume
For a wet steam, the total volume of the mixture is given by the volume of
liquid present plus the volume of dry steam present.

Therefore, the specific volume is given by,

Now for 1 kg of wet steam, there are (1 x) kg of liquid and x kg of dry
steam, where x is the dryness fraction as defined earlier. Hence,

v = v
f
(1 x) + v
g
x

The volume of the liquid is usually negligibly small as compared to the
volume of dry saturated steam. Hence, for most practical problems,

v = xv
g
(8.2)

Where,
v
f
= specific volume of saturated liquid (m
3
/kg)
v
g
= specific volume of saturated steam (m
3
/kg)
x = dryness fraction

Figure 8.3-2 P-v diagram showing the location point of the dryness
fraction

At point A, x = 0
At point B, x = 1
Between point A and B, 0 < x < 1.0

Note that for a saturated liquid, x = 0;
and that for dry saturated steam, x = 1.

Sat. liquid
Sat. steam
Sat. liquid
P
v
t
s
A B
x = 0.2 x = 0.8
v
f
v
g
Sat. steam
steam wet of mass total
steam dry of volume liquid a of volume +
= v

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/13

8.3.2 Specific enthalpy
In the analysis of certain types of processes, particularly in power generation
and refrigeration, we frequently encounter the combination of properties
U + PV. For the sake of simplicity and convenience, this combination is
defined as a new property, enthalpy, and given the symbol H.

H = U + PV (kJ)

or, per unit mass
h = u + Pv (kJ/kg) (8.3)

The enthalpy of wet steam is given by the sum of the enthalpy of the liquid
plus the enthalpy of the dry steam,

i.e. h = h
f
(1 x) + xh
g

h = h
f
+ x(h
g
h
f
)
h = h
f
+ xh
fg
(8.4)

Where,
h
f
= specific enthalpy of saturated liquid (kJ/kg)
h
g
= specific enthalpy of saturated steam (kJ/kg)
h
fg
= difference between h
g
and h
f
(that is, h
fg
= h
g
- h
f
)

8.3.3 Specific Internal Energy
Similarly, the specific internal energy of a wet steam is given by the internal
energy of the liquid plus the internal energy of the dry steam,
i.e. u = u
f
(1 x) + xu
g

u = u
f
+ x(u
g
u
f
) (8.5)

Where,
u
f
= specific enthalpy of saturated liquid (kJ/kg)
u
g
= specific enthalpy of saturated steam (kJ/kg)
u
g

u
f
= difference between u
g
and u
f

Equation 8.5 can be expressed in a form similar to equation 8.4. However,
equation 8.5 is more convenient since u
g
and

u
f
are tabulated. The difference
is that, u
fg
is not tabulated.

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/14

8.3.4 Specific Entropy
A person looking at the steam tables carefully will notice two new properties
i.e. enthalpy h and entropy s. Entropy is a property associated with the
Second Law of Thermodynamics, and actually, we will properly define it in
Unit 9 . However, it is appropriate to introduce entropy at this point.

The entropy of wet steam is given by the sum of the entropy of the liquid
plus the entropy of the dry steam,
i.e. s = s
f
(1 x) + xs
g

s = s
f
+ x(s
g
s
f
)
s = s
f
+ xs
fg
(8.4)

Where,
s
f
= specific enthalpy of saturated liquid (kJ/kg K)
s
g
= specific enthalpy of saturated steam (kJ/kg K)
s
fg
= difference between s
g
and s
f
(that is, s
fg
= s
g
- s
f
)

REMEMBER!
These equations are used very often and
are, therefore, important to remember!

v = xv
g

h = h
f
+ xh
fg

u = u
f
+ x(u
g
u
f
)
s = s
f
+ xs
fg

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/15

8.4 The Use of Steam Tables

The steam tables are available for a wide variety of substances which normally exist
in the vapour phase (e.g. steam, ammonia, freon, etc.). The steam tables which will
be used in this unit are those arranged by Mayhew and Rogers, which are suitable for
student use. The steam tables of Mayhew and Rogers are mainly concerned with
steam, but some properties of ammonia and freon-12 are also given.

Below is a list of the properties normally tabulated, with the symbols used being
those recommended by British Standard Specifications.

Table 8.4 The property of steam tables
Symbols Units Description
p bar Absolute pressure of the fluid
t
s
o
C Saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure p bar
v
f
m
3
/kg Specific volume of saturated liquid
v
g
m
3
/kg Specific volume of saturated steam
u
f
kJ/kg Specific internal energy of saturated liquid
u
g
kJ/kg Specific internal energy of saturated steam
h
f
kJ/kg Specific enthalpy of saturated liquid
h
g
kJ/kg Specific enthalpy of saturated steam
h
fg
kJ/kg Change of specific enthalpy during evaporation
s
f
kJ/kg K Specific entropy of saturated liquid
s
g
kJ/kg K Specific entropy of saturated steam
s
fg
kJ/kg K Change of specific entropy during evaporation

These steam tables are divided into two types:
Type 1: Saturated Water and Steam (Page 2 to 5 of steam tables)
Type 2: Superheated Steam (Page 6 to 8 of steam tables)

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/16

Complete the following table for Saturated Water and Steam:

t P
s
v
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g

o
C bar m
3
/kg
kJ/kg

kJ/kg K

0.01 206.1
0.02337 8.666
100 1.01325

8.4.1 Saturated Water and Steam Tables

The table of the saturation condition is divided into two parts.

Part 1
Part 1 refers to the values of temperature from 0.01
o
C to 100
o
C, followed by
values that are suitable for the temperatures stated in the table. Table 8.4.1-1
is an example showing an extract from the temperature of 10
o
C.

Table 8.4.1-1 Saturated water and steam at a temperature of 10
o
C
t p
s
v
g

h
f
h
fg
h
g

s
f
s
fg
s
g

0
C bar m
3
/kg

kJ/kg

kJ/kg K

10 0.01227 106.4

42.0 2477.2 2519.2

0.151 8.749 8.900

Example 8.1

Solution to Example 8.1

From page 2 of the steam tables, we can directly read:

t P
s
v
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g

o
C bar m
3
/kg
kJ/kg

kJ/kg K

1 0.006566 192.6 4.2 2498.3 2502.5 0.015 9.113 9.128
20 0.02337 57.84 83.9 2453.7 2537.6 0.296 8.370 8.666
100 1.01325 1.673 419.1 2256.7 2675.8 1.307 6.048 7.355

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/17

Complete the missing properties in the following table for Saturated Water
and Steam:

p t
s
v
g
u
f
u
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g

bar
o
C m
3
/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg K
0.045 31.0 2558
10 0.1944
311.0 5.615

p t
s
v
g
u
f
u
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g

bar
o
C m
3
/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg K
0.045 31.0 31.14 130 2418 130 2428 2558 0.451 7.980 8.431
10 179.9 0.1944 762 2584 763 2015 2778 2.138 4.448 6.586
100 311.0 0.01802 1393 2545 1408 1317 2725 3.360 2.255 5.615

Part 2
Part 2 (Page 3 to 5 of steam tables) is values of pressure from 0.006112 bar to
221.2 bar followed by values that are suitable for the pressures stated in the
table. Table 8.4.1-2 is an example showing an extract from the pressure of
1.0 bar.

Table 8.4.1-2 Saturated water and steam at a pressure of 1.0 bar
p t
s
v
g
u
f
u
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g

bar
o
C m
3
/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg K
1.0 99.6 1.694 417 2506 417 2258 2675 1.303 6.056 7.359

Note the following subscripts:
f = property of the saturated liquid
g = property of the saturated steam
fg = change of the properties during evaporations

Example 8.2

Solution to Example 8.2

From page 3 to page 5 of the steam tables, we can directly read:

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/18

For a steam at 20 bar with a dryness fraction of 0.9, calculate the
a) specific volume
b) specific enthalpy
c) specific internal energy
Example 8.3

Solution to Example 8.3

An extract from the steam tables

p t
s
v
g
u
f
u
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g

20 212.4 0.09957 907 2600 909 1890 2799 2.447 3.893 6.340

a) Specific volume (v),
v = xv
g

= 0.9(0.09957)
= 0.0896 m
3
/kg

b) Specific enthalpy (h),
h = h
f
+ xh
fg

= 909 + 0.9(1890)
= 2610 kJ/kg

c) Specific internal energy (u),
u = u
f
+ x( u
g
-u
f
)
= 907 + 0.9(2600 - 907)
= 2430.7 kJ/kg

P
bar
v m
3
/kg
t
s
= 212.4
o
C
v
u
h
s
v
g
u
g

h
g

s
g

x = 0.9
20

u
f

h
f

s
f

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/19

Find the dryness fraction, specific volume and specific enthalpy of
steam at 8 bar and specific internal energy 2450 kJ/kg.
Example 8.4

Solution to Example 8.4

An extract from the steam tables,

p t
s
v
g
u
f
u
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g

8 170.4 0.2403 720 2577 721 2048 2769 2.046 4.617 6.663

At 8 bar, u
g
= 2577 kJ/kg, since the actual specific internal energy is given as
2450 kJ/kg, the steam must be in the wet steam state ( u < u
g
).

From equation 8.5,
u = u
f
+ x(u
g
-u
f
)
2450 = 720 + x(2577 - 720)
x = 0.932

From equation 8.2,
v = xv
g

= 0.932 (0.2403)
= 0.2240 m
3
/kg

From equation 8.4,
h = h
f
+ xh
fg
= 721 + 0.932 (2048)
= 2629.7 kJ/kg
P
bar
v m
3
/kg
t
s
= 170.4
o
C
v v
g
x = 0.932
8

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/20

8.3 The internal energy of wet steam is 2000 kJ/kg. If the pressure is 42 bar, what is the
value of dryness fraction?

8.4 Determine the specific volume, specific enthalpy and specific internal energy of wet
steam at 32 bar if the dryness fraction is 0.92.

8.5 Find the dryness fraction, specific volume and specific internal energy of steam at
105 bar and specific enthalpy 2100 kJ/kg.

Activity 8B

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/21

Feedback To Activity 8B

8.3 Dryness fraction (x),
u = u
f
+ x(u
g
-u
f
)
2000 = 1097 + x(2601 - 1097)
x = 0.6

8.4 Specific volume (v),
v = xv
g

= 0.92(0.06246)
= 0.05746 m
3
/kg

Specific enthalpy (h),
h = h
f
+ xh
fg

= 1025 + 0.92(1778)
= 2661 kJ/kg

Specific internal energy (u),
u = u
f
+ x( u
g
-u
f
)
= 1021 + 0.92(2603 - 1021)
= 2476 kJ/kg

8.5 Dryness fraction (x),
h = h
f
+ x h
fg

2100 = 1429 + x(1286)
x = 0.52

Specific volume (v),
v = xv
g

= 0.52(0.01696)
= 0.00882 m
3
/kg

Specific internal energy (u),
u = u
f
+ x( u
g
-u
f
)
= 1414 + 0.52(2537 1414)
= 1998 kJ/kg

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/22

8.4.2 Superheated Steam Tables

The second part of the table is the superheated steam tables. The values of
the specific properties of a superheated steam are normally listed in separate
tables for the selected values of pressure and temperature.

A steam is called superheated when its temperature is greater than the
saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure. When the pressure and
temperature are given for the superheated steam then the state is defined and
all the other properties can be found. For example, steam at 10 bar and 200
o
C is superheated since the saturation temperature at 10 bar is 179.9
o
C. The
steam at this state has a degree of superheat of 200
o
C 179.9
o
C = 20.1
o
C.
The equation of degree of superheat is:
Degree of superheat = t
superheat
t
saturation
(8.5)

The tables of properties of superheated steam range in pressure from
0.006112 bar to the critical pressure of 221.2 bar. At each pressure, there is a
range of temperature up to high degrees of superheat, and the values of
specific volume, internal energy, enthalpy and entropy are tabulated.

For the pressure above 70 bar, the specific internal energy is not tabulated.
The specific internal energy is calculated using the equation:
u = h pv (8.6)

For reference, the saturation temperature is inserted in brackets under each
pressure in the superheat tables and values of v
g
, u
g
, h
g
and

s
g
are also given.

A specimen row of values is shown in Table 8.5.2. For example, from the
superheated table at 10 bar and 200
o
C, the specific volume is 0.2061 m
3
/kg
and the specific enthalpy is 2829 kJ/kg.
INPUT

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/23

Complete the missing properties in the following table for Superheated
Steam:
p
(t
s
)

t 300 350 400 450

40
(250.3)
v
g
0.0498 v 0.0800
u
g
2602 u 2921
h
g
2801 h 3094
s
g
6.070 s 6.364

Table 8.4.2 Superheated steam at a pressure of 10 bar
p
(t
s
)

t 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600

10
(179.9)
v
g
0.1944 v 0.2061 0.2328 0.2580 0.2825 0.3065 0.3303 0.3540 0.4010
u
g
2584 u 2623 2711 2794 2875 2957 3040 3124 3297
h
g
2778 h 2829 2944 3052 3158 3264 3370 3478 3698
s
g
6.586 s 6.695 6.926 7.124 7.301 7.464 7.617 7.761 8.028

Example 8.5

Solution to Example 8.5

From page 7 of the steam tables, we can directly read
p
(t
s
)

t 300 350 400 450

40
(250.3)
v
g
0.0498 v 0.0588 0.0664 0.0733 0.0800
u
g
2602 u 2728 2828 2921 3010
h
g
2801 h 2963 3094 3214 3330
s
g
6.070 s 6.364 6.584 6.769 6.935

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/24

Steam at 100 bar has a specific volume of 0.02812 m
3
/kg. Find the
temperature, degree of superheat, specific enthalpy and specific
internal energy.
Example 8.6

Solution to Example 8.6

First, it is necessary to decide whether the steam is wet, dry saturated or
superheated.

At 100 bar, v
g
= 0.01802 m
3
/kg. This is less than the actual specific volume
of 0.02812 m
3
/kg. Hence, the steam is superheated. The state of the steam is
at point A in the diagram below.

An extract from the superheated table,
p
(t
s
)
t 425

100
(311.0)
v
g
0.01802 v x 10
-2
2.812
h
g
2725
h 3172
s
g
5.615
s 6.321

From the superheated table at 100 bar, the specific volume is 0.02812 m
3
/kg
at a temperature of 425
o
C. Hence, this is the isothermal line, which passes
through point A as shown in the P-v diagram above.

P
bar
v m
3
/kg
t
s
=

311.0

o
C
100
425

o
C
vg= 0.01802
v = 0.02812
A

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/25

Degree of superheat = 425
o
C 311
o
C
= 114
o
C

So, at 100 bar and 425
o
C, we have
v = 2.812 x 10
-2
m
3
/kg
h = 3172 kJ/kg

From equation 8.6,
u = h Pv
= 3172 kJ/kg (100 x 10
2
kN/m
2
)(2.812 x 10
-2
m
3
/kg)
= 2890.8 kJ/kg

Note that equation 8.6 must be used to find the specific internal energy for
pressure above 70 bar as the specific internal energy is not tabulated.

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/26

8.6 Steam at 120 bar is at 500
o
C. Find the degree of superheat, specific volume,
specific enthalpy and specific internal energy.

8.7 Steam at 160 bar has a specific enthalpy of 3139 kJ/kg. Find the temperature, degree
of superheat, specific enthalpy and specific internal energy.

