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socialur

mecnierebaTa mecnierebaTa

seria seria

akademiuri wera damwyebTaTvis

lia kaWarava xaTuna marwyviSvili lili xeCuaSvili

Tbilisi 2007

socialur mecnierebaTa seria mTavari redaqtori: redaqtori: dakabadoneba: ydis dizaini: marine CitaSvili lela wiqariSvili Tamar Sengelia mamuka cecxlaZe

socialur mecnierebaTa centri 2007 Center for Social Sciences 2007 q. Tbilisi, 0108, T. WoveliZis q. #10 el.fosta: contact@ucss.ge internet gverdi: www.ucss.ge

ISBN: 978 99940 -873 -6-5 ISSN 1512 -4576

s a r C e v i
princi Tavi 1. princi pebi, romlebic nebismier teqstze muSaobisas gamogadgebaT ................................................................................................................................................ 4 Tavi 2. weris procesis Sefaseba da werisTvis mosamzadebeli samuSaoebi .................................................................................................................................................... 5 rogor viwyebT weras ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5 weris procesis analizi ................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 dagegmva: werisTvis mosamzadebeli etapi .................................................................................................................................... 12 Tavi 3. abzaci .................................................................................................................................................................. 18 ra aris abzaci ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 18 abzacis ti pebi ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 33 Tavi 4. ra aris ese ..................................................................................................................................................... 45 sakvanZo debuleba ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 45 Sesavali ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 47 naSromis ZiriTadi nawili _ ganmaviTarebeli abzaci .............................................................................................. 49 daskvna .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 52 Tavi 5. argumentirebuli ese .......................................................................................................................... 53 argumentirebuli debuleba anu Tezisi ..................................................................................................................................... 53 sawinaaRmdego Sexeduleba ........................................................................................................................................................................ 54 mizezebis axsna da dasabuTeba ............................................................................................................................................................. 55 argumentirebuli eses struqtura .................................................................................................................................................... 56 argumentirebul eseSi argumentebis dalagebis struqtura .............................................................................. 60 argumentirebuli eses Sefasebis meTodebi ............................................................................................................................ 63 Tavi 6. kritika .............................................................................................................................................................. 68 kritikulad azrovneba da kiTxva ...................................................................................................................................................... 68 kritikis struqtura ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 78 Tavi 7. plagiati .......................................................................................................................................................... 79 ra aris plagiati ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 79 citireba da perifrazireba ..................................................................................................................................................................... 79 rogor avaridoT Tavi plagiats ......................................................................................................................................................... 82 Tavi 8. marTlweris wesebi da savarjiSoebi .............................................................................. 84 ricxviTi saxelebis marTlwera .......................................................................................................................................................... 84 sxvaTa sityvis marTlwera ......................................................................................................................................................................... 85 Tandebulisa da Tandebuliani sityvebis marTlwera ................................................................................................ 86 saTaurebis marTlwera .................................................................................................................................................................................. 87 qvemdebarisa da Semasmenlis SeTanxmeba ricxvSi ............................................................................................................ 88 nacvalsaxelTa marTlweris sakiTxebi ....................................................................................................................................... 89 kompozitebis (rTuli sityvebis) marTlwera ....................................................................................................................... 90 punqtuacia .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 92 Tavi 9. dokumentis formati socialur mecnierebebSi amerikis fsiqologiuri asociaciis (APA) stiliT ............................................................. 99 dokumentis Sedgenis formaluri maxasiaTeblebi .......................................................................................................... 99
literaturis citirebis wesebi APA APA-is standartis mixedviT ...................................................................... 102 sqolio da SeniSvna ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 104 cxrilebi da suraTebi ................................................................................................................................................................................ 106 gamoyenebuli literatura .................................................................................................................................................................... 113 danarTi ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 117 naSromis formaluri maxasiaTeblebis Sesafasebeli kiTxvari .................................................................. 118 gamoyenebuli literatura .................................................................................................................................................................... 120

Tavi

1.

pr principebi, muSaobisas

romlebic

nebismier

teqstze

gamogadgebaT

gansazRvreT mizani profesiuli urTierToba sasurveli Sedegis miRwevas gulisxmobs. werilobiT dokuments imisTvis qmniT, rom raRac unda moxdes an SeiZleba moxdes. amitom, rodesac raimes daweras gadawyvetT, kargad gansazRreT, ris gakeTebas apirebT. maSinac ki, rodesac vinmesTvis mxolod raimes Setyobinebas apirebT, mas es informacia ise unda miawodoT, rom sakuTari gegmebis Secvla Tqven mier miwodebuli informaciis Sesabamisad moundes. Tu migaCniaT, rom misi mxridan raime qmedeba ar aris saWiro, maSin es Setyobineba mas arc unda gaugzavnoT. iyaviT konkretulni miznis gansazRvra winapirobaa imisa, rom maqsimalurad konkretulni iyoT. samoqmedo formula, romelic saqmis warmoebaSi konkretuli gadawyvetilebebis miRebisas mTel msoflioSi farTod gamoiyeneba aseTia: vin ras rogor rodis sad da ratom akeTebs~. vinaidan yvela samoqmedo gegma am formulaSi kargad jdeba, is uklebliv yvela situaciaSi gamogadgebaT. wereT mkiTxvelisTvis es swori gadawyvetilebis miRebis saSualebas iZleva, Tu rogor unda gamoiyurebodes Tqven mier momzadebuli werilobiTi dokumenti. Tqven unda gaiTvaliswinoT vin iqneba Tqveni mkiTxveli da ratom gaecnoba is Tqven mier momzadebul dokuments. weris dawyebamde moifiqreT, saWiroa Tu ara potenciuri mkiTxvelis Sesaxeb damatebiTi informaciis moZieba. mkiTxvelis gaTvaliswinebis SemTxvevaSi gagiadvildebaT dokumentSi CasarTavi detalebis gansazRvra, radgan TqvenTvis erTnairad wamgebiani iqneba rogorc zedmeti, ise _ mwiri informaciis miwodeba. ZiriTadi azri dasawyisSive warmoadgineT es princi pi gamoiyeneba eses, moxsenebiTi baraTis, oficialuri werilebis Sedgenisas da kiTxvebze pasuxis gacemisas. pirveli rigSi, warmoaCineT ZiriTadi azri da mxolod amis Semdeg miawodeT damatebiTi mosazrebebi, romlebic ZiriTad ideas met safuZvlianobas SesZens. sxva sityvebiT, jer gadmoeciT daskvna da Semdeg daasabuTeT misi siswore. amasTan, nu SeawuxebT mkiTxvels Tqveni fiqris procesiT, vinaidan am procesisTvis Tvalis midevneba rTulia da did drosac moiTxovs, ris gamoc didia albaToba, rom adresatis yuradRebas ver mii pyrobT. amitom daiwyeT daskvnebiT. gamoiyeneT dokumentis Sedgenis standartuli meTodi gansazRvreTdaalageT-daajgufeT-daaxarisxeT-gadaxedeT~ esaa formula, romelic nebismier rTuli teqstis Sesadgenad gamogadgebaT da romelic Tanmimdevrulad gansaxorcielebel qmedebebs moicavs: (a) gansazRvreT mizani, (b) daalageT azrebi da informacia, (g) daajgufeT azrebi, (d) organizebuli saxe mieciT Tqvens azrebs da (e) gadaxedeT Sedegs.

Tavi

2.

weris procesis Sefaseba da weris proces rocesis mosamzadebeli samuSaoebi

werisTvis werisTvis

rogor viwyebT weras


yovelTvis, rodesac ambobT, rom weras iwyebT, am sityviT yvela im fizikur da fsiqikur aqtivobas gulisxmobT, romelic dasrulebuli naSromis SeqmnaSi monawileobs. es ar aris ioli Sroma, gamocdili avtorebisTvisac ki wera Sromatevadi da rTulia. daxvewili statia Tu naSromi didi Sromis fasad _ azrebis mkafiod formulirebis, abzacebis damuSavebisa da struqturirebis xangrZlivi procesis Sedegad miiRweva. gaxsovdeT, rom ar arsebobs weris erTaderTi swori gza. ori sxvadasxva avtori naSromis Seqmnisas ver moaxerxebs identuri rekomendaciebisa da miTiTebebis gaziarebas, vinaidan TiToeuli maTgani sakuTari Sexedulebebisa da gemovnebis gaTvaliswinebiT warmarTavs weris process, Tumca mainc arsebobs naSromis Seqmnis garkveuli etapebi, romlebsac yvela avtori iTvaliswinebs da romlebic nawilobriv Tanxvdebian kidec erTmaneTs. es etapebia:

weris procesis analizi. am etapze ganisazRvreba naSromis Tema, mizani, samizne auditoria anu mkiTxveli da proeqtis sxva elementebi; dagegmva. am etapze naSromSi gansaxilveli sakiTxi dakonkretdeba da informacia Segrovdeba. yuradReba gamaxvilebulia erT konkretul sakiTxze. ladgeba mopovebuli masala; monaxazi. am etapze gamoixateba ideebi, mosazrebebi, maT Soris myardeba kavSirebi; gadasinjva. am etapze xdeba naSromis struqturis, Sinaarsis, stilisa da gamoxatvis xerxebis xelaxali gaazreba da gaumjobeseba.

weris gamocdilebasTan erTad TandaTanobiT gamoimuSavebT naSromis agebis Tqveneul stils. cxadia, werilobiTi naSromi ufro misaRebi iqneba mkiTxvelisTvis, Tu is gramatikulad da stilisturad gamarTuli iqneba, magram kargi naweris Rirseba mxolod es ar aris. werisas jer kargad unda darwmundeT, rom saTqmeli zustad da mkafiod CamoayalibeT da mxolod amis Semdeg SeiZleba gramatikasa da stilze fiqri (Fowler H.R; Aaron J. E. & Anderson D., 2000).

weris procesis analizi1


nebismieri werilobiTi naSromi konkretuli mkiTxvelisTvis konkretuli sakiTxis garkveuli mizniT gansaxilveladaa mowodebuli. Tqven SeiZleba kvlevis Catareba dagWirdeT. amasTan, Tqven winaSe dadgeba moTxovnebi naSromis moculobasTan, gaformebis formatTan da dasrulebis vadebTan dakavSirebiT. yovelive zemoT Tqmuli weris situaciis komponentebia, romelTa gaazreba weris dawyebamde gacilebiT adre mogiwevT. cxrilSi #2.1 mocemulia kiTxvebi weris procesis komponentebis analizisaTvis (Fowler H.R; Aaron J. E. & Anderson D., 2000):

qveTavi mTlianad momzadebulia Semdeg wyaroze dayrdnobiT: Fowler H. Ramsey; Aaron Jane E.; Anderson Daniel (2000). The Little, Brown Handbook. 8th edition. Addison-Wesley

cxrili #2.1. kiTxvebi weris procesis komponentebis analizisaTvis Tema ras exeba werilobiTi davaleba? Tu konkretuli davaleba ar gaqvT, ris Sesaxeb isurvebdiT weras? ra gainteresebT mocemuli Temis farglebSi? aris rame, ris Taobazec ukve gaqvT garkveuli mosazrebebi an gsurT, rom meti icodeT? konkretulad ra moTxovnebs giyenebT miRebuli davaleba, rogor unda SexedoT Temas?

mkiTxveli vin waikiTxavs Tqvens naSroms? ra ician da ras fiqroben Tqveni mkiTxvelebi gansaxilvel sakiTxze? xasiaTdebian Tu ara Tqveni mkiTxvelebi raime niSan-TvisebiT, romelmac SeiZleba gavlena moaxdinos naSromis aRqmaze? aseTi maxasiaTebeli SeiZleba iyos, magaliTad, saganmanaTleblo sistemaSi muSaobis gamocdileba, Tqvens sferoSi muSaobis gamocdileba, politikuri mosazrebebi. ra urTierToba gaqvT mkiTxvelTan? ramdenad formaluri an araformaluri unda iyos Tqveni naSromi? ra gsurT, rom ifiqron an moimoqmedon Tqvenma mkiTxvelebma naSromis wakiTxvis Semdeg?

mizani kvleva

ra mizans isaxavs Tqveni davaleba? magaliTad, raime unda axsnaT, Tu konkretuli poziciis dasabuTebas unda SeecadoT? ratom werT? risi miRweva gsurT Tqveni naSromiT? ra gziT SeiZleba miznis srulad miRweva?

ra saxis mtkicebulebebi _ faqtebi, magaliTebi, eqspertTa mosazrebebi _ gamogadgebaT yvelaze metad Tqvens naSromSi gansaxilveli sakiTxis, mkiTxvelisa da miznis gaTvaliswinebiT? moiTxovs Tu ara Tqveni davaleba informaciis wyaroebis moZiebas an sxva iseTi kvlevis Catarebas, rogoricaa gamokiTxva, interviu anda eqsperimenti? davalebis moTxovnebis garda, ra damatebiTi gansaxilvel sakiTxze? rogor moipovebT mas? informacia gWirdebaT naSromSi

wyaroebis citirebis romel stils gamoiyenebT naSromSi?

savarjiSo #2.1: qvemoT mocemulia fsiqologiis Sesavlis kursis farglebSi Sesasrulebeli davaleba. ra moTxovnebs uyenebs es davaleba weris procesis komponentebs? am davalebis Sesrulebisas rogor upasuxebdiT cxrilSi #1 mocemul kiTxvebs? rodis aris fsiqoTerapia yvelaze efeqturi? anu klientis, Terapevtisa da Teoriis ra mimarTebis SemTxvevaSi miiRweva dadebiTi Sedegi? Tqveni poziciis, mosazrebebisa da daskvnebis gasamyareblad citirebuli unda iyos Sesabamisi wyaroebi. moculoba: 1500-1800 sityva. naSromi eleqtronuli fostiT unda gaigzavnos. naSromebi ganixileba pirvel noembers.

Temis SerCeva da dakonkreteba. romel sferos ganekuTvneba naSromi?


swavlis periodSi mravali naSromis dawera mogiwevT. werilobiTi davalebis mocemisas SeiZleba dagikonkreton Tema, an arCevani Tqven mogandon; Tumca, nebismier SemTxvevaSi, naSromis Seqmnisas unda Sesruldes Semdegi pirobebi:

SerCeuli Tema unda Seesabamebodes miRebul davalebas; Tema arc Zalze zogadi unda iyos da arc metad konkretuli; unda Seesabamebodes naSromis moculobasa da Sesrulebis vadebs; Tema unda gainteresebdeT.

naSromis Temis misadageba Tqvens interesebsa da arsebul gamocdilebasTan


zogierTi davaleba, rogoricaa, magaliTad, laboratoriuli kvlevis angariSi an SemTxvevis ganxilva politikur mecnierebaSi, sakuTari Tavis warmoCenis mwir saSualebas iZleva, Tumca, erTi SexedviT, Zalze xist da mosawyen sakiTxebze muSaobis drosac SegiZliaT, garkveulwilad, Tavisufali iyoT, magaliTad, Tu unda daweroT ori nacnobi adamianis SedarebiTi daxasiaTeba, Sesadarebeli adamianebisa da maTi Sedarebis xerxebis SerCeva Tqveni prerogativaa; aseve, Tqvenzea damokidebuli, ubralod dawerT davalebas, Tu weriT isiamovnebT da bevr axal Tvisebasac aRmoaCenT am adamianebSi. rodesac davalebaSi ar aris Tema dakonkretebuli, is Tqvens gamocdilebasa da interesTa sferoSi SegiZliaT moiZioT. qvemoT mocemulia savaraudo kiTxvebi, romlebic SeiZleba naSromis Temis SerCevisas gaCndes. romeli Temaa TqvenTvis nacnobi an romeli Tema gainteresebT? es SeiZleba iyos sporti, umuSevroba Tqvens qalaqSi, klasikuri musika da a.S. uaxloes warsulSi monawileoba xom ar migiRiaT romelime saintereso diskusiaSi? es SeiZleba iyos cvlilebebi qalisa da mamakacis urTierTobaSi, sauniversiteto swavlebis reformirebis warmatebuloba, universitetSi fsiqologiuri samsaxuris arsebobis aucilebloba da a.S. ra waikiTxeT an naxeT am bolo dros? es SeiZleba iyos Zalian saintereso wigni, sasacilo filmi, skandaluri telegadacema da a.S. ra gaxarebT an ra gwyinT? es SeiZleba iyos Tqveni hobi, mezoblebis qceva, xmauri quCaSi da a.S.

naSromisTvis SerCeuli Temisa da Sesasrulebeli davalebis SesabamisbaSi moyvana


davalebis miRebis Semdeg yuradRebiT waikiTxeT is da SeecadeT misi adekvaturi Tema SearCioT. amaSi qvemoT mocemuli kiTxvebi dagexmarebaT. ras moiTxoven Cemgan? mravali werilobiTi davaleba moicavs iseT sityvebs, rogorebicaa ganixileT, aRwereT, gaaanalizeT, warmoadgineT, moaxdineT interpretacia, axseniT, gansazRvreT, daasabuTeT an SeafaseT. es sityvebi migiTiTeben, Tu rogor unda miudgeT Temas, rogor azrovnebas moelian Tqvengan da ra zogadi mizani unda daisaxoT. visTvis werT? zogierT davalebaSi dakonkretebulia mkiTxvelis vinaoba, Tumca, Cveulebisamebr, Tqven Tavad unda gansazRvroT, Tu vin iqneba Tqveni mkiTxveli _ iqneba es mTeli sazogadoeba, Tanakurselebi, Tqveni ufrosi, instruqtori, universitetis studentoba, romelime sxva jgufi, Tu individi. ra ti pis kvleva mogeTxovebaT? zogjer davalebaSi miTiTebulia, Tu ra ti pis literaturiT unda isargebloT. am wyaroebis gamoyeneba naSromis sakiTxis mosaZiebladac SeiZleba. saWiroebs Tu ara davalebis Tema Semdgom dakonkretebas, raTa naSromis moculobisa da Sesrulebis vadebis moTxovnebi daakmayofiloT? 7

