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44 Chapter 15 Differentiation

CHAPTER 15 10. y = 2 x 3 + 3x −
2
x4
Exercise 15A (p.81) = 2 x + 3 x − 2 x −4
3

dy
= 2(3 x 2 ) + 3 − 2( −4 x −5 )
1. y = 5x 2 − 3x + 4 dx
dy
= 5(2 x ) − 3 = 6 x 2 + 3 + 8 x −5
dx
= 10 x − 3 3
11. y=
14 x 7
2. y = 3x 2 + 8 x + 7 3 −7
= x
dy 14
= 3(2 x ) + 8
dy 3
dx = ( −7 x −8 )
= 6x + 8 dx 14
3
= − x −8
3. y = x10 + 9 x 8 + 7 x − 5 2
dy
= 10 x 9 + 9(8 x 7 ) + 7 4
dx 12. y = 2 x 5 − 3x 4 +
= 10 x 9 + 72 x 7 + 7 x3
= 2 x 5 − 3 x 4 + 4 x −3
dy
4. y = 3 x 6 + 5 x 4 − 8 x 2 − 100 = 2(5 x 4 ) − 3( 4 x 3 ) + 4( −3 x −4 )
dy dx
= 3(6 x 5 ) + 5( 4 x 3 ) − 8(2 x ) = 10 x 4 − 12 x 3 − 12 x −4
dx
= 18 x 5 + 20 x 3 − 16 x
13. y = ( 4 x + 1)(3 x − 2)
−2 −5 −8 dy d d
5. y = x − 3x + 3x = ( 4 x + 1) (3 x − 2) + (3 x − 2) ( 4 x + 1)
dy dx dx dx
= −2 x −3 − 3( −5 x −6 ) + 3( −8 x −9 ) = ( 4 x + 1)(3) + (3 x − 2)( 4)
dx = 24 x − 5
= −2 x −3 + 15 x −6 − 24 x −9

−1 −4
14. y = ( x 2 + 3 x )(2 x + 1)
6. y = 2 x − 3 x + 2 x + 17 2
dy d d
dy = ( x 2 + 3 x ) (2 x + 1) + (2 x + 1) ( x 2 + 3 x )
= 2( − x −2 ) − 3( −4 x −5 ) + 2(2 x ) dx dx dx
dx = ( x 2 + 3 x )(2) + (2 x + 1)(2 x + 3)
= −2 x −2 + 12 x −5 + 4 x
= 6 x 2 + 14 x + 3

7. y = −3 x + 5 − 4 x −3 − 5 x −4 15. y = (2 x 3 − 6 x )(7 x + 5)
dy
= −3 − 4( −3 x −4 ) − 5( −4 x −5 ) dy d
dx = (2 x 3 − 6 x ) (7 x + 5)
dx dx
= −3 + 12 x −4 + 20 x −5 d
+ (7 x + 5) (2 x 3 − 6 x )
dx
8. y = 3 x 5 − 12 x 2 − 3 x −4 + 2 x −7 = (2 x 3 − 6 x )(7) + (7 x + 5)(6 x 2 − 6)
dy
= 3(5 x 4 ) − 12(2 x ) − 3( −4 x −5 ) + 2( −7 x −8 ) = 56 x 3 + 30 x 2 − 84 x − 30
dx
= 15 x 4 − 24 x + 12 x −5 − 14 x −8 16. y = ( x 3 − 2 x )(5 − 4 x − 3 x 2 )
dy d
1 = ( x 3 − 2 x ) (5 − 4 x − 3 x 2 )
9. y = x 2 + 3x − dx dx
x2 d
= x 2 + 3 x − x −2 + (5 − 4 x − 3 x 2 ) ( x 3 − 2 x )
dx
dy
= 2 x + 3 − ( −2 x −3 ) = ( x 3 − 2 x )( −4 − 6 x ) + (5 − 4 x − 3 x 2 )(3 x 2 − 2)
dx = −15 x 4 − 16 x 3 + 33 x 2 + 16 x − 10
= 2 x + 3 + 2 x −3
Chapter 15 Differentiation 45

2 x 2 − 5x + 4 3x + 4
17. y= 23. y=
x 2x − 3
= 2 x − 5 + 4 x −1 dy (2 x − 3) dxd (3 x + 4) − (3 x + 4) d (2 x − 3)
dy = dx
= 2 + 4( − x −2 ) dx (2 x − 3)2
dx
(2 x − 3)(3) − (3 x + 4)(2)
=2− 2
4 =
x (2 x − 3)2
= −17(2 x − 3) −2

x 3 − 3x 2 + 5
18. y=
x2 4x − 1
24. y=
= x − 3 + 5 x −2 5x + 2
dy
= 1 + 5( −2 x −3 ) dy (5 x + 2) dx ( 4 x − 1) − ( 4 x − 1) dx (5 x + 2)
d d
dx =
10 dx (5 x + 2 ) 2
= 1− 3
(5 x + 2)( 4) − ( 4 x − 1)(5)
x =
(5 x + 2 ) 2
= 13(5 x + 2) −2
4 x 3 − 3x 2 + 7 x − 6
19. y=
x3
= 4 − 3 x + 7 x −2 − 6 x −3
−1
1
dy 25. y=
= −3( − x −2 ) + 7( −2 x −3 ) − 6( −3 x −4 ) x+3
dx
dy ( x + 3) dx (1) − (1) dx ( x + 3)
d d
= 3 x −2 − 14 x −3 + 18 x −4 =
dx ( x + 3)2
= −( x + 3) −2
x 3 + 5x − 9
20. y=
x4
= x + 5 x −3 − 9 x −4
−1
4
dy 26. y=
= − x −2 + 5( −3 x −4 ) − 9( −4 x −5 ) 2x − 5
dx
= − x −2 − 15 x −4 + 36 x −5 dy (2 x − 5) dx
d ( 4) − ( 4) d (2 x − 5)
= dx
dx (2 x − 5)2
x +1 = −8(2 x − 5) −2
21. y=
x −1
dy ( x − 1) dx
d ( x + 1) − ( x + 1) d ( x − 1)
= dx
1
dx ( x − 1)2 27. y=
( x − 1) − ( x + 1) ( x − 2)2
=
( x − 1)2 dy ( x − 2) dx (1) − (1) dx ( x − 2)
2 d d 2
=
= −2( x − 1) −2 dx ( x − 2) 4
− d ( x − 4 x + 4)
2
= dx
2x − 3 ( x − 2) 4
22. y=
3x + 4 −2 x + 4
=
dy (3 x + 4) dx
d (2 x − 3) − (2 x − 3) d (3 x + 4)
( x − 2) 4
= dx
−2( x − 2)
dx (3 x + 4 ) 2 =
(3 x + 4)(2) − (2 x − 3)(3) ( x − 2) 4
=
(3 x + 4 ) 2 = −2( x − 2) −3
= 17(3 x + 4) −2
46 Chapter 15 Differentiation

x 33. y = (2 x + 1)( x + 3)( 4 − x )


28. y= 2
x +1 dy d
= (2 x + 1) ( x + 3)( 4 − x )
dy ( x + 1) dx dx − ( x ) dx ( x + 1)
2 d 2 dx dx
= d
dx ( x 2 + 1)2 + ( x + 3)( 4 − x ) (2 x + 1)
dx
x 2 + 1 − x (2 x ) d
= = (2 x + 1)[( x + 3) ( 4 − x )
( x 2 + 1)2 dx
= (1 − x 2 )( x 2 + 1) −2 d
+ ( 4 − x ) ( x + 3)] + ( x + 3)( 4 − x )(2)
dx
= (2 x + 1)( x + 3)( −1) + (2 x + 1)( 4 − x )
x2 − 1 + 2( x + 3)( 4 − x )
29. y=
x2 + 1 = −6 x 2 + 2 x + 25
dy ( x 2 + 1) dx
d ( x 2 − 1) − ( x 2 − 1) d ( x 2 + 1)
= dx
34. y = (5 − 2 x )(1 − 3 x )( x + 3)
dx ( x 2 + 1)2
dy d
( x 2 + 1)(2 x ) − ( x 2 − 1)(2 x ) = (5 − 2 x )(1 − 3 x ) ( x + 3) + (5 − 2 x )( x + 3)
= dx dx
( x 2 + 1)2 d d
(1 − 3 x ) + (1 − 3 x )( x + 3) (5 − 2 x )
= 4 x ( x + 1) −2
2 dx dx
= (5 − 2 x )(1 − 3 x ) + (5 − 2 x )( x + 3)( −3)
+ (1 − 3 x )( x + 3)( −2)
x+2
30. y = 2 = 18 x 2 + 2 x − 46
x + 2x + 2
dy = 2(9 x 2 + x − 23)
dx
x +1
( x 2 + 2 x + 2) dx
d ( x + 2) − ( x + 2) d ( x 2 + 2 x + 2) 35. y= ( x − 5)
= dx 2x − 3
( x + 2 x + 2)
2 2
dy x +1 d d x +1
= ( x − 5) + ( x − 5)
( x 2 + 2 x + 2) − ( x + 2)(2 x + 2) dx 2 x − 3 dx dx 2 x − 3
= x +1 (2 x − 3) − ( x + 1)(2)
( x 2 + 2 x + 2)2 = + ( x − 5)
2x − 3 (2 x − 3)2
= −( x + 4 x + 2)( x 2 + 2 x + 2) −2
2
x +1 −5 x + 25
= +
2 x − 3 (2 x − 3)2
31. y = ( x 2 + 2 x + 3)2 ( x + 1)(2 x − 3) − 5 x + 25
=
= ( x 2 + 2 x + 3)( x 2 + 2 x + 3) (2 x − 3)2
dy d 2 x − 6 x + 22
2
= ( x 2 + 2 x + 3) ( x 2 + 2 x + 3) =
dx dx (2 x − 3)2
d
+ ( x + 2 x + 3) ( x 2 + 2 x + 3)
2
= 2( x 2 − 3 x + 11)(2 x − 3) −2
dx
= ( x 2 + 2 x + 3)(2 x + 2) + ( x 2 + 2 x + 3)(2 x + 2)
= 4 x 3 + 12 x 2 + 20 x + 12 x2
36. y= (5 − 2 x )
x+2
dy x2 d d x2
1 2 = (5 − 2 x ) + (5 − 2 x )
32. y = (x2 + 5 − ) dx x + 2 dx dx x + 2
x2
x2 ( x + 2)(2 x ) − x 2
= ( x 2 + 5 − x −2 )( x 2 + 5 − x −2 ) = ( −2) + (5 − 2 x )
dy d x+2 ( x + 2)2
= ( x 2 + 5 − x −2 ) ( x 2 + 5 − x −2 )
dx dx −2 x 2 −2 x 3 − 3 x 2 + 20 x
= +
d
+ ( x 2 + 5 − x −2 ) ( x 2 + 5 − x −2 ) x+2 ( x + 2)2
dx −2 x 2 ( x + 2) − 2 x 3 − 3 x 2 + 20 x
= ( x 2 + 5 − x −2 )[2 x − ( −2 x −3 )] =
( x + 2)2
+ ( x 2 + 5 − x −2 )[2 x − ( −2 x −3 )] −4 x − 7 x + 20 x
3 2
20 4 =
= 4 x 3 + 20 x + 3 − 5 ( x + 2)2
x x
= − x ( 4 x 2 + 7 x − 20)( x + 2) −2
Chapter 15 Differentiation 47

Exercise 15B (p.88) 8. y = u 3 + 4, u = x 2 + x


2 25
y = 6 x 3 + 12 x − 4 − dy du
2 1
1. x = 3u 2 , = 2x + 1
5 du dx
dy 2 1 1 5 2 5 3
= 6( x − 3 ) + 12( − x − 4 ) − ( x 2 ) ∴
dy dy du
= ⋅
dx 3 4 5 2 dx du dx
= 4 x − 3 − 3x − 4 − x 2
1 5 3
= (3u 2 )(2 x + 1)
= 3( x 2 + x )2 (2 x + 1)
4 1
−1
2. y = 9x + 2x − 2x
3 2
= 3 x 2 ( x + 1)2 (2 x + 1)
dy 4 1 1 1
= 9( x 3 ) + 2( x − 2 ) − 2( − x −2 )
dx 3 2
= 12 x 3 + x − 2 + 2 x −2
1 1
9. y = u(u − 1) , u = x 2 + 2 x + 2
dy du
= 2u − 1, = 2x + 2
1 −1
x − 4x− 4 du dx
8 1
3. y = 5x 5 +
2 dy dy du
∴ = ⋅
dy 8 3 1 1 5
= 5( x 5 ) + ( − x −2 ) − 4( − x − 4 ) dx du dx
dx 5 2 4 = (2u − 1)(2 x + 2)
3 1 − − 5
= [2( x 2 + 2 x + 2) − 1](2 x + 2)
= 8x 5 − x + x 4
2
2
= 2( x + 1)(2 x 2 + 4 x + 3)
5 3 1
x 2 − 8x 2 + 6 x 2
4. y= 10. y = u , u = 3 x 2 − 2
x2
dy 1 − 12 du
= x 2 − 8x − 2 + 6 x − 2
1 1 3
= u , = 3(2 x ) = 6 x
dy 1 − 12 1 3 3 5 du 2 dx
= x − 8( − x − 2 ) + 6( − x − 2 )
dx 2 2 2 ∴ dy = dy ⋅ du
1 − 12 − 23 − 25 dx du dx
= x + 4x − 9x 1 1
2 = ( u − 2 )(6 x )
2
= 3 x (3 x 2 − 2 ) − 2
1

5. y = 2 x x − 63 x 2 + 10 x 5 x 3
3 2 8
= 2 x 2 − 6 x 3 + 10 x 5
dy 3 1 2 1 8 3 11. y = (2 x + 3)10
= 2( x 2 ) − 6( x − 3 ) + 10( x 5 ) dy
dx 2 3 5 = 10(2 x + 3)9 (2)
1
− 13 3 dx
= 3 x − 4 x + 16 x
2 5
= 20(2 x + 3)9
2 x 2 − 8x + 4
6. y= 12. y = ( x 2 + 5 x − 6) 7
x
dy
= 2 x 2 − 8x 2 + 4 x − 2
3 1 1
= 7( x 2 + 5 x − 6)6 (2 x + 5)
dx
dy 3 1 1 1 1 3
= 2( x 2 ) − 8( x − 2 ) + 4( − x − 2 )
dx 2 2 2
1
− 12 − 23 13. y = (2 − 3 x )5
= 3x − 4 x − 2 x
2
dy
= 5(2 − 3 x ) 4 ( −3)
dx
u −1
7. y = , u= x = −15(2 − 3 x ) 4
u +1
dy u + 1 − (u − 1)
= 2(u + 1) −2 ,
du 1 − 12
= = x 1
du (u + 1) 2
dx 2 14. y=
(2 x + 1)3
∴ dy dy du
= ⋅ = (2 x + 1) −3
dx du dx
dy
1 1
= 2(u + 1) −2 ( x − 2 ) = −3(2 x + 1) −4 (2)
2 dx
= ( x + 1) −2 x − 2
1
= −6(2 x + 1) −4
48 Chapter 15 Differentiation