Activity 8C

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/27

Feedback to Activity 8C

8.6 From the superheated table at 120 bar, the saturation temperature is 324.6
o
C.
Therefore, the steam is superheated.

Degree of superheat = 500
o
C 324.6
o
C
= 175.4
o
C

So, at 120 bar and 500
o
C, we have
v = 2.677 x 10
-2
m
3
/kg
h = 3348 kJ/kg

From equation 8.6,
u = h Pv
= 3348 kJ/kg (120 x 10
2
kN/m
2
)(2.677 x 10
-2
m
3
/kg)
= 3026.76 kJ/kg

8.7 At 160 bar, h
g
= 2582 kJ/kg. This is less than the actual specific enthalpy of
3139 kJ/kg. Hence, the steam is superheated.

From the superheated table at 160 bar, the specific enthalpy of 3139 kJ/kg is located
at a temperature of 450
o
C.

The degree of superheat = 450
o
C 347.3
o
C
= 102.7
o
C

At 160 bar and 450
o
C, we have v = 1.702 x 10
-2
m
3
/kg

From equation 8.6,
u = h Pv
= 3139 kJ/kg (160 x 10
2
kN/m
2
)(1.702 x 10
-2
m
3
/kg)
= 2866.68 kJ/kg

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/28

8.5 Interpolation

The first interpolation problem that an engineer usually meets is that of reading
between the lines of a published table, like the Steam Tables. For properties which
are not tabulated exactly in the tables, it is necessary to interpolate between the
values tabulated as shown in Fig. 8.5-1 below. In this process it is customary to use a
straight line that passes through two adjacent table points, denoted by o and |. If we
use the straight line then it is called interpolation.

Figure 8.5-1 Interpolation

The values in the tables are given in regular increments of temperature and pressure.
Often we wish to know the value of thermodynamic properties at intermediate
values. It is common to use linear interpolation as shown in Fig. 8.5-2.

From Fig. 8.5.2, the value of x
can be determined by:

( )( )
( )
1
1 2
1 2 1
1 2
1 2
1
1
x
y y
x x y y
x
y y
x x
y y
x x
+

INPUT
f(x)
x
o |
Interpolation
y
x

y
2
y
y
1
x
1
x

x
2

(x
2
, y
2
)
(x , y)
(x
1
, y
1
)
Figure 8.5-2 Linear interpolation

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/29

Determine the saturation temperature at 77 bar.
There are two methods of interpolation:
i. single interpolation
ii. double interpolation

8.5.1 Single interpolation

Single interpolation is used to find the values in the table when one of the
values is not tabulated. For example, to find the saturation temperature,
specific volume, internal energy and enthalpy of dry saturated steam at 77
bar, it is necessary to interpolate between the values given in the table.

Example 8.6

Solution to Example 8.6

The values of saturation temperature at a pressure of 77 bars are not tabulated
in the Steam Tables. So, we need to interpolate between the two nearest
values that are tabulated in the Steam Tables.

75 80
5 . 290 295
75 77
5 . 290

s
t

5
5 . 290 295
2
5 . 290
=

s
t

( )
5 . 290
5
5 . 4 2
+ =
s
t

t
s
= 292.3
o
C

P
t
s
80
77
75
290.5
t
s 295

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/30

Determine the specific enthalpy of dry saturated steam at 103 bar.
Determine the specific volume of steam at 8 bar and 220
o
C.
Example 8.7

Solution to Example 8.7

h
g

2725
103 100
2715 2725
105 100

( )
h
g
=

+
3 10
5
2725

2719 =
g
h kJ/kg

Example 8.8

Solution to Example 8.8

From the Steam Tables at 8 bar, the saturated temperature (t
s
) is 170.4
o
C.
The steam is at superheated condition as the temperature of the steam is
220
o
C > t
s
.

An extract from the Steam Tables,
p / (bar)
(t
s
/
o
C)
t 200 220 250
(
o
C)
8
(170.4)
v 0.2610 v 0.2933

v

02610
220 200
02933 02610
250 200
. . .

v = 027392 . m
3
/kg
P
h
g

105
103
100
2725
h
g 2715
P
v

250
220
200
0.2610
v
0.2933

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/31

Determine the specific enthalpy of superheated steam at 25 bar and
320
o
C.
8.5.2 Double Interpolation

In some cases a double interpolation is necessary, and its usually used in the
Superheated Steam Table. Double interpolation must be used when two of
the properties (eg. temperature and pressure) are not tabulated in the Steam
Tables. For example, to find the enthalpy of superheated steam at 25 bar and
320
o
C, an interpolation between 20 bar and 30 bar is necessary (as shown in
example 8.9). An interpolation between 300
o
C and 350
o
C is also necessary.

Example 8.8

Solution to Example 8.8
An extract from the Superheated Steam Tables:

t(
o
C)
p(bar)
300 320 350
20 3025 h
1
3138
25 h
30 2995 h
2
3117

Firstly, find the specific enthalpy (h
1
) at 20 bar and 320
o
C;

At 20 bar,

300 350
3025 3138
300 320
3025
1

h

2 . 3070
1
= h kJ/kg

T
h

350
320
300
3025
h
1 3138

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/32

0.9 m
3
of dry saturated steam at 225 kN/m
2
is contained in a rigid
cylinder. If it is cooled at constant volume process until the pressure
drops to180 kN/m
2
, determine the following:
a) mass of steam in the cylinder
b) dryness fraction at the final state

Sketch the process in the form of a P-v diagram.
Secondly, find the specific enthalpy (h
2
) at 30 bar and 320
o
C;

At 30 bar,

300 350
2995 3117
300 320
2995
2

h

8 . 3043
2
= h kJ/kg

Now interpolate between h
1
at 20 bar, 320
o
C, and h
2
at 30 bar, 320
o
C in order
to find h at 25 bar and 320
o
C.

At 320
o
C,

20 30 20 25
1 2 1

h h h h

h

30702
25 20
30438 30702
30 20
. . .

h = 3057 kJ/kg.

Example 8.9

T
h

350
320
300
2995
h
2 3117
P
h

30
25
20
h
1
h
h
2

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/33

Solution to Example 8.9
Data: V
1
= 0.9 m
3
, P
1
= 225 kN/m
2
= 2.25 bar,

P
2
= 180 kN/m
2
= 1.80 bar

a) Firstly, find the specific volume of dry saturated steam at 2.25 bar.
Note that the pressure 2.25 bar is not tabulated in the steam tables and
it is necessary to use the interpolation method.

From the Steam Tables,
v
g
at 2.2 bar = 0.8100 m
3
/kg
v
g
at 2.3 bar = 0.7770 m
3
/kg

v
g1
at 2.25 bar,
20 . 2 30 . 2
8100 . 0 7770 . 0
20 . 2 25 . 2
8100 . 0
1

g
v

v
g1
= 0.7935 m
3
/kg

Mass of steam in cylinder,
1
1
g
v
V
m = (m
3
x kg/m
3
)
=
09
07935
.
.

= 1.134 kg

b) At constant volume process,
Initial specific volume = final specific volume
v
1
= v
2

x
1
v
g1
at 2.25 bar = x
2
v
g2
at 1.8 bar
1(0.7935) = x
2
(0.9774)

9774 . 0
) 7935 . 0 ( 1
2
= x
= 0.81

P
bar
1.80
2.25
v m
3
/kg
1
2
0.7935 0.9774
v
1
= v
2

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/34

8.8 Determine the specific enthalpy of steam at 15 bar and 275
o
C.

8.9 Determine the degree of superheat and entropy of steam at 10 bar and 380
o
C.

8.10 A superheated steam at 12.5 MN/m
2
is at 650
o
C. Determine its specific volume.

8.11 A superheated steam at 24 bar and 500
o
C expands at constant volume until the
pressure becomes 6 bar and the dryness fraction is 0.9. Calculate the changes in the
internal energy of steam. Sketch the process in the form of a P-v diagram.

Activity 8D

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/35

Feedback to Activity 8D

8.8

250 300
2925 3039
250 275
2925

h

2982 = h kJ/kg

8.9 Degree of superheat = 380
o
C 179.9
o
C
= 200.1
o
C

350 400
301 . 7 464 . 7
350 380
301 . 7

s

3988 . 7 = s kJ/kg K

8.10 An extract from the superheated steam table:

t(
o
C)
p(bar)
600 650 700
120 3.159 x 10
-2
v
1
3.605 x 10
-2

125 v
130 2.901 x 10
-2
v
2
3.318 x 10
-2

T
h

300
275
250
2925
h
3039
T
s

400
380
350
7.301
s
7.464

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/36

Firstly, find the specific volume (v
1
) at 120 bar and 650
o
C;

At 120 bar,

600 700
10 x 9 15 . 3 10 x 605 . 3
600 650
10 x 9 15 . 3
2 2 2
1

v

2
1
10 x 3.382

= v m
3
/kg

Secondly, find the specific volume (v
2
) at 130 bar and 650
o
C;

At 130 bar,

600 700
10 x 901 . 2 10 x .318 3
600 650
10 x 901 . 2
2 2 2
2

v

v
2
= 3.1095 x 10
-2
m
3
/kg

Now interpolate between v
1
at 120 bar, 650
o
C, and v
2
at 130 bar, 650
o
C in
order to find v at 125 bar and 650
o
C.

At 650
o
C,

120 130 120 125
1 2 1

v v v v

120 130
10 x 382 . 3 10 x .1095 3
120 125
10 x 382 . 3
2 2 2

v

v = 3.246 x 10
-2
m
3
/kg

T
v

700
650
600
3.159 x 10
-2
v
1
3.605 x 10
-2

T
v

700
650
600
2.901 x 10
-2
v
2
3.318 x 10
-2

P
v

130
125
120
v

v
2 v
1

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/37

8.11 Data: P
1
= 24 bar
T
1
= 500
o
C
P
2
= 6 bar
x
2
= 0.9

Firstly, find the initial internal energy at 24 bar, 500
o
C. Note that the
pressure 24 bar is not tabulated in the Superheated Steam Tables and it is
necessary to use the interpolation method to find the changes in the internal
energy of steam.

At 500
o
C,

20 30
3116 3108
20 24
3116
1

u

8 . 3112
1
= u kJ/kg

Secondly, find the final internal energy at 6 bar where x = 0.9,
u
2
= u
f2
+ x
2
( u
g2
-u
f2
)
= 669 + 0.9(2568 - 669)
= 2378.1 kJ/kg

The changes in the internal energy of steam is,
(u
2
u
1
) = 2378.1 3112.8
= - 734.7 kJ/kg

P
u

30
24
20
3116
u
1 3108
P
bar
6
24
v m
3
/kg
1
2
221.8
o
C
v
1
= v
2
500
o
C
158.8
o
C
500
o
C
221.8
o
C
158.8
o
C
v
1
= v
2

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/38

You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment
section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to Self-
Assessment on the next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your
lecturer. Good luck.

1. With reference to the Steam Tables,
i. determine the specific volume, specific enthalpy and specific internal
energy of wet steam at 15 bar with a dryness fraction of 0.9.
ii. determine the degree of superheat, specific volume and specific
internal energy of steam at 80 bar and enthalpy 2990 kJ/kg.
iii. complete the missing properties and a phase description in the
following table for water;

P
bar
t
o
C
x v
m
3
/kg
u
kJ/kg
h
kJ/kg
s
kJ/kg K
Phase
description
2.0 120.2 6.4
12.0 1 2784
175 354.6 0.9
200 425

2. With reference to the Steam Tables,
i. find the dryness fraction and specific entropy of steam at 2.9 bar and
specific enthalpy 2020 kJ/kg.

ii. determine the degree of superheat and internal energy of superheated
steam at 33 bar and 313
o
C.

iii. determine the enthalpy change for a process involving a dry saturated
steam at 3.0 MN/m
2
which is superheated to 600
o
C and carried out at
constant pressure.
SELF-ASSESSMENT

PROPERTIES OF STEAM J2006/8/39

1. i. v = 0.11853 m
3
/kg
h = 2600 kJ/kg
u = 2419.8 kJ/kg

ii. degree of superheat = 55
o
C
v = 2.994 x 10
-2
m
3
/kg
u = 2750.48 kJ/kg

iii.
P
bar
t
o
C
x v
m
3
/kg
u
kJ/kg
h
kJ/kg
s
kJ/kg K
Phase
description
2.0 120.2 0.87 0.7705 2267 2421 6.4 Wet steam
12.0 188 1 0.1632 2588 2784 6.523 Dry sat.
steam
175 354.6 0.9 0.007146 2319.8 2448.1 5.0135 Wet steam
200 425 - 0.001147

2725.6 2955 5.753 Superheated
steam

2. i. x = 0.68
s = 5.2939 kJ/kg K

ii. Degree of superheat = 73.85
o
C
u = 2769 kJ/kg

iii. h
2
h
1
= 879 kJ/kg
Feedback to Self-Assessment

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/1

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

OBJECTIVES

General Objective : To define and explain the Second Law of Thermodynamics and
perform calculations involving the expansion and compression of
steam and gases.

Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:

state the definition of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
explain the Second Law of Thermodynamics
estimate the efficiency of heat engine
explain entropy and entropy change
sketch processes on a temperature-entropy diagram
understand that Q = h
2
h
1
and apply the formula in
calculations
calculate the change of entropy, work and heat transfer of
steam in reversible processes at:
i. constant pressure process
ii. constant volume process
iii. constant temperature (or isothermal) process
v. polytropic process

UNIT 9

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/2

9.0 Introduction to The Second Law of Thermodynamics

According to the First Law of Thermodynamics as stated in Unit 2, when a system
undergoes a complete cycle, then the net heat supplied is equal to the net work done.
E dQ = E dW
This is based on the conservation of energy principle, which follows from the
observation on natural events.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics, which is also a natural law, indicates that;

In symbols,
Q
1
Q
2
= W (9.1)

To enable the second law to be considered more fully, the heat engine must be
discussed.

Although the net heat supplied in a cycle is equal to the net work done, the
gross heat supplied must be greater than the work done; some heat must
always be rejected by the system.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics
INPUT

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/3

9.1 The heat engine and heat pump

We know from experience that work can be converted to heat directly and
completely, but converting heat to work requires the use of some special devices.
These devices are called heat engines.

A heat engine is a system operating in a complete cycle and developing net work
from a supply of heat. The second law implies that a source of heat supply (or hot
reservoir) and a sink (or cold reservoir) for the rejection of heat are both necessary,
since some heat must always be rejected by the system.

Heat engines differ considerably from one another, but all can be characterised by
the following:
They receive heat from a high-temperature source (for example solar energy, oil
furnace, nuclear reactor, steam boiler, etc.)
They convert part of this heat to work (usually in the form of a rotating shaft, for
example gas turbine, steam turbine, etc.)
They reject the remaining waste heat to a low-temperature sink (for example the
atmosphere, rivers, condenser, etc.)
They operate on a cycle.

A diagrammatic representation of a heat engine is shown in Fig. 9.1-1.

High-temperature
HOT RESERVOIR
Low-temperature
COLD RESERVOIR
HEAT
ENGINE
Q
1
Q
2
WORK OUTPUT
W = Q
1
- Q
2

Note:
Q
1
= The heat supplied from the
source.

W = The net work done.

Q
2
= The heat rejected.

Figure 9.1-1 Part of the heat received by the heat engine is converted to work,
while the rest is rejected to cold reservoir.

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/4

Heat engines and other cyclic devices usually involve a fluid that moves to and fro
from which heat is transferred while undergoing a cycle. This fluid is called the
working fluid.