JurnalSi dasabeWdi statiis SemTxvevaSi ki _ samecniero sazogadoeba, romelic mocemuli sakiTxiTaa dainteresebuli. Tu Sesasrulebeli naSromi ar moiazrebs mkiTxvels, Tqven Tavad SegiZliaT savaraudo mkiTxvelis gansazRvra. magaliTad, aRwerilobiTi teqstis mkiTxveli SeiZleba Tqveni jgufelebi, megobrebi an mSoblebi iyvnen. nebismier SemTxvevaSi, vinc ar unda iyos Tqveni mkiTxveli, misi gansazRvra yovelTvis dagexmarebaT saTqmelis formulirebaSi, saTanado stilis, sityvebisa da frazebis arCevaSi.

mkiTxvelis moTxovnebi
Tqven, rogorc mkiTxvelma, iciT, rom mkiTxvels sWirdeba:

konteqsti: kavSiri Tqvens naSromSi wakiTxuls, sakuTar codnasa da gamocdilebas Soris;

prognozireba: avtoris miznisa da am miznis miRwevis gzebis codna; informacia: konkretuli faqtebi, magaliTebi da sxva detalebi, romlebic sakiTxs gasagebs, xelSesaxebs, sainteresosa da damajerebels xdian;

pativiscema: gancda imisa, rom avtori pativs scems mkiTxvelis Sexedulebebs, Rirebulebebs da rwmenas, mis gamocdilebasa da gonebriv SesaZleblobebs; xma, toni: gancda imisa, rom avtori realuri, cocxali adamiania; lakonuroba da sicxade: naSromSi ar unda iyos gaugebrobebi da Secdomebi.

akademiur weraSi mkiTxvelis interesebisa da Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswineba erT-erTi aucilebeli moTxovnaa, romelsac naSromi unda akmayofilebdes, radgan mkiTxvelis Tavisebureba mniSvnelovanwilad ganapirobebs naSromis Sinaarss, struqturasa da tons. cxrilSi #2.3 mocemulia kiTxvebi, romlebic mkiTxvelis ti pis gansazRvrisTvis gamogadgebaT.

gaiTvaliswineT mkiTxveli
mkiTxvelis gaTvaliswineba Tqven mier Seqmnili naSromis sam ZiriTad elementze imoqmedebs; es elementebia: konkretuli informacia, romelsac mkiTxvelis yuradRebis misapyrobad da SesanarCuneblad iyenebT da romelic mkiTxvels Tqveni daskvnebis marTebulobaSi arwmunebs. es informacia SeiZleba Sedgebodes konkretuli detalebisgan, faqtebisgan, magaliTebisgan an nebismieri sxva TvalsaCinoebisgan, romelic gaamyarebs da gasagebs gaxdis Tqvens mosazrebebs da, amasTanave, mkiTxvelis gamocdilebis, konkretuli interesebisa da mikerZoebebis Sesabamisi iqneba. roli, romelsac irCevT mkiTxvelTan mimarTebaSi. Tqveni miznidan da gansaxilveli sakiTxisadmi damokidebulebidan gamomdinare, Tqven gendomebaT, rom mkiTxvelma garkveuli xedvis kuTxidan aRgiqvaT Tqven da Tqveni damokidebuleba. SesaZlo roli mravalgvaria. es SeiZleba iyos, magaliTad, portretisti, mTxrobeli, leqtori, damcveli, interpretatori da a.S. toni, romelsac iyenebT. tons werisas igive datvirTva aqvs, rac saubrisas _ furcelze dawerili sityvebi da winadadebebis struqtura iseTsave informacias Seicavs, rogorsac xmis tembri da simaRle. weris procesidan 9

da Tqveni mosazrebebidan gamomdinare, mkiTxveli elis, rom Tqveni toni formaluri an araformaluri iqneba. naSromSi asaxuli ganwyoba SeiZleba seriozuli, mSvidi, amaRelvebeli, gamaRizianebeli an sasixarulo iyos.
cxrili #2.3. kiTxvebi, romlebic mkiTxvelis tipis gansazRvraSi dagexmarebaT vin aris Cemi mkiTxveli? ratom waikiTxavs mkiTxveli Cems naSroms? ras elis is? ra msurs, rom mkiTxvelma icodes an moimoqmedos Cemi naSromis wakiTxvis Semdeg da rogor gavagebino mas es? rogori mkiTxvelisTvisaa gankuTvnili Cemi naSromis Tema da mizani? magaliTad: asaki an sqesi; saqmianoba: studentebi, kolegebi da a.S. socialuri an ekonomikuri statusi: mozardebi, manqanis myidvelebi, potenciuri damqiraveblebi da a.S. ganaTleba: moswavle, studenti, umaRlesi ganaTlebis mqone da a.S. eTnikuri kuTvnileba: afrikeli, kavkasieli da a.S. politikuri da/an religiuri kuTvnileba, moraluri Rirebulebebi da rwmena: memarjvene, konservatori, qristiani. budisti da a.S. hobi da interesebi: nadiroba, koleqcioneroba, xelsaqme da a.S. ra gavlenas moaxdens mkiTxvelis maxasiaTeblebi sakiTxisadmi mis damokidebulebaze? amJamad ra icis an ra ar icis mkiTxvelma Cem mier wardgenili sakiTxis Sesaxeb? ramdenad didi masala unda mivawodo mas? Tu Cem mier wardgenili sakiTxi specifikuri enis an terminebis gamoyenebas saWiroebs, ramdenad SemiZlia maTi gamoyeneba an ganmarteba? romelma mosazrebebma, ideebma an informaciam SeiZleba gaakvirvos mkiTxveli? aaRelvos? Seuracxhyos? ra unda gavakeTo am dros? ra SeiZleba esmodes mkiTxvels arasworad Cem mier wardgenil sakiTxTan an Cemeul xedvasTan dakavSirebiT? rogor SemiZlia amis gamosworeba? ra urTierToba maqvs mkiTxvelTan? ramdenad formalur an araformalur nawers moelis igi Cemgan? ra roli da rogori toni unda SevarCio? rogor moepyroba mkiTxveli Cems naSroms? unda velodo, rom igi TiToeul sityvas guldasmiT waikiTxavs da zedmiwevniT gaiazrebs, mxolod gadaxedavs axali informaciis mosaZieblad Tu mxolod daskvnebs gaiTvaliswinebs? rogor unda Camovayalibo saTaurebi, Sejameba da sxva elementebi?

savarjiSo #2.3: qvemoT mocemuli Temebidan airCieT erTi da TiToeuli ti pis mkiTxvelisTvis upasuxeT cxrilSi #3 mocemul kiTxvebs. gansazRvreT oTxi mosazreba, romelsac naSromSi moitandiT, SearCieT roli da toni TiToeuli ti pis mkiTxvelisTvis. 1. 2. mowevis gavlena. mkiTxveli: saSualo skolis moswavleebi da mozrdili mwevlebi; Tqveni mosazreba socialuri dazRvevis Sesaxeb. mkiTxveli: dazRvevis mqone individebi da dazRvevis armqone individebi, romlebic ar endobian socialur dazRvevas; ratom unda gaiyvanon ezodan Tqvenma mezoblebma avtoavariaSi damtvreuli manqana. mkiTxveli: Tqveni mezoblebi da raionis gamgebeli.

3.

10

ideebis generirebisTvis gamosadegi zogierTi meTodi. isini gamogadgebaT maSin, rodesac pirvelad daiwyebT fiqrs Temis Sesaxeb da yovelTvis, rodesac ideebi SemogakldebaT. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom araa aucilebeli yovel jerze qvemoT aRwerili yvela meTodis erTdroulad gamoyeneba. isini urTierTSenacvlebadi da urTierTSemavsebeli SeiZleba iyos yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi. Tqven irCevT im meTods, romelic ufro mosaxerxebelia TqvenTvis yovel konkretul situaciaSi.

gonebrivi ieriSi
gonebrivi ieriSi ideebis erTmaneTTan dakavSirebisa da azrovnebis stimulirebis saSualebaa. gonebrivi ieriSi gulisxmobs erTi sityviT an fraziT dawyebas da azrebis nebismieri, Tavisufali mimarTulebiT gaSlas. garkveuli drois manZilze nu cdilobT, rom logikurad ifiqroT da SeecadeT, SeZlebisdagvarad swrafad CamoweroT nebismieri idea an azri, romelic TavSi mogivaT, maTi gadaxedvisa da wesrigSi moyvanis gareSe. garkveuli drois Semdeg gadaxedeT Camoweril ideebs da naxeT, ukavSirdeba Tu ara erTmaneTs ramdenime idea da ramdenad SesaZlebelia maTi dajgufeba. Tu moaxerxebT amis gakeTebas, ideebis dajgufeba mogawvdiT Temas an sferos, romelzec SeZlebT weras. gonebrivi ieriSis gamoyeneba SegiZliaT erTi konkretuli Temis an daumTavrebel naSromSi meti magaliTebis moZiebisTvis (Smalley R.L, Ruetten M. K & Kozirev J.R, 2000). qvemoT mocemulia gonebrivi ieriSis magaliTi. studentma gonebrivi ieriSiT Camowerili ideebis CamonaTvalSi varskvlaviT (*) aRniSna is ideebi, romelTac gamoiyenebs universitetSi saswavlo procesis aRwerisas.

saswavlo procesi universitetSi

TeTri auditoria * leqcia * Sefaseba taZari didi

fakulteti baRi * studenti kedeli megobrebi kibeebi

* leqtorebi * gamocdebi carci *silabusi

savarjiSo #2.5: qvemoT CamoTvlili Temebidan gonebrivi ieriSisTvis airCieT 1 an 2 maTgani da swrafad imuSaveT 15 wuTis manZilze. Semdeg damoukideblad daajgufeT ideebi. SeadareT Tqven mier gamoyofili jgufebi sxvebisas. yuradReba miaqcieT, rom sxvadasxva avtori erTi da imave Temis sxvadasxva aspeqtze amaxvilebs yuradRebas.

universiteti mogzauroba megobroba bedniereba

mexsiereba stresi kompiuterebi

siyvaruli avtomobilebi

Tavisufali wera
Tavisufali wera SeuCereblad weraa. es niSnavs, rom werT imas, rac TavSi mogdiT imaze fiqris gareSe, Tu ramdenad kargad da sworad werT. am meTodis mizania Tqveni gonebis gaTavisufleba emociebisgan. amitom Tavisufali weris dros nu gawyvetT ideaTa da azrTa nakads. zustad ise CawereT isini, rogorc 13

TavSi mogdiT. nu dabrundebiT ukan da nu gadaikiTxavT. Tavisufali weris dros daisaxeT mizani, magaliTad, weroT 15 wuTi an daweroT 5 gverdi. Semdeg wereT uwyvetad manam, sanam ar miaRwevT dasaxul mizans. dasrulebis Semdeg gadaikiTxeT naweri da moZebneT saintereso ideebi, romlebic, SesaZloa, sasargeblo aRmoCndes TqvenTvis (Smalley R.L, Ruetten M. K & Kozirev J.R, 2000). qvemoT mocemulia Tavisufali weris magaliTi.

Cemi pirveli dRe universitetSi maxsovs, rogor davikarge universitetis korpusSi. 17 wlis viyavi. Zalian vRelavdi... aravis vicnobdi. romeliRac sarTulze aRmovCndi. didi kibeebi... SoTa rusTavelis biusti... Tu ara? ar maxsovs. SeiZleba, raRac saintereso davinaxe. amis Semdeg mxolod is maxsovs, rom kibis TavTan Cemnairi dabneuli bavSvebi idgnen. gamixarda maTi danaxva. jinsebi mecva. mec im bavSvebTan davdeqi. auditorias eZebdnen. ise vRelavdi, ar vici, ratom, aRar maxsovs, rogor aRmovCndi leqciaze... savarjiSo #2. airCieT erT-erTi Tema; Tavisufali wera, 5 wuTi. 2.6: 2.

Cemi saukeTeso megobari universiteti qarTuli tradiciebi Cemi skola bavSvobis yvelaze naTeli mogoneba Cemi sayvareli saqme

kiTxvebi
rodesac iwereba sagazeTo statiebi, pirvelsave winadadebaSi avtorebi cdiloben upasuxon Semdeg kiTxvebs: _ vin, ra, rodis, sad, ratom da xandaxan rogor. Tqven imave kiTxvebis gamoyeneba SegiZliaT naSromisTvis masalis mosagroveblad. am kiTxvebis dasma Tqveni Temis sxvadasxva mxridan danaxvisa da Tqveni poziciis ukeT garkvevis saSualebas mogcemT. am meTodis gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi dawereT rac SeiZleba bevri kiTxva. Semdeg TiToeul maTgans SeZlebisdagvarad sruli pasuxi gaeciT (Smalley R.L, Ruetten M. K & Kozirev J.R, 2000). qvemoT mocemulia kiTxvebis magaliTebi, romelTac Jurnalisti svams siuJetis momzadebis procesSi. vin? ra moxda? ra Sedegi miiRes? rodis moxda? es kiTxvebi SeiZleba maSinac gamogadgeT, rodesac naSromis Temis arCevas cdilobT, gansakuTrebiT ki maSin, rodesac raRacis Txrobas isaxavT miznad an movlenis mizezebsa da Sedegebze gsurT saubari (Smalley R.L, Ruetten M. K & Kozirev J.R, 2000). miuxedavad imisa, rom yvela es SekiTxva erTi movlenis Sesaxeb informaciis mogrovebisTvisaa mowodebuli, konkretuli davalebis Taviseburebidan gamomdinare, SesaZlebelia Tqven mxolod zogierTi maTgani dagWirdeT. magaliTad (Fowler H.R; Aaron J. E. & Anderson D., 2000): sad moxda? ratom moxda? rogor moxda?

rogor moxda? Tu Tqveni davaleba Txrobas moiTxovs, maSin Tqvenma naSromma unda upasuxos am kiTxvas da ambavi qronologiurad unda daalagoT, magaliTad,
14

saqarTvelo-italiis nakrebi gundebis Sexvedra fexburTSi an meore msoflio omis dawyeba.

rogor fizikuri maxasiaTeblebi aqvs (garegnoba, suni, gemo, xma, grZnoba)? pirovnebis, adgilis, nivTis an grZnobebis aRwerisas konkretuli garegnuli maxasiaTeblebi unda gamoiyenoT, magaliTad, megobris, sayvareli adgilisa Tu Senobis aRwera. ra mizezebi arsebobs? ra magaliTebis dasaxelebaa SesaZlebeli? gansaxilveli sakiTxis ilustracia erTi, an meti magaliTis (bavSvTa saxlidan bavSvis Svilad ayvanis mcdeloba, sami satelevizio serialis dasaxeleba) moyvanas, an logikur dasabuTebas (ZiriTad sagnad politikuri mecnierebebis arCevis sami mizezi, quCaSi moZraobis wesebis dacvis aucileblobis damasabuTebeli oTxi mizezi) gulisxmobs. rasTan gaqvT saqme? ras gulisxmobs is da ras gamoricxavs? es kiTxvebi gansazRvrebis an ganmartebisTvis dagWirdebaT. naSromSi iseTi abstraqtuli cnebebi, rogorebicaa, magaliTad, samarTali, megobroba, xelovneba gansakuTrebul ganmartebebs saWiroeben. ra maxasiaTeblebi aqvs? analizis SemTxvevaSi sakiTxi nawilebad, elementebad iSleba da maT Soris arsebuli mimarTebebis garCeva xdeba. analizis pirveli etapi kritikulad fiqria. ramdenad hgavs an gansxvavdeba is sxvebisgan? Sedarebisas ideebs, sagnebs, adamianebs, adgilebsa da a.S. Soris msgavsebebi da gansxvavebebi ganixileba, magaliTad, gansxvaveba prezidentobis or kandidats Soris, or kompiuterul sistemas Soris msgavsebebi. SeiZleba Tu ara misi Sedareba mkiTxvelisTvis nacnob sxva saganTan? es kiTxva analogiis SemTxvevaSi Cndeba. analogia xSirad gamoiyeneba mkiTxvelisTvis ucnobi Temis (magaliTad, mTavrobis struqturis) axsnisas nacnob Temaze (magaliTad, ojaxis struqturaze) miTiTebiT. ratom xdeba es, an ras iwvevs? mizez-Sedegobrivi analizisas unda aixsnas, Tu ratom moxda raRac, an ra Sedegebi gamoiwvia, anda orive erTad. magaliTad, depresiis ganviTarebis mizezebi, an rogor aisaxa sasamarTlos mier gamotanili ganaCeni braldebulis ojaxis wevrebze. rogor keTdeba? rogor muSaobs? procesis analizisas axsnilia, Tu rogor sruldeba raRac. magaliTad, rogor daiweros argumentirebuli ese, anda rogor xdeba raRac (rogor izrdeba mcenare, rogor muSaobs kompiuteri). savarjiSo #2.7: savarjiSoSi #2.5 CamoTvlili Temebidan airCieT an Tavad moifiqreT : erTi Tema. Semdeg CamowereT maqsimalurad bevri kiTxva da upasuxeT maT.

