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Colorado School of Mines Adventure Engineering Physical Science Workshop for Teachers

Aerodynamics 2: Blade
Design
References:
NREL (Pat Moriarty, Tony
Jimenez)
Colorado School of Mines Adventure Engineering Physical Science Workshop for Teachers
June 19 20, 2007 Wind Energy 2
Blade Design Overview
Blade shape (3-dimensional)
Number of blades
Blade length
Colorado School of Mines Adventure Engineering Physical Science Workshop for Teachers
June 19 20, 2007 Wind Energy 3
Blade Shapes
Colorado School of Mines Adventure Engineering Physical Science Workshop for Teachers
June 19 20, 2007 Wind Energy 4
Airfoil Terminology
Chord .
Thickness
Camber
Colorado School of Mines Adventure Engineering Physical Science Workshop for Teachers
June 19 20, 2007 Wind Energy 5
Sample Airfoils
Which of these blades have.
more camber?
more thickness?
a longer chord?
Colorado School of Mines Adventure Engineering Physical Science Workshop for Teachers
June 19 20, 2007 Wind Energy 6
Lift vs. Drag
Lift force
Perpendicular to flow direction (airplane wing)
Drag force
Parallel to flow direction
"Drag Machines less efficient
Colorado School of Mines Adventure Engineering Physical Science Workshop for Teachers
June 19 20, 2007 Wind Energy 7
Number of Blades
More blades
Aesthetics
Noise
Aerodynamic
efficiency (
5
)
Fatigue loading
Fewer blades
Cost
http://www.windpower.org/en/tour/design/concepts.htm
Colorado School of Mines Adventure Engineering Physical Science Workshop for Teachers
June 19 20, 2007 Wind Energy 8
Solidity
"Solidity is the ratio
of the area of the
blades to the "swept
area (the area of
the circle containing
the blades)
Colorado School of Mines Adventure Engineering Physical Science Workshop for Teachers
June 19 20, 2007 Wind Energy 9
Effect of Solidity
Colorado School of Mines Adventure Engineering Physical Science Workshop for Teachers
June 19 20, 2007 Wind Energy 10
Wake Aerodynamics
Turbine Wake
Colorado School of Mines Adventure Engineering Physical Science Workshop for Teachers
June 19 20, 2007 Wind Energy 11
Height matters
Height above ground
affects wind speed
Double wind speed =
8 x power

3/
! ' 8
Wind Speed, m/s Height
m
50
40
30
20
10
5
0
Surface
12.6
12.2
11.7
11
10
8.8
Courtesy: Alternative Energy nstitute
Colorado School of Mines Adventure Engineering Physical Science Workshop for Teachers
June 19 20, 2007 Wind Energy 12
Size
Larger turbines enjoy higher wind
speeds (and economies of scale).