The work-producing device that best fits into the definition of a heat engine are:
The steam power plant
The close cycle gas turbine

By the first law, in a complete cycle,
Net heat supplied = Net work done

Referring to Fig. 9.1-1, from equation E dQ = E dW, we have,
Q
1
Q
2
= W

By the second law, the gross heat supplied must be greater than the net work done,
i.e. Q
1
> W

The thermal efficiency of a heat engine is defined as the ratio of the net work done in
the cycle to the gross heat supplied in the cycle. It is usually expressed as a
percentage.

Referring to Fig. 9.1-1,
Thermal efficiency, q =
W
Q
1
(9.2)

Substituting equation 9.1,

q
( )
=
Q Q
Q
1 2
1

q =
|
\

|
.
| 1
2
1
Q
Q
(9.3)

It can be seen that the second law implies that the thermal efficiency of a heat engine
must always be less than 100% (Q
1
> W ).

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/5

Heat is transferred to a heat engine from a furnace at a rate of 80 MW. If the
rate of waste heat rejection to a nearby river is 45 MW, determine the net work
done and the thermal efficiency for this heat engine.
Example 9.1

Solution to Example 9.1

A schematic of the heat engine is given in the diagram above. The furnace serves as
the high-temperature reservoir for this heat engine and the river as the low-
temperature reservoir.

Assumption: Heat lost through the pipes and other components are negligible.

Analysis: The given quantities can be expressed in rate form as;
Q
1
= 80 MW
Q
2
= 45 MW

From equation 9.1, the net work done for this heat engine is;
W = Q
1
Q
2

= (80 45) MW
= 35 MW

Then from equation 9.2, the thermal efficiency is easily determined to be
q 43.75%) (or 0.4375
MW 80
MW 35
1
= = =
Q
W

That is, the heat engine converts 43.75 percent of the heat it receives to work.
FURNACE
RIVER
HEAT
ENGINE
Q
1
= 80 MW
Q
2
= 45 MW
W = ?

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/6

The first and second laws apply equally well to cycles working in the reverse
direction to those of heat engine. In general, heat only flows from a high-
temperature source to a low-temperature sink. However, a reversed heat engine can
be utilized to pump the heat from a low-temperature region to a high-temperature
region. The reversed heat engine is called heat pump.

In the case of a reversed cycle, the net work done on the system is equal to the net
heat rejected by the system. Such cycles occur in heat pumps and refrigerators. The
equivalent diagram of the heat pump (or refrigerator) is shown in Fig. 9.1-2.

In the heat pump (or refrigerator) cycle, an amount of heat, Q
2
, is supplied from the
cold reservoir, and an amount of heat, Q
1
, is rejected to the hot reservoir.
Q
1
= W + Q
2
(9.4)

In the second law, we can say that work input is essential for heat to be transferred
from the cold to the hot reservoir,
i.e. W > 0

The first law sets no limit on the percentage of heat supplied, which can be
converted into work. Nor does it indicate whether the energy conversion process is
physically possible or impossible. We shall see, though, that a limit is imposed by
the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and that the possibility or otherwise of a
process can be determined through a property of the working fluid called entropy.
High-temperature
HOT RESERVOIR
Low-temperature
COLD RESERVOIR
HEAT
PUMP
Q
1
Q
2
WORK INPUT
W

Q
1
= W + Q
2

Figure 9.1-2 Reverse heat engine

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/7

9.2 Entropy

The first law applied to a heat engine or energy conversion process is merely an
energy balance. However, the first law does not indicate the possibility or
impossibility of the process, and we know from our everyday experience that some
energy conversions are never observed. In Unit 2, internal energy which is an
important property, arised as a result of the First Law of Thermodynamics. Another
important property, entropy, follows from the second law.

Considering 1 kg of fluid, the units of entropy are given by kJ/kg divided by K. The
the unit of specific entropy, s, is kJ/kg K. The symbol S will be used for the entropy
of mass, m, of a fluid,
i.e. S = ms kJ/K

The change of entropy is more important than its absolute value, and the zero of
entropy can be chosen quite arbitrarily. For example, in the Steam Tables the
specific entropy at saturated liquid is put equal to zero at 0.01
o
C; in tables of
refrigerants the specific entropy at saturated liquid is put equal to zero at 40
o
C.

For all working substances, the change of entropy is given by
ds
dQ
T
= (9.5)

Re-writing equation 9.5 we have
dQ = T ds

or for any reversible process
}
=
2
1
ds T Q (9.6)

The equation 9.7 below is analogous to equation 9.6 for any reversible process
}
=
2
1
dv P W (9.7)

Thus, as there is a diagram on areas that represent work done in a reversible process,
there is also a diagram on areas that represent heat flow in a reversible process.
These diagrams are the P-v and the T-s diagrams respectively, as shown in
Figs. 9.2-1 and 9.2-2.

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/8

For a reversible process from point 1 to point 2:
in Fig. 9.2-1, the shaded area
}
2
1
dv P , represents work done; and
in Fig. 9.2.2, the shaded area
}
2
1
ds T , represents heat flow.

Therefore, one great use of property entropy is that it enables a diagram to be drawn
showing the area that represents heat flow in a reversible process. In the next input,
the T-s diagram will be considered for a steam.

1
2
P
v
dv
P
1
2
T
s
ds
T
Figure 9.2.1 Work done
Figure 9.2.2 Heat flow

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/9

9.3 The T-s diagram for a steam

As mentioned earlier, the zero specific entropy is taken as 0.01
o
C for steam and
40
o
C for refrigerants only. The T-s diagram for steam is considered here. The
diagram for a refrigerant is exactly similar to the T-s diagram for steam. However,
the zero specific entropy is different.

The T-s diagram for steam in Fig. 9.3-1, shows:

Three lines of constant pressure P
1
, P
2
and P
3
( i.e. ABCD, EFGH and JKLM).
The pressure lines in the liquid region are practically coincident with the
saturated liquid line (i.e. AB, EF and JK), and the difference is usually neglected.

The pressure remains constant with temperature when the latent heat is added,
hence the pressure lines are horizontal in the wet region (i.e. portions BC, FG
and KL).

The pressure lines curve upwards in the superheat region (i.e. portions CD, GH
and LM). Thus the temperature rises as heating continues at constant pressure.

Two constant volume lines (v
1
and v
2
shown as chain-dotted) are also drawn in
Fig. 9.3-1. The lines of constant volume are concaved down in the wet region
and slope up more steeply than pressure lines in the superheat region.

P
3
> P
2
> P
1

T
s
P
3

P
2

P
1

v
1

v
2

A
B
C
D
E
F G
H
J
K L
M
273 K
v
1
> v
2

Figure 9.3-1 Temperature-entropy diagram for liquid
and steam

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/10

In steam tables, the specific entropy of the saturated liquid and the dry saturated
steam are represented by s
f
and s
g
respectively. The difference, s
g
- s
f
= s
fg
is also
tabulated. The specific entropy of wet steam is given by the specific entropy of
water in the mixture plus the specific entropy of the dry steam in the mixture.

For wet steam with dryness fraction, x, we have
s = s
f
(1 x) + xs
g

or s = s
f
+ x(s
g
s
f
)
i.e. s = s
f
+ xs
fg
(9.8)

Then the dryness fraction is given by

It can be seen from equation 9.9 that the dryness fraction is proportional to the
distance of the state point from the liquid line on a T-s diagram. For example, for
state 1 on Fig. 9.3-2, the dryness fraction,

The area under the line FG on Fig. 9.3-2 represents the latent heat h
fg
. The area under
line F1 is given by x
1
h
fg
.

In unit 8, the enthalpy of wet steam was shown to be given by equation 8.4,
h= h
f
+ xh
fg

fg
f
s
s s
x

=
(9.9)

1
1
1
1
FG distance
F1 distance
fg
f
s
s s
x

= =
T
(K)
s kJ/kg K
s
1
s
g

s
1
= s
f1
+ x
1
s
fg1

F
s
f

G 1
P
1
P
1
Figure 9.3-2 Temperature-entropy chart for steam

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/11

9.4 To show that Q = h
2
h
1

The T-s diagram will enable equation Q = h
2
h
1
to be expressed graphically, while
areas on the diagram represent heat flow. Assuming that the pressure line in the
liquid region coincides with the saturated liquid line, then the enthalpy can be
represented on the diagram.

Figure 9.4 T-s diagram showing Q = h
2
h
1

Referring to Fig. 9.4:
When water at any pressure P, at 0.01
o
C, is heated at constant pressure, it
follows the line AB approximately; the point B is at the saturation temperature T
at which the water boils at the pressure P. At constant pressure from A to B
Q = h
B
- h
A

= h
B
(since h
A
at 0.01
o
C is approximately zero)

Therefore, we have
area ABFOA = h
B

= h
f
at pressure P

At point B, if heating continues, water will change gradually into steam until
point C and the steam becomes dry saturated. Thus we have

area BCHFB = latent heat
= h
fg
at pressure P
= h
C
- h
B

At point C, the enthalpy is given by
h
C
= area ABFOA + area BCHFB
= h
g
at pressure P
A
B
E C
D
P
T
(K)
0 F G H
J
s kJ/kg K

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/12

For wet steam at point E,
h
E
= h
B
+ x
E
h
fg

i.e h
E
= area ABEGOA

When dry saturated steam is further heated, it becomes superheated. The heat
added from C to D at constant pressure P, is given by
Q = h
D
h
C

= area CDJHC

Then the enthalpy at D is
h
D
= h
C
+ area CDJHC
= area ABCDJOA

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/13

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT

9.1 Study the statements in table below and decide if the statements are
TRUE (T) or FALSE (F).

STATEMENTS TRUE or FALSE
i. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is
represented by the equation Q
1
Q
2
= W.

ii. The heat engine receives heat from a high-
temperature source.

iii. The heat engine convert part of the heat to
internal energy.

iv. The work-producing device of a heat engine
are the steam power plant and a close cycle
gas turbine.

v. A reversed heat engine is called a heat pump.
vi. The work producing device for a heat pump is
the refrigerator.

vii. In heat engines, the net work done must be
greater than the gross heat supplied,
i.e W > Q
1
.

9.2 The work done by heat engine is 20 kW. If the rate of heat that enters into
the hot reservoir is 3000 kJ/min, determine the thermal efficiency and the rate
of heat rejection to the cold reservoir.
Activity 9A

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/14

Feedback To Activity 9A

9.1 i. True
ii. True
iii. False
iv. True
v. True
vi. True
vii. False

9.2 The given quantities can be expressed as;
W = 20 kW
Q
1
= 3000 kJ/min = 50 kJ/s or kW

From equation 9.2
q =
W
Q
1

i.e. Thermal efficiency of heat engine is 40 %.

From equation 9.1
W = Q
1
Q
2

Q
2
= Q
1
W = 50 20 = 30 kW

i.e. The rate of heat rejection to the cold reservoir is 30 kW.

PROCEED TO THE NEXT INPUT
% 40 % 100 x
50
20
= =

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/15

9.5 Reversible processes on the T-s diagram for steam

In the following sections of this unit, five reversible processes on the T-s diagram for
steam are analysed in detail. These processes include the:
i. constant pressure process
ii. constant volume process
iii. constant temperature (or isothermal) process
v. polytropic process

9.5.1 Constant pressure process

The constant pressure process is a good approximation to many of the
common physical processes which we are familiar with. The combustion of
fuel in a boiler, the flow of fluids, the flow of air in ducts and other processes
can be used to illustrate constant pressure.

For example, Fig. 9.5.1 shows a reversible constant pressure process from a
wet steam into the superheat region. It can be seen that, when the boundary
of the system is inflexible, the pressure rises when heat is supplied. For a
constant pressure process, the boundary must move against an external
resistance as heat is supplied.

INPUT
T
s
1
2
s
1
s
2
Q

P
1
= P
2
Figure 9.5.1 Constant pressure process

T
1
T
2

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/16

4 kg of steam at 7 bar and entropy 6.5 kJ/kg K, is heated reversibly at
constant pressure until the temperature is 250
o
C. Calculate the heat
supplied and show on a T-s diagram the area which represents the heat
flow.
During the constant pressure process, since P is constant,
( )
1 2
2
1
v v P dv P W = =
}
(9.10)
(Note that this equation was derived and used in Unit 5)

From the non-flow energy equation,
Q = (u
2
u
1
) + W

Hence for a reversible constant pressure process
Q = (u
2
u
1
) + P(v
2
v
1
) = (u
2
+ Pv
2
) ( u
1
+ Pv
1
)

Now from equation h = u + Pv,
Q = h
2
- h
1
kJ/kg (9.11)

or for mass, m (kg), of a fluid,
Q = m(h
2
- h
1
)
Q = H
2
- H
1
kJ (9.12)

Example 9.2

Solution to Example 9.2

The given quantities can be expressed as;
m = 4 kg
P
2
= P
1
= 7 bar
s
1
= 6.5 kJ/kg K
T
2
= 250
o
C

At state 1
At 7 bar, s
g1
= 6.709 kJ/kg K, the steam is wet, since the actual entropy, s
1
, is
less than s
g1
(i.e. s
1
< s
g1
).

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/17

From equation 9.9

Then from equation 8.4
h
1
= h
f1
+ x
1
h
fg1

= 697 + 0.956(2067)
= 2673 kJ/kg

At state 2
The steam is at 250
o
C at 7 bar, and therefore superheated. From the
superheated tables,
h
2
= 2955 kJ/kg

At constant pressure, from equation 9.11
Q = h
2
- h
1

= 2955 - 2673
= 282 kJ/kg

Hence for 4 kg of steam,
Q = 4 kg x 282 kJ/kg
= 1128 kJ

i.e. For 4 kg of steam, the heat supplied is 1128 kJ.

The T-s diagram of the process is given below. The shaded area represents
the heat flow.

956 . 0
717 . 4
992 . 1 5 . 6
1
1
1
1
=

=
fg
f
s
s s
x
s (kJ/kg K)
T
(K)
1
2
s
1

6.709
s
2
Q

P
1
= P
2
= 7 bar
T
2
= 250
o
C
= 523 K

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/18

9.5.2 Constant volume process

In a constant volume process, the working substance is contained in a rigid
vessel (or closed tank) from which heat is either added or removed. In this
process, the boundaries of the system are immovable and no work can be
done on or by the system. It will be assumed that constant volume implies
zero work unless stated otherwise.

From the non-flow energy equation,
Q = (u
2
u
1
) + W

Since no work is done, we therefore have
Q = u
2
u
1
kJ/kg (9.13)

or for mass, m (kg), of the working substance
Q = m(u
2
u
1
)
Q = (U
2
U
1
) kJ (9.14)

Note that, all the heat supplied in a constant volume process goes to
increasing the internal energy.

In Fig. 9.5.2, the indicated path is one in which heat is being added in a
constant volume process.

Figure 9.5.2 Constant volume process

T
s
1
2
s
1
s
2
Q

P
1

P
2
T
2
T
1

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/19

A wet steam at 10 bar is heated reversibly at constant volume to a pressure
of 20 bar and 250
o
C. Calculate the heat supply (in kJ/kg) and show the
process on a T-s diagram, indicating the area that represents the heat flow.
Example 9.3

Solution to Example 9.3

At state 2
Steam at 20 bar and 250
o
C is superheated. From the superheated steam
tables, we have
specific volume, v
2
= 0.1115 m
3
/kg
specific internal energy, u
2
= 2681 kJ/kg

At state 1
At 10 bar, we have
v
1
= v
2
= 0.1115m
3
/kg
v
g1
= 0.1944
Steam at state 1 is wet as v
1
< v
g1
, and the dryness fraction is given by
equation 8.2,
v
1
= x
1
v
g1

x
v
v
1
1
01115
01944
0574 = = =
g1
.
.
.