dajgufeba/asociaciuri kavSirebis ruka


dajgufeba Tqveni ideebis vizualuri rukis Seqmnis procesia. is gaTavisuflebT mkacrad sworxazovani Tanmimdevrobisgan. amrigad, is ufro kreatuli fiqrisa da axali kavSirebis damyarebis saSualebas iZleva. am meTodis gamoyenebisas daiwyeT imiT, rom Sua furcelze daxazeT marTkuTxedi da masSi CawereT arCeuli Tema. Semdeg daxazeT meore marTkuTxedi, masSi TemasTan dakavSirebuli idea CawereT da xaziT SeaerTeT Temis marTkuTxedTan. Semdeg am ideasTan asocirebuli ideebi dawereT, isinic SemoxazeT da SeaerTeT wina ideasTan. ganagrZeT manam, sanam ideebi ar gamogelevaT. rodesac daasrulebT, SeiswavleT Tqven mier Seqmnili ruka, raTa kidev gagiCndeT axali Sexedulebebi Tqveni Temis irgvliv da dainaxoT ideaTa urTierTdamokidebuleba (Smalley R.L, Ruetten M. K & Kozirev J.R, 2000). qvemoT mocemulia dajgufebis anu asociaciuri kavSirebis rukis magaliTi (ix. suraTi #2.1). avtors SeuZlia eses dawera Tsu socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa fakultetis struqturis Sesaxeb. 15

monaxazis Sedgena
monaxazis Sedgena abzacis an eses realurad weris procesia. mas Semdeg, rac masalas SeagrovebT da zogad gegmas dasaxavT, Tqven mzad xarT sawerad. pirveli monaxazis werisas miyvebiT ukve Sedgenil zogad gegmas. pirveli monaxazis werisas yuradReba azrebis furcelze gadatanaze gaamaxvileT. am etapze teqstis gramatikul sisworeze zedmetad nu iRelvebT. naweris moculobidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba ramdenjerme scadoT misi dawera.

gadasinjva
pirveli monaxazi realurad mxolod pirveli nabijia saboloo naSromisaken. realuri muSaoba mxolod misi dasrulebis Semdeg iwyeba. warmatebulma mweralma icis, rom weris procesi, ZiriTadad, gadasinjvis procesia. amrigad, Tu Tqven werT, naweris gadasinjvas dro unda dauTmoT. gadasinjva, rogorc wesi, or nawilad iyofa: _ (1) revizireba/gadamuSaveba anu abzacisa Tu eses Sinaarsis Secvla da organizeba da (2) masSi sityvebisa da winadadebebis redaqtireba.

revizireba/gadamuSaveba
gadamuSaveba naweris xelaxali gaazreba an gadaxedvaa. werisTvis mosamzadebel da monaxazis Seqmnis etapebze, ZiriTadad, ideebis moZiebasa da maT gadmocemaze xarT orientirebuli. axla yuradReba msjelobis ganviTarebaze unda gadaitanoT. Tqven unda SeafasoT Tqveni naweri. Zalian kargi iqneba, Tu Tqven garda kidev vinme waikiTxavs monaxazs da ukukavSirs mogcemT. ukukavSiris miRebis Semdeg SegiZliaT gadawyvitoT, ra saxis cvlilebebi SeitanoT nawerSi. qvemoT mocemulia gadamuSavebis ZiriTadi gzebi:

1. damateba. SeiZleba daamatoT masala ideis gansamtkiceblad, an daamatoT winadadebebi da frazebi ideebis erTmaneTTan dasakavSireblad. 2. Semokleba. SeiZleba SeamoakloT is nawili, romelic ar ukavSirdeba Temas an imeorebs ukve naTqvams. 3. Canacvleba. SeiZleba dagWirdeT Semoklebuli nawilebis Canacvleba. 4. masalis Tanmimdevrobis Secvla. SeiZleba mogindeT winadadebebis an abzacebis Tanmimdevrobis Secvla. savarjiSo #2. : me-5 savarjiSoSi CamoTvlili Temebidan airCieT an Tavad moifiqreT 2.8: 2. erTi Tema. Semdeg asociaciuri rukis gamoyenebiT gamosaxeT Tqveni ideebi. daiwyeT imiT, rom furclis SuaSi wreSi CawereT Tema da imuSaveT mis irgvliv.

redaqtireba
gadamuSavebisas Tqveni ideebis gaZlierebasa da ganmtkicebaze xarT orientirebulni, rac naweris Sinaarss ukavSirdeba. rodesac bolomde kmayofili darCebiT naweris SinaarsiT, yuradReba im formas unda miaqcioT, romliTac gadmoscemT Tqvens mosazrebebs. am TvalsazrisiT, Seileba zogierTi winadadebis perifrazireba anu redaqtireba dagWirdeT. moaxdineT im winadadebebis perifrazireba, romlebic bundovani an arazustia. Semdeg gramatikulad gamarTeT winadadebebi. bolo etapia naweris koreqtura. gadaikiTxeT naweri da naxeT, raime Secdoma xom ar aris gramatikaSi, sityvebis marTlweraSi an punqtuaciaSi, asoebi xom ar gaqvT gamorCenili. gaxsovdeT, rom weris procesi fleqsiburi, moqnili procesia. Tqven sqematurad, mSralad ar unda misdioT am procesis aRweril safexurebs. piriqiT, unda SeZloT

16

safexuridan safexurze gadasvla, zogierTi masalis mosaZieblad SeiZleba daubrundeT weris wina etaps mas Semdeg, rac gadasinjavT ukve daweril abzacs. Tqven Tavad unda aRmoaCinoT werisTvis momzadebis, monaxazis Sedgenisa da gadasinjvis Tqveneuli saukeTeso gza. zogi momzadebis etaps ufro didxans undeba, zogi monaxazsa da gadasinjvas ufro met dros andomebs. ar arsebobs erTaderTi dadgenili swori gza. TandaTanobiT Tavad SeqmniT da ganaviTarebT sakuTar individualur meTods (Smalley R.L, Ruetten M. K & Kozirev J.R, 2000).
suraTi #2.1. asociaciuri kavSirebis rukis magaliTi
Jurnalistikis departamenti politikis mecnierebaTa departamenti sociologiis departamenti

saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis departamenti

socialur da politikur mecn. fak.

socialurekonomikuri da politikuri geografiis departamenti

fsiqologiis departamenti

T s u

samkurnalo saqme

ganviTarebis fsiqologia zogadi fsiqologia

medicinis fakulteti
okupaciuri Terapia stomatologia

socialuri fsiqologia

Sromisa da sainJinro fsiqologia

17

Tavi

3.

abzaci2 ra aris abzaci

ra aris abzaci? Tqven, albaT, iciT, rom abzaci winadadebebis jgufia, romelic vizualurad gamoyofilia wina striqonebisgan. pirveli striqoni momdevno striqonebTan SedarebiT metadaa Seweuli SigniT, vidre sxvebi; Tumca, bunebrivia, es ganmarteba sakmarisi ar aris, abzacis ti pisa da misi Semadgeneli elementebis gasagebad. mniSvnelovania, Tu rogor ukavSirdeba abzacSi winadadebebi erTmaneTs, rogor da sad iwyeba da sad mTavrdeba is. swored am kiTxvebze pasuxebis gacemas eZRvneba es Tavi.

abzacis Tema
abzaci winadadebebis jgufia, romelic ayalibebs, aviTarebs erT mTavar ideas, abzacSi Camoyalibebulia erTi Tema an Temis mxolod erTi aspeqti. Tema aris abzacis sagani, sakiTxi (subject), romlis Sesaxebac aris es abzaci. magaliTad, waikiTxeT Semdegi abzaci, romelic sigaretis mowevas exeba:

moweva ZviradRirebuli Cvevaa. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom erTi kolofi sigareti 1-dan 5 laramde Rirs, xolo mwevelTa umravlesoba dReSi erT kolofs mainc eweva, erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi maT 365 laridan 1695 laramde unda daxarjon, magram yvelaferi amiT ar mTavrdeba. sigaretis mwevlebisTvisac ki arasasiamovno suni aqvs maT tansacmels, avejs, xaliCebsa da fardebs. amis gamo mwevlebi ufro xSirad recxaven sakuTar nivTebs, vidre aramwevelebi. miuxedavad imisa, rom Znelia am damatebiTi xarjis zusti gamoTvla, faqtia, rom es kidev ufro ZviradRirebuls xdis mowevis Cvevas.
am abzacis Temaa sigaretis moweva (Smalley R.L, Ruetten M. K & Kozirev J.R, 2000).

savarjiSo #3.1: waikiTxeT qvemoT mocemuli abzacebi da gansazRvreT, ra sakiTxebzea : saubari. kidev erTi mizezi, ratomac miyvars mdinaris napiri, es misi wynari garemoa, romelic ganmartoebis saSualebas gaZlevs. me iq, mis garda, sxva mowme ara myavs da SemiZlia vilaparako da vifiqro. iq xels aravin miSlis da Tan yovelTvis aris is, vinc mogismens. napiri yvelafers moismens, risi Tqmac ginda. garda amisa, es wynari adgilia, sadac SegiZlia ifiqro da imsjelo; amisaTvis ganmartoebaa saWiro. xSirad, roca dabneuli var, napirze mivdivar. es saukeTeso adgilia Cemi konfliqtebisa da problemebis gadasawyvetad da, saerTod, dasafiqreblad (M. Veronica Porta).
abzaci exeba

fsiqologiuri axsna, ZiriTadad, aRiarebs, rom qcevaTa umravlesobaze gavlenas faqtorTa kombinacia axdens. zogierTi faqtori: genetikuri mocemuloba, motivacia, inteleqtis done an TviTSefaseba individis SigniT moqmedebs. qcevebis am Sinagan determinantebs organizmis (organizmuli) cvladebi ewodeba, radgan isini organizmis Sesaxeb gvawvdian informacias. adamianis SemTxvevaSi am determinantebs dispoziciuri cvladebi ewodeba. arsebobs, agreTve, garegani faqtorebi. warmoidgineT, rom bavSvi cdilobs, asiamovnos maswavlebels, raTa jildo miiRos an transportis
Tavi momzadebulia Semdeg wyaroze dayrdnobiT: Regina L Smalley., Mary K. Ruetten., & Joann Rishel Kozyrev (2000). Refining Composition Skills. Heinle & Heinle: Thomson Learning.
2

18

sacobSi moxvedrili mZRoli agresiuli xdeba. am qcevebze did gavlenas axdens pirovnebis gareT mimdinare movlenebi. qcevaze garegan zegavlenas garemos anu situaciis (situaciuri) cvladebi ewodeba. rodesac fsiqologebs qcevis axsna surT, isini TiTqmis yovelTvis iTvaliswineben axsnis orive ti ps. warmoidgineT, rom fsiqologs surs axsnas, ratom iwyebs adamiani sigaretis mowevas. SesaZlebelia individi gansakuTrebiT midrekilia riskisken (dispoziciuri axsna), an zogierTi TanatolTa zewolas ganicdis (situaciuri axsna), an orive faqtori aucilebelia (kombinirebuli axsna) (gerigi, zimbardo, 2007).
abzaci exeba

werisTvis momzadeba: Temis gansazRvra/dakonkreteba


xSirad, rodesac dasawerad raime Temas gaZleven, aRmoCndeba, rom es Tema Zalian zogadia Tundac erTi gamarTuli abzacis dasawerad. amitom Tqven unda daakonkretoT Tema. es niSnavs imas, rom Tema unda daiyvanoT erT, SedrebiT viwro sakiTxamde (Smalley R.L, Ruetten M. K & Kozirev J.R, 2000). magaliTad, davalebad gaqvT Temis dawera Tqveni sayvareli adgilis Sesaxeb da Tqven Tbiliss irCevT. SegiZliaT daweroT ramdenime winadadeba da SeexoT yvelafers, rac mogwonT TbilisSi (mTawminda, Zveli Tbilisi, metexi, sioni, nariyala, universitetis baRi, vakis parki, operis Teatri da a. S.), magram mkiTxvelisTvis ufro saitereso iqneba, Tu erTi konkretuli adgilis Sesaxeb dawerT.
adamiani

fsiqika

sxeuli

Tbilisi RirsSesaniSnavi adgilebi istoriuli Zeglebi metexi vTqvaT, davalebad narkotikebis Sesaxeb abzacis dawera gaqvT. es sakmaod farTo Temaa imisaTvis, rom erT abzacSi CaetioT, amitom aucilebelia masTan dakavSirebuli konkretuli sakiTxis arCeva. narkotikebi marixuana mowevis gavlena gavlena kognitur funqciebze gavlena mexsierebaze an, vTqvaT, wamlebis Sesaxeb gaqvT abzaci dasaweri. es Temac Zalze farToa erTi abzacisTvis. amitom aqac aucilebelia am TemasTan dakavSirebuli konkretuli sakiTxis arCeva da mis Sesaxeb wera.

fsiqikuri procesebi

fiziolog iuri procesebi

kognituri procesebi

sisxlis mimoqcevis sistema

mexsiereba

sisxlZarR vebi

daswavlis kanonzomier ebebi

arteriuli sisxlZarR vebi

suraTi #3.1. Tema `adamiani~ _ dakonkretebis nimuSi.

wamlebi antikonvulsantebi fenobarbitali fenobarbitalis gavlena qcevaze

19

Tema yovelTvis maqsimalurad unda daakonkretoT, magaliTad, Tema adamiani (ix. suraTi #3.1).

savarjiSo #3.2: daakonkreteT Semdegi Temebi:


fsiqikuri procesebi

agresia

amindi

Cemi samSoblo

sigareti

kompiuteri

mTavari, Tematuri winadadeba


winadadebas, romelic aRwers abzacis Temas, anu romelSic gatarebulia ZiriTadi azri, mTavari, Tematuri winadadeba (Topic sentence) ewodeba. misi funqcia Temis gacnobaa (amitom, rogorc wesi, is abzacis pirveli winadadebaa). garda gacnobisa, karg mTavar winadadebas SeuZlia im Temisadmi avtoris damokidebulebis Cveneba, romelsac exeba mocemuli abzaci. abzacis Temisadmi avtoris damokidebulebas an azrs wamyvani azri (controling idea) ewodeba. avtoris damokidebuleba, azri gansazRvravs, Tu ra iqneba abzacSi ganxiluli. abzacis yvela winadadeba wamyvan azrTan unda iyos dakavSirebuli da mas unda ganaviTarebdes. sailustraciod kidev erTxel wavikiTxoT pirveli abzacis mTavari winadadeba: moweva ZviradRirebuli Cvevaa. am abzacis Tema mowevis Cvevaa, wamyvani azri ki isaa, rom is Zviria. mowevis TemasTan dakavSirebiT uamravi azri SeiZleba arsebobdes, maT Soris, yvelaze gavrcelebuli, albaT, Semdegia: _ moweva mavnebelia janmrTelobisTvis.

3.3: savarjiSo #3.3: waikiTxeT qvemoT mocemuli mTavari winadadebebi. xazi gausviT Temas da SemoxazeT wamyvani azri.
nimuSi: kidev erTi gza inflaciis SesaCereblad saxelmwifo biujetis balansirebaa.

20

1. sportis dafinansebis yvelaze didi problema isaa, rom mas ganaTlebasTan SedarebiT nakleb yuradRebas uTmoben. 2. dabinZureba saSiSia, radgan is ozonis Sres azianebs. 3. studentebis kidev erT problema samsaxuris Sovnaa.

mTavari winadadebis daxvewa


rogorc vnaxeT, Tematuri winadadeba mTavar Temas da wamyvan azrs moicavs, magram es ar aris sakmarisi. wamyvani azri SeZlebisdagvarad naTeli da konkretuli aspeqtisken mimarTuli unda iyos. ganvixiloT Semdegi magaliTi:

yavis daleva cudia.


am winadadebis Tema yavis dalevaa, wamyvani azri _ cudia, magram orive sakmaod bundovania da mTel rig SekiTxvebs badebs. visTvis da risTvis aris cudi? cudia yavis nebismieri raodenobiT miReba, Tu misi mxolod didi raodenobiT daleva? mTavari winadadeba ufro konkretuli unda iyos, rac wamyvani azris kargad CamoyalibebiT miiRweva; magaliTad:

orsulebisTvis dReSi erT Wiqaze meti yavis daleva mavnebelia. savarjiSo #3.4: waikiTxeT qvemoT mocemuli winadadebis wyvilebi da SemoxazeT ukeTesi mTavari winadadeba.
1) universitetSi Cabareba ar aris advili saqme. misaRebi gamocdebis dros registracia erT-erTi mtkivneuli procesia. 2) SesaZloa, `qarwaRebulni~ Zveli filmia, magram mainc kargia. filmi `cisferi mTebi~ masSi monawile araCveulebrivi msaxiobebiT gamoirCeva. 3) Tbilisis axali ubnebis arqiteqtura Tanamedrove xelovnebis nimuSia. quTaisi saintereso qalaqia misi istoriisa da arqiteqturis gamo.

savarjiSo #3.5: mocemulia araswori mTavari winadadebebi. daxveweT isini (SeadgineT abzaci): nimuSi: honda araCveulebrivi manqanaa. honda ekonomiuri manqanaa.
1. Cemi mSobliuri qalaqi araCveulebrivi adgilia.

2. universitetSi bevri ram aris gasaujobesebeli.

3.

varjiSi kargia CvenTvis.

4. manqanis tareba saxifaToa.

5. kompiuterebi sasargebloa. 21

6. studentobis periodSi bevri saintereso ramis gakeTeba SeiZleba.