15. y = ( x 2 + 2 + x −2 ) −2 23. y = (3 x − 4 ) 3 x − 4
dy
= −2( x 2 + 2 + x −2 ) −3 (2 x − 2 x −3 )
3
= (3 x − 4 ) 2
dx dy 3 1
= −4( x 2 + 2 + x −2 ) −3 ( x − x −3 ) = (3 x − 4) 2 (3)
dx 2
9 1
= (3 x − 4 ) 2
10 2
16. y = ( x + 2) 3
dy 10 7
= ( x + 2) 3
dx 3 1
24. y=
4
2 x 2 + 8x − 3
= (2 x 2 + 8 x − 3) − 4
1
5
17. y = (3 x + 4 ) 3
dy 1
= − (2 x 2 + 8 x − 3) − 4 ( 4 x + 8)
5
dy 5 2
= (3 x + 4) 3 (3) dx 4
dx 3
= −( x + 2)(2 x 2 + 8 x − 3) − 4
5
2
= 5(3 x + 4) 3

(2 x 2 + 4 x − 5)2
y=
3
18. y = (3 x 2 + 2 x − 1) 2 25.
dy 3 1 2x2 + 4x − 5
= (3 x 2 + 2 x − 1) 2 (6 x + 2) 3
dx 2 = (2 x 2 + 4 x − 5) 2
1
= 3(3 x + 1)(3 x 2 + 2 x − 1) 2 dy 3 1
= (2 x 2 + 4 x − 5) 2 ( 4 x + 4)
dx 2
1
= 6( x + 1)(2 x 2 + 4 x − 5) 2
y = ( 4 x 3 − 3 x 2 − 17) − 3
1
19.
dy 1
= − ( 4 x 3 − 3 x 2 − 17) − 3 (12 x 2 − 6 x )
4
6
dx 3 26. y=
= −2 x (2 x − 1)( 4 x 3 − 3 x 2 − 17) − 3
4 3
( x + 2 x + 3) ⋅ x 2 + 2 x + 3
2
4

= 6( x 2 + 2 x + 3) − 3
13

dy 13
= 6( − )( x 2 + 2 x + 3) − 3 (2 x + 2)
16

y = ( x 4 − 2 x 2 − 3) − 4
7
20. dx 3
= −52( x + 1)( x 2 + 2 x + 3) − 3
16
dy 7
= − ( x 4 − 2 x 2 − 3) − 4 ( 4 x 3 − 4 x )
11

dx 4
= −7 x ( x 2 − 1)( x 4 − 2 x 2 − 3) − 4
11

27. y = ( x + 1)2 (3 x + 2)2


dy d d
= ( x + 1)2 (3 x + 2 ) 2 + (3 x + 2 ) 2 ( x + 1)2
dx dx dx
21. y = 2x2 − 6x + 7
1 = ( x + 1)2 [2(3 x + 2)(3)] + (3 x + 2)2 [2( x + 1)]
= (2 x 2 − 6 x + 7) 2 = 2( x + 1)(3 x + 2)(6 x + 5)
dy 1
= (2 x 2 − 6 x + 7) − 2 ( 4 x − 6)
1

dx 2
= (2 x − 3)(2 x 2 − 6 x + 7) − 2
1
28. y = x 2x − 3
1
= x (2 x − 3) 2
dy d 1 1 dx
= x (2 x − 3) 2 + (2 x − 3) 2
22. y = 5 ( x 5 − 10 x 2 + 3)2 dx dx dx
2 1 − 12 1
= ( x 5 − 10 x 2 + 3) 5 = x ( )(2 x − 3) (2) + (2 x − 3) 2
2
dy 2 5
= ( x − 10 x 2 + 3) − 5 (5 x 4 − 20 x )
3
= x (2 x − 3) − 2 + (2 x − 3) 2
1 1

dx 5
= (2 x − 3) − 2 ( x + 2 x − 3)
1

= 2 x ( x 3 − 4)( x 5 − 10 x 2 + 3) − 5
3

= 3( x − 1)(2 x − 3) − 2
1
Chapter 15 Differentiation 49

29. y = 3x 2 ⋅ 3 2 x 2 + 5 (2 x + 1)2 2x + 1 2
34. y= =( )
= 3 x 2 (2 x 2 + 5) 3
1
(2 x − 1) 2 2x − 1
dy 2x + 1 d 2x + 1
dy
= 3[ x 2
d 1
(2 x 2 + 5) 3 + (2 x 2 + 5) 3
1 d
x2 ] = 2( )
dx dx dx dx 2 x − 1 dx 2 x − 1
2 x + 1 (2 x − 1)(2) − (2 x + 1)(2)
1
= 3[ x 2 ( )(2 x 2 + 5) − 3 ( 4 x ) + (2 x 2 + 5) 3 (2 x )]
2 1
= 2( )
3 2x − 1 (2 x − 1)2
= 4 x (2 x 2 + 5) − 3 + 6 x (2 x 2 + 5) 3 = −8(2 x + 1)(2 x − 1) −3
2 1
3

= 2 x (8 x 2 + 15)(2 x 2 + 5) − 3
2

(3 x − 2 ) 3
35. y=
2
(2 x + 1)2
30. y = (2 x + 3) 4 (3 x − 2) 3
dy d 2 = (2 x + 1) −2 (3 x − 2)3
= (2 x + 3) 4 (3 x − 2 ) 3 dy d
dx dx = (2 x + 1) −2 (3 x − 2 ) 3
2 d dx dx
+ (3 x − 2 ) 3 (2 x + 3) 4 d
dx + (3 x − 2 ) 3 (2 x + 1) −2
2 dx
= (2 x + 3) 4 ( )(3 x − 2) − 3 (3)
1

3 = (2 x + 1) −2 (3)(3 x − 2)2 (3)


+ (3 x − 2)3 ( −2)(2 x + 1) −3 (2)
2
+ (3 x − 2) 3 ( 4)(2 x + 3)3 (2)
= 2(14 x − 5)(2 x + 3)3 (3 x − 2) − = (6 x + 17)(3 x − 2)2 (2 x + 1) −3
1
3

(2 x − 6) −1
2 1
31. y = (2 − 5 x ) 5 ( 7 − 3 x ) 3 36. y=
dy 2 d 1 ( x 2 + 4) −2
= (2 − 5 x ) 5 (7 − 3x ) 3
dx dx = (2 x − 6) −1 ( x 2 + 4)2
1 d 2
+ (7 − 3x ) 3
(2 − 5 x ) 5 dy
= (2 x − 6) −1
d 2
( x + 4)2
dx dx dx
2 1
= (2 − 5 x ) ( )(7 − 3 x ) − 3 ( −3)
2
d
+ ( x 2 + 4)2 (2 x − 6) −1
5

3 dx
1 2
+ (7 − 3 x ) ( )(2 − 5 x ) − 5 ( −5) = (2 x − 6) −1 (2)( x 2 + 4)(2 x )
3
3

5
+ ( x 2 + 4)2 ( −1)(2 x − 6) −2 (2)
= (11x − 16)(7 − 3 x ) − 3 (2 − 5 x ) − 5
2 3

1
= (3 x 2 − 12 x − 4)( x 2 + 4)( x − 3) −2
2
32. y = (1 + 2 x )3 ⋅ 3 x 2 + 1
2 + 6x
3 1
3
= (1 + 2 x ) 2 ( x 2 + 1) 3 37. y=
dy 3 d 1 x
= (1 + 2 x ) 2 ( x 2 + 1) 3 −1 1
dx dx = x (2 + 6 x ) 3
1 d 3
+ ( x + 1) 3
2
(1 + 2 x ) 2 dy d 1 d
= x −1 x −1
1
(2 + 6 x ) 3 + (2 + 6 x ) 3
dx dx dx dx
3 1
= (1 + 2 x ) ( )( x 2 + 1) − 3 (2 x )
2
1
= x −1 ( )(2 + 6 x ) − 3 (6) + (2 + 6 x ) 3 ( − x −2 )
2 2 1

3 3
1 3
= −2(2 x + 1) x −2 (2 + 6 x ) − 3
1 2
+ ( x + 1) ( )(1 + 2 x ) 2 (2)
2 3

2
1
= (13 x + 2 x + 9)(1 + 2 x ) 2 ( x 2 + 1) − 3
1 2
2
3 x2 + 1
38. y=
x
−1 2 1
33. y = 1+ x = x ( x + 1) 2
1 1
dy d 2 1 d
= (1 + x 2 ) 2 = x −1 x −1
1
( x + 1) 2 + ( x 2 + 1) 2
dy 1 1 1 dx dx dx
= (1 + x 2 ) − 2 ( x − 2 )
1 1
1
= x −1 ( )( x 2 + 1) − 2 (2 x ) + ( x 2 + 1) 2 ( − x −2 )
1 1
dx 2 2
1 − 12 2
= x (1 + x ) − 2
1

= − x −2 ( x 2 + 1) − 2
1

4
50 Chapter 15 Differentiation

2x + 5 43. f ( x ) = ( x 2 + 2k ) x + 4
39. y=
x + 5x + 3
2 d
f '( x ) = ( x 2 + 2 k ) ( x + 4) 2
1

= ( x 2 + 5 x + 3) − 2 (2 x + 5)
1
dx
1 d
dy 1 d
+ ( x + 4) ( x 2 + 2k )
= ( x 2 + 5 x + 3) − 2
2
(2 x + 5) dx
dx dx 1
= ( x + 2 k )( )( x + 4) − 2 + ( x + 4) 2 (2 x )
1 1
d 2
+ (2 x + 5) ( x 2 + 5 x + 3) − 2
1

2
dx 1
= ( x + 4) − 2 (5 x 2 + 16 x + 2 k )
1

= ( x 2 + 5 x + 3) − 2 (2)
1

2
1
+ (2 x + 5)( − )( x 2 + 5 x + 3) − 2 (2 x + 5) 1
3
Q f ' (0) =
2 4
13 2
= − ( x + 5 x + 3) − 2 1 − 12 1
3
( 4) (2 k ) =
2 2 4
1
k=
2
x −1
40. y=
x +1
x − 1 12 44. (a) f ( x ) = ( x + k )( kx + 1)3
=( )
x +1 f '( x )
dy 1 x − 1 − 12 d x − 1 d d
= ( ) = (x + k) ( kx + 1)3 + ( kx + 1)3 (x + k)
dx 2 x + 1 dx x + 1 dx dx
1 x − 1 − 12 x + 1 − ( x − 1)
= ( ) = ( x + k )(3)( kx + 1)2 ( k ) + ( kx + 1)3
2 x +1 ( x + 1)2
= ( kx + 1)2 ( 4 kx + 3k 2 + 1)
= ( x − 1) − 2 ( x + 1) − 2
1 3

Q f '(1) = 0
( k + 1)2 ( 4 k + 3k 2 + 1) = 0
(3k + 1)( k + 1)3 = 0
3x + 4
3
3k + 1 = 0 or k + 1 = 0
41. y=
3x − 2 1
k = − or k = −1
3 x + 4 13 3
=( )
3x − 2 (b) When k = −1,
dy 1 3 x + 4 − 23 d 3 x + 4
= ( ) f '(2) = [( −1)(2) + 1]2 [ 4( −1)(2) + 3( −1)2 + 1]
dx 3 3 x − 2 dx 3 x − 2
1 3 x + 4 − 23 (3 x − 2)(3) − (3 x + 4)(3) = −4
= ( )
3 3x − 2 (3 x − 2 ) 2
= −6(3 x + 4) − 3 (3 x − 2) − 3
2 4

Exercise 15C (p.92)


1. x = 2y − 3
dx
42. y = ( x + 5)(2 x − 1)2 ( x + 1)3 =2
dy
dy d
= ( x + 5)(2 x − 1)2 ( x + 1)3 dy 1 1
dx dx ∴ = dx =
d dx dy 2
+ (2 x − 1)2 ( x + 1)3 ( x + 5)
dx
d
+ ( x + 5)( x + 1)3 (2 x − 1)2
dx 2. x = (2 y − 1)3
= ( x + 5)(2 x − 1)2 (3)( x + 1)2 + (2 x − 1)2 ( x + 1)3 dx
= 3(2 y − 1)2 (2)
+ ( x + 5)( x + 1)3 (2)(2 x − 1)(2) dy
= ( x + 1)2 (2 x − 1)[3( x + 5)(2 x − 1) = 6(2 y − 1)2
+ (2 x − 1)( x + 1) + 4( x + 1)( x + 5)] dy 1 1
∴ = dx = (2 y − 1) −2
= 4( x + 1)2 (2 x − 1)(3 x 2 + 13 x + 1) dx dy 6
Chapter 15 Differentiation 51

1 + 2y 1
3. x= 9. x = t 2 − 2t − 1 , y =
1 − 2y t
(1 − 2 y)(2) − (1 + 2 y)( −2) dx dy
= −t −2
dx
= = 2t − 2 ,
dy (1 − 2 y)2 dt dt
dy
4 dy dt −t −2 1
= ∴ = dx = = − t −2 (t − 1) −1
(1 − 2 y)2 dx dt 2t − 2 2
dy 1 1
∴ = dx = (1 − 2 y)2
dx dy
4
10. x = t 3 + t , y = t
dx dy 1 − 12
= 3t 2 + 1 , = t
3+ y 3 + y 12 dt dt 2
4. x= =( )
3− y 3− y dy 1 t− 2 1
dy dt 1
dx 1 3 + y − 12 d 3 + y ∴ = dx = 2 2 = y −1 (3 y 4 + 1) −1
= ( )( ) dx dt 3t + 1 2
dy 2 3− y dy 3 − y
1 3 + y − 12 3 − y − (3 + y)( −1)
= ( )
2 3− y (3 − y ) 2
= 3(3 + y) − 2 (3 − y) − 2
1 3 Exercise 15D (p.94)
dy 1 1 1 3
1. x 2 + y 2 − 36 = 0
∴ = dx = (3 + y) 2 (3 − y) 2
dx dy 3 d 2 d 2 d
x + y − (36) = 0
dx dx dx
dy
5. (a) x = −4t 2 , y = 3t 2x + 2y =0
dx
dx dy dy x
= −8t , =3 =−
dt dt dx y
dy
dy dt 3
(b) = dx = −
dx dt 8t 2. 4 x 2 + 9 y 2 − 72 = 0
d 2 d 2 d
4 x +9 y − (72) = 0
dx dx dx
6. (a) x = −2t 3 , y = −4t + 5 dy
dx dy 8 x + 18 y =0
= −6t 2 , = −4 dx
dt dt dy 4x
=−
dy dx 9y
dy dt −4 2
(b) = dx = = 2
dx dt −6t 2
3t
3. 2 x 2 − y2 + 5 = 0
d 2 d 2 d
7. (a) x = 8t − 5 , y = 6t − 4t 2 − 9 2 x − y + (5) = 0
dx dx dx
dx dy
= 8, = 6 − 8t 4x − 2y
dy
=0
dt dt dx
dy dy 2 x
dy dt 6 − 8t 3 − 4t =
(b) = = = dx y
dx dx
dt
8 4