From equation 8.5,
u
1
= u
f1
+ x
1
(u
g1
u
f1
)
= 762 + 0.574 (2584 - 762)
= 1807.8 kJ/kg

At constant volume from equation 9.13,
Q = u
2
u
1
= 2681 1807.8
= 873.2 kJ/kg

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/20

The T-s diagram showing of constant volume process is given below. The
shaded area represents the heat flow.

T
s
1
2
s
1 s
2
Q

P
1
= 10 bar

P
2
= 20 bar
250
o
C

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/21

9.5.3 Constant temperature (or isothermal) process

A process that takes place at constant temperature is called an isothermal
process. For example, at the exhaust of a steam turbine, the steam is usually
wet. This steam is subsequently condensed in a unit appropriately known as
a condenser. As the steam is initially wet, this process is carried out
essentially at constant temperature (isothermally).

In an isothermal expansion, heat must be added continuously in order to keep
the temperature at the initial value. Similarly in an isothermal compression,
heat must be removed from the fluid continuously during the process.

A reversible isothermal process will appear as a straight line on a T-s
diagram, and the area under the line must represent the heat flow during the
process. Figure 9.2.3 shows a reversible isothermal expansion of wet steam
into the superheat region.

The shaded area represents the heat supplied during the process.
Q = T(s
2
- s
1
) T in Kelvin (or K) (9.15)

Note that the absolute temperature must be used. The temperature tabulated in the
steam tables is t
o
C, and care must be taken to convert this into T Kelvin.

From the non-flow energy equation, work can be expressed by
W = Q - (u
2
u
1
) (9.16)

Figure 9.5.3 Isothermal process

Q

T
s
1 2
s
1
s
2
P
1

P
2
T
1
= T
2

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/22

Steam at 80 bar and enthalpy 2650 kJ/kg expands isothermally and
reversibly to a pressure of 10 bar. Calculate the entropy change, heat
supplied and the work done per kg steam during the process. Show the
process on a T-s diagram, indicating the area that represents the heat flow.

Example 9.4

Solution to Example 9.4

The given quantities can be expressed as;
P
1
= 80 bar
h
1
= 2650 kJ/kg
P
2
= 10 bar

At state 1
At 80 bar, h
1
= 2650 kJ/kg, the steam is wet, since the given enthalpy, h
1
, is
less than h
g
(i.e. 2758 kJ/kg). From the steam tables, the saturated
temperature of wet steam is 295
o
C.

From equation 8.4
h
1
= h
f1
+ x
1
h
fg1

2650 = 1317 + x
1
(1441)
x
1
= 0.925

From equation 9.8
s
1
= s
f1
+ x
1
s
fg1

= 3.207 + 0.925(2.537)
= 5.554 kJ/kg K

From equation 8.5
u
1
= u
f1
+ x
1
( u
g1
- u
f1
)
= 1306 + 0.925(2570 - 1306)
= 2475.2 kJ/kg

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/23

At state 2
At 10 bar and 295
o
C the steam is superheated, hence interpolating

s
2
6926
295 250
7124 6926
300 250

. . .

s
2
= 7.1042 kJ/kg K

u
2
2711
295 250
2794 2711
300 250

u
2
= 2785.7 kJ/kg

Change of entropy,
(s
2
s
1
) = 7.1042 - 5.554 kJ/kg K
= 1.5502 kJ/kg K

Then from equation 9.15 we have,
Q = T(s
2
- s
1
)
= 568(1.5502)
= 880.5 kJ/kg
(where T = 295 + 273 = 568 K)

From equation 9.16,
W = Q - (u
2
u
1
)
= 880.5 - (2785.7 - 2475.2)
= 570 kJ/kg

T
s

300
295
250
6.926
s
2 7.124
T
u

300
295
250
2711
u
2 2794

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/24

The T-s diagram of the isothermal process is given below. The shaded area
represents the heat flow.

Q

T
(K)
s (kJ/kg K)
1 2
s
1 s
2
P
1
= 80 bar

P
2
= 10 bar
T
1
= T
2

295
O
C
@ 568 K

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/25

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT
INPUT!

9.3 A rigid cylinder (constant volume) contains steam at 90 bar and 400
o
C. The
cylinder is cooled until the pressure is 50 bar. Calculate the amount of heat
rejected per kg of steam. Sketch the process on a T-s diagram indicating the
area, which represents the heat flow.

9.4 Steam at 8 bar, entropy 6.211 kJ/kg K is heated reversibly at constant
pressure until the temperature is 350
o
C. Calculate the heat supplied, and
show on a T-s diagram the area which represents the heat flow.

9.5 Dry saturated steam at 100 bar expands isothermally and reversibly to a
pressure of 10 bar. Calculate the heat supplied and the work done per kg of
steam during the process. Show the process on a T-s diagram.

Activity 9B

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/26

Feedback To Activity 9B

9.3 The given quantities can be expressed as;
P
1
= 90 bar
T
1
= 400
o
C
P
2
= 50 bar

At state 1
Steam at 90 bar and 400
o
C is superheated, and the specific volume from the Steam
Tables is,
v
1
= 0.02991 m
3
/kg.

For superheated steam above 70 bar, the internal energy is not tabulated in the
superheated steam tables and it is found from equation 8.6 that,
u
1
= h
1
p
1
v
1

= 3118 (90 x 10
2
x 2.991 x 10
-2
)
= 2848.8 kJ/kg

At state 2
At P
2
= 50 bar and v
2
= 0.02991 m
3
/kg, the steam is wet, and the dryness fraction is
given by equation 8.2 as:
v
2
= x
2
v
g2

From equation 8.5
u
2
= u
f2
+ x
2
(u
g2
- u
f2
)
= 1149 + 0.758(2597 1149)
= 2246.6 kJ/kg

758 . 0
03944 . 0
02991 . 0
2
2
2
= = =
g
v
v
x

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/27

At constant volume from equation 9.13
Q = u
2
u
1

= 2246.6 - 2848.8
= - 602.2 kJ/kg
i.e. The amount of heat rejected per kg of steam is 602.2 kJ/kg.

9.4 The given quantities can be expressed as;
P
1
= P
2
= 8 bar
s
1
= 6.211 kJ/kg K
T
2
= 350
o
C

At state 1
At 8 bar, s
g1
= 6.663 kJ/kg K, the steam is wet, since the actual entropy, s
1
, is less
than s
g1
(i.e. s
1
< s
g1
).

From equation 9.9

Then from equation 8.4
h
1
= h
f1
+ x
1
h
fg1

= 721 + 0.9(2048)
= 2564.2 kJ/kg

T
s
2
1
s
2
s
1
Q

P
2
= 50 bar

P
1
= 90 bar
400
o
C
9 . 0
617 . 4
046 . 2 211 . 6
1
1
1
1
=

=
fg
f
s
s s
x

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/28

At state 2
The steam is at 350
o
C at 8 bar, and therefore superheated. From the superheated
tables,
h
2
= 3162 kJ/kg

At constant pressure, from equation 9.11
Q = h
2
- h
1

= 3162 - 2564.2
= 597.8 kJ/kg

i.e. The heat supplied is 597.8 kJ/kg

The T-s diagram of the process is given below. The shaded area represents the heat
flow.

s (kJ/kg K)
T
(K)
1
2
s
1

6.211
s
2
Q

P
1
= P
2
= 8 bar
T
2
= 350
o
C = 523 K

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/29

9.5 From the Steam Tables at 100 bar, steam is dry saturated,
s
1
= s
g1
= 5.615 kJ/kg K and t
1
= 311
o
C

At 10 bar and 311
o
C the steam is superheated, hence interpolating

300 350
124 . 7 301 . 7
3000 311
124 . 7
2

s

s
2
= 7.163 kJ/kg K

Then we have,
i.e. Q = T(s
2
s
1
)
= 584 (7.163 5.615)
= 584 x 1.548
= 904 kJ/kg
(where T = 311 + 273 = 584 K)

T
s

350
311
300
7.124
s
2 7.301
Q

T
(K)
s (kJ/kg K)
1 2
s
1 s
2
P
1
= 100 bar

P
2
= 10 bar
T
1
= T
2

(311 + 273) =584 K

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/30

To find the work done it is necessary to apply the equation,
W = Q - (u
2
u
1
)

From the Steam Tables, at 100 bar, steam is dry saturated
u
1
= u
g
= 2545 kJ/kg

At 10 bar and 311
o
C, interpolating becomes

300 350
2794 2875
300 311
2794
2

u

u
2
= 2811.8 kJ/kg

Then,
W = Q - (u
2
u
1
)
= 904 (2811.8 2545)
= 637.2 kJ/kg
i.e. Work done by the steam = 637.2 kJ/kg

PROCEED TO THE NEXT INPUT

T
u

350
311
300
2794
u
2 2875

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/31

9.5.4 Reversible adiabatic (or isentropic) process

For a reversible adiabatic process, the entropy remains constant, and hence
the process is called an isentropic process. During this process, no heat is
transferred to or from the fluid and this process will always appear as a
vertical line on a T-s diagram.

For an isentropic process,
s
1
= s
2

From the non-flow equation,
Q - W = (u
2
u
1
)

and for an isentropic process
Q = 0

Therefore, we have
W = u
1
-u
2
kJ/kg (9.17)

In an isentropic process, all the work done to the fluid can be found in
equation 9.17 by evaluating u
1
and u
2
from the Steam Tables.

An isentropic process for superheated steam expanding into the wet region is
shown in Fig. 9.5.4.

INPUT
T
s
1
2
s
1
= s
2
P
1

P
2
Figure 9.5.4 Adiabatic (or isentropic) process

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/32

Steam at 30 bar, 250
o
C expands isentropically in a cylinder behind a piston
to a pressure 10 bar. Calculate the work done per kg of steam during the
process. Show the process on a T-s diagram.
Example 9.5

Solution to Example 9.5

At state 1
From the superheat tables, at 30 bar, 250
o
C, we have
s
1
= 6.289 kJ/kg K
u
1
= 2646 kJ/kg

At state 2
For an isentropic process s
1
= s
2
, therefore we have
s
1
= s
2
= 6.289 kJ/kg K

At 10 bar and s
2
= 6.289 kJ/kg K, the steam is wet, since s
2
is less than s
g2

(i.e. s
g2
= 6.586 kJ/kg K).
Then from equation 9.9

From equation 8.5
u
2
= u
f2
+ x
2
(u
g2
u
f2
)
= 762 + 0.933 (2584 - 762)
= 2461.9 kJ/kg

For an adiabatic process, from equation 9.17
W = u
1
-u
2

= 2646 - 2461.9
= 184.1 kJ/kg
i.e. Work done by the steam is 184.1 kJ/kg.

933 . 0
448 . 4
138 . 2 289 . 6
2
2
2
2
=

=
fg
f
s
s s
x
T
s
1
2
s
1
= s
2
P
1
= 30 bar

P
2
= 10 bar
250
o
C

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/33

9.5.5 Polytropic process

It is found that many processes in practice follows the reversible law in the
form pv
n
= constant, where n is constant. Both steam and perfect gases obey
this type of law closely in many processes. Such processes are internally
reversible.

For a polytropic process, the equations below are considered

Work done, W
p v p v
n
=

1 1 2 2
1
(9.18)

Heat transfer, Q = (u
2
- u
1
) + W (9.19)

Equation 9.18 is true for any working substance undergoing a reversible
polytropic process. It follows also that for any polytropic process, we can
write
p
1
v
1
n
= p
2
v
2
n
= C

p
p
v
v
n
1
2
2
1
=
|
\

|
.
| ;
v
v
p
p
n
2
1
1
2
1
=
|
\

|
.
|

T
T
p
p
n
n
2
1
2
1
1
=
|
\

|
.
|

;
T
T
v
v
n
2
1
1
2
1
=
|
\

|
.
|

A polytropic process for wet steam expanding from a high pressure to a low
pressure is shown in Fig. 9.5.5. To find the change of entropy in a polytropic
process for a steam when the end states have been fixed using p
1
v
1
n
= p
2
v
2
n
,
the entropy values at the end states can be read straight from the tables.

Figure 9.5.5 Polytropic process
T
s
1
2
s
2
P
1

P
2
s
1

Q

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/34

In a steam engine, the steam at the beginning of the expansion process is at
10 bar and dryness fraction 0.9. The expansion follows the law
pv
1.1
= constant, down to a pressure of 0.4 bar. Calculate the change of
entropy and work done per kg of steam during the process. Show the
process on a T-s diagram.
Example 9.6

Solution to Example 9.6

At 10 bar, from equation 9.8
s
1
= s
f1
+ x
1
s
fg1

= 2.138 + 0.9 (4.448)
= 6.1412 kJ/kg K

At 10 bar, v
g1
= 0.1944 m
3
/kg, then from equation 8.2
v
1
= x
1
(v
g1
)

= 0.9 (0.1944)
= 0.175 m
3
/kg

Then from equation
1 . 1
1
2
1
1
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
p
p
v
v
, we have
/kg m 3.265
4 . 0
10
175 . 0
3
1 . 1
1
1 . 1
1
2
1
1 2
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
p
p
v v

At 0.4 bar, and v
2
= 3.265 m
3
/kg, the steam is wet, since v
g2
= 3.992 m
3
/kg .

From equation 8.2
v
2
= x
2
( v
g2
)
x
v
v
g
2
2
2
3265
3992
082 = = =
.
.
.

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/35

Then from equation 9.8
s
2
= s
f2
+ x
2
s
fg2

= 1.026 + 0.82 (6.643)
= 6.4733 kJ/kg K

Change of entropy,
(s
2
s
1
) = 6.4733 - 6.1442
= 0.3321 kJ/kg K
i.e. Increase in entropy, (s
2
s
1
) is 0.3321 kJ/kg K.

Hence work done by the steam, from equation 9.18
W
p v p v
n
=

1 1 2 2
1

1 . 0
6 . 130 175
1 1.1
3.265) x 10 x (0.4 0.175) x x10 (10
2 2

=

= 444 kJ/kg
i.e. Work done by the steam is 444 kJ/kg.

T
s
1
2
s
2
P
1
= 10 bar

P
2
= 0.4 bar
s
1

pv
1.1
= C

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/36

9.6 In a steam engine, steam at 110 bar, 400
o
C expands isentropically in a
cylinder behind a piston until the pressure is 3 bar. If the work output during
the expansion process is 165.5 kJ/kg, determine the final temperature of the
steam. Show the process on a T-s diagram.

9.7 In the cylinder of a steam engine, wet steam expands from 8 bar, dryness
fraction 0.87 to 0.5 bar according to a law pv
1.02
= C. Determine the per kg
of steam for the following:

i. change of entropy
ii. work done
iii. heat flow to or from the cylinder walls

Show the process on a T-s diagram.

Activity 9C

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/37

Feedback To Activity 9C

9.6 The given quantities can be expressed as;
P
1
= 110 bar
t
1
= 400
o
C
P
2
= 3 bar
W = 165.5 kJ/kg

Steam at 110 bar and 400
o
C is at superheated region. The property tables for this
condition do not list down the specific internal energy (u) and therefore it must be
calculated from
u
1
= h
1
p
1
v
1

From the Superheated Steam Tables, at 110 bar and 400
o
C
h
1
= 3075 kJ/kg
v
1
= 2.350 x 10
-2
m
3
/kg

Hence, u
1
= 3075 (110 x 10
2
- 2.350 x 10
-2
)
= 2816.5 kJ/kg

For an adiabatic process, from equation 9.17
W = u
1
- u
2

u
2
= u
1
- W
= 2816.5 165.5
= 2651 kJ/kg

From the property tables for steam, u
g
at 3 bar is 2544 kJ/kg and hence the steam at
state 2 must still be at superheat region.