7. televizoris yureba sazianoa CvenTvis.

savarjiSo #3.6: dawereT abzaci, romlis Temaa mowevis Cveva, xolo wamyvani azria, rom moweva mavnebelia janmrTelobisTvis.

mTavari winadadebis amocnoba


amrigad, mTavari winadadeba Temis dawyebasa da wamyvani azris wardgenas emsaxureba. sad unda ganvaTavsoT abzacSi mTavari winadadeba? Cveulebriv, radgan mTavari winadadeba Temis dawyebas uzrunvelyofs, umjobesia, is abzacis dasawyisSi an dasawyisTan axlos iyos. miuxedavad amisa, abzacis ti pidan gamomdinare, mTavari winadadeba SeiZleba abzacSi sxvadasxva adgilas ganTavsdes (abzacis SuaSi an sulac bolos). zogjer arc Tema da arc wamyvani azri araa erTi winadadebiT gadmocemuli, Tumca, es ar niSnavs imas, rom abzacSi Tema da wamyvani azri saerTod ar aris. aseT abzacSi Tema da wamyvani azri igulisxmeba; isini naTlad Canan abzacis ganviTarebaSi. zogadad, ukeTesia, Tu mTavari winadadebebi naTlad, konkretulad iqneba warmodgenili da es ara mxolod imitom, rom am SemTxvevaSi idea naTelia, aramed imitomac, rom is abzacis ganviTarebis mimarTulebis gansazRvraSi dagvexmareba.

savarjiSo #3.7: waikiTxeT qvemoT mocemuli abzacebi da miuTiTeT abzacis mTavari winadadeba, xazi gausviT Temas da SemoxazeT wamyvani azri. Tu mTavari winadadeba mocemulia, amowereT. kvlevebisTvis sxva saintereso sferoa gansxvavebis dadgena Sinagan da garegan motivaciaSi. Cven Sinaganad motivirebulebi varT, rodesac vakeTebT raimes ubralod siamovnebisTvis an raime konkretuli qcevis gansaxorcieleblad. Cven saabazanoSi imitom ki ar vmReriT, rom taSs velodebiT an fulis Sovnas vcdilobT, aramed imitom, rom mogvwons amis keTeba. Cven imitom vxsniT krosvordebs, vxatavT da Tvals vadevnebT mzis Casvlas, rom es jildovdeba. Cven ar velodebiT raime jildos. garegani motivacia, Tavis mxriv, im situaciebs miemarTeba, romlebSic Cven jildos misaRebad vmoqmedebT. Cven samsaxurSi SeiZleba mxolod imitom davdiodeT, rom fuli gvWirdeba. SeiZleba mxolod imitom viaroT musikaze, rom mSoblebs vasiamovnoT. Cven SeiZleba gansakuTrebiT zrdilobianebi viyoT romelime adamianTan, radgan misgan raRacas veliT (j.p. hiustoni `motivacia~. niu-iorki: makmilani, 1985, gv. 268).
mTavari winadadeba

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visac erTxel mainc unaxavs misi cxviri da sxeuli, is arasodes daaviwydeba. pirveli reaqcia gaoceba iyo, meore _ misi cxviriT aRfrTovaneba, TiTqos es didi simdidre iyo. misi cxviri, romelic barbara streizandis cxvirze ufro grZeli iyo, saxis udides nawils ikavebda. rodesac is iRimeboda, cxviris garda araferi Canda. mas bevr xalxSic ki cxviriT gamoarCevdnen. wina cxovrebaSi is, albaT, koli an WianWvelaWamia iyo. misi cxviri saparsiviT wvrili iyo. is rom TviTmfrinavi yofiliyo, advilad SeZlebda Rrublebis gakveTas. igi Zalian gamxdari iyo, 10 dRis naSimSilars hgavda. amave dros, Zalian bevrs Wamda. visac ki is Wamis dros unaxavs, ukvirda, sad eteoda amdeni sakvebi aseT patara sxeulSi. amis miuxedavad, is sul ufro xdeboda da cxviri sul ufro ugrZeldeboda. erT mSvenier, qarian dRes is gafrinda, rogorc meri popinsi (nobutaka macuo). mTavari winadadeba

inteleqtis testirebis ganviTarebis istoriaSi erT-erTi mTavari adgili inglisel aristokrats, frensis galtons uWiravs. 1869 wels gamoqveynda misi wigni `geniosobis memkvidreoba~, romelmac mniSvnelovani gavlena moaxdina testirebis meTodebis, Teoriebisa da praqtikis Semdgom ganviTarebaze. galtoni adamianis qcevis Seswavlisas darvinis evoluciuri Teoriis gamoyenebas cdilobda. mas ainteresebda, Tu rogor da ratom gansxvavdebian adamianebi erTmaneTisgan maTTvis damaxasiaTebeli unarebis mixedviT (gerigi, zimbardo, 2007).
mTavari winadadeba

cnobierebis yvelaze fundamentur cvlilebebs iwvevs nivTierebebi, romlebic halucinogenebis anu fsiqodelikebis saxeliT aris cnobili. es nivTierebebi cvlis rogorc garegani samyaros, ise Sinagani cnobierebis aRqmas. rogorc dasaxelebidan Cans, es nivTierebebi xSirad iwveven halucinaciebsa da me-sa da arame-s Soris sazRvrebis gaqrobas. oTxi yvelaze cnobili halucinogenia meskalini (miiReba kaqtusisgan), fsilocibini (miiReba sokosgan), LSD da PCP (laboratoriebSi sinTezirdeba) (gerigi, zimbardo, 2007).
mTavari winadadeba

fsiqologiuri axsna, ZiriTadad, aRiarebs, rom qcevaTa umravlesobaze gavlenas faqtorTa kombinacia axdens. zogierTi faqtori: genetikuri mocemuloba, motivacia, inteleqtis done an TviTSefaseba individis SigniT moqmedebs. qcevebis am Sinagan determinantebs organizmis (organizmuli) cvladebi ewodeba, radgan isini organizmis Sesaxeb gvawvdian informacias. adamianis SemTxvevaSi am determinantebs dispoziciuri cvladebi ewodeba. arsebobs, agreTve, garegani faqtorebi. warmoidgineT, rom bavSvi cdilobs, asiamovnos maswavlebels, raTa jildo miiRos an transportis sacobSi moxvedrili mZRoli agresiuli xdeba. am qcevebze did gavlenas axdens pirovnebis
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gareT mimdinare movlenebi. qcevaze garegan zegavlenas garemos anu situaciis (situaciuri) cvladebi ewodeba. rodesac fsiqologebs qcevis axsna surT, isini TiTqmis yovelTvis iTvaliswineben axsnis orive tips. warmoidgineT, rom fsiqologs surs axsnas, ratom iwyebs adamiani sigaretis mowevas. SesaZlebelia individi gansakuTrebiT midrekilia riskisken (dispoziciuri axsna), an zogierTi TanatolTa zewolas ganicdis (situaciuri axsna), an orive faqtori aucilebelia (kombinirebuli axsna) (gerigi, zimbardo, 2007).
mTavari winadadeba

olportma sami saxis niSnebi gamoyo _ kardinaluri, centraluri da meoradi. kardinaluria niSnebi, romelTa irgvlivac adamiani Tavis cxovrebas agebs. magaliTad, deda terezasTvis kardinaluri niSani sxvisi keTildReobisTvis sakuTari Tavis Sewirva iqneboda. yvela adamians ar uviTardeba aseTi yovlismomcveli kardinaluri niSnebi, samagierod, ZiriTadi niSnebi, rogoricaa, magaliTad, patiosneba an optimizmi, pirovnebis mTavari maxasiaTeblebia. meoradi niSnebi _ specifikuri pirovnuli Tvisebebi is Tvisebebia, romlebic individis qcevis winaswarmetyvelebaSi gvexmareba, magram naklebad gamosadegia individis pirovnebis gagebisaTvis. meoradi niSnebis magaliTebia is, Tu rogor sakvebsa da tansacmels aniWebs adamiani upiratesobas (gerigi, zimbardo, 2007).
mTavari winadadeba

egos dacvis meqanizmebi fsiqikuri strategiebia, romlebsac ego idis gamoxatvis maZiebel impulsebsa da superegos mier am impulsebis uaryofis moTxovnebs Soris arsebuli yoveldRiuri konfliqtebisagan Tavis dasacavad iyenebs. fsiqoanalitikur TeoriaSi iTvleba, rom am meqanizmebs sasicocxlo mniSvneloba aqvT individis mier Zlier Sinagan konfliqtebTan fsiqologiuri gamklavebisas. maTi gamoyenebiT pirovnebas sakuTari me-s sasiamovno, mosaxerxebeli da socialurad misaRebi xatis SenarCuneba SeuZlia. magaliTad, Tu bavSvs iseTi Zlieri siZulvilis grZnoba aqvs mamis mimarT, rom gamoxatvis gzis naxvis SemTxvevaSi saxifaTo iqneba, gandevna moagvarebs amas da SeiZleba sZlios kidec am grZnobas. SemdgomSi es mtruli impulsi cnobierad aRar moiTxovs dakmayofilebas da misi arsebobac ki aRar iqneba cnobierad mocemuli; Tumca, miuxedavad imisa, rom impulsi aRar gamoCndeba da misi arsebobis Sesaxeb TiTqos aRaranairi niSani ar iqneba, is mainc ar gaqreba. es gandevnili grZnobebi kvlavac mniSvnelovan rols Seasruleben pirovnebis funqcionirebaSi, magaliTad, mamasTan Zlieri identifikaciiT bavSvma SeiZleba TviTRirebulebis gancda aimaRlos da Seamciros aracnobieri SiSi imisa, rom masSi mtrul ganzraxvas aRmoaCenen (gerigi, zimbardo, 2007).
mTavari winadadeba

pirovnebis obieqtur testebSi Sefasebis micema (qulebis miniWeba) da gamoyeneba SedarebiT martivia da kargad gansazRvrul wesebs emorCileba. zogierT obieqtur
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testSi Sefaseba da interpretaciac ki kompiuteruli programebiT xorcieldeba. saboloo Sefaseba, rogorc wesi, erTniSna ricxvia, romelic erTaderTi ganzomilebis gaswvriv Tavsdeba, rogoricaa, magaliTad, adaptacia-disadaptacia an sxvadasxva niSnis qulaTa erTobliobis gaswvriv, rogoricaa impulsuroba, damokidebuleba an eqstraversia. damuSavebis Semdeg es monacemebi normatiuli SerCevis monacemebTan Sedardeba (gerigi, zimbardo, 2007).
mTavari winadadeba

rogor CamovayaliboT mTavari winadadeba


abzacisTvis Temis SerCevis Semdeg, bunebrivia, saWiroa, wamyvani azris SerCeva. erT-erTi meTodi, romelic mTavari winadadebisTvis wamyvani azris daweraSi dagexmarebaT, TqvenTvis ukve nacnobi meTodebia (gonebrivi ieriSi, Tavisufali wera, kiTxvebi, asociaciuri kavSirebi). magaliTad, Tqveni qveynis romelime RirsSesaniSnavi adgilis Sesaxeb unda daweroT abzaci. SegiZliaT daakonkretoT Tema da romelime kurortis Sesaxeb daweroT. gamoiyeneT gonebrivi ieriSis meTodi da CamowereT arCeul TemasTan dakavSirebuli ideebi. magaliTad, Tema `ureki~. mziani sanapiro, qviSa, wiwvovani xeebi sanapiro zolze, sufTa kamkama wyali, mSvidi zRva. damsveneblebi yvelgan arian, axali sastumroebi gadaWedilia damsveneblebiT, turistTa umravlesoba amjobinebs oTaxebs zRvaze gamavali fanjrebiT. sakurorto sezoni bevri adamianis dasaqmebas uwyobs xels, damsveneblebs bevri Semosavali moaqvT adgilobrivi mcxovreblebisTvis. kurortma ramdenime seriozuli kompania moizida, romelTac filialebi gaxsnes. es CamonaTvali, bunebrivia, SeiZleba, rom gaizardos, Seicvalos; magaliTad, SegiZliaT daamatoT, rom kurorts ekonomikuri sargebloba moaqvs regionisTvis; an SegiZliaT daweroT kurortis lamazi adgilebis Sesaxeb, an imis Sesaxeb, Tu ramdenad sasargebloa kurorti garkveuli daavadebebis samkurnalod da ratomaa bavSvebis aq dasveneba sasurveli.

savarjiSo #3.8: airCieT erT-erTi Tema da Tavad SeadgineT mTavari winadadeba da abzaci. am davalebis Sesrulebamde SeecadeT, CamoweroT is informacia da saintereso ideebi, romlebic abzacis dakonkretebisa da faqtobrivi informaciiT misi Sevsebis saSualebas mogcemT.
Temebi: crurwmena saintereso tradicia sayvareli leqtori mniSvnelovani gadawyvetileba mTavari winadadeba dabinZureba Sadrevani studentebis problemebi

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abzaci

dasabuTeba
ideebis Tavmoyrisa da wamyvani azris Camoyalibebis Semdeg aucilebelia Tqveni CamonaTvalidan im masalis amoReba, romelsac abzacis dasawerad gamoiyenebT. es masala mTavar winadadebaSi gadmocemuli wamyvani azris dasabuTeba (support) unda iyos. is ilustraciis, gaSuqebis, axsnis funqcias asrulebs da im Sexedulebas asabuTebs, romelic mTavar winadadebaSi gadmoeciT. ideis mxardasaWerad yvelaze xSirad faqtobrivi detalebi gamoiyeneba. aseTi detalebi SeiZleba garkveuli wyaroebidan _ Jurnalebidan, gazeTebidan, wignebidan _ aRebul faqtebs moicavdes an sxvisi dakvirvebis Sedegebi iyos. dasabuTebisTvis, ZiriTadad, is informacia gamoiyeneba, romelmac Tqven Tqvens Sexedulebamde migiyvanaT. rodesac mTavari winadadebis dasabuTebis mosaZebnad Tqvens informacias amowmebT, SeiZleba aRmoaCinoT, rom Tqveni masala Sevsebas saWiroebs. magaliTad, ganvixiloT aseTi mTavari winadadeba: _ `kurorts praqtikulad SeuZlia adgilobrivi mosaxleobis dasaqmebis problemis gadaWra~. am winadadebis dasabuTeba SeiZleba iyos is, rom kurortma ramdenime kompania moizida. es SeiZleba gamoviyenoT, rogorc Semdgomi dasabuTebis safuZveli. ufro metic, informaciis misaRebad SegiZliaT kiTxvebs mimarToT; magaliTad, `romel kompaniebzea saubari?~ `ra samsaxurs sTavazoben es kompaniebi adgilobriv mosaxleobas?~ `ra situacia iyo dasaqmebis TvalsazrisiT kurortze manamde da ra situaciaa axla?~ am kiTxvebze gacemuli pasuxebi SeiZleba wamyvani azris dasasabuTeblad gamoiyenoT. sabolood, am Tematuri winadadebisTvis abzacis dasawerad dagrovilma Canawerebma SeiZleba aseTi saxe miiRos:

umuSevrobis done 1990 wels = 35%; 2000 wels 8%. samuSao adgilebi sastumroebSi: marioti _ 100 kopala _ 50 Zveli metexi _ 35 turistebisTvis gankuTvnili xuTi axali maRazia sanapiroze _ 15 samuSao adgili. daniuri saxli nikala makdonaldsi isi pari bata

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axla SegiZliaT dasabuTeba winadadebebiT CamoayaliboT da Tematuri winadadebis Semdeg abzacis monaxazi, gegma gaakeToT. kurortis magaliTSi es gegma daaxloebiT aseTi iqneba:

Tematuri winadadeba:
kurorts praqtikulad SeuZlia adgilobrivi mosaxleobis dasaqmebis problemis gadaWra.

dasabuTeba:
1. 1990 wlidan 2000 wlamde umuSevroba 35%-dan 8%-mde Semcirda. 2. turistulma industriam bevri samuSao adgili Seqmna. a) gaixsna sami axali sastumro; 1) sastumro mariotSi 100 adgilobrivi mosaxle dasaqmda; 2) kopalam 50 adamians misca samuSao; 3) Zvel metexSi 35-ma adgilobrivma mosaxlem miiRo samsaxuri. b) sanapiro zolze xuTi axali maRazia gaixsna, romelSic 15 adamiani dasaqmda. g) turistebisTvis mimzidvelma kompaniebma TavianTi filialebi gaxsnes _ muSaobs `daniuri saxli~, `nikala~ da `makdonaldsi~. 3. kurortma miizida iseTi araturistuli kompaniebi, rogorebicaa bata~ da isi pari~. amgvari monaxazis gakeTeba sasurvelia ori mizniT: _ (1) amiT SevamowmebT, ukavSirdeba Tu ara winadadebebi Temas; (2) arian Tu ara winadadebebi logikurad organizebuli. qvemoT kidev erTi magaliTia mocemuli:

Tematuri winadadeba: sigaretis moweva ZviradRirebuli Cvevaa. dasabuTeba:


erTi kolofi sigareti daaxloebiT 2 laramde Rirs. mwevelTa umravlesoba dReSi erT kolofs mainc eweva. erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi daxarjuli Tanxis raodenoba 365-dan 1695 laramde meryeobs. mwevelebs avejis, xaliCebis, fardebisa da tansacmlis qimwmenda ufro xSirad uwevT, vidre _ aramwevelebs. originaluri abzacis yvela winadadeba ar aris zemoT mocemul CamonaTvalSi (ix. abzaci `moweva ZviradRirebuli Cvevaa~). magaliTad, winadadeba `magram yvelaferi amiT ar mTavrdeba~, Tumca, es winadadeba namdvilad ukavSirdeba Temas da wamyvan azrs, magram misi funqcia winadadebebs Soris kavSiris damyarebaa. is abzacis or nawils akavSirebs erTmaneTTan: sigaretSi gadaxdil Tanxasa da sigaretis mowevis farul (araTvalsaCino) danaxarjs. aseT winadadebas gardamavali (transition) winadadeba ewodeba. am CamonaTvalSi, aseve, ar aris, kidev erTi winadadeba: _ `miuxedavad imisa, rom Znelia am damatebiTi xarjis zusti gamoTvla, faqtia, rom es kidev ufro ZviradRirebuls xdis mowevis Cvevas.~ aseTi ti pis winadadebas, romelic ajamebs abzacis mTavar ideas, daskvniTi winadadeba ewodeba, Tumca, araa aucilebeli, rom yvela abzaci moicavdes aseT daskvniT winadadebas. winadadebaTa organizacia Temasa da Tqvens mizanzea damokidebuli. mniSvnelovania, rom masala, romelsac eyrdnobiT, pirdapir ukavSirdebodes abzacis mTavar winadadebas.