8. (a) x = t 5 , y = t 3 − 3t 2 + 5t + 5 4. 3x 2 + 4 y 2 − 5 = 0
d d 2 d
dx dy 3 x2 + 4 y − (5) = 0
= 5t 4 , = 3t 2 − 6t + 5 dx dx dx
dt dt dy
dy 6 x + 8y =0
dy 3t 2 − 6t + 5 dx
(b) = dt = dy 3x
dx dx
dt 5t 4 =−
dx 4y
52 Chapter 15 Differentiation

5. x 4 + 2y4 − 8 = 0 10. x 5 − 4 x 4 y + 4 xy 4 − y 5 = 12
d 4 d 4 d d 5 d d d 5 d
x +2 y − (8) = 0 x − 4 ( x 4 y) + 4 ( xy 4 ) − y = (12)
dx dx dx dx dx dx dx dx
dy dy
4 x 3 + 8y3 =0 5x 4 − 4 x 4 − 16 x 3 y
dx dx
x3 dy dy
dy
=− 3 + 16 xy 3 + 4 y 4 − 5y 4 =0
dx 2y dx dx
dy
( −4 x 4 + 16 xy 3 − 5 y 4 ) = 16 x 3 y − 5 x 4 − 4 y 4
dx
dy
6. x 2 − 3 xy + y 2 =9 = (5 x 4 − 16 x 3 y + 4 y 4 )( 4 x 4 − 16 xy 3 + 5 y 4 ) −1
d 2 d d 2 d dx
x − 3 ( xy) + y = ( 9)
dx dx dx dx 11. x 3 y − 2 x 2 y 2 + xy 3 = 9
dy dy
2 x − 3x − 3y + 2 y =0 d 3 d d d
dx dx ( x y) − 2 ( x 2 y 2 ) + ( xy 3 ) = ( 9)
dy dx dx dx dx
(2 y − 3 x ) = 3y − 2 x dy dy
dx x3 + 3x 2 y − 4 x 2 y − 4 xy 2
dy 3y − 2 x dx dx
= dy
dx 2 y − 3x + 3 xy 2 + y3 = 0
dx
= (2 x − 3 y)(3 x − 2 y) −1 dy − y(3 x − y)( x − y)
=
dx x ( x − 3 y)( x − y)
= −(3 xy − y 2 )( x 2 − 3 xy) −1
7. x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 − 4 y + 7 = 0
d 2 d d 2 dy d
x + 2 ( xy) + y −4 + (7) = 0 12. x 3 − 3 x 2 y + 3 xy 2 − y 3 = 8
dx dx dx dx dx
dy dy dy d 3 d d d 3 d
2x + 2x + 2y + 2y −4 =0 x − 3 ( x 2 y) + 3 ( xy 2 ) − y = (8)
dx dx dx dx dx dx dx dx
dy dy dy dy
(2 x + 2 y − 4) = −2 x − 2 y 3x 2 − 3x 2 − 6 xy + 3 y 2 + 6 xy − 3y 2 =0
dx dx dx dx
dy −( x + y) dy
= ( −3 x 2 + 6 xy − 3 y 2 ) = −3 x 2 + 6 xy − 3 y 2
dx x + y − 2 dx
dy
= −( x + y)( x + y − 2) −1 =1
dx

13. a2 x 2 + b2 y2 = a2b2
8. x 3 + 4 xy + 3 y 3 = 8
d 2 d 2 d 2 2
d 3 d d d a2 x + b2 y = (a b )
x + 4 ( xy) + 3 y 3 = (8) dx dx dx
dx dx dx dx dy
dy dy a 2 (2 x ) + b 2 (2 y) =0
3x 2 + 4 x + 4 y + 9y2 =0 dx
dx dx
dy dy −a2 x
(4 x + 9 y 2 ) = − (3 x 2 + 4 y ) =
dx dx b2 y
dy
= −(3 x + 4 y)( 4 x + 9 y 2 ) −1
2 = − a 2 x (b 2 y) −1
dx
14. x+ y= a
9. x 2 y + xy 2 = 10 d 12 d 12 d
x + y = ( a)
d 2 d d dx dx dx
( x y) + ( xy 2 ) = (10) 1 − 12 1 − 12 dy
dx dx dx x + y =0
dy dy 2 2 dx
x2 + 2 xy + y 2 + 2 xy =0
1 −1
dx dx dy − 2 x 2
dy =
( x 2 + 2 xy) = −( y 2 + 2 xy) dx 1 y − 12
dx 2
dy
= − y( y + 2 x )( x 2 + 2 xy) −1
y
=−
dx x
Chapter 15 Differentiation 53

15. x 2 + y2 = 25 At the point (1, 0),


d 2 d 2 d dy −(1 + 0)
x + y = (25) = = −1
dx dx dx dx 1 − 3(0)
dy
2x + 2y =0
dx
dy x 20. x 3 − 3x 2 y + 4 y3 =0
=−
dx y d 3 d d
x − 3 ( x 2 y) + 4 y 3 =0
dy 4 4 dx dx dx
At the point (4, −3), =− =
dx ( −3) 3 3 x − 6 xy − 3 x
2 2 dy
+ 12 y 2
dy
=0
dx dx
2 dy
( −3 x + 12 y )
2
= 6 xy − 3 x 2
16. y2 = 4 x dx
d 2
y =4
d dy 2 xy − x 2
dx dx
x =
dx − x 2 + 4 y2
dy
2y =4 At the point (−1, 1),
dx
dy 2 dy 2( −1)(1) − ( −1)2
= = = −1
dx y dx −( −1)2 + 4(1)2
dy 2 1
At the point (4, 4), = =
dx 4 2

Exercise 15E (p.98)


17. xy = 4
d d 1. y = sec x
( xy) = ( 4) d sec( x + ∆x ) − sec x
dx dx (sec x ) = lim
dy dx ∆x → 0 ∆x
x +y=0 cos x − cos( x + ∆x )
dx = lim
dy y ∆x → 0 cos( x + ∆x ) cos x∆x
=−
dx x −2 sin( 2 x +2 ∆x )sin( − 2∆x )
dy 2 = lim
At the point (2, 2), = − = −1 ∆x → 0 cos( x + ∆x ) cos x∆x
dx 2
sin( 2 x +2 ∆x ) sin ∆x
= lim lim ∆x 2
∆x → 0 cos x cos( x + ∆x ) ∆x → 0
18. x 2 + 2 y2 =9 2
sin x
d 2 d 2 d =
x +2 y = ( 9) cos 2 x
dx dx dx
dy = sec x tan x
2x + 4y =0
dx
dy x
=− 2. y = csc x
dx 2y d csc( x + ∆x ) − csc x
(csc x ) = lim
At the point (1, 2),
dy
=−
1
=−
1 dx ∆x → 0 ∆x
dx 2( 2 ) 4 sin x − sin( x + ∆x )
= lim
∆x → 0 sin( x + ∆x )sin x∆x
2 cos( 2 x +2 ∆x )sin( − 2∆x )
19. x 2 + 2 xy − 3 y 2 =1 = lim
∆x → 0 sin( x + ∆x )sin x∆x
d 2 d d d
x + 2 ( xy) − 3 y 2 = (1) − cos( 2 x +2 ∆x ) sin( ∆2x )
dx dx dx dx = lim lim
dy dy ∆x → 0 sin( x + ∆x )sin x ∆x → 0 ∆x
2x + 2y + 2x − 6y =0 2
dx dx − cos x
dy =
(2 x − 6 y) = −(2 x + 2 y ) sin 2 x
dx = − csc x cot x
dy −( x + y )
=
dx x − 3y
54 Chapter 15 Differentiation

3. y = cot x 9. y = sin x 2
d dy d 2
(cot x ) = cos x 2 x
dx dx dx
cot( x + ∆x ) − cot x
= lim = 2 x cos x 2
∆x → 0 ∆x
sin x cos( x + ∆x ) − cos x sin( x + ∆x )
= lim
∆x → 0 ∆x sin x sin( x + ∆x ) 10. y = cos 2 x
sin( − ∆x )
= lim dy
= 2 cos x
d
∆x → 0 ∆x sin x sin( x + ∆x ) cos x
dx dx
sin ∆x −1 = −2 sin x cos x
= lim lim
∆x → 0 ∆x ∆x → 0 sin x sin( x + ∆x )
−1
=
sin 2 x 11. y = csc3 5 x
= − csc 2 x dy d
= 3 csc 2 5 x csc 5 x
dx dx
d
4. y = sin 2 x = 3 csc 2 5 x ( − csc 5 x cot 5 x ) 5x
d dx
(sin 2 x ) = −15 csc3 5 x cot 5 x
dx
sin 2 ( x + ∆x ) − sin 2 x
= lim
∆x → 0 ∆x 12. y = sec 5 (2 x + 1)
1 [1 − cos 2( x + ∆x )] − 1 (1 − cos 2 x )
dy
= lim 2 2
∆x → 0 ∆x dx
cos 2 x − cos 2( x + ∆x ) d
= lim = 5 sec 4 (2 x + 1) sec(2 x + 1)
∆x → 0 2 ∆x dx
−2 sin(2 x + ∆x )sin( − ∆x ) d
= lim = 5 sec 4 (2 x + 1)sec(2 x + 1) tan(2 x + 1) (2 x + 1)
∆x → 0 2 ∆x dx
sin ∆x = 10 sec 5 (2 x + 1) tan(2 x + 1)
= lim sin(2 x + ∆x ) lim
∆x → 0 ∆x → 0 ∆x
= sin 2 x
= 2 sin x cos x 13. y = cot 3 x
1
= (cot 3 x ) 2
5. y = cos(2 x + 1)
dy 1 1 d
dy d = (cot 3 x ) − 2 cot 3 x
= − sin(2 x + 1) (2 x + 1) dx 2 dx
dx dx 1 d
= (cot 3 x ) − 2 ( − csc 2 3 x ) 3 x
1
= −2 sin(2 x + 1)
2 dx
3
= − csc 2 3 x (cot 3 x ) − 2
1
x
6. y = tan 2
2
dy x d x
= sec 2
dx 2 dx 2
1 x 14. y = sin 3 (2 − x )
= sec 2 dy d
2 2 = 3 sin 2 (2 − x ) sin(2 − x )
dx dx
d
7. y = csc(2 − 5 x ) = 3 sin 2 (2 − x ) cos(2 − x ) (2 − x )
dx
dy d
= − csc(2 − 5 x ) cot(2 − 5 x ) (2 − 5 x ) = −3 sin 2 (2 − x ) cos(2 − x )
dx dx
= 5 csc(2 − 5 x ) cot(2 − 5 x )

8. y = sec(2 x − 3) 15. y = cos(1 − x 2 )


dy d dy d
= sec(2 x − 3) tan(2 x − 3) (2 x − 3) = − sin(1 − x 2 ) (1 − x 2 )
dx dx dx dx
= 2 sec(2 x − 3) tan(2 x − 3) = 2 x sin(1 − x 2 )
Chapter 15 Differentiation 55

16. y = 2 tan( 1 − x ) dy
dy d 1 dx
= 2 sec 2 ( 1 − x ) (1 − x ) 2
dx dx (1 − tan x ) dx
d (1 + tan x ) − (1 + tan x ) d (1 − tan x )
1 1 d = dx
= [2 sec ( 1 − x )]( )(1 − x ) − 2
2
(1 − x ) (1 − tan x )2
2 dx
(1 − tan x )sec 2 x + (1 + tan x )sec 2 x
= −(1 − x ) − 2 sec 2 (1 − x ) 2 =
1 1

(1 − tan x )2
= 2 sec 2 x (1 − tan x ) −2
17. y = sin 2 x + cos 3 x
dy d d sin x + cos x tan x + 1
= sin 2 x + cos 3 x 23. y = =
dx dx dx sin x − cos x tan x − 1
d d
= cos 2 x 2 x − sin 3 x 3 x dy
dx dx dx
= 2 cos 2 x − 3 sin 3 x
(tan x − 1) dx
d (tan x + 1) − (tan x + 1) d (tan x − 1)
= dx
(tan x − 1) 2
18. y = tan 2 x − sec 2 x
(tan x − 1)sec 2 x − (tan x + 1)sec 2 x
dy d d =
= tan 2 x − sec 2 x (tan x − 1)2
dx dx dx
d d −2 sec 2 x
= sec 2 2 x 2 x − sec 2 x tan 2 x 2x =
dx dx (tan x − 1)2
= 2 sec 2 2 x − 2 sec 2 x tan 2 x = −2(sin x − cos x ) −2