From the property tables for superheated steam, u
2
= 2651 kJ/kg when the
temperature is 200
o
C.

Hence, t
2
= 200
o
C

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/38

T
s
1
2
s
1
= s
2
P
1
= 110 bar

P
2
= 3 bar
400
o
C
t
2
= 200
o
C
Note : In this activity, although there is no heat
transfer in an adiabatic process, the pressure,
volume and temperature of the working fluid are
changed. The work transfer during an adiabatic
process is equal to the change in the internal energy
of the fluid.

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/39

9.7 At 8 bar, we have
s
1
= s
f1
+ x
1
s
fg1

= 2.046 + 0.87 (4.617)
= 6.063 kJ/kg K

u
1
= u
f1
+ x
1
(u
g1
u
f1
)
= 720 + 0.87 (2577- 720)
= 2335.6 kJ/kg

At 8 bar, v
g1
= 0.2403 m
3
/kg, then from equation 8.2
v
1
= x
1
(v
g1
)

= 0.87 (0.2403)
= 0.2091 m
3
/kg

Then from equation
02 . 1
1
2
1
1
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
p
p
v
v
, we have
/kg m 3.169
5 . 0
8
2091 . 0
3
02 . 1
1
02 . 1
1
2
1
1 2
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
p
p
v v

At 0.4 bar, and v
2
= 3.169 m
3
/kg, the steam is wet, since v
g2
= 3.239 m
3
/kg .

From equation 8.2
v
2
= x
2
( v
g2
)
978 . 0
239 . 3
169 . 3
2
2
2
= = =
g
v
v
x

Then at 0.5 bar, we have
s
2
= s
f2
+ x
2
s
fg2

= 1.091 + 0.978 (6.502)
= 7.4499 kJ/kg K

u
2
= u
f2
+ x
2
(u
g2
u
f2
)
= 340 + 0.978 (2483- 340)
= 2435.9 kJ/kg

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/40

i. Change of entropy,
(s
2
s
1
) = 7.4499 - 6.063
= 1.3869 kJ/kg K
i.e. Increase in entropy, (s
2
s
1
) is 1.3869 kJ/kg K.

ii. Work done by the steam,
W
p v p v
n
=

1 1 2 2
1

02 . 0
45 . 158 28 . 167
1 1.02
3.169) x 10 x (0.5 0.2091) x x10 (8
2 2

=

= 441.5 kJ/kg
i.e. Work done by the steam is 441.5 kJ/kg.

iii. Heat flow,
Q = (u
2
u
1
) + W
= (2435.9 2335.6) + (441.5)
= 541.8 kJ/kg
i.e. Heat flow from the cylinder walls is 541.8 kJ/kg.

T
s
1
2
s
2
P
1
= 8 bar

P
2
= 0.5 bar
s
1

pv
1.02
= C

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/41

You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment
section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to Self-
Assessment on the next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer.
Good luck.

1. Heat is transferred to a heat engine from a hot reservoir at a rate of 120 MW.
If the net work done is 45 MW, determine the rate of waste heat rejection to a
cold reservoir and the thermal efficiency of this heat engine.

2. Steam at 7 bar, entropy 6.5 kJ/kg K is heated reversibly at constant pressure
until the temperature is 250
o
C. Calculate the heat supplied per kg of steam
and show on a T-s diagram the area, which represents the heat flow.

3. Steam at 70 bar, 300
o
C expands isentropically in a cylinder behind a piston
to a pressure 20 bar. During the process, determine the:
i. dryness fraction at final state
ii. initial and final specific internal energy
iii. work done per kg of steam
Show the process on a T-s diagram.

4. 0.05 kg of steam at 10 bar with dryness fraction 0.84 is heated reversibly in a
rigid vessel until the pressure is 20 bar. Calculate the:
i. change of entropy and
ii. heat supplied
Show the area, which represents the heat supplied on a T-s diagram.

5. Steam at 20 bar, 250
O
C undergoes a reversible isothermal process to a
pressure of 30 bar. Calculate the heat flow per kg of steam and state whether
it is supplied or rejected. Sketch the process on a T-s diagram.

6. A steam engine which receives steam at 4 bar and dryness fraction 0.8 is
expanded according to the law pv
1.05
= constant to a condenser pressure of 1
bar. Calculate the change of entropy per kg of steam during the expansion.
Sketch the process on a T-s diagram.

SELF-ASSESSMENT

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/42

7. Steam at 30 bar, 300
o
C expands isothermally and reversibly to a pressure of
0.75 bar. The steam is then compressed according to the law pv
1.05
= constant,
until the pressure is 10 bar. Calculate per kg of steam the:

i. total change of entropy
ii. net heat flow
iii. net work done

Sketch the processes on a T-s diagram.

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/9/43

1. Q
2
= 75 MW
q = 37.5 %

2. Q = 274 kJ/kg

3. i. x
2
= 0.896
ii. u
1
= 2634 kJ/kg and u
2
= 2423.9 kJ/kg
iii. W = 210.1 kJ/kg

4. i. 0.704 kJ/kg K
ii. 36.85 kJ

5. Q = -135 kJ/kg

6. (s
2
s
1
) = 0.381 kJ/kg K

7. s = (s
2
s
1
) + (s
3
s
2
)
= (1.808) + (-0.938)
= 0.87 kJ/kg K

Q = Q
12
+ Q
23
= (1035.98) + (-573.15)
= 462.83 kJ/kg

W = W
12
+ W
23

= (975.98) + (-692.5)
= 283.48 kJ/kg

Feedback to Self-Assessment

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/1

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

OBJECTIVES

General Objective : To define and explain the Second Law of Thermodynamics and
perform calculations involving the expansion and compression of
perfect gases.

Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:

sketch the processes on a temperature-entropy diagram
calculate the change of entropy, work and heat transfer of
perfect gases in reversible processes at:
i. constant pressure process
ii. constant volume process
iii. constant temperature (or isothermal) process
v. polytropic process

UNIT 10

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/2

10.0 The P-V and T-s diagram for a perfect gas

Property diagrams serve as great visual aids in the thermodynamic analysis of
processes. We have used P-V and T-s diagrams extensively in the previous unit
showing steam as a working fluid. In the second law analysis, it is very helpful to
plot the processes on diagrams which coordinate the entropy. The two diagrams
commonly used in the second law analysis are the pressure-volume and temperature-
entropy.

Fig. 10.0-1 shows a series of constant temperature lines on a P-V diagram. The
constant temperature lines, T
3
> T
2
> T
1
are shown.

Figure 10.0-1 The constant temperature lines on a P-V diagram for a perfect gas

Since entropy is a property of a system, it may be used as a coordinate, with
temperature as the other ordinate, in order to represent various cycles graphically. It
is useful to plot lines of constant pressure and constant volume on a T-s diagram for
a perfect gas. Since changes of entropy are of more direct application than the
absolute value, the zero of entropy can be chosen at any arbitrary reference
temperature and pressure.

INPUT
T
3
> T
2
> T
1

P
V
T
1
T
2
T
3
Constant temperature lines

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/3

Fig. 10.0-2 shows a series of constant pressure lines on a T-s diagram and Fig.10.0-3
shows a series of constant volume lines on a T-s diagram. It can be seen that the
lines of constant pressure slope more steeply than the lines of constant volume.

Note:
Fig. 10.0-2, shows the constant pressure lines, P
3
> P
2
> P
1
;
Fig. 10.0-3, shows the constant volume lines, v
1
> v
2
> v
3
.

As pressure rises, temperature also rises but volume decreases; conversely as the
pressure and temperature fall, the volume increases.

T
s
P
1
P
2
P
3
Figure 10.0-2
Constant pressure lines on a T-s diagram
T
s
v
2
v
1
v
3
Figure 10.0-3
Constant volume lines on a T-s diagram

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/4

10.1 Reversible processes on the T-s diagram for a perfect gas

The various reversible processes dealt with in Units 4 and 5 will now be considered
in relation to the T-s diagram. In the following sections of this unit, five reversible
processes on the T-s diagram for perfect gases are analysed in detail. These
processes include the:
i. constant pressure process,
ii. constant volume process,
iii. constant temperature (or isothermal) process,
iv. adiabatic (or isentropic) process, and
v. polytropic process.

10.1.1 Reversible constant pressure process

It can be seen from Fig. 10.1.1 that in a constant pressure process, the
boundary must move against an external resistance as heat is supplied; for
instance a fluid in a cylinder behind a piston can be made to undergo a
constant pressure process.

During the reversible constant pressure process for a perfect gas, we have

The work done as
W = P(V
2
V
1
) kJ (10.1)

or, since PV = mRT , we have
W = mR(T
2
- T
1
) kJ (10.2)

The heat flow is,
Q = mC
p
(T
2
T
1
) kJ (10.3)

The change of entropy is, then
S
2
S
1
= mC
p
ln
T
T
2
1
|
\

|
.
| kJ/K (10.4)
T
s
P
1
= P
2

v
2
v
1
1
2
s
1
s
2
Q
Figure 10.1.1 Constant pressure process on a T-s diagram

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/5

Nitrogen (molecular weight 28) expands reversibly in a cylinder behind a
piston at a constant pressure of 1.05 bar. The temperature is initially at
27
o
C. It then rises to 500
o
C; the initial volume is 0.04 m
3
. Assuming
nitrogen to be a perfect gas and take C
p
= 1.045 kJ/kg K, calculate the:
g) mass of nitrogen
h) work done by nitrogen
i) heat flow to or from the cylinder walls during the expansion
j) change of entropy

Sketch the process on a T-s diagram and shade the area which represents
the heat flow.
or, per kg of gas we have,
s
2
s
1
= C
p
ln
T
T
2
1
|
\

|
.
| kJ/kg K (10.5)

Example 10.1

Solution to Example 10.1

The given quantities can be expressed as;
T
1
= 27 + 273 K = 300 K
P
1
= P
2
= 1.05 bar (constant pressure process)

V
1
= 0.04 m
3

T
2
= 500 + 273 = 773 K

M = 28 kg/kmol

C
p
= 1.045 kJ/kg.K

a) From equation 3.10, we have

kg 0.0471
300 x 0.297
0.04 x 10 x 1.05

have we , = since Then
K kJ/kg 0.297
28
3144 . 8

2
1
1 1
= = =
= = =
RT
V P
m
mRT PV
M
R
R
o

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/6

b) the work done by nitrogen can be calculated by two methods. Hence,
we have

Method I:
From equation 10.2, work done
W = mR(T
2
- T
1
)
= 0.0471 x 0.297 (773 - 300)
= 6.617 kJ

Method II:
For a perfect gas at constant pressure,
2
2
1
1
T
V
T
V
=

kJ 6.615
0.04) - (0.103 10 x 1.05
) (
done work 10.1, equation From
m 0.103
300
773
0.04
2
1 2
3
1
2
1 2
=
=
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
V V P W
T
T
V V

c) From equation 10.3, heat flow
Q = mC
p
(T
2
- T
1
)
= 0.0471 x 1.045 (773 - 300)
= 23.28 kJ

d) From equation 10.4, change of entropy
s
2
- s
1
= mC
p
ln
T
T
2
1
|
\

|
.
|

=
|
\

|
.
|
=
0.0471 x 1.045 ln
773
300
kJ / K 0 0466 .

The T-s diagram below shows the constant pressure process. The shaded
area represents the heat flow.

T
s
P
1
= P
2
= 1.05 bar
v
2
= 0.103 m
3
v
1
= 0.04 m
3
1
2
s
1
s
2
Q
T
1
= 300 K

T
2
= 773 K

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/7

10.1.2 Reversible constant volume process

In a constant volume process, the working substance is contained in a rigid
vessel (or closed tank) from which heat is either added or removed. It can be
seen from Fig. 10.1.2 that in a constant volume process, the boundaries of the
system are immovable and no work can be done on or by the system. It will
be assumed that constant volume implies zero work unless stated otherwise.

During the reversible constant volume process for a perfect gas, we have

The work done, W = 0 since V
2
= V
1
.

The heat flow
Q = mC
v
(T
2
T
1
) kJ (10.6)

The change of entropy is therefore
S
2
S
1
= mC
v
ln
T
T
2
1
|
\

|
.
| kJ/K (10.7)

or, per kg of gas we have,
s
2
s
1
= C
v
ln
T
T
2
1
|
\

|
.
| kJ/ kg K (10.8)

T
s
v
1
= v
2
P
1
1
2
s
1
s
2
Q
P
2
Figure 10.1.2 Constant volume process on a T-s diagram

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/8

Air at 15
o
C and 1.05 bar occupies a volume of 0.02 m
3
. The air is heated at
constant volume until the pressure is at 4.2 bar, and then it is cooled at
constant pressure back to the original temperature. Assuming air to be a
perfect gas, calculate the:
a) mass of air
b) net heat flow
c) net entropy change
Sketch the processes on a T-s diagram.

Given:
R = 0.287 kJ/kg K, C
v
= 0.718 kJ/kg K and C
p
= 1.005 kJ/kg K.
Example 10.2

Solution to Example 10.2

The given quantities can be expressed as;
T
1
= 15 + 273 K = 288 K
P
1
= 1.05 bar
Process 1 - 2 (constant volume process): V
1
= V
2
= 0.02 m
3

Process 2 - 3 (constant pressure process)

: P
2
= P
3
= 1.05 bar

T
3
= T
1
= 288 K

a) From equation 3.6, for a perfect gas,

kg 0.0254
288 x 0.287
0.02 x 10 x 1.05
2
1
1 1
= = =
RT
V P
m

b) For a perfect gas at constant volume,
2
2
1
1
T
P
T
P
= , hence
K 1152
05 . 1
2 . 4
288
1
2
1 2
= |
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
P
P
T T

From equation 10.6, at constant volume
Q
12
= mC
v
(T
2
T
1
) = 0.0254 x 0.718 (1152 288) = 15.75 kJ

From equation 10.3, at constant pressure
Q
23
= mC
p
(T
3
T
2
) = 0.0254 x 1.005 (288 1152) = -22.05 kJ

Net heat flow = Q
12
+ Q
23
= (15.75) + ( -22.05) = -6.3 kJ

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/9

c) From equation 10.7, at constant volume
S
2
S
1
= mC
v
ln
T
T
2
1
|
\

|
.
|

From equation 10.4, at constant pressure
S
3
S
2
= mC
p

|
|
.
|

\
|
2
3
ln
T
T

Net entropy change, (S
3
S
1
) = (S
2
S
1
) + (S
3
S
2
)
= (0.0253) + (-0.0354)
= - 0.0101 kJ/K
i.e. decrease in entropy of air is 0.0101 kJ/K.