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savarjiSo #3.9: ganixileT romelime abzaci. dawereT mTavari winadadeba, xazi gausviT Temas, SemoxazeT wamyvani azri da CamoTvaleT is winadadebebi, romlebic mTavar winadadebas asabuTebs.
mTavari winadadeba:

dasabuTeba: 1. _____________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________ 4. _____________________________________________ daskvniTi winadadeba:


savarjiSo #3.10: gamoiyeneT Tqven mier dawerili winadadebebi da abzacebi. dawereT mTavari winadadeba, xazi gausviT Temas, SemoxazeT wamyvani azri. gadaxedeT Tqvens CamonaTvals da dawereT dasabuTeba mTavari winadadebisTvis. Tu aseTi dasabuTebis raodenoba mcire aRmoCndeba, gamoiyeneT ideebis Tavmoyris meTodi (kerZod, kiTxvebi) da winadadebiT CamoayalibeT dasabuTeba.
mTavari winadadeba:

dasabuTeba:
1. _________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________________________

mTlianoba
abzacis TiToeuli winadadeba Temas unda ukavSirdebodes da aviTarebdes wamyvan azrs. nebismieri winadadeba, romelic ar emsaxureba wamyvani azris ganviTarebas da zedmetia, unda amoiRoT abzacidan. gaixseneT abzaci, romlis mTavari winadadeba iyo: sigaretis moweva ZviradRirebuli Cvevaa. Tu am abzacSi iqneba winadadeba imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogori gamaRizianebelia vinmesTvis sxva mwevlis mier gaSvebuli kvamlis rgolebis yureba, is unda amoviRoT, radgan ar ukavSirdeba sigaretis mowevasTan dakavSirebul xarjebs. magaliTisTvis ganvixiloT Semdegi abzaci:

xanSiSesulTa kidev erTi problema mcire Semosavalia. pensiaze gasvlis Semdeg isini im kompaniidan iReben pensias, romelSic muSaobdnen an saxelwifo uxdis maT socialur dazRvevas. am Tanxis raodenoba, rogorc wesi, maTi xelfasis naxevaric ar aris. pensiaze gasvlis Semdeg isini ucbad aRmoaCenen, rom iZulebulni arian, cxovrebis stili Seicvalon. gadasaxadebis gadaxdis Semdeg aRmoCndeba, rom maT aRar darCaT fuli kinoTeatrSi an qalaqgareT wasasvlelad. ra Tqma unda, Sin darCenis mizezi SeiZleba maTi janmrTelobac iyos. am asakSi xSiria arTriti an revmatizmi, ris gamoc, maT uWirT fexiT siaruli da, ZiriTadad, saxlSi uxdebaT
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yofna. cxovrebis stilis Secvla amanac SeiZleba gamoiwvios; Tumca, zogierTma maTganma SeiZleba aRmoaCinos, rom misi pensia yovelTviur gadasaxadebsac ki ver wvdeba. erT dRes SeiZleba gaacnobieron, rom eleqtroenergia, telefoni da sakvebi ukve fufunebaa maTTvis (Smalley R.L, Ruetten M. K & Kozirev J.R, 2000).
am abzacis Temaa `xanSi SesulTa kidev erTi problema~, wamyvani azri ki _ mcire SemosavliT cxovreba, amitom yoveli winadadeba SeWirvebul yofas unda ukavSirdebodes. am abzacSi sami zedmeti winadadebaa: 1. ra Tqma unda, Sin darCenis mizezi maTi janmrTelobac SeiZleba iyos. 2. am asakSi xSiria arTriti an revmatizmi, ris gamoc maT uWirT fexiT siaruli da, ZiriTadad, saxlSi uxdebaT yofna. 3. cxovrebis stilis Secvla amanac SeiZleba gamoiwvios.

savarjiSo #3.11: xazi gausviT abzacis mTavar winadadebas da amoSaleT zedmeti winadadebebi. 60-iani wlebidan sagrZnoblad gaizarda samxreT amerikeli novelistebis popularoba da maTdami interesi. maTgan aRsaniSnavia meqsikeli mwerali karlos fuentesi, romelsac ekuTvnis `artemio krucis sikvdili~. 1967 wels nobelis premia literaturaSi mieniWa gvatemalel mwerals migel anxel asturiass. argentinaSi moRvaweobdnen iseTi mwerlebi, rogorebic arian xorxe luis borxesi, xulio kortasari, luiza valensuela, manuel huiji. am ukanasknelis nawarmoebis _ `qali-obobas kocna~ mixedviT filmicaa gadaRebuli. am filmSi mamakacis mTavari rolis saukeTeso SesrulebisaTvis oskari uiliam harTs gadaeca. ukanasknel periodSi msoflioze didi STabeWdileba moaxdina novelistma izabela alendam (`sulebis saxli~). CamonaTvali SeiZleba kidev gagrZeldes, Tumca, maT Soris yvelaze metad nacnobia gabriel garsia markesi, romelsac 1982 wels romanisTvis `martoobis asi weli~ nobelis premia mieniWa (Smalley R.L, Ruetten M. K & Kozirev J.R, 2000). umuSevrobasTan dakavSirebuli yvelaze usiamovno problema isaa, rom ar gaqvs fuli yoveldRiuri xarjebisTvis. adamianTa umravlesobas fuli iseTi aucilebeli moTxovnebisTvis sWirdeba, rogoricaa gadasaxadebi da sakvebi. tansacmlis yidvac ki mniSvnelovania da ara aucilebeli. Tu ar muSaobT, vin mogcemT fuls yoveldRiuri xarjebisTvis? iqneb, naTesavi gyavT, romelic ramdenime TviT gasesxebT fuls, magram adamianTa umravlesobas ar aqvs imdeni fuli, rom sxvisi gadasaxadebic ixados (Smalley R.L, Ruetten M. K & Kozirev J.R, 2000). Tu yvela Sesabamis asakSi mokvdeba, maSin sulac ar minda vicocxlo 500 weli da marto me viyo beberi. xalxi uamrav kiTxvas damisvams warsulis Sesaxeb: rodis moxda? moxda Tu ara? rogor moxda da a.S. ganuwyvetliv Semawuxeben. mgonia, rom moxucebs ar moswonT, roca awuxeben. garda amisa, Tu yvela mokvdeboda, me momiwevda Cemi ojaxis wevrebisa da megobrebis sikvdilis yureba. ar minda Cemi Svilebisa da SviliSvilebis sikvdils moveswro. me Zalian maxinji viqnebi (Smalley R.L, Ruetten M. K & Kozirev J.R, 2000). fsiqoanalizi im saxiT, rogoriTac Seqmna zigmund froidma, intensiuri da droSi gaxangrZlivebuli Terapiuli teqnikaa, romelic nevrotuli da mSfoTvare pirovnebis aracnobier motivebsa da konfliqtebs ikvlevs. es konfliqtebi SeiZleba adreuli bavSvobis gamocdilebas an raime mniSvnelovan, travmul movlenas ukavSirdebodes. rogorc cnobilia, froidis Teoriis mixedviT, SfoTviTi
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aSlilobebi im Sinagani konfliqtebis adekvaturad mogvarebis unaris arqonaa, romlebic warmoiqmneba idis aracnobier, iracionalur impulsebsa da superegos internalizebul (anu gaSinagnebul) socialur moTxovnebs Soris. idi, ego da superego pirovnebis struqturis komponentebia, romlebic, froidis Teoriis mixedviT, mudmiv dinamikur urTierTqmedebaSi imyofebian erTmaneTTan. fsiqoanalizis mizania intrafsiqikuri harmoniis damyareba, rac idis Zalebis gacnobierebas, superegos moTxovnebisadmi zedmetad damyolobis Semcirebasa da egos rolis gaZlierebas gulisxmobs (gerigi, zimbardo, 2007). masobriv informaciul saSualebaTa Sefaseba winaaRmdegobrivia. erTni mas ganixilaven sazogadoebrivi azris mani pulirebisa da gabatonebuli fenis xelisuflebis ganmtkicebis instrumentad. Tanamedrove msoflioSi, mkacri konkurenciis pirobebSi, gamoikveTa masobrivi informaciis saSualebaTa koncentraciis tendencia, rac Zalze saxifaToa demokratiisaTvis. meoreni amtkiceben, rom masmedia xels uwyobs sazogadoebis politikur cxovrebaSi realur CarTvasa da gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi mosaxleobis farTo fenebis monawileobas, rac aucilebelia nebismieri demokratiuli sistemis funqcionirebisTvis. mani pulaciis Sedegad xalxis cnobierebaSi inergeba iluziuri warmodgenebi politikur cxovrebaze (Smalley R.L, Ruetten M. K & Kozirev J.R, 2000). damkvirveblis tendenciurobis minimumamde dayvanis mizniT mkvlevrebi iyeneben standartizacias da operaciul gansazRvrebebs. standartizacia niSnavs monacemTa Segrovebis yvela fazaze Tanmimdevrulad dalagebuli da yvelasaTvis saerTo procedurebis gamoyenebas. cvladi ki aris nebismieri faqtori, romelic raodenobrivad an Tvisebrivad icvleba. testis, an eqsperimentis yvela faza standartuli unda iyos, anu, kvlevis yvela monawile erTsa da imave pirobebSi unda imyofebodes. standartizacia niSnavs, rom kiTxvebs erTnairad svamT da pasuxebs winaswar dadgenili wesebiT aniWebT qulebs. mkvlevarma, agreTve, unda gaiTvaliswinos damatebiTi cvladebis arsebobac (gerigi, zimbardo, 2007). fsiqologiuri gazomvis mizania sando da validuri daskvnebis miReba. sandooba niSnavs fsiqologiuri testirebis an eqsperimentuli kvlevis Sedegad miRebuli qcevis monacemebis Sesabamisobas da sandoobas. mkvlevrebs xSirad ainteresebT imgvari gamocdilebis kvleva, romelsac uSualod ver daakvirdebi. esenia Sinagani fsiqologiuri mdgomareobebi _ grZnobebi, damokidebulebebi, Sexedulebebi. sando Sedegi, sxva msgavs pirobebSi, Semowmebisas unda gameordes. Tu sazomi instrumenti sandoa, misi ganmeorebiT gamoyenebisas msgavsi qulebi unda miviRoT (gerigi, zimbardo, 2007).

Tanmimdevruloba
rogorc vnaxeT, abzacs unda gaaCndes Tema, wamyvani azri, es azri dasabuTebuli unda iyos da mTlianobiT unda xasiaTdebodes. kidev erTi elementi, romelic, aseve, esaWiroeba abzacs, Tanmimdevrulobaa (coherence), rac gulisxmobs, erTi mxriv, azrTa logikur mimdinareobas: _ azri ar unda gadadiodes (xtebodes) erTi sakiTxidan meoreze da, meore mxriv, gadasvla moqnili (lamazi, sxarti) unda iyos. logikuri Tanmimdevroba winadadebis TanmimdevrulobaSi aisaxeba, romelic Tqveni miznidan gamomdinare icvleba. magaliTad, Tu gsurT, aRweroT, ra xdeboda filmSi, Tqveni winadadebebi unda mihyvebodes moqmedebebis Tanmimdevrobas, dasawyisidan dasasrulamde, magram Tu gsurT, aRweroT yvelaze STambeWdavi momentebi filmSi, Tqven unda SearCioT ramdenime maTgani da warmoadginoT garkveuli

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logikuri TanmimdevrobiT. magaliTad, naklebad STambeWdavidan _ metad STambeWdavisken. abzaci ar aris Tanmimdevruli, Tu ideebis Tanmimdevruloba ar aris logikuri. xandaxan weris dros students, SesaZloa, gamorCes raRac, risi dawerac adre surda da CarTos maSin, roca gaaxsendeba. bunebrivia, es winadadeba uadgilo iqneba. ganvixiloT Semdegi abzaci, romelSic ramdenime winadadeba uadgilod aris CarTuli:

miuxedavad imisa, rom oregoni sakmaod patara qalaqia, is zafxulSi bevr damsvenebels izidavs. Tqven SegiZliaT mdinareze sanaosnod waxvideT; SegiZliaT icuraoT sanapiroze. damTvalierebelTa umravlesobas gzis napirebze sxvadasxva kenkrovani xilis krefa izidavs. sazafxulo banakebis gaSlis moyvarulni aq bevr adgils naxaven karvis gasaSlelad. qalaqi damsveneblebs sTavazobs ramdenime sakmaod keTilmowyobil sastumros. turistebs qalaqSi maRaziebis daTvalierebis saSualeba eZlevaT, magaliTad, antikvariatis maRazia. yvelaze saxaliso saqmianobaa Ria bazris monaxulebaa, sadac adgilobriv mcxovreblebs sakuTari baRCis dovlaTi aqvT gamofenili. aq sakmaod bevri sasiamovno adgilia, kafeebiT dawyebuli da restornebiT damTavrebuli. zogierTi am restoranTagani gemriel kvebas da lamaz interiers gvTavazobs, rom araferi vTqvaT xedebze. erT-erT maRaziaSi SegiZliaT SeiZinoT adgilobrivi xis produqcia. saTevzaod siaruli garTobis gavrcelebuli saxeobaa. wylis sporti garTobis yvelaze mimzidvel aqtivobad miiCneva. rogorc xedavT, es qalaqi bevr siurprizs gTavazobT sazafxulod. Tuki gindaT, Tqvens ojaxs sasiamovno sazafxulo ardadegebi mouwyoT, SeecadeT, ewvioT am qalaqs.
am abzacs organizaciis garkveuli princi pi aqvs: pirvel naxevarSi ganxilulia is aqtivobebi, romlebic qalaqis Semogarens ukavSirdeba, abzacis meore naxevari ki qalaqis Sida aqtivobebs eTmoba. Tumca, abzacis bolos Cndeba uadgilo winadadebebi. sami winadadeba: _ `erT-erT maRaziaSi SegiZliaT SeiZinoT adgilobrivi xis produqcia;~ `saTevzaod siaruli garTobis sakmaod gavrcelebul saxeobas warmoadgens;~ `wylis sporti garTobis yvelaze mimzidvel aqtivobad miiCneva.~ es winadadebebi aq amovardnilia da uadgilodaa motanili. es abzaci Semdegi TanmimdevrobiT unda iyos warmodgenili:

miuxedavad imisa, rom oregoni sakmaod patara qalaqia, is zafxulSi bevr damsvenebels izidavs. wylis sporti garTobis yvelaze mimzidvel aqtivobad miiCneva. Tqven SegiZliaT mdinareze sanaosnod waxvideT; SegiZliaT icuraoT sanapiroze. saTevzaod siaruli garTobis gavrcelebuli saxeobaa. damTvalierebelTa umravlesobas gzis napirebze sxvadasxva kenkrovani xilis krefa izidavs. sazafxulo banakebis gaSlis moyvarulni aq maTTvis bevr adgils naxaven karvis gasaSlelad. qalaqi damsveneblebs sTavazobs ramdenime sakmaod keTilmowyobil sastumros. turistebs qalaqSi maRaziebis daTvalierebis saSualeba eZlevaT, magaliTad, antikvariatis maRazia. erT-erT maRaziaSi SegiZliaT SeiZinoT adgilobrivi xis produqcia. yvelaze saxaliso saqmianobaa Ria bazris monaxuleba, sadac adgilobriv mcxovreblebs sakuTari baRCis dovlaTi aqvT gamofenili. aq sakmaod bevri sasiamovno adgilia, kafeebiT dawyebuli da restornebiT damTavrebuli. zogierTi am restoranTagani gemriel kvebas da lamaz interiers gvTavazobs, rom araferi vTqvaT xedebze. rogorc xedavT, es qalaqi bevr siurprizs gTavazobT sazafxulod. Tuki gindaT, Tqvens ojaxs sasiamovno sazafxulo ardadegebi mouwyoT, SeecadeT, ewvioT am qalaqs.
winadadebidan winadadebaze gadasvla moqnili da sxarti unda iyos. es niSnavs imas, Tu ramdenad kargad mosdevs erTi idea an winadadeba meores. es SeiZleba garkveuli winadadebebis kombinaciiT an garkveuli frazebis gamoyenebiT vcadoT. aseT winadadebebsa Tu frazebs gardamavali frazebi (transitional expressions) ewodeba;

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aseTi frazebia, magaliTad, daviwyoT imiT, rom; amis sapirispirod; agreTve; Tumca; miuxedavad amisa. aseTi frazebiT abzacis Tanmimdevruloba ufro daxvewili xdeba.