19. y = sin 2 3 x + cos3 2 x 24. y= x 2 sin 3 x


dy d d 2
dy
=
d
sin 2 3 x +
d
cos3 2 x = x2 sin 3 x + sin 3 x x
dx dx dx dx dx dx
d d = x 2 (3 sin 2 x cos x ) + 2 x sin 3 x
= 2 sin 3 x sin 3 x + 3 cos 2 2 x cos 2 x
dx dx = 2 x sin 3 x + 3 x 2 sin 2 x cos x
= 6 sin 3 x cos 3 x − 6 sin 2 x cos 2 2 x
25. y = sin 2 x cos 3 x
dy d d
20. y = csc 2 x − cot 2 2 x = sin 2 x cos 3 x + cos 3 x sin 2 x
dx dx dx
dy
=
d
csc 2 x −
d
cot 2 2 x = sin 2 x ( −3 sin 3 x ) + cos 3 x (2 cos 2 x )
dx dx dx = −3 sin 2 x sin 3 x + 2 cos 2 x cos 3 x
d d
= 2 csc x csc x − 2 cot 2 x cot 2 x
dx dx 26. y = tan x sin 2 x
= 2 csc x ( − csc x cot x ) − 2 cot 2 x ( −2 csc 2 2 x ) dy d d
= tan x sin 2 x + sin 2 x tan x
= −2 csc 2 x cot x + 4 csc 2 2 x cot 2 x dx dx dx
= tan x (2 cos 2 x ) + sin 2 x (sec 2 x )
= sin 2 x (sec 2 x + 2 tan x cot 2 x )
sin x
21. y= = sin 2 x (1 + tan 2 x + 1 − tan 2 x )
1 − sin x
d d = 2 sin 2 x
(1 − sin x ) sin x − sin x (1 − sin x )
dy dx dx
=
dx (1 − sin x )2 27. y=
sin x
(1 − sin x ) cos x + sin x cos x x
= d sin x − sin x dx
(1 − sin x )2 dy
=
x dx dx
= cos x (1 − sin x ) −2 dx x2
x cos x − sin x
=
x2
1 + tan x
22. y = 1
= 2 ( x cos x − sin x )
1 − tan x x
56 Chapter 15 Differentiation

cos 2 x 1
28. y= 2 32. y = x 2 sin
x +3 x2
dy ( x 2 + 3) dx
d cos 2 x − cos 2 x d ( x 2 + 3) dy
= x2
d 1
sin 2 + sin 2
1 d 2
x
= dx
dx dx x x dx
dx ( x 2 + 3)2
1 d −2 1
−( x 2 + 3)(2 sin 2 x ) − 2 x cos 2 x = x 2 cos 2 x + 2 x sin 2
= x dx x
( x 2 + 3)2 1 −3 1
= x cos 2 ( −2 x ) + 2 x sin 2
2
= [ −2( x + 3)sin 2 x − 2 x cos 2 x ]( x 2 + 3) −2
2
x x
1 2 1
= 2 x sin 2 − cos 2
1 + cos x x x x
29. f ( x ) =
1 − cos x
(a) f ' ( x ) = [(1 − cos x ) d (1 + cos x ) − (1 + cos x ) 1+ x
dx
33. y = x tan
(1 − cos x )] ÷ (1 − cos x )2
d
dx 1− x
− sin x (1 − cos x ) − sin x (1 + cos x ) dy d 1+ x 1+ x d
= =x tan + tan x
(1 − cos x )2 dx dx 1− x 1 − x dx
1+ x d 1+ x 1+ x
−2 sin x = ( x sec 2 ) + tan
= 1 − x dx 1 − x 1− x
(1 − cos x )2 2 1 + x 1 − x + (1 + x ) 1+ x
= ( x sec )[ ] + tan
−2 sin π3 1− x (1 − x ) 2 1− x
π
(b) f ' ( ) = 2x 1 + x 1 + x
3 (1 − cos π3 )2 = sec 2 + tan
(1 − x )2 1− x 1− x
− 3
= 1
4
= −4 3 34. y = cos3 ( x 4 + 1)
dy d
= 3 cos 2 ( x 4 + 1) cos( x 4 + 1)
x dx dx
30. y = x 2 tan 2 = 3 cos 2 ( x 4 + 1)[ − sin( x 4 + 1)]( 4 x 3 )
2
dy d x x d 2 = −12 x 3 cos 2 ( x 4 + 1)sin( x 4 + 1)
(a) = x2 tan 2 + tan 2 x
dx dx 2 2 dx
x x 1 x
= x 2 (2 tan )(sec 2 )( ) + 2 x tan 2
2 2 2 2
x 35. y = 1 + sin 2 2 x
2 x 2 x
= x tan sec
2
+ 2 x tan 1
2 2 2 = (1 + sin 2 2 x ) 2
dy 1 1 d
dy π π π = (1 + sin 2 2 x ) − 2 (1 + sin 2 2 x )
(b) = ( )2 tan sec 2 dx 2 dx
dx x = 2
π 2 4 4 1 d
= (1 + sin 2 2 x ) − 2 (2 sin 2 x ) sin 2 x
1

π π
+ 2( ) tan 2 2 dx
2 4 1 − 12
= (1 + sin 2 x ) (2 sin 2 x )(2 cos 2 x )
2
π2 4 2
= ( )+π
= 2 sin 2 x cos 2 x (1 + sin 2 2 x ) − 2
1
4 2
π2 = sin 4 x (1 + sin 2 2 x ) − 2
1

= +π
2
π( π + 2 )
=
2 3
36. y = (1 + tan 3 x ) 2
dy 3 1 d

31. y = tan 4 ( ax + b) = (1 + tan 3 x ) 2 (1 + tan 3 x )


dx 2 dx
dy d 3 1
= 4 tan 3 ( ax + b) tan( ax + b) = (1 + tan 3 x ) 2 (sec 2 3 x )(3)
dx dx 2
= 4 tan 3 ( ax + b)[sec 2 ( ax + b)]( a) 9 1
= sec 2 3 x (1 + tan 3 x ) 2
= 4 a tan 3 ( ax + b)sec 2 ( ax + b) 2
Chapter 15 Differentiation 57

1 + sin x 1 + sin x 12 2. sin y = cos 2 x


37. y= =( ) d d
1 − sin x 1 − sin x sin y = cos 2 x
dy 1 1 + sin x − 12 d 1 + sin x dx dx
= ( ) dy
dx 2 1 − sin x dx 1 − sin x cos y = −2 sin 2 x
1 1 + sin x − 12 dx
= ( ) dy −2 sin 2 x
2 1 − sin x = = −2 sin 2 x sec y
(1 − sin x ) cos x + (1 + sin x ) cos x dx cos y
[ ]
(1 − sin x )2
cos x 3. cos 3 y = tan 2 x
= d d
cos 3 y =
1 1
(1 + sin x ) (1 − sin x ) 2 (1 − sin x )
2 tan 2 x
dx dx
= (1 − sin x ) −1 dy
−3 sin 3 y = 2 sec 2 2 x
dx
1 dy 2 sec 2 2 x 2
38. y = sin( ) =− = − sec 2 2 x csc 3 y
dx 3 sin 3 y 3
x +1
2
dy 1
d
) ( x 2 + 1) − 2
1
= cos( 4. y cos x + x sin y = 0
dx x +1
2 dx
d dy d
1 −1 y cos x + cos x + x sin y + sin y = 0
)[( )( x 2 + 1) − 2 (2 x )]
3
= cos( dx dx dx
x +1
2 2 dy dy
− y sin x + cos x + x cos y + sin y = 0
= − x ( x 2 + 1) − 2 cos[( x 2 + 1) − 2 ]
3 1
dx dx
dy
(cos x + x cos y) = y sin x − sin y
dx
39. y = 4 cos(sin x ) dy y sin x − sin y
=
dy d dx cos x + x cos y
= −4 sin(sin x ) sin x
dx dx
d 5. y = cos( x + y)
= [ −4 sin(sin x )]cos x x
dx dy d
1 1 = cos( x + y)
= [ −4 sin(sin x )](cos x )( x − 2 ) dx dx
2 d
− 12 = − sin( x + y) ( x + y)
= −2 x cos x sin(sin x ) dx
dy
= [ − sin( x + y)](1 + )
dx
40. y = tan[sin(1 − x 2 )] dy
= − sin( x + y) − sin( x + y)
dy d dx
= sec 2 [sin(1 − x 2 )] sin(1 − x 2 )
dx dx dy
[1 + sin( x + y)] = − sin( x + y)
d dx
= {sec [sin(1 − x )]}cos(1 − x ) (1 − x 2 )
2 2 2
dx dy − sin( x + y)
=
= {sec 2 [sin(1 − x 2 )]}[cos(1 − x 2 )]( −2 x ) dx 1 + sin( x + y)
= −2 x cos(1 − x 2 )sec 2 [sin(1 − x 2 )] = − sin( x + y)[1 + sin( x + y)]−1

6. cos( x + y) = y sin x
d d dy
Exercise 15F (p.101) − sin( x + y) ( x + y) = y sin x + sin x
dx dx dx
1. x = sec y dy dy
[ − sin( x + y)](1 + ) = y cos x + sin x
dx d dx dx
= sec y
dx dx dy dy
− sin( x + y) − sin( x + y) = y cos x + sin x
dy dx dx
1 = sec y tan y
dx dy
[sin( x + y) + sin x ] = − sin( x + y) − y cos x
dy 1 dx
=
dx sec y tan y dy sin( x + y) + y cos x
=−
= cot y cos y dx sin( x + y) + sin x
58 Chapter 15 Differentiation

7. x cos y − sin( x + y) = 0 12. x = a cos t , y = b sin t


d d dx dy
x cos y + cos y − cos( x + y) ( x + y) = 0 = − a sin t , = b cos t
dx dx dt dt
dy dy dy
− x sin y + cos y − cos( x + y)(1 + ) = 0 dy
dx dx ∴ = dt
dx
dy dx dt
[ − x sin y − cos( x + y)] = cos( x + y) − cos y b cos t
dx =
dy cos y − cos( x + y) − a sin t
= b
dx x sin y + cos( x + y) = − cot t
a

8. tan( x 2 + y) = 4 + cot y
13. x = a(t − sin t ) , y = a(1 − cos t )
d dy
sec 2 ( x 2 + y) ( x 2 + y) = − csc 2 y dx dy
dx dx = a − a cos t , = a sin t
dy dy dt dt
sec 2 ( x 2 + y)(2 x + ) = − csc 2 y dy
dx dx dy
dy ∴ = dt
dx
[sec 2 ( x 2 + y) + csc 2 y] = −2 x sec 2 ( x 2 + y) dx dt
dx a sin t
dy 2 x sec 2 ( x 2 + y) =
=− a(1 − cos t )
dx sec 2 ( x 2 + y) + csc 2 y sin t
=
1 − cos t

9. y = x sin( x + y)
dy d 14. tan 3 x = y + 3 tan x − 3 x
= x cos( x + y) ( x + y) + sin( x + y) dy
dx dx 3 tan 2 x sec 2 x = + 3 sec 2 x − 3
dy dx
= [ x cos( x + y)](1 + ) + sin( x + y) dy
dy
dx + 3(1 + tan 2 x ) − 3 − 3 tan 2 x (1 + tan 2 x ) = 0
[1 − x cos( x + y)] = sin( x + y) + x cos( x + y) dx
dx dy
dy sin( x + y) + x cos( x + y) − 3 tan 4 x = 0
= dx
dx 1 − x cos( x + y)
15. y + tan x = x sec 2 x
10. sin( x − y) = y cos x dy
+ sec 2 x = x (2 sec x )(sec x tan x ) + sec 2 x
d dy dx
cos( x − y) ( x − y) = − y sin x + cos x dy
dx dx = 2 x sec 2 x tan x
dy dx
cos( x − y) + y sin x = [cos x + cos( x − y)] dy
dx cos3 x = 2 x sin x
dy cos( x − y) + y sin x dx
=
dx cos x + cos( x − y)
16. y 2 − 2 cos y − x 2 = 2

11. x = sin 2 t , y = cos 2 t dy dy


(a) 2 y + 2 sin y − 2x = 0
dx dx
dx dy
= 2 sin t cos t , = −2 sin t cos t dy
=
x
dt dt dx y + sin y
dy

dy
= dt (b) When y = π ,
dx dx
dt π 2 − 2 cos π − x 2 = 2
−2 sin t cos t
= x 2 = π2
2 sin t cos t x = ±π
= −1
Chapter 15 Differentiation 59

(c) When y = π , 6. y = x (2 x + 1)2


dy ±π
= dy
= x[2(2 x + 1)](2) + (2 x + 1)2
dx π + sin π dx
= 1, − 1
= 4 x (2 x + 1) + (2 x + 1)2
= (2 x + 1)( 4 x + 2 x + 1)
= (6 x + 1)(2 x + 1)
Exercise 15G (p.104)
d2y d d
1. y = x + 2 x − 5x + 8
3 2
2
= (6 x + 1) (2 x + 1) + (2 x + 1) (6 x + 1)
dx dx dx
dy = (6 x + 1)(2) + (2 x + 1)(6)
= 3 x 2 + 2( 2 x ) − 5
dx = 24 x + 8
= 3x 2 + 4 x − 5
d2y
= 3(2 x ) + 4 x
dx 2 7. y=
= 6x + 4 x +1
= x ( x + 1) −1
y = x −3 − 2 x −2 + 4 x −1 + 9
dy
2. = x[ −( x + 1) −2 ] + ( x + 1) −1
dy dx
= −3 x −4 − 2( −2 x −3 ) + 4( − x −2 ) = − x ( x + 1) −2 + ( x + 1) −1
dx
= −3 x −4 + 4 x −3 − 4 x −2 d2y
= − x[ −2( x + 1) −3 ] − ( x + 1) −2 − ( x + 1) −2
d2y dx 2
= −3( −4 x −5 ) + 4( −3 x −4 ) − 4( −2 x −3 ) = 2 x ( x + 1) −3 − 2( x + 1) −2
dx 2
= 12 x −5 − 12 x −4 + 8 x −3 = 2( x + 1) −3 [ x − ( x + 1)]
= −2( x + 1) −3
4
3. y=4 x +
x
= 4x 2 + 4x− 2
1 1

8. y = x2 + 1
dy 1 1 1 3
= 4( x − 2 ) + 4( − x − 2 ) = ( x 2 + 1) 2
1

dx 2 2
− 12 − 23 dy 1 2
= ( x + 1) − 2 (2 x )
1
= 2x − 2x
dx 2
d2y 1 3 3 5
= 2( − x − 2 ) − 2( − x − 2 ) = x ( x 2 + 1) − 2
1

2 2 2
dx
d2y 1
− 23 − 25
= x[ − ( x 2 + 1) − 2 (2 x )] + ( x 2 + 1) − 2
3 1
= − x + 3x 2
dx 2
= − x 2 ( x 2 + 1) − 2 + ( x 2 + 1) − 2
3 1

4. y = ( x + 2) −2
= ( x 2 + 1) − 2 [ − x 2 + (xx 2 + 1)]
3
dy
= −2( x + 2) −3
= ( x 2 + 1) − 2
3
dx
d2y
= −2[ −3( x + 2) −4 ]
dx 2
= 6( x + 2) −4 1
9. y=
1− x
= (1 − x ) − 2
1 1
5. y=
ax + b dy 1
= − (1 − x ) − 2 ( −1)
3