Note that since entropy is a property, the decrease of entropy in example
10.2, given by (S
3
S
1
) = (S
2
S
1
) + (S
3
S
2
), is independent of the
processes undergone between states 1 and 3. The change (S
3
-S
1
) can also
be found by imagining a reversible isothermal process taking place between
1 and 3. The isothermal process on the T-s diagram will be considered in
the next input.
kJ/K 0253 . 0
288
1152
ln 0.718 x 0.0254
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
kJ/K 0354 . 0
1152
288
ln 1.005 x 0.0254
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
T
s
P
2
= P
3
= 4.2 bar
v
1
= v
2
= 0.02 m
3
v
3
3
2
s
3
s
2
T
1
= T
3
= 288 K

T
2
= 1152 K

1
P
1
= 1.05 bar
s
1

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/10

10.1.3 Reversible constant temperature (or isothermal) process

A reversible isothermal process for a perfect gas is shown on a T-s diagram
in Fig. 10.1.3. The shaded area represents the heat supplied during the
process,
i.e. Q = T(s
2
- s
1
) (10.9)

For a perfect gas undergoing an isothermal process, it is possible to evaluate
the entropy changes, i.e. (s
2
s
1
). From the non-flow equation, for a
reversible process, we have
dQ = du + P dv

Also for a perfect gas from Joules Law, du = C
v
dT,
dQ = C
v
dT + P dv

For an isothermal process, dT = 0, hence
dQ = P dv

Then, since Pv = RT, we have

v
v
RT Q
d
d =

T
s
P
2

v
2 v
1
1
2
s
1
s
2
Q
Figure 10.1.3 Constant temperature (or isothermal) process on a T-s diagram
P
1

T
1
= T
2

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/11

Now from equation 9.5

} } }
= = =
2
1
2
1
d d d
2
1
1 2
v
v
v
v
v
v
R
Tv
v RT
T
Q
s s

i.e.
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
1
2
1 2
ln ln
p
p
R
v
v
R s s kJ/kg K (10.10)

or, for mass, m (kg), of a gas
S
2
S
1
= m(s
2
s
1
)
i.e.
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
1
2
1 2
ln ln
p
p
mR
v
v
mR S S kJ/K (10.11)

Therefore, the heat supplied is given by,
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
2
1
1
2
1 2
ln ln
p
p
RT
v
v
RT s s T Q

or, for mass, m (kg), of a gas
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
2
1
1
2
1 2
ln ln
p
p
mRT
v
v
mRT S S T Q

In an isothermal process,
(U
2
U
1
) = mCv (T
2
- T
1
)
= 0 ( i.e since T
1
= T
2
)

From equation Q - W = (U
2
U
1
),

W = Q (10.12)

0

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/12

0.85 m
3
of carbon dioxide (molecular weight 44) contained in a cylinder
behind a piston is initially at 1.05 bar and 17
o
C. The gas is compressed
isothermally and reversibly until the pressure is at 4.8 bar. Assuming
carbon dioxide to act as a perfect gas, calculate the:
c) mass of carbon dioxide
d) change of entropy
e) heat flow
f) work done

Sketch the process on a P-V and T-s diagram and shade the area which
represents the heat flow.
Example 10.3

Solution to Example 10.3

The given quantities can be expressed as;
V
1
= 0.85 m
3

M = 44 kg/kmol

P
1
= 1.05 bar
Isothermal process: T
1
= T
2
= 17 + 273 K = 290 K
P
2
= 4.8 bar

a) From equation 3.10, we have
kJ/kgK 189 . 0
44
3144 . 8
= = =
M
R
R
o

Then, since PV = mRT, we have
kg 1.628
290 x 0.189
0.85 x 10 x 1.05
2
= = =
RT
PV
m

b) From equation 10.11, for m kg,
kJ/K 0.4676
8 . 4
05 . 1
ln 0.189 x 1.628 ln
2
1
1 2
= |
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
p
p
mR S S

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/13

c) Heat rejected = shaded area on T-s diagram
= T (S
2
S
1
)
= 290 K(-0.4676 kJ/K)
= -135.6 kJ (-ve sign shows heat rejected from the system to
the surroundings)

d) For an isothermal process for a perfect gas, from equation 10.12
W = Q
= -135.6 kJ (-ve sign shows work is transferred into the system)

T
s
P
1
= 1.05 bar
2
1
s
2
s
1
Q
P
2
= 4.8 bar
T
1
= T
2
= 290 K

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/14

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT!

10.1 0.1 m
3
of air at 1 bar and temperature 15
o
C is heated reversibly at constant
pressure to a temperature of 1100
o
C and volume 0.48 m
3
. During the process,
calculate the:
a) mass of air
b) change of entropy
c) heat supplied
d) work done
Show the process on a T-s diagram, indicating the area that represents the
heat flow.
Given, R = 0.287 kJ/kg K and C
p
= 1.005 kJ/kg K.

10.2 0.05 kg of nitrogen (M = 28) contained in a cylinder behind a piston is
initially at 3.8 bar and 140
o
C. The gas expands isothermally and reversibly
to a pressure of 1.01 bar. Assuming nitrogen to act as a perfect gas,
determine the:
a) change of entropy
b) heat flow
c) work done
Show the process on a T-s diagram, indicating the area which represents the
heat flow.

Activity 10A

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/15

Feedback To Activity 10A

10.1 The given quantities can be expressed as;
P
1
= P
2
= 1 bar (constant pressure process)
T
1
= 15 + 273 K = 288 K

V
1
= 0.1 m
3

T
2
= (1100 + 273) = 1373K
V
2
= 0.48 m
3

R = 0.287 kJ/kg.K

C
p
= 1.005 kJ/kg.K

a) From equation PV =mRT, we have
kg 0.121
288 x 0.287
0.1 x 10 x 1

2
1
1 1
= = =
RT
V P
m

b) From equation 10.4, change of entropy
s
2
- s
1
= mC
p
ln
T
T
2
1
|
\

|
.
|

kJ/K 1899 . 0
288
1373
ln 1.005 x 0.121
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

c) From equation 10.3, heat flow
Q = mC
p
(T
2
- T
1
)
= 0.121 x 1.005 (1373 - 288)
= 131.9 kJ

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/16

d) The work done by air can be calculated by using two methods which
give the same results.

Method I:
From equation 10.2, the work done
W = mR(T
2
- T
1
)
= 0.121 x 0.287 (1373 - 288)
= 38 kJ

Method II:

kJ 8 3
0.1) - (0.48 10 1.x
) (
done work the 10.1, equation From
2
1 2
=
=
= V V P W

The T-s diagram below shows the constant pressure process. The shaded
area represents the heat flow.

T
s
P
1
= P
2
= 1bar
v
2
= 0.48 m
3
v
1
= 0.1 m
3
1
2
s
1
s
2
Q
T
1
= 288 K

T
2
= 1373 K

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/17

10.2 The given quantities can be expressed as;
m = 0.05 kg
M = 28 kg/kmol

P
1
= 3.8 bar
Isothermal process: T
1
= T
2
= (140 + 273 K) = 413 K
P
2
= 1.01 bar

a) From equation 3.10, we have
kJ/kgK 297 . 0
28
3144 . 8
= = =
M
R
R
o

From equation 10.11, for m kg of gas,

kJ/K 01968 . 0
01 . 1
8 . 3
ln 0.297 x 05 . 0
ln
2
1
1 2
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
p
p
mR S S

b) Heat flow = shaded area on T-s diagram
= T (S
2
S
1
)
= 413 (0.01968)
= 8.1278 kJ

c) For an isothermal process for a perfect gas, from equation 10.12
W = Q
= 8.1278 kJ

T
s
P
1
= 3.8 bar
1
2
s
1
s
2
Q
P
2
= 1.01 bar
T
1
= T
2
= 413 K

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/18

10.1.4 Reversible adiabatic (or isentropic) process

In the special case of a reversible process where no heat energy is transferred
to or from the gas, the process will be a reversible adiabatic process. These
special processes are also called isentropic process. During a reversible
isentropic process, the entropy remains constant and the process will always
appear as a vertical line on a T-s diagram.

For a perfect gas, an isentropic process on a T-s diagram is shown in Fig.
10.1.4. In Unit 4 it was shown that for a reversible adiabatic process for a
perfect gas, the process follows the law pv

= constant.

Since a reversible adiabatic process occurs at constant entropy, and is known
as an isentropic process, the index is known as the isentropic index of the
gas.

INPUT
T
s
P
2

v
2
v
1
1
2
s
1
= s
2

Figure 10.1.4 Reversible adiabatic (or isentropic) process on a T-s diagram
P
1

T
1

T
2

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/19

For an isentropic process,
Change of entropy, s
2
- s
1
= 0
Heat flow, Q = 0

From the non-flow equation,
dQ - dW = dU
dW = -dU
= -mC
v
dT
= -mC
v
(T
2
- T
1
)
W = mC
v
(T
1
-T
2
) (10.13)

or, since
1
=

R
C
v
, we have
1
) (
2 1

T T mR
W (10.14)

or, since PV = mRT, we also have
1
2 2 1 1

V P V P
W (10.15)

Note that the equations 10.13, 10.14 and 10.15 can be used to find the work
done depending on the properties of gases given. Each equation used gives
the same result for a work done.

Similarly, equation 10.16 can also be used to determine the temperature,
pressure and volume of the perfect gases.
T
T
P
P
V
V
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
=
|
\

|
.
| =
|
\

|
.
|

(10.16)

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/20

In an air turbine unit, the air expands adiabatically and reversibly from 10
bar, 450
o
C and 1 m
3
to a pressure of 2 bar. Air is assumed to act as a
perfect gas. Given that C
v

= 0.718 kJ/kg K, R = 0.287 kJ/kg K and = 1.4,
calculate the:
a) mass of air
b) final temperature
c) work energy transferred
Sketch the process on a T-s diagram.

Example 10.4

Solution to Example 10.4

The given quantities can be expressed as;
P
1
= 10 bar
V
1
= 1 m
3

T
1
= (450 + 273) = 723K
P
2
= 2 bar
C
v
= 0.718 kJ/kg K
R = 0.287 kJ/kg K
= 1.4
Isentropic process, s
2
= s
1

a) From equation PV = mRT, for a perfect gas
kg 82 . 4
723 x 0.287
1 x 10 x 10

2
1
1 1
= = =
RT
V P
m

b) The final temperature can be found using equation 10.16
K 5 . 456
10
2
x 723
x
4 . 1
1 4 . 1
1
1
2
1 2
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

P
P
T T

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/21

c) The work energy transferred can be found using equation 10.13
W = mC
v
(T
1
-T
2
)
= 4.82 x 0.718 (723 456.5)
= 922 kJ

Similarly, the equation 10.14 gives us the same result for the value of
work energy transferred as shown below,
1
) (
2 1

T T mR
W

kJ 922
1 4 . 1
) 5 . 456 723 ( 287 . 0 x 82 . 4
=

=

T
s
P
2
= 2 bar
v
2
v
1
= 1 m
3
1
2
s
1
= s
2

P
1
= 10 bar
T
1
= 723 K

T
2
= 456.5 K

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/22

10.1.5 Reversible polytropic process

For a perfect gas, a polytropic process on a T-s diagram is shown in Fig.
10.1.5. In Unit 5 it was shown that for a reversible polytropic process for a
perfect gas, the process follows the law pv
n
= constant.

For a reversible polytropic process,

Work done by a perfect gas is,
1
2 2 1 1

=
n
V P V P
W (10.17)

or, since PV = mRT, we have
( )
W
mR T T
n
=

1 2
1
(10.18)

Change of internal energy is,
U
2
-U
1
= mC
v
(T
2
-T
1
) (10.19)

The heat flow is,
Q = W + U
2
-U
1
(10.20)

T
s
P
2

v
2
v
1
1
2
s
1

Figure 10.1.5 Reversible polytropic process on a T-s diagram
P
1

T
1

T
2
A B
s
2

s
A

s
B

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/23

It was shown in Unit 5 that the polytropic process is a general case for perfect
gases. To find the entropy change for a perfect gas in the general case,
consider the non-flow energy equation for a reversible process as,
dQ = dU + P dv

Also for unit mass of a perfect gas from Joules Law dU = C
v
dT , and from
equation Pv = RT ,

v
v RT
T C Q
v
d
d d + =

Then from equation 9.5,
v
v R
T
T C
T
Q
s
v
d d d
d + = =

Hence, between any two states 1 and 2,
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
= + =
} }
1
2
1
2
1 2
ln ln
d d 2
1
2
1
v
v
R
T
T
C
v
v
R
T
T
C s s
v
v
v
T
T
v
(10.21)

This can be illustrated on a T-s diagram as shown in Fig. 10.1.5. Since in the
process in Fig. 10.1.5, T
2
< T
1
, then it is more convenient to write the
equation as
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
1
2
1 2
ln ln
T
T
C
v
v
R s s
v
(10.22)

There are two ways to find the change of entropy (s
2
s
1
). They are:

a) According to volume

It can be seen that in calculating the entropy change in a polytropic
process from state 1 to state 2 we have in effect replaced the process
by two simpler processes; i.e. from 1 to A and then from A to 2. It is
clear from Fig. 10.1.5 that
s
2
- s
1
= (s
A
- s
1
) - (s
A
- s
2
)

The first part of the expression for s
2
-s
1
in equation 10.22 is the
change of entropy in an isothermal process from v
1
to v
2
.
From equation 10.10
(s
A
- s
1
)=
|
\

|
.
| R
v
v
ln
2
1
(see Fig. 10.1.5)

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/24

In addition, the second part of the expression for s
2
-s
1
in equation
10.22 is the change of entropy in a constant volume process from T
1

to T
2
,
i.e. referring to Fig. 10.1.5,
(s
A
- s
2
) =
|
\

|
.
| C
T
T
v
ln
1
2

s
2
- s
1
=
|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
| R
v
v
C
T
T
v
ln ln
2
1
1
2
kJ/kg K (10.23)

or, for mass m, kg of gas we have
S
2
- S
1
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
1
2
ln ln
T
T
mC
v
v
mR
v
kJ/K (10.24)

b) According to pressure

According to pressure, it can be seen that in calculating the entropy
change in a polytropic process from state 1 to state 2 we have in
effect replaced the process by two simpler processes; i.e. from 1 to B
and then from B to 2 as in Fig. 10.1.5. Hence, we have

s
2
- s
1
= (s
B
- s
1
) - (s
B
- s
2
)

At constant temperature (i.e. T
1
) between P
1
and P
2
, using equation
10.10,
(s
B
- s
1
) =
|
\

|
.
| R
p
p
ln
1
2

and at constant pressure (i.e. P
2
) between T
1
and T
2
we have
(s
B
- s
2
) =
|
\

|
.
| C
T
T
p
ln
1
2

Hence,
s
2
- s
1
=
|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
| R
p
p
C
T
T
p
ln ln
1
2
1
2
kJ/kg K (10.25)

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/25

or, for mass m, kg of gas we have
S
2
- S
1
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
2
1
ln ln
T
T
mC
p
p
mR
p
kJ/K (10.26)

Similarly, the equation 10.27 can also be used to determine the
temperature, pressure and volume of the perfect gases in polytropic
process.

1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
n
n
n
V
V
P
P
T
T
(10.27)

Note that, there are obviously a large number of possible equations for the
change of entropy in a polytropic process, and it is stressed that no attempt
should be made to memorize all such expressions. Each problem can be
dealt with by sketching the T-s diagram and replacing the process by two
other simpler reversible processes, as in Fig. 10.1.5.

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/26

0.03 kg of oxygen (M = 32) expands from 5 bar, 300
o
C to the pressure of 2
bar. The index of expansion is 1.12. Oxygen is assumed to act as a perfect
gas. Given that C
v

= 0.649 kJ/kg K, calculate the:
a) change of entropy
b) work energy transferred

Sketch the process on a T-s diagram.