miuxedavad imisa, rom oregoni sakmaod patara qalaqia, is zafxulSi bevr damsvenebels izidavs. wylis sporti garTobis yvelaze mimzidvel aqtivobad miiCneva. Tqven SegiZliaT mdinareze sanaosnod waxvideT; SegiZliaT icuraoT sanapiroze. saTevzaod siaruli garTobis gavrcelebuli saxeobaa. damTvalierebelTa umravlesobas gzis napirebze sxvadasxva kenkrovani xilis krefa izidavs. garda amisa, sazafxulo banakebis gaSlis moyvarulni aq maTTvis bevr adgils naxaven karvis gasaSlelad. maTTvis, vinc qalaqSi darCenas amjobinebs, qalaqi damsveneblebs sTavazobs ramdenime sakmaod keTilmowyobil sastumros. turistebs qalaqSi maRaziebis daTvalierebis saSualeba eZlevaT, magaliTad, antikvariatis maRazia. erT-erT maRaziaSi SegiZliaT SeiZinoT adgilobrivi xis produqcia. kidev erTi, yvelaze saxaliso saqmianobaa Ria bazris monaxuleba, sadac adgilobriv mcxovreblebs sakuTari baRCis dovlaTi aqvT gamofenili. da bolos, aq sakmaod bevri sasiamovno adgilia, kafeebiT dawyebuli da restornebiT damTavrebuli. zogierTi am restoranTagani gemriel kvebas da lamaz interiers gvTavazobs, rom araferi vTqvaT xedebze. rogorc xedavT, es qalaqi bevr siurprizs gTavazobT sazafxulod. Tuki gindaT, Tqvens ojaxs sasiamovno sazafxulo ardadegebi mouwyoT, SeecadeT, ewvioT am qalaqs. savarjiSo #3.12: gadaawyveT da gamotoveT zedmeti winadadebebi. tineijerebi, upirveles yovlisa, sakuTari yoveldRiuri xarjebisaTvis muSaoben; magaliTad, Cemi biZaSvili tansacmlis maRaziaSi muSaobs da tansacmels TviTon yidulobs. gasul kviras man mSvenieri tyavis qurTuki iyida. Cemma erT-erTma megobarma Zveli manqana iyida im fuliT, romelic skolis damTavrebis Semdeg muSaobiT daagrova. axalgazrdebs surT fulis momavlisTvis Segroveba. maT surT tansacmlis yidva da fulis Segroveba manqanis, magnitofonisa Tu televizoris sayidlad. amis magaliTia ganaTlebisTvis fulis Segroveba. Cemi biZaSvili giorgi amas Tavisi momavlisTvis akeTebs. man miTxra, rom fuls, agreTve, momavali ojaxisTvis agrovebs (adaptirebulia Smalley R.L, Ruetten M. K & Kozirev J.R, 2000). saSineleba iyo, roca Cemi saqmro manqanis marTvas maswavlida. yvelaferi kargad midioda, sanam man ufrosoba ar daiwyo. erTi SemeSala, saWe imaze metad davatriale, vidre saWiro iyo da man iseTi yvirili atexa, gamvlelebs giJi egonaT. me wynarad SevTavaze, Segvewyvita mecadineoba, is ki yviroda: _ droze daZari manqanao. ho, sul damaviwyda meTqva, bordiurze rom avxti, boZs davejaxe da manqana SeiWeWya, uknidan ki sxva manqana mogvadga, romelic Cem gamo gzas ketavda. swored amitom gabrazda. Cemi saqmro tenisis TamaSsac maswavlida da maSinac miyviroda. mas undoda, droze dameZra manqana adgilidan, radgan orive mxridan manqanebi misignalebdnen. me gadavwyvite, rom es is adamiani ar aris, vinc tareba unda maswavlos (Smalley R.L, Ruetten M. K & Kozirev J.R, 2000). mani pulacia adamianis qcevis marTvis teqnologiaa. mani pulaciis obieqti Tvlis, rom is moqmedebs Tavisufali arCevanis safuZvelze, sinamdvileSi ki mas marTaven. esaa adamianebis azrisa da miswrafebebis, maTi ganwyobisa da fsiqikuri mdgomareobis faruli marTva im mizniT, rom mani pulaciis obieqtSi aRZras manipulaciis saSualebebis mflobelisaTvis sasurveli qceva. manipulaciis Sedegad xalxis cnobierebaSi inergeba iluziuri warmodgenebi politikur cxovrebaze. mani pulaciuri teqnologiebisTvis damaxasiaTebelia uaris Tqma argumentebze da misi Secvla fsiqologiuri STagonebiT, adamianebSi sxvadasxva emociis (SiSis, SeSfoTebis, iZulebis) gaCeniT (Smalley R.L, Ruetten M. K & Kozirev J.R, 2000).
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rodesac fsiqologiuri problemebi Cndeba, adamianTa umetesoba nacnob wreebSi eZebs araformalur konsultantebs. morwmuneTaTvis es SeiZleba iyos sasuliero piri. es SeiZleba iyos ojaxis wevri, uaxloesi megobari, piradi eqimi, advokati, sayvareli maswavlebeli, xelmZRvaneloba an sabWo. sazogadoebaSi arsebuli araformaluri Terapevtebis mxrebze mravali frustracia da konfliqti gadadis. sxvebi rCevisTvis mimarTaven da esaubrebian barmenebs, gamyidvelebs, taqsis mZRolebsa da, nebismiers, vinc mousmens maT. rodesac problemaTa diapazoni SemosazRvrulia, araprofesionalTa daxmareba sakmaod didia (gerigi, zimbardo, 2007). fsiqologiaSi winaswarmetyveleba niSnavs, rom garkveuli qceva an mocemuli kavSiri raRac albaTobiT gamovlindeba. magaliTad, Tu migvaCnia, rom Tqveni megobari morcxvia, SegviZlia darwmunebiT viwinaswarmetyveloT, rom is uxerxulad igrZnobs Tavs, Tu ucnob adamianTan gasaubrebas vTxovT. Tqvens megobars warmatebiT rom daemyarebina ucnobTan kontaqti, diagnozi unda Segvecvala. xSirad qcevis romelime formis safuZvlad miCneuli mizezebis zusti axsna saSualebas aZlevs mkvlevars zustad iwinaswarmetyvelos momavali qceva. rodesac romelime qcevis an kavSiris sxvadasxva axsna arsebobs, maT imis mixedviT Seafaseben, ramdenad kargad SeuZliaT zusti da amomwuravi winaswarmetyveleba (gerigi, zimbardo, 2007). sakontrolo kiTxvari gamarTuli abzacisTvis
1. aris Tu ara abzaci sakmarisad konkretuli? 2. Seicavs Tu ara abzaci mTavar (Tematur) winadadebas; Tu ar Seicavs, aris Tu ara mTavari winadadeba nagulisxmevi? 3. moicavs Tu ara Tqveni mTavari winadadeba wamyvan azrs? 4. aris Tu ara abzaci mTliani, tovebs Tu ara mTlianobis STabeWdilebas (abzacis winadadebebi amarTleben an upasuxeben Tu ara wamyvan azrs)? 5. aris Tu ara abzaci Tanmimdevruli (anu aris Tu ara winadadebebi logikurad dakavSirebuli da ikiTxeba Tu ara abzaci Tavisuflad)?

abzacis ti pebi
abzaci SeiZleba iyos TxrobiTi, aRweriTi an axsniTi.

TxrobiTi abzaci
abzacSi winadadebebis dawyobis ramdenime gza arsebobs. winadadebebis wyoba da abzacis sxva detalebi avtoris mizanzea damokidebuli. vTqvaT, gTxoves skolaSi Cveulebrivi dilis aRwera. cxadia, Tqven ar daiwyebT imis moyolas, Tu ras akeTebT skolidan saxlSi misvlisas. amis nacvlad Txrobas daiwyebT imiT, Tu ras akeTebT skolaSi misvlisTanave. mokled rom vTqvaT, Tqvens azrebsa da moqmedebebs im drois mixedviT daalagebT, romelSic es moqmedebebi xorcieldeba. analogiurad, procesis (rogor keTdeba raime) axsnisas Tqven daiwyebT imiT, Tu ra keTdeba pirvel rigSi da daasrulebT bolo moqmedebiT. droSi mimdinareobis mixedviT ideebis dalageba qronologiur ganviTarebas gulisxmobs (ix. suraTi #3.2). faqtebis qronologiuri dalageba, ZiriTadad, ori saxis nawerSi gamoiyeneba, esaa Txroba da procesis aRwera (rogor gakaveToT raRac _ moqmedebebis aRwera). Txroba gamocdilebis gaziarebas gulisxmobs. gamocdileba SeiZleba iyos warsuli (warsuli Txroba), awmyo (awmyo gamocdileba) an tipuri (anu Cveulebrivi gamocdileba).

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qronolo giuri dalageba

Txroba

procesis aRwera (ra ris mere)

mogexsenebaT, ideebisa da winadadebebis qronologiuri dalageba ar aris rTuli, Tumca, rTulia abzacis mTlianobis SenarCuneba. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, rTulia wamyvani azris SerCeva da imis gadawyveta, Tu ra CavrToT da amoviRoT abzacidan.

warsuli

awmyo

davuSvaT, sazRvargareT mcxovrebi megobrisgan miiReT werili, romelsac qarTuli tradiciebi da suraTi #3.2: qronologiuri dResaswaulebi ainteresebs. Tqven TanmimdevrobiT dalageba gadawyviteT, misweroT mas da Tbilisobis Sesaxeb uamboT. Tbilisoba weliwadSi erTxel, oqtombris bolo SabaT-kviras imarTeba. am dros dilidan iketeba qalaqis centraluri quCa _ rusTavelis gamziri da riye. qalaqis sxvadasxva adgilSi soflis meurneobis produqtebis gamofena-gayidva imarTeba, sadac SegiZliaT SeiZinoT CurCxelebi, Ciri, sxvadasxvagvari xili, baRCeuli, bostneuli, xorceuli da sasmelebi. aseT bazrobebTan saxeldaxelod dadgmul magidebsa da savele samzareuloebs naxavT. aq SegiZliaT kargad danayrdeT: _ miirTvaT mwvadi, xinkali, xaWapuri da sxva erovnuli kerZebi, romelTac Tqven Tvalwin daamzadeben. amis garda, specialurad am dRisTvis ewyoba scenebi, sadac warmodgenebs marTaven Teatris, cirkisa da estradis msaxiobebi. saRamos imarTeba saxalxo seirnoba. centraluri quCebi gadaWedilia xalxiT. dResaswauli gvian Ramemde grZeldeba. saRamos mTel qalaqSi mwvadis suni da misi kvamli trialebs. rogorc xedavT, avtorma qarTuli tradiciebis Tema daakonkreta da erT konkretul tradiciaze, Tbilisobis dResaswaulze dawera. am abzacSi Temis Sesabamisi winadadebebi logikurad qronologiuri TanmimdevrobiTaa dalagebuli. Sesabamisad, abzaci Tanmimdevrulia. amasTan, abzaci mTlianobiTac xasiaTdeba. yvela winadadeba Seexeba imas, Tu ra xdeba Tbilisobis dros, magram ramdenad naTlad aris warmoCenili Tavad avtoris damokidebuleba am yvelafris mimarT? cxadia, es abzaci amaze arafers gveubneba. Tu mas ise SevcvliT, rom masSi gveqneba mkafio, Zlieri wamyvani azri, avtoris damokidebulebac cxadi gaxdeba CvenTvis.

tipuri gamocdil eba

ti puri gamocdileba

Tbilisobis mSvenieri da mxiaruli dResaswauli weliwadSi mxolod erTxel, oqtombris bolo SabaT-kviras imarTeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom am dros iketeba qalaqis centraluri quCa _ rusTavelis gamziri da riye da amiT ferxdeba transportis moZraoba, dResaswauli mainc sasixaruloa da xalxi siamovnebiT erTveba xolme dagegmil RonisZiebebSi. qalaqis sxvadasxva adgilSi soflis meurneobis produqtebis gamofena-gayidva imarTeba, sadac SedarebiT iafad SegiZliaT SeiZinoT naturaluri, gemrieli CurCxelebi, Ciri, sxvadasxvagvari xili, baRCeuli, bostneuli, axalTaxali xorceuli da ugemrielesi Rvino. aseT bazrobebTan axlos saxeldaxelod gamarTul kafeebs, swrafi kvebis obieqtebsa da savele samzareuloebs naxavT. aq SegiZliaT kargad danayrdeT: gamocdili mzareulebi Tqven Tvalwin daamzadeben da SemogTavazeben ugemrieles mwvads, xinkals, xaWapursa da sxva erovnul kerZebs. amis garda, specialurad am dRisTvis ewyoba scenebi, sadac mTeli dRis ganmavlobaSi imarTeba saintereso da Tvalwarmtaci sanaxaobebi bavSvebisTvisa da mozrdilebisTvis. scenebze SegiZliaT ixiloT estradis popularuli varskvlavebi, Teatris msaxiobebi, bavSvebis sayvareli zRapruli personaJebi da mxiaruli jambazebi. saRamos saxalxo seirnoba imarTeba. centraluri quCebi gadaWedilia gaRimebuli adamianebiT, romlebic Sin kmayofilni da sanovagiT xeldamSvenebulni brundebian.
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dResaswauli gvian Ramemde grZeldeba. saRamos mTel qalaqSi mwvadis kvamli da misi Tavbrudamxvevi da madisaRmZvreli suni trialebs.
abzacisTvis mniSvnelovani wamyvani azris (mSvenieri da mxiaruli~) Semcveli mTavari winadadebis damatebiT avtori mkafiod gamoxatavs Tavis damokidebulebas Tbilisobis dResaswaulisadmi. amasTan, man zogierTi winadadeba Secvala da detalebi daamata, raTa dasabuTebas kargad gamoexata Tbilisobis mSveniereba.

savarjiSo #3.13: Tavidan waikiTxeT zemoT mocemuli abzaci da xazi gausviT meore variantSi Setanil cvlilebebs. ra gavlena iqonia am cvlilebebma abzacze? savarjiSo #3.14: damokidebulebis gamosaxatad damasabuTebeli winadadebebis gamoyenebaSi gasavarjiSeblad qvemoT mocemuli winadadebebi orgvarad gadawereT. pirvel variantSi dauSviT, rom wamyvani azria `sasiamovno~, meoreSi _ `saSineli~. nimuSSi mocemulia is frazebi, romlebic SeiZleba gamogadgeT winadadebebis werisas. nimuSi: Tematuri winadadeba: giorgisTvis yoveli dila xalisiania. sasargeblo frazebi: sawolidan wamoxtoma aromatiT tkboba ylupylupad daleva mSvidi xalisiani swrafad adgoma mxiaruli dakvirvebiT icvams yuradRebiT irCevs mziani sasargeblo frazebi: Tavs Zlivs wevs Zlivs dgeba erTianad moyudeba tansacmlis dayra gaRizianeba 1. sawolidan dgeba. giorgi daviTi 2. tansacmels icvams. giorgi daviTi 3. fardebs wevs. giorgi daviTi mowyenilad buzRuniT daTrgunulad Semawuxebeli sinaTle

Tematuri winadadeba: daviTi Tvlis, rom misi yoveli dila autanelia.

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4. Cais svams. giorgi daviTi 5. mezobels `dila mSvidobisas~ usurvebs. giorgi daviTi savarjiSo #3.15: wina savarjiSos informaciis gamoyenebiT dawereT abzaci giorgis an daviTis Sesaxeb. Tqveni Tematuri winadadebis wamyvani azris dasabuTebisTvis mocemuli winadadebebi damatebiTi informaciiT unda SeavsoT. savarjiSo #3.16: werisTvis mosamzadebeli meTodebis gamoyenebiT daagroveT informacia Tqveni Cveulebrivi dilis Sesaxeb, airCieT wamyvani azri da dawereT abzaci. savarjiSo #3.17 : gaixseneT, yovelwliurad rogor aRiniSneba saqarTvelos damouideblobis dRe. CamowereT, ras akeTeben adamianebi dResasawaulis dawyebamde da dResaswaulis ganmavlobaSi. miRebuli CamonaTvalis mixedviT SearCieT wamyvani azri da dawereT abzaci imis Sesaxeb, Cveulebriv, rogor iqcevian xolme adamianebi am dRes. SeamowmeT, rom yvela winadadeba wamyvani azris dasabuTeba iyos. warsuli gamocdileba
Cven ganvixileT TxrobiTi abzaci, romelic awmyoSi mimdinare movlenebis Tanmimdevrobas aRwerda. Tu movlena awmyoSi ar xdeba, maSin is ukve moxda warsulSi. Cveulebriv, warsulSi momxdaris Sesaxeb mogviTxroben, magaliTad, SeiZleba cxovrebis mniSvnelovani momentis Sesaxeb gviambon. am dros, pirvel rigSi, erT winadadebaSi unda Sejamdes am gamocdilebis mniSvneloba. Semdeg logikurad unda dalagdes winadadebebi da mxolod TemasTan dakavSirebuli winadadebebi daiweros.

momdevno dilas gavogndi: _ iq, sadac adre Cemi neka TiTi iyo, maxinji msuqani sosisi moCanda, burTiviT gasiebuli da siTxiT savse, TiTis meore saxsridan wveramde. `ra sisulele iyo... amis gakeTeba~, _ buzRuniT Tqva Tanamgzavrma mTamsvlelma. rogor SemeZlo aseTi suleli, daudevari da araseriozuli vyofiliyavi? es iyo meore xarisxis moyinva... me wavbodialdi Cems karavSi, pirquS martoobaSi msurda yofna. vcdilobdi, menugeSebina sakuTari Tavi. `yvelaferi kargad iqneba,~ _ Tqva eqimma, magram rogor SemeZlo, ar mefiqra, rom TiTi axla romc momrCenoda,SemdegSi mainc ufro mgrZnobiare iqneboda. es ambavi 7800 futis simaRleze moxda. ra moxdeboda 11300 futze, sadac ufro yinavda? sadac Jangbadi da, Sesabamisad, winaaRmdegobis gawevis unari, naklebi iyo? Rirda ki mwvervalis dapyroba ase Zvirad _ sakuTari TiTis dakargvis fasad? me davfiqrdi cota xans da sakmaod mSvidad da Cemda gasaocrad davaskveni is, rasac verasodes warmovidgendi, Tundac erTi Tvis win: _ TiTi arc ise didi sazRauri iyo: rogorme iolad gavidodi nekis gareSec (gerigi, zimbardo, 2007). savarjiSo #3.18: airCieT erT-erTi Tema: 1. gaixseneT nebismieri gamocdileba Tqveni warsulidan, iqneba es SiSis momgvreli, arafriT gamorCeuli Tu sasiamovnod mosagonari. werisTvis mosamzadebeli erT-erTi meTodis gamoyenebiT SeagroveT masala mocemuli Temis Sesaxeb. Semdeg gaakeTeT am gamocdilebiT movlenebis

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Tanmimdevrobis monaxazi. gansazRvreT Txrobis Tema da abzacis wamyvani azri. dawereT Tematuri winadadeba da abzaci. 2. gaixseneT SemTxveva, rodesac Tqveni survilis winaaRmdeg imoqmedeT. SeagroveT masala da gaakeTeT movlenaTa Tanmimdevrobis monaxazi, gansazRvreT wamyvani azri, dawereT Tematuri winadadeba da abzaci. savarjiSo #3.19: airCieT Tema da dawereT TxrobiTi abzaci. : 1. fsiqologia _ cnobilia, rom organizmebi Ramis Zilis cikliT xasiaTdebian. isini erTi Ramis ganmavlobaSi ramdenjerme gaivlian Zilis srul cikls, romelic ramdenime fazas moicavs.

dawereT abzaci, romelSic Tanmimdevrulad iqneba aRwerili organizmis Ramis Zilis mimdinareoba fazebis mixedviT. 2. fsiqologia _ Jan piaJes miaCnda, rom bavSvis kognituri ganviTareba SeiZleba oTx Tanmimdevrul, calkeul stadiad daiyos. yvela bavSvi am stadiebs erTnairi TanmimdevrobiT gadis.

dawereT abzaci, romelSic mokled aRwerT, Tu rogor viTardeba bavSvis kognituri unarebi piaJes mixedviT.

