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Lecture 6

Engineering 473

Machine Design

Distortion-Energy Theory

energy per unit volume equals the distortion-

energy per unit volume in a uniaxial tension

specimen stressed to its yield strength.

Strain Energy

Strain Energy σ

The strain energy per unit

volume is given by the equation σi

1 1 1

U = σ1ε1 + σ 2 ε 2 + σ 3ε 3 U

2 2 2

εi ε

Units

The strain energy in a tensile

[ ] [

[U ] = lb in 2 ⋅ [in in ] = lb − in in 3 ] test specimen is the area under

the stress-strain curve.

Strain Energy

(Elastic Stress-Strain Relationship)

volume in terms of stress only can be obtained

by making use of the stress-strain relationship

1

ε1 = (σ1 − νσ 2 − νσ3 )

E ì ε1 ü é 1 − ν − ν ù ì σ1 ü

ï ï 1ê ú ï ï

1

ε 2 = (σ 2 − νσ1 − νσ 3 ) íε 2 ý = ê− ν 1 − ν ú íσ 2 ý

E ïε ï E ê − ν − ν 1 ú ïσ ï

î 3þ ë ûî 3 þ

1

ε 3 = (σ 3 − νσ1 − νσ 2 )

E

Strain Energy

(Stress Form of Equation)

1 1 1

U = σ1ε1 + σ 2ε 2 + σ 3ε 3

2 2 2

1 ì1 ü

= σ1 í (σ1 − νσ 2 − νσ3 )ý

2 îE þ

1 ì1 ü

+ σ 2 í (σ 2 − νσ1 − νσ3 )ý

2 îE þ

1 ì1 ü

+ σ3 í (σ 3 − νσ1 − νσ 2 )ý

2 îE þ

U=

1 2

2E

[ ]

σ1 + σ 22 + σ32 − 2ν(σ1σ 2 + σ 2σ3 + σ3σ1 )

Distortion and Hydrostatic

Contributions to Stress State

σ2 σh σ2 − σh

σ1 σh σ1 − σ h

= +

σ3 σh σ3 − σ h

σ1 + σ 2 + σ 3

Principal Stresses σh = Distortional Stresses

Acting on Principal 3

Planes Hydrostatic Stress

The distortional stress components are often called the

deviatoric stress components.

Physical Significance

(Hydrostatic Component)

change in the volume.

smaller in compression.

σh σ h = Ke

K ≡ Bulk Modulus

σ1 + σ 2 + σ 3

σh = e ≡ volumetric strain

3

Physical Significance

(Distortional Stresses)

σ2 − σh deform or distort the material

element.

but there is a change in shape.

or compress the material more

in one direction than in

another.

Strain Energy Associated with the

Hydrostatic Stress

U=

1 2

2E

[

σ1 + σ2 + σ3 − 2ν(σ1σ 2 + σ 2σ3 + σ3σ1 )

2 2

]

Uh =

1 2

2E

[ ]

σ h + σ 2h + σ2h − 2ν(σ h σ h + σ h σ h + σ h σ h )

=

1

2E

[ ]

3σ 2h − 6ν ⋅ σ 2h

This term is equal to the strain

3 (1 - 2ν ) 2 energy per unit volume from the

Uh = σh

2 E hydrostatic stress components.

Distortional Strain Energy

The distortional strain energy is equal to the difference between

the total strain energy and the hydrostatic strain energy.

Ud = U − Uh

=

1 2

2E

[ ]

σ1 + σ 22 + σ32 − 2ν(σ1σ 2 + σ 2σ3 + σ3σ1 )

3 (1 − 2ν ) (σ1 + σ 2 + σ3 )

2

−

2 E 9

=

1 2

2E

[ ]

σ1 + σ 22 + σ32 − 2ν(σ1σ 2 + σ 2σ3 + σ3σ1 )

1 (1 − 2ν ) ç 2 ÷

− ç + σ 2 + σ1σ 2 + σ 2σ3 ÷

2 3E ç 2 ÷

ç + σ3 + σ1σ 3 + σ 2σ3 ÷

è ø

Distortional Strain Energy

(Continued)

Ud = U − Uh

=

1 2

2E

[ ]

σ1 + σ 22 + σ 32 − 2ν(σ1σ 2 + σ 2σ3 + σ3σ1 )

1 (1 − 2ν ) 2

−

2 3E

( )

σ1 + σ 22 + σ32 + 2(σ1σ 2 + σ 2σ3 + σ3σ1 )

Ud =

1+ ν 2

3E

[

σ1 + σ 22 + σ 32 − σ1σ 2 − σ 2 σ 3 − σ 3σ1 ]

Distortional Strain Energy in Tension

Test Specimen

Postulate: Yielding will occur when the distortion-

energy per unit volume equals the distortion-

energy per unit volume in a uniaxial tension

specimen stressed to its yield strength.

Ud =

1+ ν 2

3E

[

σ1 + σ 22 + σ 32 − σ1σ 2 − σ 2 σ 3 − σ 3σ1 ]

1+ ν 2

Ud = Sy

3E

Distortion Energy Failure Theory

Equating the distortional strain energy at the point under

consideration to the distortional strain energy in the tensile

test specimen at the yield point yields

Ud =

1+ ν 2

3E

[

σ1 + σ 22 + σ 32 − σ1σ 2 − σ 2 σ 3 − σ 3σ1 ]

1+ ν 2

= Sy

3E

σ eff = Sy

Alternate Forms of Effective Stress

σ eff =

(σ1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 )2 + (σ 3 − σ1 )2 Form 2

2

to as the von Mises stress, after Dr. R. von Mises

who contributed to the theory.

Plane Stress Condition

σ3 = 0 σ2

Sy

σ eff = σ12 + σ 22 − σ1σ 2

- Sy

σ eff =

(σ1 − σ 2 )2 + σ 22 + σ12 Sy σ1

2

- Sy

the material will not yield.

to yield is called the yield surface.

Pure Shear Condition

σ 3 = −σ1

σ3

τ1,3 Sy

σ2 - Sy

σ3 σ1

45° S σ1

y

- Sy

Mohr’s Circle

σ eff = σ12 + σ 32 − σ1σ 3

for Pure Shear

= 3σ12 = 3τ 2max = Sy

Yield Surface in 3-D Stress State

Other Names for Distortion

Energy Theory

σ eff =

(σ1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 )2 + (σ 3 − σ1 )2

2

τ

τ1/3

People came up with the same τ1/2

equation using different starting τ 2/3

points.

σ3 σ2 σ1 σ

•Shear Energy Theory

•Von Mises-Hencky Theory

•Octahedral-Shear-Stress Theory

σ1 > σ 2 > σ 3

Assignment

• Show that the two forms of the equation for the effective stress

are equal.

• Show that the effective stress for a hydrostatic stress state is

zero.

• Compute the effective stress at the critical location in the

stepped shaft loaded in tension (previous assignment). The

yield strength of the material is 30 ksi. Will the material yield

at the critical location?

σ eff =

(σ1 − σ 2 )2 + (σ 2 − σ 3 )2 + (σ 3 − σ1 )2

2

Assignment

(Continued)

In the rear wheel suspension of the Volkswagen “Beetle” the spring motion was

provided by a torsion bar fastened to an arm on which the wheel was mounted.

See the figure for more details. The torque in the torsion bar was created by a

2500-N force acting on the wheel from the ground through a 300-mm lever

arm. Because of space limitations, the bearing holding the torsion bar was

situated 100-mm from the wheel shaft. The diameter of the torsion bar was 28-

mm. Find the von Mises stress in the torsion bar at the bearing.

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