Example 10.5

Solution to Example 10.5

The given quantities can be expressed as;
m = 0.03 kg
M = 32 kg/kmol
P
1
= 5 bar
T
1
= (300 + 273) = 573K
P
2
= 2 bar
C
v
= 0.649 kJ/kg K = 649 J/kg K
PV
1.12
= C

a) From equation 3.10, we have

K J/kg 260
32
8314
= = =
M
R
R
o

Then from equation R = C
p
- C
v
, we have

C
p
= R + C
v
= 260 + 649
= 909 J/kg K

From equation 10.27, we have

T
T
p
p
n
n
2
1
2
1
1
=
|
\

|
.
|

T T
P
P
n
n
2 1
2
1
1
112 1
112
573
2
5
519 4 =
|
\

|
.
| =
|
\

|
.
| =

.
.
. K

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/27

From equation 10.26, the change of entropy (S
2
- S
1
) is,
S
2
- S
1
= (S
B
- S
1
) - (S
B
- S
2
)

J/K 4.47
) 68 . 2 ( ) 15 . 7 (
519.4
573
ln x 909 x 0.03
2
5
ln x 260 x 0.03
ln ln
2
1
2
1
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
T
T
mC
p
p
mR
p

b) From equation 10.18, we have
( )
W
mR T T
n
=

1 2
1
J 3 . 417
1
519.5) (573 260 x 0.03
=

=
n

T
s
P
2
= 2 bar
1
2
s
1

P
1
= 5 bar
T
1
= 573 K

T
2
= 519.4 K
B
s
2

s
B

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/28

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU PROCEED TO THE SELF-
ASSESSMENT!

10.3 0.225 kg of air at 8.3 bar and 538
o
C expands adiabatically and reversibly to a
temperature of 149
o
C. Determine the
a) final pressure
b) final volume
c) work energy transferred during the process
Show the process on a T-s diagram.
For air, take C
p
= 1.005 kJ/kg K and R = 0.287 kJ/kg K.

10.4 1 kg of air at 1.01 bar and 27
o
C, is compressed according to the law
PV
1.3
= constant, until the pressure is 5 bar. Given that C
p
= 1.005 kJ/kg K
and R = 0.287 kJ/kg K, calculate the final temperature and change of entropy
and then sketch the process on a T-s diagram.

Activity 10B

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/29

Feedback To Activity 10B

10.3 The given quantities can be expressed as;
m = 0.225 kg
P
1
= 8.3 bar
T
1
= 538 + 273 K = 811 K
T
2
= 149 + 273 K = 422 K

C
p
= 1.005 kJ/kg K
R = 0.287 kJ/kg K

Adiabatic / isentropic process : s
2
= s
1

a) From equation 3.16, we have
C
v
= C
p
R = 1.005 0.287 = 0.718 kJ/kg K

Then, from equation 3.17, we have
4 . 1
718 . 0
005 . 1
= = =
v
p
C
C

For a reversible adiabatic process for a perfect gas, PV

= constant.
From equation 10.16
bar 0.844
811
422
) 3 . 8 (
1 4 . 1
4 . 1
2
1
1
2
1
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

P
T
T
P
P

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/30

b) From the characteristic gas equation PV = mRT, hence, we have at
state 2
3
2
2
2
2
m 0.323
10 x 0.844
422 x 0.287 x 0.225
= = =
P
mRT
V

c) The work energy transferred can be found from equation 10.13
W = mC
v
(T
1
-T
2
)
= 0.225 x 0.718 (811 422)
= 62.8 kJ

Similarly, the equation 10.14 gives us the same result for the value of
work energy transferred as shown below,
1
) (
2 1

T T mR
W

kJ 8 . 62
1 4 . 1
) 422 811 ( 287 . 0 x .225 0
=

=

10.4 The given quantities can be expressed as;
T
s
P
2
= 0.844 bar
v
2
v
1

1
2
s
1
= s
2

P
1
= 8.3 bar
T
1
= 811 K

T
2
= 422 K

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/31

m = 1 kg
P
1
= 1.01 bar
T
1
= (27 + 273) = 300 K
P
2
= 5 bar
C
p
= 1.005 kJ/kg K
R = 0.287 kJ/kg K
PV
1.3
= C

From the quantities given, we can temporarily sketch the process as shown in
the diagram below.

From equation 10.27, we have

T
T
p
p
n
n
2
1
2
1
1
=
|
\

|
.
|

K 434
01 . 1
5
) 300 (
3 . 1
1 3 . 1
1
1
2
1 2
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

n
n
P
P
T T

From equation 10.25, the change of entropy (S
1
S
2
) is,
T
s
P
2
= 5 bar
2
1
s
2

P
1
= 1.01 bar
T
1
= 300 K

T
2
= ?
B
s
1

s
B

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/32

S
1
S
2
= (S
B
S
2
) - (S
B
S
1
)

kJ/K 088 . 0 -
) 459 . 0 ( ) 371 . 0 (
1.01
5
ln x 0.287 x 0 . 1
300
434
ln x 1.005 x 0 . 1
ln ln
1
2
1
2
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
p
p
mR
T
T
mC
p

From the calculation, we have S
1
S
2
= - 0.088 kJ/K. This means that S
2
is
greater than S
1
and the process should appear as in the T-s diagram below.

PROCEED TO THE SELF-ASSESSMENT.

T
s
P
2
= 5 bar
2
1
s
2

P
1
= 1.01 bar
T
1
= 300 K

T
2
= 434 K
B
s
1

s
B

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/33

You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment
section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to Self-
Assessment on the next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer.
Good luck.

1. A quantity of air at 2 bar, 25
o
C and 0.1 m
3
undergoes a reversible constant
pressure process until the temperature and volume increase to 2155
o
C and
0.8 m
3
. If C
p
= 1.005 kJ/kg K and R = 0.287 kJ/kg K, determine the:
i. mass of air
ii. change of entropy
iii. heat flow
iv. work done
Sketch the process on a T-s diagram and shade the area which represents the
heat flow.

2. A rigid cylinder containing 0.006 m
3
of nitrogen (M = 28) at 1.04 bar and
15
o
C is heated reversibly until the temperature is 90
o
C. Calculate the:
i. change of entropy
ii. heat supplied
Sketch the process on a T-s diagram. For nitrogen, take = 1.4 and assume it
as a perfect gas.

3. 0.03 kg of nitrogen (M = 28) contained in a cylinder behind a piston is
initially at 1.05 bar and 15
o
C. The gas expands isothermally and reversibly
to a pressure of 4.2 bar. Assuming nitrogen to act as a perfect gas, determine
the:
i. change of entropy
ii. heat flow
iii. work done
Show the process on a T-s diagram, indicating the area which represents the
heat flow.
SELF-ASSESSMENT

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/34

4. 0.05 kg of air at 30 bar and 300
o
C is allowed to expand reversibly in a
cylinder behind a piston in such a way that the temperature remains constant
to a pressure of 0.75 bar. Based on the law pv
1.05
= constant, the air is then
compressed until the pressure is 10 bar. Assuming air to be a perfect gas,
determine the:
i. net entropy change
ii. net heat flow
iii. net work energy transfer
Sketch the processes on a T-s diagram, indicating the area, which represents
the heat flow.

5. a) 0.5 kg of air is compressed in a piston-cylinder device from 100
kN/m
2
and 17
o
C to 800 kN/m
2
in a reversible, isentropic process.
Assuming air to be a perfect gas, determine the final temperature and
the work energy transfer during the process.
Given: R = 0.287 kJ/kg K and = 1.4.

b) 1 kg of air at 30
o
C is heated at a constant volume process. If the heat
supplied during a process is 250 kJ, calculate the final temperature
and the change of entropy. Assume air to be a perfect gas and take
C
v
= 0.718 kJ/kg K.

6. 0.05 m
3
of oxygen (M = 32) at 8 bar and 400
o
C expands according to the law
pv
1.2
= constant, until the pressure is 3 bar. Assuming oxygen to act as a
perfect gas, determine the:
i. mass of oxygen
ii. final temperature
iii. change of entropy
iv. work done
Show the process on a T-s diagram, indicating the area which represents the
heat flow.

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS J2006/10/35

1. i. m = 0.2338 kg
ii. S
2
S
1
= 0.4929 kJ/K
iii. Q = 500.48 kJ
iv. W = 140 kJ

2. i. S
2
S
1
= 0.00125 kJ/K
ii. Q = 0.407 kJ

3. i. S
2
S
1
= -0.0152 kJ/K
ii. Q = - 4.3776 kJ
iii. W = - 4.3776 kJ

4. i. E AS = (S
2
S
1
) + (S
3
S
2
)
= 0.0529 + 0.0434
= 0.0963 kJ/K
ii. E Q = Q
12
+ Q
23

= (30.31) + (-18.89)
= 11.42 kJ
iii. E W = W
12
+ W
23

= (30.32) + (-21.59)
= 8.73 kJ

5. a) T
2
= 525.3 K, W = - 84.4 kJ
b) T
2
= 651 K, (S
2
S
1
) = 0.5491 kJ/K

6. i. m = 0.23 kg
ii. T
2
= 571.5 K
iii. S
2
S
1
= 0.0245 kJ/K
iv. W = 30.35 kJ

Feedback to Self-Assessment

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/1

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE

OBJECTIVES

General Objective : To understand and apply the concept of steam power cycle in
thermodynamics

Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:

define, derive, calculate and differentiate the following heat
engine cycle:
Carnot cycle
Rankine cycle

UNIT 11

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/2

11.0 INTRODUCTION

team is the most common working fluid used in heat engine cycles because
of its many desirable characteristic, such as low cost, availability, and high
enthalpy of vaporization. Other working fluids used include sodium, potassium, and
mercury for high-temperature applications and some organic fluids such as benzene
and the freons for low-temperature applications. The majority of this chapter is
devoted to the discussion of steam power plants, which produce most of the electric
power in the world today.

Steam power plants are commonly referred to as coal plants, nuclear plants or
natural gas plants, depending on the type of fuel used to supply heat to the steam. But
the steam goes through the same basic cycle in all of them. Therefore, all can be
analysed in the same manner.

In this chapter it can be shown that there is an ideal theoretical cycle which is the
most efficient conceivable; this cycle is called the Carnot cycle. The highest thermal
efficiency possible for a heat engine in practice is only about half that of the ideal
theoretical Carnot cycle, between the same temperature limits. This is due to the
irreversibilities in the actual cycle, and to the deviations from the ideal cycle, which
are made for various practical reasons. The choice of a power plant in practice is a
compromise between thermal efficiency and various factors such as the size of the
What is the most
common working
fluid used in heat
engine cycle?
INPUT
S

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/3

plant for a given power requirement, mechanical complexity, operating cost and
capital cost.

Fig 11.0 Model of a steam plant

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/4

11.1 The Carnot cycle

From the Second Law of Thermodynamics it can be derived that no heat engine can
be more efficient than a reversible heat engine working between the same temperature
limits. Carnot, a French engineer, has shown in a paper written in 1824
1
that the most
efficient possible cycle is one in which all the heat supplied is supplied at one fixed
temperature, and all the heat rejected is rejected at a lower fixed temperature. The
cycle therefore consists of two isothermal processes joined by two adiabatic
processes. Since all processes are reversible, then the adiabatic processes in the cycle
are also isentropic. The cycle is most conveniently represented on a T-s diagram as
shown in Fig. 11.1.

Fig 11.1 The Carnot cycle

1
This paper, called Reflection on the Motive Power of Heat was written by Carnot before the enunciation of
the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. It is a remarkable piece of original thinking, and it laid the
foundations for the work of Kelvin, Clausius and others on the second law and its corollaries.
T
s
1
2 3
4
T
1
T
2
A

B

Boiler
Turbine
Condenser
Compressor
W
12
Q
23
W
34
Q
41
1
2 3
4

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/5

A brief summary of the essential features is as follows:

4 to 1: The heat energy is supplied to the boiler resulting in evaporation of the
water, therefore the temperature remains constant.
1 to 2: Isentropic expansion takes place in the turbine or engine.
2 to 3: In the condenser, condensation takes place, therefore the temperature
remains constant.
3 to 4: Isentropic compression of the wet steam in a compressor returns the
steam to its initial state.

The plant required and the numbers referring to the state points for the Carnot cycle is
shown in Fig. 11.1. The steam at the inlet to the turbine is dry saturated. The steam
flows round the cycle and each process may be analysed using the steady flow energy
equation where changes in kinetic energy and potential energy may be neglected.

i.e. h
1
+ Q = h
2
+ W

In this statement of the equation the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the initial and final
state points of the process; each process in the cycle can be considered in turn as
follows:

Boiler:
h
4
+ Q
41
= h
1
+ W
41

Therefore, since W = 0,

Q
451
= h
1
h
4
(11.1)

Turbine:
The expansion is adiabatic (i.e. Q = 0), and isentropic (i.e. s
1
= s
2
), and h
2
can
be calculated using this latter fact. Then

h
1
+ Q
12
= h
2
+ W
12

W
12
= ( h
1
h
2
) (11.2)

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/6

Condenser:
h
2
+ Q
23
= h
3
+ W
23
Therefore, since W = 0
Q
23
= h
3
h
2

i.e. Q
23
= - ( h
2
h
3
)
Heat rejected in condenser = h
2
h
3
(11.3)

Compressor:
H
3
+ Q
34
= h
4
+ W
34
The compression is isentropic ( i.e. s
3
= s
4
), and adiabatic ( i.e. Q = 0 ).
W
34
= ( h
3
h
4
) = -( h
4
h
3
)

i.e. Work input to pump = ( h
4
h
3
) (11.4)

11.1.1 Thermal efficiency of Carnot cycle

The thermal efficiency of a heat engine, defined in chapter 9, was shown to be given
by the equation,

1
2
1
Q
Q

In the Carnot cycle, with reference to Fig. 11.1, it can be seen that the heat supplied is
given by the area 41BA4,

i.e. Q
1
= area 41BA4 = T
1
(s
B
- s
A
)

Similarly the heat rejected, Q
2
, is given by the area 23AB2,

i.e. Q
2
= area 23AB2 = T(s
B
s
A
)

Hence we have

Thermal efficiency of Carnot cycle,
) (
) (
1
1
2
A B
A B
carnot
s s T
s s T

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/7

i.e.
1
2
1
T
T
carnot
(11.5)

or
boiler in the supplied Heat
output Net work

carnot

i.e.
4 1
3 4 2 1
) ( ) (
h h
h h h h
Carnot

(11.6)

11.1.2 The work ratio for Carnot cycle

The ratio of the net work output to the gross work output of the system is called the
work ratio. The Carnot cycle, despite its high thermal efficiency, has a low work
ratio.

Work ratio
work gross
net work
(11.7)

i.e. Work ratio =
) (
) ( ) (
2 1
3 4 2 1
h h
h h h h

(11.8)

The work output of the Carnot cycle also can be found very simply from the T-s
diagram. From the first law,

W Q

therefore, the work output of the cycle is given by

W = Q
1
Q
2

Hence for the Carnot cycle, referring to Fig. 11.1,
W
carnot
= area 12341 = (T
1
- T
2
)(s
B
s
a
) (11.9)

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/8

This cycle is never used in practice owing to:

1. The difficulty in stopping the condensation at 3, so that subsequent
compression would bring the state point to 4.
2. A very large compressor would be required.
3. Compression of wet steam in a rotary compressor is difficult as the water
tends to separate out.
4. Friction associated with the expansion and compression processes would
cause the net work done to be very small as compared to the work done in the
turbine itself.

The Carnot cycle is modified to overcome the above difficulties and this modified
cycle, known as the Rankine cycle, is widely used in practice.