TxrobiTi abzacis Sesafasebeli kiTxvari


1. TxrobiTi abzaci ambavs an SemTxvevas unda gadmogvcemdes. uambobs Tu ara Tqveni abzaci mkiTxvels raime ambavs?

2. TxrobiT abzacSi movlenebi qronologiurad aris dalagebuli. aris Tu ara Tqvens abzacSi daculi winadadebebis qronologiuri Tanmimdevroba? 3. aqvs Tu ara Tqvens abzacs kargad gamokveTili an nagulisxmevi Tematuri winadadeba?

4. aqvs Tu ara Tqvens abzacs kargad gamokveTili wamyvani azri? 5. aris Tu ara Tqveni abzaci erTiani anu yvela winadadeba aris Tu ara wamyvani azris dasabuTeba?

aRweriTi abzaci
TxrobiT abzacebSi aRwerilia movlenebis Tanmimdevroba an raime ambavi. sxva sityvebiT, maTSi aRwerilia gamocdileba. TxrobiT abzacSi ideebi da winadadebebi qronologiurad, droSi ganviTarebis mixedviT dalagdeba, magram, rodesac saWiro xdeba raimes aRwera (ix. suraTi #3.3), vTqvaT, rogor gamoiyureba esa Tu is adgili, sagani Tu adamiani, cxadia, rom aralogikuri iqneba qronologiuri Tanmimdevrobis gamoyeneba. rodesac aRvwerT, Tu rogor gamoiyureba raRac anu aRvwerT garegnobas, mniSvnelovania sivrce da ara dro. Sesabamisad, aRweriT abzacSi winadadebebi da detalebi dalagdeba imis mixedviT, Tu sad mdebareobs aRsaweri obieqti. teqstis organizaciis am ti ps sivrciTi organizacia ewodeba. aRweriT abzacSi aRsaweri obieqtebis mdebareoba cxadad da gasagebad unda aRiweros.
aRwera

sagani

adgili

suraTi #3.3: aRweris nairsaxeobebi

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adgilis aRwera
pirvel rigSi, ras aRwerT oTaxis aRwerisas? kedlebs, iataks Tu raime sxva detals? qronologiurad dalagebuli abzacisgan gansxvavebiT, aRweriT abzacSi ar arsebobs winadadebebis dalagebis unikaluri da aucilebeli wesi. araa aucilebeli, rom erTi adgiliT daiwyoT da meoreze gadaxvideT. miuxedavad amisa, winadadebebi SemTxveviTad ar unda daiweros. aRwera ise unda iyos organizebuli, rom mkiTxvelma naTlad SeZlos aRwerili scenis warmodgena. aRweriT abzacSi detalebis dalageba aRsawer saganzea damokidebuli, detalebis SerCeva da aRwera ki _ aRmweris mizanze.

Tavad TaTqariZis saxl-karis Taobaze mogiTxrobT. warmoidgineT Sua kaxeTis patara sofelSi erTi adgili da im adgilis Suagulsa _ orsarTuliani saxli qviTkirisa. ai, is sarTulebi ra ferisa iyo: qveS iyo marani, walmiT daxuruli da im marnis ukana kedelzed amoyvanili gaxldaT erTi ficruli, romelic saqveSagebosa hTamaSobda. karga manZilze kidev ficrulis saTornec idga. imas aqedam xula, romelsac zed hqonda modgmuli sasiminde, baRCac iyo, RobiT gavlili. RobesTan, erTi furclis xis siaxloves, moCanda Caluri. ezo am cixe-darbazisa, sigrZezed Tu siganezed karga farTod iyo gaziduli. imas ertya garSemo Robe (adaptirebulia _ i.WavWavaZe, `kacia-adamiani?!~)
albaT, kargad warmoidgineT, ezoSi sad idga saxli da misi minaSenebi. abzacSi naTlad aris aRwerili, sad ra mdebareobs. abzaci mTliani da Tanmidevrulia, magram ras ityviT misi wamyvani azris Sesaxeb? ra STabeWdileba moaxdina Tqvenze Tavad TaTqariZis saxl-karis aRweram? rogor fiqrobT, ra damokidebuleba aqvs avtors misdami? albaT, verafers ityviT amis Sesaxeb. imisaTvis, rom abzaci ufro saintereso gaxdes, mas wamyvani azri unda daematos, romelic aRsaweri obieqtisadmi avtoris damokidebulebasa da emociebs gamoxatavs. mxolod am SemTxvevaSi SeZlebT, gaigoT, Tu ras grZnobs da fiqrobs avtori Tavad TaTqariZis saxl-karis Sesaxeb. ilia WavWavaZis mier dawerili originaluri abzaci swored aseTia _ masSi naTlad Cans avtoriseuli damokidebuleba:

kargi ram iyo Tavad TaTqariZis saxl-kari. warmoidgineT Sua kaxeTis patara sofelSi erTi triali, dacemuli adgili da im adgilis Suagulsa _ orsarTuliani saxli qviTkirisa. ai, is sarTulebi ra ferisa iyo: qveS iyo marani, walmiT daxuruli, da im marnis ukana kedelzed amoyvanili gaxldaT erTi patara mciredi ficruli, romelic saqveSagebosa hTamaSobda. karga manZilze kidev ficrulis saTornec idga. imas aqedam xula, romelsac zed hqonda modgmuli calTvala sasiminde, erTi ubadruki ram da mgloviare. baRCac iyo, RobiT gavlili. RobesTan, erTi furclis xis siaxloves moCanda Zveli Caluri, droTa brunvisgan ise gverdzed wamoRerebuli da wamowolili, TiTqos griloSi wamowolas apirebso, magram beberiviT nekresis qaris tkivilebs uecrad ise wamoxrili da daRrejili SeukavebiaTo. ezo am cixe-darbazisa, sigrZezed Tu siganezed karga farTod iyo gaziduli. imas ertya garSemo Zveli tyruSuli Robe, romelic zogierTgan gadaqceuli iyo da exlandels patrons arc ki mosvlia fiqrad, rom gaekeTebina. etyoba, rom qarTvelia!... (i.WavWavaZe, `kacia-adamiani?!~)
cxadia, rom meore varianti sakmaod gansxvavdeba pirvelisgan, Tumca, orive abzacSi erTi da igive saxl-karia aRwerili. Zlieri wamyvani azris Semcveli Tematuri winadadebis damateba ara marto imas gansazRvravs, Tu ra unda iyos abzacSi, aramed Tavad aRsaweri obieqtis detalebis aRweris mimarTulebasac gvkarnaxobs. Zlieri wamyvani azri abzacs Tavs uyris. Tavidan waikiTxeT zemoT mocemuli ori abzaci da xazi gausviT gansxvavebebs. es cvlilebebi ganamtkicebs wamyvan azrs da naTel warmodgenas gviqmnis imaze, Tu ra damokidebuleba aqvs avtors aRwerili saxl-karisadmi. aRweriT abzacSi detalebi ara marto logikurad unda dalagdes, aramed _ STambeWdavi, naTlad gamokveTilic unda iyos. amisaTvis es detalebi unda daixvewos 38

anu dakonkretdes maTi mniSvneloba. arsebiTi saxelebis modificirebis sami gza arsebobs: (1) zedsarTavi saxelebis damateba, (2) zedsarTavi saxelisa da TandebulTa jgufebis damateba da (3) winadadebebis damateba. TiToeuli modifikatoris damatebis SemTxvevaSi ufro da ufro dakonkretdeba saganTa is klasi, romelsac mocemuli arsebiTi saxeli miekuTvneba. magaliTad, ganvixiloT sityva wigni. es sityva farTo klass aRniSnavs. wigni SeiZleba iyos didi, patara, mwvane, Zveli an axali. is SeiZleba iyos saxelmZRvanelo an deteqtivi. amitom sityva wigni ar uqmnis mkiTxvels zust warmodgenas, konkretulad rogor wignzea saubari. Tu wigns davumatebT zedsarTavs wiTeli, maSin wignebis klasi Semcirdeba da mxolod wiTeli wignebiT Semoifargleba. Tu Txelydiansac davamatebT, wiTeli wignebis klasi kidev ufro dakonkretdeba da gveqneba wiTeli Txelydiani wignebis klasi, romelic kidev ufro SeiZleba dakonkretdes gansazRvrebiTi winadadebis damatebiT da, magaliTad, miviRoT wiTeli Txelydiani wigni, romlidanac Sua furclebi amoxeulia. yovelTvis ecadeT, rom detalebi maqsimalurad konkretuli gaxadoT, vinaidan bundovani aRwerebi obieqtis realurad danaxvis saSualebas ar aZlevs mkiTxvels. dakonkretebuli detalebi nawers ufro gasagebsa da sainteresos xdian. aRwerisas detalebis dalageba aRsawer sagansa da mizanzea damokidebuli. sityvebiT suraTis xatvisas SegiZliaT aRweroT marcxinidan marjvniv, marjvnidan marcxniv, zemodan qvemoT an qvemodan zemoT. zogjer aRwera SeiZleba obieqtis irgvliv iyos koncentrirebuli. am SemTxvevaSi gamokveTilia mocemuli scena, an is, rac uCveuloa am scenaSi. am SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba sasurveli iyos am obieqtze orientireba da, pirvel rigSi, misi aRwera. es iqneba pirvelad SemCneulis princi piT aRwera. magaliTad, oTaxis aRwerisas avtorma, pirvel rigSi, SeiZleba aRweros is, rasac mayurebeli, pirvel rigSi, dainaxavda, vTqvaT, kedlebi, fardebi da oTaxis SuaSi dadgmuli didi sawoli.

msazRvrelis SeTanxmeba sazRvrulTan


msazRvrel-sazRvrulis brunebisas gamoarCeven Semdeg variants: 1) TanxmovanfuZiani msazRvreli: sax. Wkvian-i kac-i, moTx. Wkvian-ma kac-ma. mic. Wkvian kac-s, naT. Wkviani kac-is. moq. Wkviani kac-iT, viT. Wkvian kac-ad, wod. Wkvian-o kac-o. * a) Sebrunebuli wyoba: sax. kac-i Wkvian-i, moTx. kac-ma Wkvian-ma, mic. kac-s Wkvian-s, naT. kac-is Wkvian-is, moq. kac-iT Wkvian-iT, viT. kac-ad Wkvian-ad, wod. kac-o Wkviano. Sebrunebul wyobas ZiriTadad mxatvrul literaturaSi vxvdebiT da srulad ibrunvis. 2) xmovanfuZiani msazRvreli: sax. mokle gza, moTx. mokle gza-m, 39

mic. mokle gza-s, naT. mokle gz-is, moq. mokle gz-iT, viT. mokle gza-d, wod. mokle gza-v. msazRvreli ucvleli rCeba. a) Sebrunebuli wyoba: sax. gza mokle, moTx. gza-m mokle-m, mic. gza-s mokle-s, naT. gz-is mokl-is, moq. gz-iT mokl-iT, viT. gza-d mokl-ed, wod. gza-v mokle-v. 3) naTesaobiTbrunviani msazRvreli: sax. kuWis wylul-i, moTx. kuWis wylul-ma, mic. kuWis wylul-s, naT. kuWis wylul-is, moq. kuWis wylul-iT, viT. kuWis wylul-ad, wod. kuWis wylul-o. a) Sebrunebuli wyoba: sax. wylul-i kuWisa, moTx. wylul-ma kuWisa-m, mic. wylul-s kuWisa-s, naT. wylul-is kuWisa, moq. wylul-iT kuWisa, viT. wylul-ad kuWisa, wod. wylul-o kuWisav. naTesaobiTi da moqmedebiTi TiTqmis ar ixmareba. * SeniSvna: Tu msazRvreli warmomavlobiT moqmedebiTi an viTarebiTi brunvis formaa, micemiT brunvaSi niSans dairTavs _ yofiTs problemebs, pirads saqmes. (momzadebulia: a. arabuli, `qarTuli metyvelebis kultura~, Tb. 2004w. gv.122-124.)

ramdenime msazRvrelis rigi


1. Tu ramdenime msazRvrelidan erTi aris ricxviTi saxeli, meore zedsarTavi an marTuli msazRvreli (arsebiTi saxeli naT. brunvaSi) da kuTvnilebas ar gamoxatavs, ricxviTi saxeli pirvel adgilze daismis: aTi lamazi qali, Svidi mokle gza, (da ara: lamazi aTi qali, mokle Svidi gza). 2. Tu zedsarTavi saxeli an marTuli msazRvreli kuTvnilebas gamoxataven (amxanagis wigni, froidis naSromi),maSin ricxviTi saxeli meore adgilze daismis: amxanagis xuTi wigni, froidis aTi naSromi (da ara: xuTi amxanagis wigni, aTi froidis naSromi). 3. Tu araerTgvar msazRvrelTagan erT-erTi nacvalsaxelia, is yovelTvis pirvel adgils daiWers: misi samecniero naSromi, Seni oqros beWedi (da ara: samecniero misi naSromi, oqros Seni beWedi).

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4. Tu orive msazRvreli zedsarTavia (an mimReoba), erTi viTarebiTi (pirveladi), meore mimarTebiTi (nawarmoebi), porvel adgilze viTarebiTi zedsarTavi (an mimReoba) dgeba, meoreze mimarTebiTi: grZeli galeqsili ena, kargi samecniero naSromi (da ara: galeqsili grZeli ena, samecniero kargi naSromi). 5. Tu orive msazRvreli mimarTebiTi zedsarTavi saxelia, meore adgilze upiratesad _ur sufiqsiT nawarmoebi zedsarTavi daismis: dangreuli mSobliuri saxli, ganTqmuli kaxuri Rvino (da ara: mSobliuri dangreuli saxli, kaxuri ganTqmuli Rvino). 6. roca msazRvrelTagan erTi SeTanxmebulia, meore marTuli da gamoxatavs sazRvrulis warmomavlobas an daniSnulebas, maSin jer SeTanxmebuli msazRvreli unda daiweros, Semdeg marTuli: ucxo qveynis Svili, nacionaluri partiis lideri (da ara: qveynis ucxo Svili, partiis nacionaluri lideri), magram Tu marTuli msazRvruli sazRvrulTan erTad kuTvnilebas gamoxatavs, maSin SeTanxmebuli msazRvrulis win unda daisvas: qarTvelebis gulisamaCuyebeli maspinZloba, agitatoris dausrulebeli leqcia (da ara: gulisamaCuyebeli qarTvelebis maspinZloba, dausrulebeli agitatoris leqcia). (momzadebulia: d. TvalTvaZe, n. gafrindaSvili, `marTlweris wesebi da savarjiSoebi~, Tb. 2004, gv. 54-55.)

savarjiSo #3.20: gaasworeT Secdomebi.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. sisxliani imeruli fafanaki didxans iyo gamokidebuli moedanze. ori kaci mividnen eremias saxlis WiSkarTan. aRfrTovanebulma Tavadis colma brZaneba gasca. erTma axalgazrda mosxepilma kacma Tofi aiRo xelSi. maimuni cxovrobs cxels qveyanaSi. gza midis xrioks qveyanaSi. axalma Cemma nacnobma gaixara. soflis orRobeebSi daiwyes WriWini mZimed dadebulma Tivis urmebma. gzaSi moxucebul erT cxenosans wavawydi. gaCaRebuls buxars guguni gahqonda. aleqsandre iTxovda Semosasvlelis gzebis Sekvras. ymawvili kaci axalgazrda Sin dabrunda. am miwaze feradi sxvadasxva yvavili daiTeseba. es vaSlebi melam lamazi maxlobeli baRidan mozida. dRes oci sonis~ feradi televizori gaaTamaSes. xeebi Semosilia foTliT mwvaneTi.