= ( ax + b) −1 dx 2
dy d
= −( ax + b) −2 ( ax + b) 1
= (1 − x ) − 2
3

dx dx 2
= − a( ax + b) −2 d2y 1 3
= [ − (1 − x ) − 2 ( −1)]
5

d2y dx 2
= − a[ −2( ax + b) −3 ]( a)
2 2
dx 2 3
= (1 − x ) − 2
5

= 2 a 2 ( ax + b) −3 4
60 Chapter 15 Differentiation

10. y= x x+2 d2y


1 2
= −2 x 2 (cos 2 x )(2) − 2(sin 2 x )(2 x )
= x ( x + 2) 2 dx
dy 1 + 2 x ( − sin 2 x )(2) + 2 cos 2 x
= x[ ( x + 2) − 2 ] + ( x + 2) 2
1 1

dx 2 = −4 x 2 cos 2 x − 4 x sin 2 x
x − 4 x sin 2 x + 2 cos 2 x
= ( x + 2) − 2 + ( x + 2) 2
1 1

2 = −8 x sin 2 x + 2(1 − 2 x 2 ) cos 2 x


1 x
= ( x + 2) − 2 [ + ( x + 2)]
2
− 12 3 x 14. y = sin 2 x cos 3 x
= ( x + 2) ( + 2)
2 dy d d
= sin 2 x cos 3 x + cos 3 x sin 2 x
d2y 1 d 3x
= ( x + 2) − 2 ( + 2) dx dx dx
dx 2 dx 2 = sin 2 x ( − sin 3 x )(3) + cos 3 x (cos 2 x )(2)
3x d = −3 sin 2 x sin 3 x + 2 cos 2 x cos 3 x
+ ( + 2) ( x + 2) − 2
1

2 dx d2y
= −3(sin 2 x )(cos 3 x )(3) − 3(sin 3 x )(cos 2 x )(2)
− 12 3 3x 1
= ( x + 2) ( ) + ( + 2)[ − ( x + 2) − 2 ] dx 2
3

2 2 2 + 2(cos 2 x )( − sin 3 x )(3)


3 1 3x
= ( x + 2) − ( + 2)( x + 2) − 2
− 12 3
+ 2(cos 3 x )( − sin 2 x )(2)
2 2 2 = −13 sin 2 x cos 3 x − 12 cos 2 x sin 3 x
1 − 23
= ( x + 2) [6( x + 2) − (3 x + 4)]
4
1
= (3 x + 8)( x + 2) − 2 y = x sin 2 x
3
15.
4 dy
= x (2 sin x cos x ) + sin 2 x
dx
11. y = x sin x 2 = 2 x sin x cos x + sin 2 x
dy d 2
= x cos x 2 x + sin x 2 d2y
dx dx = 2 sin x cos x + 2 x (cos x )(cos x )
dx 2
= 2 x 2 cos x 2 + sin x 2 + 2 x (sin x )( − sin x ) + 2 sin x cos x
d2y = 2 x cos 2 x − 2 x sin 2 x + 4 sin x cos x
= ( −2 x 2 sin x 2 )(2 x ) + (2 cos x 2 )(2 x )
dx 2
+ (cos x 2 )(2 x )
= −4 x 3 sin x 2 + 4 x cos x 2 + 2 x cos x 2 16. y = tan x sec 2 x
dy d d
= 6 x cos x 2 − 4 x 3 sin x 2 = tan x sec 2 x + sec 2 x tan x
dx dx dx
sin x = tan x (2 sec 2 x tan x ) + sec 2 x (sec 2 x )
12. y=
x = 2 sec 2 x (sec 2 x − 1) + sec 4 x
= x −1 sin x = 3 sec 4 x − 2 sec 2 x
dy
= x −1 cos x + (sin x )( − x −2 )
2
d y
dx = 3( 4 sec3 x )(sec x tan x )
dx 2
= x −1 cos x − x −2 sin x − 2(2 sec x )(sec x tan x )
d2y = 12 sec 4 x tan x − 4 sec 2 x tan x
2
= − x −1 sin x + (cos x )( − x −2 )
dx = 4 sec 2 x tan x (3 sec 2 x − 1)
− [ x −2 cos x + (sin x )( −2 x −3 )]
= − x −1 sin x − x −2 cos x − x −2 cos x
cos x
+ 2 x −3 sin x 17. y=
x
= (2 − x 2 ) x −3 sin x − 2 x −2 cos x
= x − 2 cos x
1

dy 1 3
= x − 2 ( − sin x ) + (cos x )( − x − 2 )
1
13. y = x 2 cos 2 x
dy dx 2
= x 2 ( − sin 2 x )(2) + (cos 2 x )(2 x ) − 12 1 − 23
dx = − x sin x − x cos x
2
= −2 x 2 sin 2 x + 2 x cos 2 x
Chapter 15 Differentiation 61

d2y 2 xy( 4 + 1)
1 3
= − x − 2 cos x − (sin x )( − x − 2 )
1
=
dx 2 2 ( x − y 2 )3
1 − 23 1
+ x sin x − (cos x )( − x − 2 )
3 5 = 10 xy( x − y 2 ) −3
2 2 2
− 23 − 12 3 − 25
= x sin x − x cos x + x cos x
4 21. 2 x 2 + 2 y2 =5
1 − 25
= x [(3 − 4 x ) cos x + 4 x sin x ]
2 dy
4 2( 2 x ) + 2( 2 y ) =0
dx
dy
4x + 4y =0
18. y = sin( x 2 + 1) dx
dy d dy x
= cos( x 2 + 1) ( x 2 + 1) =−
dx dx dx y
= 2 x cos( x 2 + 1) y − x dx
dy
d2y
2
d y 2
=−
= 2 x[ − sin( x 2 + 1)](2 x ) + 2 cos( x 2 + 1) dx y2
dx 2
− y + x ( − xy )
= −4 x 2 sin( x 2 + 1) + 2 cos( x 2 + 1) =
y2
19. x + xy + y = 3 − y2 − x 2
=
1+ x
dy
+y+
dy
=0 y3
dx dx 1
dy = − 3 ( x 2 + y2 )
( x + 1) = −1 − y y
dx 5 −3
dy −1 − y =− y
= 2
dx x +1
dy
d y ( x + 1)( − dx ) − ( −1 − y)
2
=
dx 2 ( x + 1)2 22. sin y + cos x = 1
dy −1 − y dy
= −( x + 1) −1 − cos y − sin x = 0
dx ( x + 1)2 dx
−1 − y 1+ y dy sin x
= −( x − 1) −1 ( )+ =
x +1 dx cos y
( x + 1)2
dy
= 2( y + 1)( x + 1) −2 d 2 y cos y cos x − sin x ( − sin y) dx
=
dx 2 cos 2 y
20. x 3 − 3 xy + y 3 =4 cos 2 y cos x + sin 2 x sin y
=
3x 2 − 3x
dy
− 3y + 3y 2
dy
=0 cos3 y
dx dx
dy
(3 y − 3 x )
2
= 3y − 3x 2
dx 23. b2 x 2 − a2 y2 = a2b2
dy x2 − y dy
= b 2 (2 x ) − a 2 (2 y) =0
dx x − y2 dx
dy dy dy b 2 x
d 2 y ( x − y )(2 x − dx ) − ( x − y)(1 − 2 y dx )
2 2
= =
dx a 2 y
dx 2 ( x − y 2 )2
dy
dy
= [2 x 2 − x dx − 2 xy 2 + y 2
dy dy
− x 2 + 2 x 2 y dx d 2 y b 2 y − x dx
dx =
dy dx 2 a 2 y 2
+ y − 2 y2 ] ÷ (x −y )
2 2
dx
b2 a2 y2 − b2 x 2
x − 2 xy + y − ( x + y 2 − 2 x 2 y) dx
2 2 dy = 2
= a a2 y3
( x − y 2 )2 a2b2 y2 − b 4 x 2
2 xy( x − 3 xy + 1 + y )
3 3 =
= a 4 y3
( x − y 2 )3
62 Chapter 15 Differentiation

= 2(1 + tan 2 x )(1 + tan 2 x + 2 tan 2 x )


2 2 2
24. x3 + y3 = a3
2 − 13 2 − 13 dy = 2(1 + y)(1 + 3 y)
x + y =0
3 3 dx
dy y 1 28. y = a sin kx + b cos kx
= −( ) 3 dy
dx x = a cos( kx )( k ) + b( − sin kx )( k )
dy dx
d2y 1 y − 23 x dx − y = ak cos( kx ) − bk sin(kx )
= − ( )
dx 2 3 x x2 d2y
2 = ak ( − sin kx )( k ) − bk (cos kx )( k )
=
a3 dx 2
4 1
3x 3 y 3 = − ak 2 sin kx − bk 2 cos kx
d2y
2
+ k 2 y = − ak 2 sin kx − bk 2 cos kx
25. x = 2 y + sin y dx
dy dy + k 2 ( a sin kx + b cos kx )
1= 2 + cos y =0
dx dx
dy 1
=
dx 2 + cos y 29. y = x + x2 − 1
dy 1
= 1 + ( x 2 − 1) − 2 (2 x )
1
dy
d 2 y −( − sin y) dx dx 2
=
dx 2 (2 + cos y)2 = 1 + x ( x 2 − 1) − 2
1

sin y d2y
= 1
= x[ − ( x 2 − 1) − 2 (2 x )] + ( x 2 − 1) − 2
3 1

(2 + cos y)3 dx 2 2
= − x ( x − 1) − 2 + ( x 2 − 1) − 2
3 1
2 2

= ( x 2 − 1) − 2 [ − x 2 + ( x 2 − 1)]
3
cos x
26. y=
= −( x 2 − 1) − 2
x 3

dy x ( − sin x ) − cos x
= d2y dy
dx x2 ( x 2 − 1) +x −y
− x sin x − cos x dx 2 dx
=
= ( x 2 − 1)[ −( x 2 − 1) − 2 ] + x[1 + x ( x 2 − 1) − 2 ]
3 1

2
x2
d y 1
− x − ( x 2 − 1) 2
dx 2
= −( x 2 − 1) − 2 + x + x 2 ( x 2 − 1) − 2 − x − ( x 2 − 1) 2
1 1 1

[ x 2 ( − x cos x − sin x + sin x ) + ( x sin x + cos x )2 x ]


=
= ( x 2 − 1) − 2 [ −1 + x 2 − ( x 2 − 1)]
1

x4
− x cos x + 2 x sin x + 2 cos x
2 =0
=
x3 cos x
2
d y 2 dy − x 2 cos x + 2 x sin x + 2 cos x
30. y=
+ + y = x
dx 2 x dx x3 = x − 2 cos x
1

−2 x sin x − 2 cos x cos x


+ + dy 1 3
= x − 2 ( − sin x ) + cos x ( − x − 2 )
1

x3 x
dx 2
=0 1 − 23
− 12
= − x sin x − x cos x
2
27. y = tan 2 x
d2y 1 − 23
= −(sin x )( − x ) − x − 2 cos x
1
dy d
= 2 tan x tan x dx 2 2
dx dx 1 − 23 1 3 5
= 2 tan x sec 2 x − [ x ( − sin x ) + (cos x )( − x − 2 )]
2 2 2
d2y d d 1 − 23 − 12
2
= 2 tan x sec 2 x + 2 sec 2 x tan x = x sin x − x cos x
dx dx dx 2
= 2 tan x (2 sec 2 x tan x ) + 2 sec 4 x 1 3 3 5
+ x − 2 sin x + x − 2 cos x
= 4 sec 2 x tan 2 x + 2 sec 4 x 2 4
3 5
= x − 2 sin x − x − 2 cos x + x − 2 cos x
3 1

= 2 sec 2 x (sec 2 x + 2 tan 2 x ) 4


Chapter 15 Differentiation 63

d2y dy 6. y= x 2 ( x + 2 )3
x2 2
+x + ( x 2 − k)y = 0
dx dx dy d d 2
= x2 ( x + 2 )3 + ( x + 2 )3 x
3 1
x sin x − x cos x + x − 2 cos x − x 2 sin x
1
2
3
2
1 dx dx dx
4 = x 2 [3( x + 2)2 ] + ( x + 2)3 (2 x )
1 − 12
− x cos x + x 2 cos x − kx − 2 cos x = 0
3 1
= 3 x 2 ( x + 2 ) 2 + 2 x ( x + 2 )3
2
1 − 12 = x ( x + 2)2 [3 x + 2( x + 2)]
x cos x − kx − 2 cos x = 0
1

4 = x ( x + 2 ) 2 (5 x + 4 )
1
x − 2 (cos x )( − k ) = 0
1

4
y = 2 x (2 x + 1)3
x − 2 cos x = 0 or
1 1 7.
−k =0 3
4 = 2 x (2 x + 1) 2
1
k= dy d 3 3 d

4 = 2 x (2 x + 1) 2 + 2(2 x + 1) 2 x
dx dx dx
3 1 3
= 2 x[ (2 x + 1) 2 (2)] + 2(2 x + 1) 2
2
1 3
Revision Exercise 15 (p.107) = 6 x (2 x + 1) 2 + 2(2 x + 1) 2
1

1. y = 2 x 3 + 5 x 2 − 7 x + 12 = 2(2 x + 1) 2 [3 x + (2 x + 1)]
1
dy = 2(5 x + 1)(2 x + 1) 2
= 2(3 x 2 ) + 5(2 x ) − 7
dx
= 6 x 2 + 10 x − 7 4x + 1
8. y=
4x − 1
dy ( 4 x − 1)( 4) − ( 4 x + 1)( 4)
=
2. y = x 2 + 7 x − 6 − 4 x −1 + 3 x −2 dx ( 4 x − 1)2
dy
= 2 x + 7 − 4( − x −2 ) + 3( −2 x −3 ) −8
dx =
( 4 x − 1)2
= 2 x + 7 + 4 x −2 − 6 x −3
= −8( 4 x − 1) −2

y = 4 x 3 − 3x − 3 − 5x − 4
2 1 1
3. 1 − 3x
9. y=
dy 2 1 1 4 1 5 1 + 3x
= 4( x − 3 ) − 3( − x − 3 ) − 5( − x − 4 )
dx 3 3 4 1 − 3 x 12
=( )
8 − 13
= x +x + x − 43 5 − 45 1 + 3x
3 4 dy 1 1 − 3 x − 12 d 1 − 3x
= ( )
dx 2 1 + 3 x dx 1 + 3 x
1 1 − 3 x − 12 (1 + 3 x )( −3) − (1 − 3 x )(3)
= ( )
4. y=4 x −
3
+
5 2 1 + 3x (1 + 3 x )2
3
x 2 5 x 1 1 − 3 x − 12 −6
= ( )
= 4 x 2 − 3x − 3 + 5x − 5
1 2 1
2 1 + 3x (1 + 3 x )2
= −3(1 − 3 x ) − 2 (1 + 3 x ) − 2
1 3
dy 1 1 2 5 1 6
= 4( x − 2 ) − 3( − x − 3 ) + 5( − x − 5 )
dx 2 3 5
= 2x− 2 + 2x− 3 − x− 5
1 5 6