Thermal efficiency of Carnot cycle,

) (
) (
1
1
2
A B
A B
carnot
s s T
s s T

1
2
1
T
T
carnot

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/9

What is the highest possible theoretical efficiency of a Carnot cycle with a hot
reservoir of steam at 200
o
C when the cooling water available from condenser
is at 10
o
C?
A steam power plant operates between a boiler pressure of 42 bar and a
condenser pressure of 0.035 bar. Calculate for these limits the cycle efficiency
and the work ratio for a Carnot cycle using wet steam.
Example 11.1

Solution to Example 11.1

From equation 11.5,

1
2
1
T
T
carnot

=
273 200
273 10
1

=
473
283
1

i.e. Highest possible efficiency = 1 0.598
= 0.402 or 40.2 %

Example 11.2

Solution to Example 11.2

A Carnot cycle is shown in the figure given in the next page.

T
1
saturation temperature at 42 bar
= 253.2 + 273 = 526.2 K

T
2
saturation temperature at 0.035 bar
= 26.7 + 273 = 299.7 K

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/10

Then from equation 11.5

1
2 1
T
T T
carnot

=
2 . 526
7 . 299 2 . 526

= 0.432 or 43.2 %

Also,
Heat supplied = h
1
-h
4
= h
fg
at 42 bar = 1698 kJ/kg

Then,
432 . 0
Q
W
carnot

W = 0.432 x 1698

i.e. W = 734 kJ/kg

To find the gross work of the expansion process it is necessary to calculate h
2
, using
the fact that s
1
= s
2.

From the Steam Tables,
h
1
= 2800 kJ/kg and s
1
= s
2
= 6.049 kJ/kg K

From the equation
s
2
= 6.049 = s
f2
+ x
2
s
fg2
= 0.391 + x
2
8.13
x
2
= 696 . 0
13 . 8
391 . 0 049 . 6

T
s
1
2
3
4
526.2

299.7

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/11

Then,
h
2
= h
f2
+ x
2
h
fg2
= 112 + 0.696 x 2438

= 1808 kJ/kg

Hence, from equation 11.2,

W
12
= (h
1
h
2
)
= (2800 1808)
= 992 kJ/kg

Therefore, using equation 11.7,

Work ratio
work gross
net work

=
992
734

= 0.739

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/12

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT!

11.1 Describe the suitable components of a simple close cycle steam plant as
illustrated in the figure below.

11.2 A steam power plant operates between a boiler pressure of 40 bar and a
condenser pressure of 0.045 bar. Calculate for these limits the cycle efficiency
and the work ratio for a Carnot cycle using wet steam.
Activity 11A
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
W
12
Q
23
W
34
Q
41
1
2 3
4

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/13

Feedback To Activity 11A

11.1 The components of a simple close cycle steam plant as illustrated in the figure
are:
a) The boiler, where water is converted into steam at a constant pressure
and temperature by the heat energy is received from the combustion of
the fuel.
b) The engine or turbine, in which the steam expands to a low pressure
causing work energy to be available.
c) The condenser, in which heat energy flows from the low pressure
steam into the condenser cooling water, resulting in the steam being
condensed.
d) The feed pump or the compressor, which returns the water into the
boiler.

11.2 A Carnot cycle is shown in the figure below.

T
1
saturation temperature at 40 bar
= 250.3 + 273 = 523.3 K

T
2
saturation temperature at 0.045 bar
= 31.0 + 273 = 304.0 K

T
s
1
2
3
4
523.3

304.0

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/14

Then from equation 11.5

1
2 1
T
T T
carnot

=
3 . 523
304 3 . 523

= 0.419 or 41.9 %

Also,
Heat supplied = h
1
-h
4
= h
fg
at 42 bar = 1714 kJ/kg

Then,
419 . 0
Q
W
carnot

W = 0.419 x 1714

i.e. W = 718.2 kJ/kg

To find the gross work of the expansion process it is necessary to calculate h
2
, using
the fact that s
1
= s
2.

From the tables,
h
1
= 2801 kJ/kg and s
1
= s
2
= 6.070 kJ/kg K

From the equation
s
2
= 6.070 = s
f2
+ x
2
s
fg2
= 0.451 + x
2
7.98
x
2
= 704 . 0
98 . 7
451 . 0 070 . 6

Then,
h
2
= h
f2
+ x
2
h
fg2
= 130 + 0.704 x 2428

= 1839.3 kJ/kg

Hence, from equation 11.2,

W
12
= (h
1
h
2
)
= (2801 1839.3)
= 961.7 kJ/kg

Therefore, using equation 11.7,

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/15

Work ratio
work gross
net work

=
7 . 961
2 . 718

= 0.747

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/16

11.2 Rankine Cycle

Many of the impracticalities associated with the Carnot cycle can be eliminated by
condensing it completely in the condenser, as shown schematically on a T-s diagram
in Fig. 11.3. The cycle that results is the Rankine cycle, is the ideal cycle for vapour
power plants. The ideal Rankine cycle does not involve any internal irreversibility
and consists of the following processes:

4,5 to 1: Constant pressure heat addition in a boiler
1 to 2: Isentropic expansion taking place in the turbine or engine
2 to 3: Constant pressure heat rejection in the condenser
3 to 4: Isentropic compression of water in the feed pump

From a comparison made between Fig. 11.1 and Fig. 11.2, the similarities between
the Carnot and the Rankine cycles can be clearly seen. In the Rankine cycle, the
exhaust steam is completely condensed into water in the condenser. It actually
follows the isentropic expansion in the turbine. This water is then pumped into the
boiler by a boiler feed pump. After the feed pump, since the water is not at the
INPUT

In the Rankine cycle, the exhaust
steam is completely condensed into
water in the condenser.

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/17

saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure, some of the heat energy
supplied in the boiler is taken up by the water as sensible heat before evaporation can
begin. This results in the boiler process being no longer completely isothermal; the
process is, therefore, irreversible, causing the Rankine cycle to be an irreversible
cycle and to have a lower efficiency than the Carnot cycle.

Fig 11.2 The Rankine cycle
Boiler
Turbine
Condenser
Pump W
12
Q
23
W
34
1
2 3
4
5
Q
451
T
s
1
2
3
4
T
1
T
2
A

B

5
p
1
p
2

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/18

The plant required and the numbers referring to the state points for the Rankine cycle
is shown in Fig. 11.2. The steam at the inlet to the turbine may be wet, dry saturated,
or superheated, but only the dry saturated condition is shown in Fig. 11.2. The steam
flows round the cycle and each process may be analysed using the steady flow energy
equation where changes in kinetic energy and potential energy may be neglected.

i.e. h
1
+ Q = h
2
+ W

In this statement of the equation the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the initial and final
state points of the process; each process in the cycle can be considered in turn as
follows:

Boiler:
h
4
+ Q
451
= h
1
+ W

Therefore, since W = 0,

Q
451
= h
1
h
4
(11.10)

Turbine:
The expansion is adiabatic (i.e. Q = 0), and isentropic (i.e. s
1
= s
2
), and h
2
can
be calculated using this latter fact. Then

h
1
+ Q
12
= h
2
+ W
12

W
12
= ( h
1
h
2
) (11.11)

Condenser:
h
2
+ Q
23
= h
3
+ W
23
Therefore, since W = 0
Q
23
= h
3
h
2

i.e. Q
23
= - ( h
2
h
3
)
Heat rejected in condenser = h
2
h
3
(11.12)

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/19

Pump:
h
3
+ Q
34
= h
4
+ W
34
The compression is isentropic ( i.e. s
3
= s
4
), and adiabatic ( i.e. Q = 0 ).
W
34
= ( h
3
h
4
) = -( h
4
h
3
)

i.e. Work input to pump = ( h
4
h
3
) (11.13)

This is the feed pump term, and as the quantity is small as compared to the
turbine work, W
12
. The feed pump is usually neglected, especially when the
boiler pressures are low.
The net work done in the cycle, W = W
12
+ W
34

i.e. W = ( h
1
h
2
) ( h
4
h
3
) (11.14)

Or, if the feed pump work is neglected,
W = ( h
1
h
2
) (11.15)

11.2.1 Thermal efficiency of Rankine cycle

Rankine efficiency,

boiler in the supplied Heat
output Net work

R
(11.16)

i.e.
4 1
3 4 2 1
) ( ) (
h h
h h h h
R

or
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
3 4 3 1
3 4 2 1
h h h h
h h h h
R

(11.17)

If the feed pump term, (h
4
h
3
) is neglected, equation (11.17) becomes

) (
) (
3 1
2 1
h h
h h
R

(11.18)

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/20

When the feed pump term is included, it is necessary to evaluate the quantity, W
34
.
From equation (11.13)
Pump work = -W
34
=
f
(p
4
p
3
) (11.19)

11.2.2 The work ratio for Rankine cycle

It has been stated that the efficiency of the Carnot cycle is the maximum possible, but
that the cycle has a low work ratio. Both efficiency and work ratio are criteria of
performance. The work ratio is defined by

Work ratio
work gross
net work

i.e. Work ratio =
) (
) ( ) (
2 1
3 4 2 1
h h
h h h h

or Work ratio =
) (
) ( v ) (
2 1
3 4 f 2 1
h h
p p h h

(11.20)

11.3 Specific steam consumption

Another criterion of performance in steam plant is the specific steam consumption. It
relates the power output to the steam flow necessary to produce steam. The steam
flow indicates the size of plant with its component part, and the specific steam
consumption is a means whereby the relative sizes of different plants can be
compared.

The specific steam consumption is the steam flow in kg/h required to develop 1
kW,

i.e. W x (specific steam consumption, s.s.c.) = 1 x 3600 kJ/h
(where W is in kJ/kg),

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/21

A steam power plant operates between a boiler pressure of 42 bar and a
condenser pressure of 0.035 bar. Calculate for these limits the cycle efficiency,
the work ratio, and the specific steam consumption for a Rankine cycle with
dry saturated steam at entry to the turbine.
i.e. s.s.c. = kg/kwh
3600
W

or. s.s.c. = kg/kwh
) ( ) (
3600
3 4 2 1
h h h h
(11.21)

Example 11.3

Solution to Example 11.3

The Rankine cycle is shown in the figure below.

As in example 11.2
h
1
= 2800 kJ/kg and h
2
= 1808 kJ/kg

Also, h
3
= h
f
at 0.035 bar = 112 kJ/kg

Using equation 11.18, with v = v
f
at 0.035 bar

T
s
1
2
3
4
526.2

299.7

A

B

5
42bar

0.035 bar

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/22

Pump work = -W
34
=
f
(p
4
p
3
)
= 0.001 x ( 42 0.035) x 10
2

= 4.2 kJ/kg

Using equation 11.11

W
12
= h
1
h
2
= 2800 1808 = 992 kJ/kg

Then using equation 11.17

) ( ) (
) ( ) (
3 4 3 1
3 4 2 1
h h h h
h h h h
R

=
) 2 . 4 ( ) 112 2800 (
) 2 . 4 ( ) 992 (

= 0.368 or 36.8 %

Using equation 11.7

Work ratio
work gross
net work

=
992
4.2 - 992

= 0.996

Using equation 11.21
s.s.c. =
) ( ) (
3600
3 4 2 1
h h h h

=
) 2 . 4 ( ) 992 (
3600

= 3.64 kg/kW h

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/23

TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT!

11.3 Based on the diagram below, describe the four-stage processes that represent a
steam plant operating on an ideal Rankine cycle.

11.4 A steam power plant operates between a boiler pressure of 40 bar and a
condenser pressure of 0.045 bar. Calculate for these limits the cycle
efficiency, the work ratio, and the specific steam consumption for a Rankine
cycle with dry saturated steam at entry to the turbine.

Activity 11B
Boiler
Turbine
Condenser
Pump W
12
Q
23
W
34
1
2 3
4
5
Q
451

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/24

Feedback To Activity 11B

11.3 The ideal Rankine cycle does not involve any internal irreversibility and
consists of the following four-stage processes:

Stage 1.
4 to 1: Constant pressure heat addition in a boiler.

Stage 2.
1 to 2: Isentropic expansion that takes place in the turbine or engine.

Stage 3.
2 to 3: Constant pressure heat rejection in the condenser.

Stage 4
3 to 4: Isentropic compression of water in the feed pump

11.4 The Rankine cycle is shown in the figure below.

As in activity 11.2
h
1
= 2801 kJ/kg and h
2
= 1839.3 kJ/kg

T
s
1
2
3
4
523.3

3040.

A

B

5
40bar

0.045 bar

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/25

Also, h
3
= h
f
at 0.045 bar = 130 kJ/kg

Using equation 11.18, with v = v
f
at 0.045 bar

Pump work = -W
34
=
f
(p
4
p
3
)
= 0.001 x ( 40 0.045) x 10
2

= 4.0 kJ/kg

Using equation 11.11

W
12
= h
1
h
2
= 2801 1839.3 = 961.7 kJ/kg

Then using equation 11.17

) ( ) (
) ( ) (
3 4 3 1
3 4 2 1
h h h h
h h h h
R

=
) 0 . 4 ( ) 130 2801 (
) 0 . 4 ( ) 7 . 961 (

= 0.359 or 35.9 %

Using equation 11.7

Work ratio
work gross
net work

=
961.7
4.0 - 961.7

= 0.996

Using equation 11.21
s.s.c. =
) ( ) (
3600
3 4 2 1
h h h h

=
) 0 . 4 ( ) 7 . 961 (
3600

= 3.76 kg/kW h

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/26

You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section
and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to Self-Assessment on the
next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.

1. Explain why the Rankine cycle and not the Carnot cycle is taken as the ideal
cycle for steam plant. Sketch the T-s diagram for these cycles when using
steam as the working fluid.

2. What is the highest thermal efficiency possible for a Carnot cycle operating
between 210
o
C and 15
o
C.

3. A steam power plant operates between a boiler pressure of 30 bar and a
condenser pressure of 0.04 bar. Calculate for these limits the cycle efficiency,
the work ratio and the specific steam consumption for a Carnot cycle using
wet steam.

4. A steam power plant operates between a boiler pressure of 30 bar and a
condenser pressure of 0.04 bar. Calculate for these limits the cycle efficiency,
the work ratio, and the specific steam consumption for a Rankine cycle with
dry saturated steam at entry to the turbine.

5. In a steam power plant, dry saturated steam enters the turbine at 47 bar and is
expanded isentropically to the condenser pressure of 0.13 bar. Determine the
Rankine cycle efficiency when

a) the feed pump work is neglected
b) the feed pump work is taken into account
SELF-ASSESSMENT

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/27

1. Carnot cycle is never used in practice owing to:

1. The difficulty in stopping the condensation at 3, so that subsequent
compression would bring the state point to 4.
2. A very large compressor would be required.
3. Compression of wet steam in a rotary compressor is difficult as the water
tends to separate out.
4. Friction associated with the expansion and compression processes would
cause the net work done to be very small as compared to the work done in the
turbine itself.

The Carnot cycle is modified to overcome the above difficulties and this modified
cycle, known as the Rankine cycle, is widely used in practice.

Feedback to Self-Assessment
T
s
1
2
3
4
T
1
T
2
T
s
1
2
3
4
T
1
T
2
A

B

5
p
1
p
2
Carnot cycle Rankine cycle

THE STEAM POWER CYCLE J2006/11/28

2. 40.37 %
3. 40.4 %, 0.771, 4.97 kg/kW h
4. 34.6 %, 0.997, 3.88 kg/kW h
5. 33.67 %, 33.55 %

CONGRATULATIONS!
!!!May success be
with you always