1− x
10. y=
1+ x
dy (1 + x ) dx (1 − x ) − (1 − x ) dx (1 + x )
d d
4 x 3 + 5 x − 6 + 7 x −1 =
5. y=
x2 dx (1 + x )2
= 4 x + 5 x − 6 x −2 + 7 x −3
−1 1 1
(1 + x )( − 12 x − 2 ) − (1 − x )( x − 2 )
1

dy = 2
= 4 + 5( − x −2 ) − 6( −2 x −3 ) + 7( −3 x −4 ) (1 + x )2
dx
= − x − 2 (1 + x ) −2
1
= 4 − 5 x −2 + 12 x −3 − 21x −4
64 Chapter 15 Differentiation

1
11. y = 5 2 x 2 − 9 x + 13 = (2 x 2 − 9 x + 13) 5 x2 − 6x + 8
17. y=
dy 1
= (2 x 2 − 9 x + 13) − 5 ( 4 x − 9)
4
x−3
dx 5 dy ( x − 3)(2 x − 6) − ( x 2 − 6 x + 8)
1 =
= ( 4 x − 9)(2 x 2 − 9 x + 13) − 5
4
dx ( x − 3)2
5
= ( x 2 − 6 x + 10)( x − 3) −2
3
12. y = (2 x 2 + 1) 2 x 2 + 1 = (2 x 2 + 1) 2
dy 3 1
= (2 x 2 + 1) 2 ( 4 x ) 2x2
18. y=
dx 2
1
x −1
= 6 x (2 x 2 + 1) 2 dy ( x − 1)( 4 x ) − 2 x 2
=
dx ( x − 1)2
x = 2 x ( x − 2)( x − 1) −2
13. y=
x −1
( x − 1)( 12 x − 2 ) − x
1
dy
= 1
dx ( x − 1)2 19. y = ( x + )3
1 − 12 x
x ( x − 1) −1 − x 2 ( x − 1) −2
1
= dy 1 d 1
2 = 3( x + )2 (x + )
1 1 dx x dx x
= x − 2 ( x − 1) −2 [( x − 1) − 2 x ] 1 2 −2
2 = 3( x + ) [1 + ( − x )]
1 x
= − (1 + x ) x − 2 ( x − 1) −2
1

= 3( x + x −1 )2 (1 − x −2 )
2

1
14. y = (2 x + 3) 2 ( x 2 + 5 x ) x2 +1
dy 1 20. y = ( 2 )2
= (2 x + 3) 2 (2 x + 5) x −1
dx
dy x2 +1 d x2 +1
1
+ ( x 2 + 5 x )[ (2 x + 3) − 2 (2)]
1
= 2( 2 )
2 dx x − 1 dx x 2 − 1
= (2 x + 3) (2 x + 5) + ( x 2 + 5 x )(2 x + 3) − 2
1 1
x 2 + 1 ( x 2 − 1)(2 x ) − ( x 2 + 1)(2 x )
= 2( 2 )
2

x −1 ( x 2 − 1)2
= (2 x + 3) − 2 [(2 x + 3)(2 x + 5) + ( x 2 + 5 x )]
1

= −8 x ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) −3
= (5 x 2 + 21x + 15)(2 x + 3) − 2
1

x2 1 − x + x2
15. y= 21. y=
x +1 1 + x − x2
x + 1(2 x ) − x 2 [ 12 ( x + 1) − 2 ]
1
dy dy (1 + x − x 2 )( −1 + 2 x ) − (1 − x + x 2 )(1 − 2 x )
= =
dx x +1 dx (1 + x − x 2 )2
= 2(2 x − 1)(1 + x − x 2 ) −2
− 12 1
− x 2 ( x + 1) − 2
3
= 2 x ( x + 1)
2
1
x ( x + 1) − 2 [ 4( x + 1) − x ]
3
=
2 x
1 22. y=
= x ( x + 1) − 2 (3 x + 4)
3

2 x −1
2

= x ( x 2 − 1) − 2
1

x −1 dy 1
= x[ − ( x 2 − 1) − 2 (2 x )] + ( x 2 − 1) − 2
3 1
16. y= 2
x −4 dx 2
= − x 2 ( x 2 − 1) − 2 + ( x 2 − 1) − 2
3 1
dy ( x 2 − 4) − ( x − 1)(2 x )
=
= ( x 2 − 1) − 2 [ − x 2 + ( x 2 − 1)]
3
dx ( x 2 − 4)2
= −( x 2 − 2 x + 4)( x 2 − 4) −2 = −( x 2 − 1) − 2
3
Chapter 15 Differentiation 65

23. y = x2 1 + x 28. y=
x
1 − 2x2
1
= x 2 (1 + x ) 2

= x (1 − 2 x 2 ) − 2
1
dy 1
= x 2 [ (1 + x ) − 2 ] + (1 + x ) 2 (2 x )
1 1

dy 1
= x[ − (1 − 2 x 2 ) − 2 ( −4 x )] + (1 − 2 x 2 ) − 2
dx 2 3 1

1
= x (1 + x ) − 2 [ x + 4(1 + x )]
1
dx 2
= 2 x (1 − 2 x 2 ) − 2 + (1 − 2 x 2 ) − 2
3 1
2 2
1
= x (5 x + 4)(1 + x ) − 2
1

= (1 − 2 x 2 ) − 2 [2 x 2 + (1 − 2 x 2 )]
3

2
= (1 − 2 x 2 ) − 2
3

1
=
24. y = ( x − 1) x 2 − 2 x + 2 (1 − 2 x 2 )3
1
= ( x − 1)( x 2 − 2 x + 2) 2 1 x3
dy 1 = 3
= ( x − 1)[ ( x 2 − 2 x + 2) − 2 (2 x − 2)]
1
x (1 − 2 x 2 )3
dx 2
1 y
+ ( x 2 − 2 x + 2) 2 = ( )3
x
= ( x 2 − 2 x + 2) − 2 [( x − 1)( x − 1)
1

+ ( x 2 − 2 x + 2)]
= ( x 2 − 2 x + 2) − 2 (2 x 2 − 4 x + 3)
1
29. y = 2x 2x + 3
1

= (2 x 2 − 4 x + 3)( x 2 − 2 x + 2) −
1
2 = 2 x (2 x + 3) 2
dy 1
= 2 x[ (2 x + 3) − 2 (2)] + 2(2 x + 3) 2
1 1

dx 2
= 2 x (2 x + 3) − 2 + 2(2 x + 3) 2
1 1
25. y 3 = x 2 + 3 xy + y 2
3y 2
dy
= 2 x + 3x
dy
+ 3y + 2 y
dy 4x2 2x 2x + 3
= +
dx dx dx 2x 2x + 3 x
dy 2
(3 y 2 − 3 x − 2 y ) = 2 x + 3y 4x y
dx = +
y x
dy 2 x + 3y
=
dx 3 y 2 − 3 x − 2 y
= (2 x + 3 y)(3 y 2 − 3 x − 2 y) −1 30. y = x2 1 − x
1
= x 2 (1 − x ) 2
dy 1
= x 2 [ (1 − x ) − 2 ( −1)] + (1 − x ) 2 (2 x )
1 1

26. x 2 − 2 xy + y 2 = 3 x − 2 y + 5 dx 2
dy dy dy
2x − 2x − 2y + 2y = 3−2 x2
dx dx dx =− + 2x 1 − x
dy 2 1− x
(2 y − 2 x + 2) = 3 + 2y − 2x x4 2x2 1 − x
dx =− 2 +
dy 3 + 2 y − 2 x 2x 1 − x x
= 4
dx 2 + 2 y − 2 x 2y x
= −
= (2 x − 2 y − 3)(2 x − 2 y − 2) −1 x 2y

27. x 3 + 2 x 2 y 2 + y3 = 0 31. y = cos( x 2 + 1 )


dy dy dy d
3 x 2 + 2 x 2 (2 y ) + 2 y 2 (2 x ) + 3 y 2 =0
1
= − sin( x 2 + 1 ) ( x 2 + 1) 2
dx dx dx dx
dy 1
(4 x 2 y + 3y 2 ) = −4 xy 2 − 3 x 2 = − sin( x + 1 )[ ( x 2 + 1) − 2 (2 x )]
1
2
dx 2
dy − x ( 4 y 2 + 3 x )
= − x ( x 2 + 1) − 2 sin( x 2 + 1 )
1
=
dx y( 4 x 2 + 3 y )
66 Chapter 15 Differentiation

32. y = sec(3 x ) 38. y = x 2 cot x 2


dy d 13 dy
= sec(3 x ) tan(3 x ) x = x 2 ( − csc 2 x 2 )(2 x ) + (cot x 2 )(2 x )
dx dx dx
1 2
= x − 3 sec(3 x ) tan(3 x ) = 2 x cot x 2 − 2 x 3 csc 2 x 2
3

1− x
33. y = cot(1 − 2 x 2 ) 39. y = tan
1+ x
dy d
= − csc 2 (1 − 2 x 2 ) (1 − 2 x 2 ) dy 2 1− x d 1− x
= sec ( )
dx dx dx 1 + x dx 1 + x
= − csc 2 (1 − 2 x 2 )( −4 x ) 1 − x (1 + x )( −1) − (1 − x )
= [sec 2 ( )][ ]
= 4 x csc 2 (1 − 2 x 2 ) 1+ x (1 + x )2
−2 1− x
= sec 2 ( )
(1 + x ) 2 1+ x
x
34. y = sec 2
2
dy x d x
= 2 sec sec 40. y = cos nx cos n x
dx 2 dx 2
dy d d
x x
= 2 sec sec tan
x d x = cos nx cos n x + cos n x cos nx
2 2 2 dx 2 dx dx dx
x x 1 = cos nx (n cos n −1 x )( − sin x )
= 2(sec 2 tan )( )
2 2 2 + cos n x ( − sin nx )(n)
x
= sec 2 tan
x = − n cos n −1 x (cos nx sin x + cos x sin nx )
2 2
= − n cos n −1 x sin(n + 1) x

35. y = csc 4 x
y = x8 − 2 x 6 + 7x 2 − 5
1
= (csc 4 x ) 2 41.
dy 1 1 d dy
= (csc 4 x ) − 2 csc 4 x = 8 x 7 − 2(6 x 5 ) + 7(2 x )
dx 2 dx dx
1 = 8 x 7 − 12 x 5 + 14 x
= (csc 4 x ) − 2 ( − csc 4 x cot 4 x )( 4)
1

2 d2y
1 = 8(7 x 6 ) − 12(5 x 4 ) + 14
= −2(csc 4 x ) 2 cot 4 x dx 2
= 56 x 6 − 60 x 4 + 14
1 − cos x
36. y =
1 + cos x
dy 42. y = x n + x −n
dy
dx = nx n −1 + ( − nx − n −1 )
(1 + cos x ) dx
d (1 − cos x ) − (1 − cos x ) d (1 + cos x ) dx
= = nx n −1 − nx − n −1
dx
(1 + cos x )2
(1 + cos x )sin x + (1 − cos x )sin x d2y
= 2
= n(n − 1) x n − 2 − n( − n − 1) x − n − 2
(1 + cos x )2 dx
= n(n − 1) x n − 2 + n(n + 1) x −( n + 2 )
= 2 sin x (1 + cos x ) −2

y = 4 x 2 − 9 x 3 + 5 x −1
3 2
1 1
37. y= tan 43.
x x dy 3 1 2 1
dy 1 2 1 d 1 1 d 1 = 4( x 2 ) − 9( x − 3 ) + 5( − x −2 )
= sec + tan dx 2 3
= 6 x 2 − 6 x − 3 − 5 x −2
dx x x dx x x dx x 1 1

1 2 1 1
= (sec )( − x ) + (tan )( − x −2 )
−2
d2y 1 1 1 4
x x x
2
= 6( x − 2 ) − 6( − x − 3 ) − 5( −2 x −3 )
1 2 1 1 dx 2 3
= − 3 (sec + x tan ) − 12 − 43
x x x = 3 x + 2 x + 10 x −3
Chapter 15 Differentiation 67

x d2y
44. y= = cos x ( − sin 2 x )(2) + cos 2 x ( − sin x )
1− x 2
dx 2
1 d 1 − [2 sin x (cos 2 x )(2) + 2 sin 2 x cos x ]
(1 − x 2 ) 2 − x (1 − x 2 ) 2
dy dx = −2 sin 2 x cos x − sin x cos 2 x
=
dx 1 − x2 − 4 sin x cos 2 x − 2 sin 2 x cos x
1 = −5 sin x cos 2 x − 4 sin 2 x cos x
(1 − x 2 ) 2 − x[ (1 − x 2 ) − 2 ( −2 x )]
1 1

= 2
1 − x2
= (1 − x 2 ) − 2 + x 2 (1 − x 2 ) − 2 y = cos x
1 3
49.
2 − 23 dy d 12
= (1 − x ) (1 − x + x )
2 2 = − sin x x
2 − 23
dx dx
= (1 − x ) −1 − 12
= x sin x
d2y 3 2
= − (1 − x 2 ) − 2 ( −2 x )
5

2 d2y 1 1 1 1
dx 2 = − x − 2 (cos x )( x − 2 )
= 3 x (1 − x 2 ) − 2
5 2 2 2
dx
1 1 − 23
− sin x ( − x )
x 2 2
y= 1 −1 1 3
= − x cos x + x − 2 sin x
45.
ax + b
dy ax + b − x ( a) 4 4
= 1 − 23
dx ( ax + b)2 = x (sin x − x cos x )
4
= b( ax + b) −2
d2y
= b[ −2( ax + b) −3 ( a)] 1 − sin x
dx 2 50. y=
= −2 ab( ax + b) −3 1 + sin x
dy (1 + sin x )( − cos x ) − (1 − sin x )(cos x )
=
dx (1 + sin x )2
x2 −2 cos x
46. y= =
1− x (1 + sin x )2
dy (1 − x )(2 x ) − x 2 ( −1)
= d2y
dx (1 − x )2
dx 2
2x − x2
= 2 sin x (1 + sin x )2 + 2 cos x[2(1 + sin x ) cos x ]
(1 − x )2 =
(1 + sin x ) 4
d2y (1 − x )2 (2 − 2 x ) − (2 x − x 2 )( −2 + 2 x ) 2(2 − sin x )(1 + sin x )
= =
dx 2 (1 − x ) 4 (1 + sin x )3
= 2(1 − x ) −1 + 2 x (2 − x )(1 − x ) −3 2(2 − sin x )
=
= (1 − x ) −3 [2(1 − x )2 + 2 x (2 − x )] (1 + sin x )2
= 2(1 − x ) −3

51. xy + y 2 = 12
47. y = sin 3 x
dy dy
dy x + y + 2y =0
= 3 sin 2 x cos x dx dx
dx dy
d2y = − y( x + 2 y) −1
2
= 3 sin 2 x ( − sin x ) + 3 cos x (2 sin x cos x ) dx
dx At the point (4, 2),
= −3 sin 3 x + 6 sin x cos 2 x dy
= −(2)[( 4) + 2(2)]−1
dx
48. y = sin x cos 2 x 1
dy =−
= cos 2 x cos x + sin x ( − sin 2 x )(2) 4
dx
= cos x cos 2 x − 2 sin x sin 2 x
68 Chapter 15 Differentiation

52. x 2 + xy + y 2 = 1 sin 2 x
56. f ( x ) =
2x + x
dy
+ y + 2y
dy
=0 1 + cos 2 x
dx dx f '( x )
dy
= −(2 x + y)( x + 2 y) −1 (1 + cos 2 x )(2 sin x cos x ) + sin 2 x (2 cos x sin x )
dx =
(1 + cos 2 x )2
At the point (−1, 1),
2 sin x cos x (1 + cos 2 x + sin 2 x )
dy =
= −[2( −1) + (1)][( −1) + 2(1)]−1 (1 + cos 2 x )2
dx
=1 4 sin x cos x
=
(1 + cos 2 x )2
π 4 sin( π4 ) cos( π4 )
53. x 2 − 3 xy + 2 y 2 − 2 x − 4 = 0 f '( ) =
dy dy 4 (1 + cos 2 π4 )2
2 x − 3x − 3y + 4 y −2=0
dx dx 8
=
dy
= (2 x − 3 y − 2)(3 x − 4 y) −1 9
dx
At the point (1, −1), 57 − 60. No solutions are provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
questions because of the copyright reasons.
dy
= [2(1) − 3( −1) − 2][3(1) − 4( −1)]−1
dx 1
3 61. f ( x ) = 2
= x + 5x + 6
7 1
(a) f ( x ) =
( x + 2)( x + 3)
x 3 + y 3 − 9 xy = 27 A B
54. Let f ( x ) = +
dy dy x+2 x+3
3x 2 + 3y 2 − 9x − 9y = 0 Then A( x + 3) + B( x + 2) = 1
dx dx
dy ( A + B) x + (3 A + 2 B) = 1
= ( x 2 − 3 y)(3 x − y 2 ) −1
dx  A+ B= 0
3 A + 2 B = 1
At the point (3, 0), 
dy ∴ A = 1 , B = −1
= [(3)2 − 3(0)][3(3) − (0)2 ]−1 1 1
dx ∴ f ( x) = −
=1 x+2 x+3
d d
(b) f ' ( x ) = ( x + 2) −1 − ( x + 3) −1
dx dx
55. x 3 y − 2 x 2 y 2 + xy 3 = 2
= −( x + 2) −2 + ( x + 3) −2
dy dy
x3 + 3x 2 y − 4 x 2 y f "( x ) = 2( x + 2) −3 − 2( x + 3) −3
dx dx
dy 2 2
− 4 xy 2 + 3 xy 2 + y3 = 0 = −
dx ( x + 2) 3
( x + 3)3
dy 4 xy 2 − 3 x 2 y − y 3
= 62. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E.
dx −4 x 2 y + 3 xy 2 + x 3 question because of the copyright reasons.
y( 4 xy − 3 x 2 − y 2 )
= 63. y = x cos 2 x
− x ( 4 xy − 3 y 2 − x 2 ) dy
y(3 x − y)( x − y) = cos 2 x + x ( − sin 2 x )(2)
= dx
− x ( x − 3 y)( x − y) = cos 2 x − 2 x sin 2 x
= − y(3 x − y) x −1 ( x − 3 y) −1 d2y
= −2 sin 2 x − 2(sin 2 x + 2 x cos 2 x )
At the point (2, 1), dx 2
dy = −4 sin 2 x − 4 x cos 2 x
= −(1)[3(2) − (1)](2) −1[(2) − 3(1)]−1
dx d2y
5 + 4 y = −4 sin 2 x − 4 x cos 2 x + 4 x cos 2 x
= dx 2
2 = −4 sin 2 x
Chapter 15 Differentiation 69

64. x = y + cos y d2y d


dy dy = −2[( x 2 + 1) ( x 2 − 1) −2
1= − sin y dx 2 dx
dx dx −2 d
dy 1 + ( x − 1)
2
( x 2 − 1)]
= dx
dx 1 − sin y
= −2{( x 2 + 1)[ −2( x 2 − 1) −3 (2 x )]
= (1 − sin y) −1
+ ( x 2 − 1) −2 (2 x )}
= 8 x ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) −3 − 4 x ( x 2 − 1) −2
2
d y d
= −(1 − sin y) −2 ( − sin y)
dx dx = 4 x ( x 2 − 1) −3 [2( x 2 + 1) − ( x 2 − 1)]
dy
= −(1 − sin y) −2 ( − cos y) = 4 x ( x 2 + 3)( x 2 − 1) −3
dx
= cos y(1 − sin y) −2 (1 − sin y) −1
1 d 2 y dy y
= cos y(1 − sin y) −3 (b) ⋅ 2 + − ( )2
y dx dx x
x2 − 1
=( )4 x ( x 2 + 3)( x 2 − 1) −3
65. No solution is provided for the H.K.C.E.E. 2x
question because of the copyright reasons. 22
− 2( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) −2 − 2
( x − 1)2
x = 2( x 2 + 3)( x 2 − 1) −2 − 2( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) −2
66. (a) y=
4 − x2 − 4( x 2 − 1) −2
= x(4 − x 2 )− 2
1
= 2( x 2 − 1) −2 [( x 2 + 3) − ( x 2 + 1) − 2]
dy x =0
= ( 4 − x 2 ) − 2 + [ − ( 4 − x 2 ) − 2 ( −2 x )]
1 3

dx 2
= (4 − x 2 )− 2 + x 2 (4 − x 2 )− 2 y = A sin x + B cos x
1 3
68. (a)
2 − 23 dy
= (4 − x ) (4 − x + x )
2 2
= A cos x − B sin x
2 − 23 dx
= 4( 4 − x ) d2y
2 = − A sin x − B cos x
d y 3
= 4[ − ( 4 − x 2 ) − 2 ( −2 x )]
5
dx 2
2 2
dx d2y dy
= 12 x ( 4 − x 2 ) − 2
5
(b) 3 2
−2 + 6 y = −13 cos x
dx dx
−3( A sin x + B cos x )
x d2y dy − 2( A cos x − B sin x )
(b) ⋅ −3
y 2 dx 2 dx + 6( A sin x + B cos x ) = −13 cos x
= ( 4 − x 2 ) ⋅ 12( 4 − x 2 ) − 2 − 12( 4 − x 2 ) − 2
5 3
3( A sin x + B cos x )
= 12( 4 − x 2 ) − 2 − 12( 4 − x 2 ) − 2
3 3
− 2( A cos x − B sin x ) = −13 cos x
=0 (3 A + 2 B)sin x
+ (3 B − 2 A) cos x = −13 cos x
Comparing coefficients,
2x
67. (a) y=  3A + 2 B = 0
x −1
2 −2 A + 3 B = −13

= 2 x ( x 2 − 1) −1 ∴ A = 2 , B = −3
dy
= 2( x 2 − 1) −1 + 2 x[ −( x 2 − 1) −2 (2 x )]
dx
= 2( x 2 − 1) −1 − 4 x 2 ( x 2 − 1) −2 69. (a) y= x n sin x
dy
= 2( x 2 − 1) −2 [( x 2 − 1) − 2 x 2 ] = x n cos x + (sin x )(nx n −1 )
dx
= −2( x 2 + 1)( x 2 − 1) −2
= x n cos x + nx n −1 sin x
70 Chapter 15 Differentiation

d2y (b) y 2 = sec u


dx 2 2y
dy
= sec u tan u
= x n ( − sin x ) + cos x (nx n −1 ) du
dy sec u tan u
+ n[ x n −1 cos x + (sin x )(n − 1) x n − 2 ] = 1
du 2(sec u) 2
= − x n sin x + nx n −1 cos x
1 1

+ nx n −1 cos x + n(n − 1) x n − 2 sin x = (sec u) 2 tan u


2
= [n(n − 1) − x 2 ]x n − 2 sin x + 2 nx n −1 cos x 1 − 2x
Q u=
1 + 2x
d2y dy 1− u
(b) x 2
−2 + xy ∴ x=
dx dx 2(u + 1)
= 28 x n −1 sin x + 2(n − 1) x n cos x dy dy du
= ⋅
[n(n − 1) − x 2 ]x n −1 sin x dx du dy
+ 2 nx n cos x − 2 x n cos x 1 1 1 − u −2
= [ (sec u) 2 tan u][ −4(1 + ) ]
1+ u
− 2 nx n −1 sin x + x n +1 sin x
2
1 1+ u 2
= 28 x n −1 sin x + 2(n − 1) x n cos x = −2(sec u) 2 tan u( )
2
[n(n − 1) x n −1 − x n +1 − 2 nx n −1 + x n +1 ]sin x 1 1
= − (1 + u)2 tan u(sec u) 2
2
+ (2 nx n − 2 x n ) cos x
= 28 x n −1 sin x + 2(n − 1) x n cos x
(n 2 − 3n) x n −1 sin x + 2 x n (n − 1) cos x 2. (a) y = sin( x + y)
dy dy
= 28 x n −1 sin x + 2(n − 1) x n cos x = cos( x + y)(1 + )
dx dx
Comparing coefficients of sin x, dy
[1 − cos( x + y)] = cos( x + y)
n 2 − 3n = 28 dx
n = 7 or −4 (rejected) dy cos( x + y)
=
dx 1 − cos( x + y)

f ( x ) = A( x − k )2 + B( x − k ) + C d2y dy
70. (a) (b) = {[1 − cos( x + y)][− sin( x + y)](1 + dx )
f ' ( x ) = A[2( x − k )] + B dx 2
dy
= 2 A( x − k ) + B − cos( x + y)[sin( x + y)(1 + dx )]}
f "( x ) = 2 A ÷ [1 − cos( x + y)]2
dy
(b) f "( k ) = 2 A = sin( x + y)(1 + dx )
f "( k ) [ −1 + cos( x + y) − cos( x + y)]
A=
2! ÷ [1 − cos( x + y)]2
f ' ( k ) = 2 A( k − k ) + B dy
B = f ' (k ) − sin( x + y)(1 + dx )
=
f ( k ) = A( k − k )2 + ( k − k ) + C [1 − cos( x + y)]2
C = f (k ) d2y − y(1 + dx )
dy
=
dx 2
[1 − cos( x + y)]2
d2y dy
Enrichment 15 (p.111) [1 − cos( x + y)] 2
+ y(1 + )2
dx dx
1 − 2x − y(1 +
dy
) cos( x + y) 2
1. (a) u= = dx + y[1 + ]
1 + 2x [1 − cos( x + y)] 1 − cos( x + y)
du (1 + 2 x )( −2) − (1 − 2 x )(2)
= −y y
dx (1 + 2 x )2 = +
[1 − cos( x + y)]2
[1 − cos( x + y)]2
= −4(1 + 2 x ) −2 =0
Chapter 15 Differentiation 71

x = sin t
3. (a)  5. (a) S i n c e R(2 3 , 1) a n d S( −2 3 , 1) l i e o n
 y = sin kt Ax 2 + Bxy + Cy 2 = 16 ,
dx
= cos t ∴ A(2 3 )2 + B(2 3 )(1) + C(1) = 16
dt
dy 12 A + 2 3 B + C = 16 ......................(1)
= k cos kt
dt
dy A( −2 3 )2 + B( −2 3 )(1) + C(1) = 16
dy
= dt
dx 12 A − 2 3 B + C = 16 ......................(2)
dx dt
k cos kt (1) − (2),
=
cos t 4 3B = 0
B=0
d 2 y d k cos kt
= (b) From (a), B = 0
dx 2 dx cos t
(cos t )( − k 2 sin kt ) − k cos kt ( − sin t ) dt The equation becomes
=
cos 2 t dx Ax 2 + Cy 2 = 16....................(*)
− k sin kt cos t + k cos kt sin t
2
dy
= 2 Ax + 2Cy =0
cos3 t dx
dy 2 Ax
=−
d2y dy dx 2Cy
(b) (1 − x 2 ) −x + k2y
dx 2 dx − Ax
=
− k 2 sin kt cos t + k cos kt sin t Cy
= (1 − x 2 )
cos3 t dy
=−
3
kx cos kt dx ( 2 2
− + k2y 3 , 1)
cos t −2 3 A 3
− k 2 y cos t + kx cos kt =−
= (1 − x 2 ) C 2
cos3 t 4A = C
kx cos kt Put C = 4 A into (*),
− + k2y
cos t
Ax 2 + 4 Ay 2 = 16
= {(1 − x 2 )[ − k 2 y cos t + kx cos kt ]
At the point R(2 3 , 1) ,
− kx cos kt cos 2 t + k 2 y cos3 t} ÷ cos3 t
= ( − k 2 y cos3 t + kx cos 2 t cos kt A(2 3 )2 + 4 A(1)2 = 16
16 A = 16
− kx cos kt cos 2 t + k 2 y cos3 t ) ÷ cos3 t
A=1
=0
C = 4A
=4
4. y = 2 sin t + A cos t
dy
= 2 cos t − A sin t
6. (a) y = kx n
dt dy
= knx n −1
d2y dx
= −2 sin t − A cos t
dt 2 d2y
d2y = kn(n − 1) x n − 2
+y=B dx 2
dt 2
−2 sin t − A cos t + 2 sin t + A cos t = B d2y dy
(b) x2 − 6x + 10 y = 0
B=0 dx 2 dx
dy kn(n − 1) x n − 6knx n + 10 kx n = 0
= −1 kx n (n 2 − 7n + 10) = 0
dt t= π2
π π kx n (n − 2)(n − 5) = 0
2 cos − A sin = −1
2 2 n−2=0 or n − 5 = 0
A=1 n=2 or n=5
72 Chapter 15 Differentiation

Classwork 1 (p.78) 4. y = ( 4 x + 3)( 4 x 2 − x − 3)


1. y = 2x − 5 dy d
= ( 4 x + 3) ( 4 x 2 − x − 3)
dy d d dx dx
= 2x − (5) d
dx dx dx + ( 4 x − x − 3) ( 4 x + 3)
2
dx dx
=2 −0
dx = ( 4 x + 3)(8 x − 1) + ( 4 x 2 − x − 3)( 4)
=2 = 48 x 2 + 16 x − 15

2. y = 3x 2 − 2 x + 1
dy d d d Classwork 3 (p.80)
= 3x 2 + ( −2 x ) + (1)
dx dx dx dx 1
d dx 1. y=
= 3 x2 − 2 +0 x−3
dx dx dy ( x − 3) dx
d (1) − (1) d ( x − 3)
= 3(2 x ) − 2 = dx
= 6x − 2 dx ( x − 3)2
( x − 3)(0) − 1
=
( x − 3)2
3. y = 4 x 3 − 2 x 2 + 5x − 1 1
=−
dy
= 4( 3 x 2 ) − 2 ( 2 x ) + 5 ( x − 3)2
dx
= 12 x 2 − 4 x + 5 x+3
2. y=
x−3
dy ( x − 3) dx
d ( x + 3) − ( x + 3) d ( x − 3)
4. y = 5( x 9 − 2 x 5 + 5) = dx

dy dx ( x − 3)2
= 5[9 x 8 − 2(5 x 4 )] ( x − 3)(1) − ( x + 3)(1)
dx =
= 45 x 8 − 50 x 4 ( x − 3)2
−6
=
( x − 3)2

Classwork 2 (p.79) 2x + 3
3. y=
1. y = ( x − 1)( x + 2) x2 − 3
dy d d
= ( x − 1) ( x + 2) + ( x + 2) ( x − 1) dy ( x 2 − 3) dx
d (2 x + 3) − (2 x + 3) d ( x 2 − 3)
dx dx dx = dx
dx ( x 2 − 3)2
= ( x − 1) + ( x + 2)
= 2x + 1 ( x − 3)(2) − (2 x + 3)(2 x )
2
=
( x 2 − 3)2
−2 x 2 − 6 x − 6
2. y = (2 x − 3)(3 x − 2) =
dy d d ( x 2 − 3)2
= (2 x − 3) (3 x − 2) + (3 x − 2) (2 x − 3)
dx dx dx
= (2 x − 3)(3) + (3 x − 2)(2) x2 + x + 1
= 12 x − 13 4. y=
x2 − x + 1
dy
= [( x 2 − x + 1) dx
d ( x 2 + x + 1)
3. y = ( x − 1)( x + 1)
2 2 dx
dy d d − ( x 2 + x + 1) dx
d ( x 2 − x + 1)] ÷ ( x 2 − x + 1) 2
= ( x 2 − 1) ( x 2 + 1) + ( x 2 + 1) ( x 2 − 1)
dx dx dx ( x 2 − x + 1)(2 x + 1) − ( x 2 + x + 1)(2 x − 1)
=
= ( x 2 − 1)(2 x ) + ( x 2 + 1)(2 x ) ( x 2 − x + 1)2
= (2 x )(2 x 2 ) 2 − 2x2
= 2
= 4x3 ( x − x + 1)2
Chapter 15 Differentiation 73

Classwork 4 (p.81) 1
3. Let y = .
1 −4 (2 x − 1)3
1. y= x + 3 x −2 + x 3
2 Take u = 2 x − 1 , then y = u −3 .
dy 1
= ( −4 x −5 ) + 3( −2 x −3 ) + 3 x 2 dy dy du
dx 2 ∴ = ⋅
dx du dx
= −2 x −5 − 6 x −3 + 3 x 2 d d
= ( u −3 )[ (2 x − 1)]
du dx
3 5 7
2. y= − + = ( −3u −4 )(2)
x x2 x3
= −6u −4
= 3 x −1 − 5 x −2 + 7 x −3
dy = −6(2 x − 1) −4
= 3( − x −2 ) − 5( −2 x −3 ) + 7( −3 x −4 )
dx
= −3 x −2 + 10 x −3 − 21x −4
x+2 3
4. Let y = ( ) .
3x 4 − 2 x 2 + x − 2 x−2
3. y= x+2
x3 Take u = , then y = u 3 .
= 3 x − 2 x + x −2 − 2 x −3
−1 x−2
dy dy du
dy
= 3 − 2( − x −2 ) + ( −2 x −3 ) − 2( −3 x −4 ) ∴ = ⋅
dx dx du dx
d d x+2
= 6 x −4 − 2 x −3 + 2 x −2 + 3 = ( u3 )
du dx x − 2
2 x − 2 − ( x + 2)
( x 2 + 3)( x − 2) = 3u
4. y= ( x − 2)2
x2 x+2 2 −4
= x − 2 + 3 x −1 − 6 x −2 = 3( ) [ ]
x − 2 ( x − 2)2
dy
= 1 + 3( − x −2 ) − 6( −2 x −3 ) = −12( x + 2)2 ( x − 2) −4
dx
= 12 x −3 − 3 x −2 + 1

Classwork 6 (p.87)
Classwork 5 (p.85)
y = 3x 3 + 6 x 3 − 3x − 3
5 4 1
1.
1. Let y = ( x + 3) 4 . dy 5 2 4 1 1 4
Take u = x + 3 , then y = u 4 . = 3( x 3 ) + 6( x 3 ) − 3( − x − 3 )
dx 3 3 3
dy dy du 2 1
− 43
∴ = ⋅ = 5x + 8x + x
3 3

dx du dx
d d
= ( u 4 )[ ( x + 3)]
du dx 3 3 4
2. y = 2 x 2 + 5 x 5 − 14 x 7
= 4u 3 dy 3 1 3 2 4 3
= 4( x + 3)3 = 2( x 2 ) + 5( x − 5 ) − 14( x − 7 )
dx 2 5 7
1
− 25 − 37
= 3x + 3x − 8 x
2

2. Let y = (3 − x )6 .
Take u = 3 − x , then y = u 6 .
2x 2 − 2x 2 + 4x− 2
3 1 1
dy dy du
∴ = ⋅ 3. y=
dx du dx x
= 2x − 2x− 2 + 4x− 2
d d 1 1 3
= ( u 6 )[ (3 − x )] 2

du dx dy 1 1 1 3 3 5
= 6u 5 ( −1) = 2 ( x − 2 ) − 2 ( − x − 2 ) + 4( − x − 2 )
dx 2 2 2
= −6u 5 − 12 − 23
= x + x − 6x − 25

= −6(3 − x )5
74 Chapter 15 Differentiation

4. y = (3 x − 1) 3 x − 1 dx
= 2( 2 t ) = 4 t
3
= (3 x − 1) 2 dt
dy
dy 3 1 = −2t −2
= (3 x − 1) 2 (3) dt
dx 2 dy
9 1 dy dt −2t −2 1
= (3 x − 1) 2 = = =− 3
2 dx dx
dt
4 t 2t

3
5. y = ( x + 1) 2 − x − 1
dy d 3 d 1 Classwork 8 (p.94)
= ( x − 1) 2 − ( x − 1) 2
dx dx dx
3 1 1. x 2 + 2 y2 = 3
= ( x − 1) 2 − ( x − 1) − 2
1 1

d 2 d d
2 2 x + 2 y2 = (3)
dx dx dx
dy
x+4 2x + 4y =0
6. y= dx
x−4 dy x
x + 4 12 =−
=( ) dx 2y
x−4 At the point (1, 3),
dy 1 x + 4 − 12 d x + 4
= ( ) dy (1)
dx 2 x − 4 dx x − 4 =−
1 x − 4 12 ( x − 4) − ( x + 4) dx 2(3)
= ( ) 1
2 x+4 ( x − 4)2 =−
6
= −4( x − 2) − 2 ( x + 4) − 2
3 1

2 x + 1 − 12 2. x 3 + y3 = 2x2y − 5
7. y=( )
2x − 1 d 3 d 3 d d
dy 1 2 x + 1 − 23 d 2 x + 1 x + y = (2 x 2 y) − (5)
= ( − )( ) dx dx dx dx
dx 2 2x − 1 dx 2 x − 1 dy dy
1 2 x + 1 − 23 (2 x − 1)(2) − (2 x + 1)(2) 3x 2 + 3y 2 = 2x2 + 2 y( 2 x )
=− ( ) dx dx
2 2x − 1 (2 x − 1)2 dy
(3 y 2 − 2 x 2 ) = 4 xy − 3 x 2
− 23 − 12 dx
= 2(2 x + 1) (2 x − 1)
4 xy − 3 x 2
dy
=
3y 2 − 2 x 2
dx
Classwork 7 (p.92) At the point (1, 3),

1. (a) x = 6 − 5y dy 4(1)(3) − 3(1)2


=
dx dx 3(3)2 − 2(1)2
= −5 9
dy =
dy 1 1 25
∴ = =−
dx dxdy
5
y
(b) x= Classwork 9 (p.98)
y +1
dx y + 1 − y 1 d d 1
= = 1. (a) (cot x ) =
dy ( y + 1) 2
( y + 1)2 dx dx tan x
dy 1 − d tan x
∴ = = ( y + 1)2 = dx 2
dx dxdy (tan x )
−(sec x )2
=
 x = 3 + 2t 2 (tan x )2

2.  2 = − csc 2 x
 y = t
Chapter 15 Differentiation 75

d d 1 Classwork 10 (p.101)
(b) (sec x ) =
dx dx cos x 1. 2 y sin x = cos y
− d cos x d d
= dx 2 2 y sin x = cos y
(cos x ) dx dx
sin x dy dy
= 2 y cos x + 2 sin x = − sin y
(cos x )2 dx dx
= sec x tan x dy
(2 sin x + sin y) = −2 y cos x
d d 1 dx
(c) (csc x ) = dy −2 y cos x
dx dx sin x =
dx 2 sin x + sin y
− d sin x
= dx 2
(sin x )
− cos x 2. y = tan( x 2 + y 2 )
= dy d
(sin x )2 = sec 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) ( x 2 + y 2 )
= − csc x cot x dx dx
dy
= [sec ( x + y )](2 x + 2 y )
2 2 2

2. (a) y = 3 sin 2 x + tan 3 x


dx
dy
dy d d = 2 x sec 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) + 2 y sec 2 ( x 2 + y 2 )
= 3 sin 2 x + tan 3 x dx
dx dx dx dy
= 3(cos 2 x )(2) + (sec 2 3 x )(3) [1 − 2 y sec 2 ( x 2 + y 2 )] = 2 x sec 2 ( x 2 + y 2 )
dx
= 6 cos 2 x + 3 sec 2 3 x dy 2 x sec 2 ( x 2 + y 2 )
=
dx 1 − 2 y sec 2 ( x 2 + y 2 )
(b) y = 2 cos 2 x − sin x 2
dy d d
= 2 cos 2 x − sin x 2
dx dx dx 3. y = sin( x 2 + y)
= 2(2 cos x )( − sin x ) − (cos x 2 )(2 x ) dy d
= cos( x 2 + y) ( x 2 + y)
= −4 sin x cos x − 2 x cos x 2 dx dx
dy
= [cos( x 2 + y)](2 x + )
dx
y = sin 2 2 x + 2 cos 2 3 x dy
3. (a) = 2 x cos( x 2 + y) + cos( x 2 + y)
dy d d dx
= sin 2 2 x + 2 cos 2 3 x dy
dx dx dx [1 − cos( x 2 + y)] = 2 x cos( x 2 + y)
= 2 sin 2 x (cos 2 x )(2) dx
+ 2(2 cos 3 x )( − sin 3 x )(3) dy 2 x cos( x 2 + y)
=
= 4 sin 2 x cos 2 x − 12 sin 3 x cos 3 x dx 1 − cos( x 2 + y)
(b) y = tan x 2 sec 2 x
dy d d  x = sin t + cos t
= tan x 2 sec 2 x + sec 2 x tan x 2 4.  1
dx dx dx y = sin 2t
 2
= tan x 2 (sec 2 x tan 2 x )(2)
dx
+ sec 2 x (sec 2 x 2 )(2 x ) = cos t − sin t
dt
= 2 tan x 2 sec 2 x tan 2 x + 2 x sec 2 x sec 2 x 2 dy 1
= (cos 2t )(2) = cos 2t
dt 2
(c) y = x 2 cot 2 x dy
dy

1
= x 2 (cot 2 x ) 2 = dt
dx
dy d 1 1 d
dx dt
= x2 (cot 2 x ) 2 + (cot 2 x ) 2 x2 cos 2t
dx dx dx =
1 cos t − sin t
= x 2 ( )(cot 2 x ) − 2 ( − csc 2 2 x )(2)
1

2 cos 2 t − sin 2 t
1 =
+ (cot 2 x ) 2 (2 x ) cos t − sin t
= cos t + sin t
= − x 2 csc 2 2 x (cot 2 x ) − 2 + 2 x (cot 2 x ) 2
1 1

=x
76 Chapter 15 Differentiation

Classwork 11 (p.104) dy
d2y 3 dy 1 x dx − y
= − ( − y −2 ) −
1. y = 6 x 3 − 5x 2 + 7x − 3 dx 2 2 dx 2 x 2
3 dy 1 dy y
dy
= 6(3 x 2 ) − 5(2 x ) + 7 = 18 x 2 − 10 x + 7 = y −2 − +
dx 2 dx 2 x dx 2 x 2
3 1 dy y
d2y
= 18(2 x ) − 10 = ( y −2 − ) + 2
2 2 x dx 2 x
dx 2
= 36 x − 10 3x − y 2 3x + y 2 y
=( 2
)( − )+ 2
2 xy 2 xy 2x
1 9x2 − y4 y
2. y = cos 2 x − =− + 2
x2 4 x 2 y3 2x
dy
= −2 sin 2 x − ( −2 x −3 ) 9
=− 3 + 2 + 2
y y
dx 4y 4x 2x
= −2 sin 2 x + 2 x −3 3y 9
= 2 − 3
d2y
= −4 cos 2 x + 2( −3 x −4 ) 4x 4y
dx 2
= −4 cos 2 x − 6 x −4

x2
3. y = tan( + 1)
2
dy x2 d x2
= sec 2 ( + 1) ( + 1)
dx 2 dx 2
x2 1
= [sec 2 ( + 1)]( )(2 x )
2 2
2
x
= x sec 2 ( + 1)
2
d2y
dx 2
d x2 x2
= x sec 2 ( + 1) + sec 2 ( + 1)
dx 2 2
x2 x2 1
= x{[2 sec 2 ( + 1) tan( + 1)]( )(2 x )}
2 2 2
2
x
+ sec 2 ( + 1)
2
x2 x2 x2
= 2 x 2 sec 2 ( + 1) tan( + 1) + sec 2 ( + 1)
2 2 2

4. 3 x 2 + 2 xy 2 = 1
d 2
3(2 x ) + 2 x y + 2 y2 = 0
dx
dy
6 x + 2 x (2 y ) + 2 y 2 = 0
dx
dy 3x + y 2
=−
dx 2 xy
3 y
=− −
2y 2x