pirovnebis aRwera
xSirad gviwevs cocxali arsebis aRwera, iqneba es adamiani, cxoveli Tu mweri. rogor aRwerT adamians? davalebidan da subieqtidan gamomdinare, Tqven SeiZleba aRweroT adamianis garegnoba, qceva an orive erTad. aq mxolod garegnobas SevexebiT. am dros abzacis organizebis princi pi, ZiriTadad, sivrciTia. adamianis garegnoba mravalnairad SeiZleba aRiweros. Tqven SeiZleba isaubroT pirovnebis Cacmis stilze, siarulis maneraze, Tmis fersa da varcxnilobaze, saxis nakvTebze, sxeulis formebsa da gamometyvelebaze. aseve, SegiZliaT aRweroT 41

pirovnebis saubris manera. is, Tu ris aRweraze SeCerdebiT, damokidebulia Temasa da Tqvens mizanze. magaliTad, rogor aRuwerT Tqvens Seyvarebuls megobars? raze isaubrebT: mis Tmaze, Tvalebze Tu xmaze? gaxsovdeT, rom Tqven sityvebiT unda daxatoT misi portreti, amitom aRwera naTeli da Tanmimdevruli unda iyos; logikurad ise unda daalagoT, rom Tqvenma megobarma cxadad SeZlos Tqveni rCeulis warmodgena. amasTan, ukeTesi iqneba, Tu Tqvens nawerSi aRsaweri pirovnebisadmi damokidebulebac iqneba gadmocemuli (anu unda gqondeT mniSvnelovani wamyvani azri).

lamaziseuli Casuqebuli qali iyo. tanzed ecva xamis CiTis kaba. kalTebi aqa-iq gamomwvari hqonda. boloebi sul mompali da Semofxrewili hqonda. daxeulebidam moCanda sabnis nagleji, kabis qveSa garSemo Camokidebuli, miTom da iubkaa. Tavzed ekra CirTmedini, qalbatonis gamonacvali. Signidan mouCanda Savi Tma. ai, amgvari iyo is arseba, romelsac darejani `lamaziseuls~ eZaxda (adaptirebulia _ i.WavWavaZe, `kacia-adamiani?!~).
es abzaci Tanmimdevrulia? SeZeliT Tu ara lamaziseulis danaxva? cxadia, abzaci Tanmimdevrulia da lamaziseulic dainaxeT, magram ramdenad mimzidvelad gamoiyureboda igi? SegiZliaT, zustad warmoidginoT, Tu rogori iyo es personaJi realurad? albaT, ara. garda amisa, avtoriseul damokidebulebazec verafers vityviT. arc garegnobaa zedmiwevniT aRwerili. am abzacidan ver SeityobT lamaziseuli sufTad Cacmul-davarcxnili dadioda Tu Tavidan fexebamde WuWySi iyo amosvrili; verc imas igebT, ra ferisa da formis samosi ecva. uamravi detalia, romelic originalur abzacSi CarTo avtorma da lamaziseulis portreti Zalze metyveli gaxada:

sasacilo ram iyo es lamaziseuli: erTi raRac uSnod Casuqebuli, jmuxi, WuWyiani, tanzed ecva xamis CiTis kaba, WuWyisgan ver gairCeoda _ ra ferisa iyo; kalTebi aqa-iq gamomwvari hqonda zamTarSi cecxlTan axlos gdebisgan, boloebi sul mompali da Semofxrewili hqonda. daxeulebidam moCanda erTi raRac dampalis sabnis nagleji, kabis qveSa garSemo Camokidebuli, miTom da iubkaa. ai, mexi ki dageca! amasac ki sdomebia iubka! Tavzed ekra Siga-da-Sig amofleTili CirTmedini, qalbatonis gamonacvali. am amofleTilebSi muTaqis matylsaviT dasorsvlili Savi _ ukacravod ar viyo _ wiliani da dauvarcxneli Tma muWa-muWa amoSveroda. quslebdaxeTqili, muguzaliviT Savi fexebi, wengosgan SeRebili xelebi, cxvirpiri qvabebis muriT muTxupnuli _ ai, amgvari iyo is cxoveli, romelsac darejani `lamaziseuls~ eZaxda (i.WavWavaZe, kacia-adamiani?!~).
axla ki namdvilad SeZlebT realuri lamaziseulis danaxvasac da misdami avtoris damokidebulebis gagebasac. abzacs kargad gamokveTili wamyvani azri aqvs (sasacilo).

axsniTi abzaci
abzacis organizacia da Sinaarsi mis Temasa da wamyvan azrzea damokidebuli. Tematuri winadadeba unda dasabuTdes qronologiurad dalagebuli detalebiT TxrobiT abzacSi da sivrciTad organizebuliT _ aRweriT abzacSi; Tumca, yvela Temas ver gavSliT TxrobiT an aRweriT abzacSi. davuSvaT, dagavales Tematuri winadadebis: _ universitetSi siaruli SeiZleba Zviri iyos~ ganviTareba. cxadia, aq wamyvani azria Zviri. ra ti pis dasabuTebas gamoiyenebdiT am Tematuri winadadebebisaTvis? naTelia, rom mTavari winadadeba ar moiTxovs Cvengan, rom raime ambavi movyveT, adgili an pirovneba aRvweroT. is gveubneba, rom Cven wamyvani azri informaciiT, axsniT, faqtebiT an ilustraciebiT unda davasabuToT. abzacs, romelic xsnis an aanalizebs Temas, axsniTi abzaci ewodeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom Temis axsna mravalnairad SeiZleba, axsniTi abzacis gaSlis yvelaze gavrcelebuli da xSirad gamoyenebadi xerxi specifikuri detalebisa da 42

magaliTebis gamoyenebas gulisxmobs. magaliTad, qvemoT mocemul abzacSi axsnilia, Tu ratom aris iluziebi Cveni cxovrebis ganuyofeli nawili.

iluziebi Cveni cxovrebis ganuyofeli nawilia. ganvixiloT Cveni planeta dedamiwis yoveldRiuri gamocdileba. Tqven xedavT mzis `amosvlas~ da `Casvlas~, Tumca, iciT, rom mze dasabamidan mzis sistemis centrSia moTavsebuli . . . aseve, roca savse mTvarea caze, geCvenebaT, rom sadac ar unda waxvideT, is Tan mogyvebaT, Tumca, iciT, rom es ase ar aris. esec iluziaa, romelsac Tqvens Tvalebsa da mTvares Soris arsebuli udidesi manZili iwvevs. saqme isaa, rom mTvaridan areklili sinaTlis sxivebi Tqveni moZraobis mimarTulebis mimarT, ZiriTadad, paraleluri da perpendikularuli rCeba da mniSvneloba ar aqvs am dros, Tu saiT midixarT (gerigi, zimbardo, 2007).
ganurCevlad imisa, Tu ra ti pis abzacs werT, Tqven mTavar winadadebaSi mocemuli wamyvani azris dasasabuTeblad specifikuri detalebi da konkretuli magaliTebi gWirdebaT. wamyvani azri aris mTavari/Tematuri winadadebis sityva an fraza, romelic Temis azrs/ideas an misdami damokidebulebas gamoxatavs. am azrs an damokidebulebas xSirad generalizacias uwodeben. generalizacia aris debuleba, romelic SemTxvevaTa umravlesobaSi miesadageba sagnebis, azrebisa Tu adamianebis jgufs. generalizacia SeiZleba SefasebiTi msjeloba an mosazreba (magaliTad, `ana sasiamovno adamiania~) anda faqtis konstatireba (magaliTad, `inglisur enaSi bevri sityva frangulidan aris Semosuli~) iyos.

savarjiSo #3.21: yuradRebiT waikiTxeT qvemoT mocemuli winadadebebi. TiToeul punqtSi mocemuli oTxi variantidan amowereT is mTavari winadadeba, romelic saTanado/Sesatyvis generalizacias Seicavs. 1. Tematuri winadadeba: _______________________________________________________ dasabuTeba: a) sasursaTo maRaziis Taroebze gamofenil mraval produqts aweria `uqolesterno~. b) roberte kovalskis `qolesterolisagan gankurnebis 8 kvira~ da doqtor kenet h. kuperis `qolesterolis kontroli~ am wlis bestselerebia. g) herkulesi, romeliczomierad amcirebs qolesterolis dones, imdenad swrafad iyideba, rom masze moTxovnilebis dasakmayofileblad sawarmoebi uwyvetad (24 sT) muSaoben. d) ukanaskneli saprezidento saarCevno kampaniis dros eqimebma gamoaqveynes samedicino angariSebi wamyvani kandidatebis sisxlSi qolesterolis Semcvelobis Sesaxeb.
axsniT abzacSi avtori, advokatis msgavsad, raRac mosazrebis damtkicebas cdilobs. rogorc advokati ver SeZlebs raimes damtkicebas konkretuli faqtebis dasaxelebis gareSe, ise avtorisTvis SeuZlebelia azris dasabuTeba faqtebis gareSe. wamyvani azris anu generalizaciis yvelaze kargi dasabuTeba aris faqtobrivi masala (informacia wyaroebidan, faqtebi, monacemebi da a.S.).

savarjiSo #3.22: yuradRebiT waikiTxeT qvemoT mocemuli mTavari winadadeba da misi detalebi. Tematuri/mTavari winadadebisTvis aRniSneT is detali, romelic ver axdens generalizacias (wamyvani azris) saTanado dasabuTebas. sigaretis moweva mavnebelia janmrTelobisTvis. a) kvlevebi aCvenebs, rom sigaretis moweva zrdis kibos risks. b) mwevlebi ufro xSirad avaddebian iseTi respiratoruli daavadebebiT, rogoricaa bronqiti an enfizema.

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g) kvlevebi, aseve, aCveneben, rom sigaretis mwevlebs ufro xSirad emarTebaT gulis Setevebi. d) metic, sigaretis moweva kbilebs ayviTlebs.
Tu faqtobrivi detalebiT ver xerxdeba dasabuTeba axsniT abzacSi, SeiZleba sxva saxis dasabuTebis gamoyeneba da es, yvelaze xSirad, aris magaliTi. ganmartebis Tanaxmad, magaliTi aris erTeuli, romelSic warmodgenilia sagnebis, adamianebisa Tu ideebis jgufi. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, magaliTi aris zogadi kategoriis konkretuli warmomadgeneli. erTi sityviT, magaliTi generalizacias anu wamyvan azrs ufro gasagebs xdis da amitom dasabuTebis efeqturi saSualebaa.

savarjiSo #3.23: waikiTxeT qvemoT mocemuli abzacebi da gansazRvreT abzacis ti pebi. Cemma maswavlebelma xeli wyalSi Camayofina. roca erT xelze civi wylis Wavli Semexo, man meore xelis gulze damawera sityva `wyali~ jer nela, Semdeg ufro swrafad. me wynarad vijeqi da mTeli gulisyuriT SevigrZnobdi misis salivanis TiTebis moZraobas. uecrad dameufla bundovani amaRelvebeli gancda, TiTqos raRac daviwyebuli brundeboda da rogorRac enis saidumlos farda aexada. maSin mivxvdi, rom `w-y-a-l-i~ aris is mSvenieri grili raRac, xelebze rom mexeboda. am cocxalma sityvam gamoafxizla Cemi suli, mianiWa mas sinaTle, imedi, sixaruli da Tavisufleba; miuxedavad imisa, rom siZneleebi amiT ar dasrulebula, maT SedarebiT iolad vumklavdebodi (gerigi, zimbardo, 2007). zafxulobiT, roca santa esperansas mosaxleoba erTiaTad izrdeba turistuli sezonis gamo, aq ara mxolod damsveneblebi arian, aramed dRiuri muSaobis msurvelnic, radgan servisis sferos Tavad mosaxleoba ver audis turistebis siWarbisa da kunZulis mosaxleobis tradiciebis ramdenadme Taviseburebis gamo (aka morCilaZe, mister diqslis mdumare yuTi).

Cvilebi xedavdnen Semdeg movlenas: ekrani zemoT iweoda ise, rom maT
SeeZloT imis danaxva, rom mis miRma araferi iyo da isev eSveboda. Semdeg daxril sibrtyeze patara vagoni gordeboda, romelic sademonstracio yuTs gaivlida da siCqaris Semcirebis gareSe ekranis ukan uCinardeboda, Semdeg ekranis meore mxaridan gamoCndeboda da sabolood sademonstracio yuTis marjvena mxares gamodioda (Baillargeon, 1986). amanda fsiqoTerapevti iyo. is saSualo asakis, warmosadegi, gemovnebiT Cacmuli, gawonasworebuli qali iyo. misi kilo, romelic Cems gamocdil smenas ar gamoparvia, maRal sazogadoebaSi aRzrdaze an, sul cota, samxreTul daxvewilobaze mianiSnebda. amanda Wkviani da kompetenturi qali Canda, romelsac CemTvis daxmarebis gaweva SeeZlo (gerigi, zimbardo, 2007).

44

Tavi

4.

ra

aris aris

ese3

ese abzacTa garkveuli jgufia, romelSic Camoyalibebulia erTi ZiriTadi idea. abzacisagan gansxvavebiT, eses ufro formaluri (zusti) struqtura aqvs. masSi TiToeul abzacs sxvadasxva funqcia akisria:

1.

Sesavali _ Cveulebriv, es erTi (ori an meti) abzacia, romelic gansaxilvel Temasa da eses ZiriTad ideas _ sakvanZo debulebas gadmogvcems.

2. ganmaviTarebeli abzaci _ ayalibebs centraluri ideis da Temis sxvadasxva aspeqts. is SeiZleba ganixilavdes mizezebs, Sedegebs, magaliTebs, procesebs, klasifikacias anda Sedarebebs. is, agreTve, SeiZleba aRwerdes an mogviTxrobdes rames. 3. daskvna _ moicavs azrebs, romlebic Camoyalibebulia eseSi. esaa daskvniTi, saboloo sityva.
is, Tu ramdeni abzaci iqneba eseSi, mTlianad damokidebulia Temis sirTuleze. zogierT eses ori an sami abzaci aqvs, zogs ki _ 20 da 30 abzaci.

sakvanZo debuleba
eses, iseve, rogorc abzacs, erTi mTavari wamyvani azri aqvs. sakvanZo debuleba _ es aris winadadeba, romelic moicavs eses ZiriTad ideas. abzacis mTavari winadadebis msgavsad, sakvanZo debuleba moicavs gamonaTqvams, romelSic gadmocemulia damokidebuleba, mosazreba an idea Temis Sesaxeb, magram, mTavari winadadebisgan gansxvavebiT, sakvanZo debuleba ufro farToa da masSi mTeli esesaTvis aris gadmocemuli wamyvani azri. faqtobrivad, TiToeul ganmaviTarebel abzacs wamyvani azri unda hqondes, romelic exmaureba an ukavSirdeba ZiriTad ideas _ sakvanZo debulebas. sakvanZo debulebasTan dakavSirebiT aucilebelia gvaxsovdes Semdegi: 1. sakvanZo debuleba gadmocemuli unda iyos sruli winadadebis saxiT, unda gamoxatavdes dasrulebul azrs da ar unda iyos dasmuli kiTxvis saxiT; anu sakvanZo debuleba unda iyos dasrulebuli azri, romelic, rogorc wesi, gadmocemulia rTuli winadadebiT.

mcdari sakvanZo debuleba:


sibnelis SiSi. (me meSinia sibnelis an Cemi sibnelis SiSi)

swori sakvanZo debuleba:


sibnelis SiSi Cems cxovrebas autanels xdis. 2. sakvanZo debulebaSi gadmocemulia azri, damokidebuleba an idea da ara ubralod Tema, romelic eseSi iqneba Camoyalibebuli da ganviTarebuli. sakvanZo debuleba acnobs azrs, damokidebulebas raime sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, Tumca, ara im saxiT, rom me vapireb ganvixilo~, radgan sakvanZo debulebaSi xdeba romelime sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT Tqveni poziciis gancxadeba da ara imaze miniSneba, Tu rogor iqneba warmodgenili da gaSlili is Tqvens naSromSi.

mcdari sakvanZo debuleba:


ganvixilavT radiaciis gavlenas.
Tavi momzadebulia Semdeg wyaroze dayrdnobiT: Regina L Smalley., Mary K. Ruetten., & Joann Rishel Kozyrev (2000). Refining Composition Skills. Heinle & Heinle: Thomson Learning.
3

45

swori sakvanZo debuleba:


xSirad radiaciis Sedegebi sruliad prognozirebadia. 3. sakvanZo debuleba unda gamoxatavdes azrs, Sexedulebas da ara faqts, romlis WeSmaritebaSic Znelad Tu SeiZleba eWvi Seeparos vinmes. ramdenadac sakvanZo debulebiT gadmocemulia damokidebuleba anda idea Temis Sesaxeb. sakvanZo debuleba, romelsac SeiZleba vinme ar daeTanxmos, unda aixsnas da dasabuTdes.

mcdari sakvanZo debuleba:


Zroxa gvaZlevs rZes.

swori sakvanZo debuleba:


rZe, romelsac Zroxa gvaZlevs, yovelTvis ar Seesabameba adamianis moTxovnebs.

mcdari sakvanZo debuleba:


kolejSi Cabarebas bevri nakli da bevri dadebiTi mxare aqvs (ar aris sakamaTo Tema).

swori sakvanZo debuleba:


kolejSi Cabareba aSkarad sjobs arCabarebas. 4. sakvanZo debuleba unda gamoxatavdes mxolod erT ideas erT TemasTan dakavSirebiT, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, naSromi dakargavs erTianobas. Tu masSi gadmocemulia ori an meti idea, arsebobs riski, rom ese ar iqneba logikurad gamarTuli da winadadebebi erTmaneTs azrobrivad ver daukavSirdeba (unity, coherence).

mcdari sakvanZo debuleba:


Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetSi Cabareba SeiZleba gasarTobi ram iyos da me aRmovaCine, rom didi qalaqis gareubani ufro kargi sacxovrebeli adgilia, vidre _ koleji.

swori sakvanZo debuleba:


Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetSi Cabareba gasarTobi (mxiaruli) ramaa.

savarjiSo #4.1: guldasmiT waikiTxeT debulebebi. gansazRvreT, aris Tu ara 1 debuleba sakvanZo.
1. 2. 3. 4. genetikis upiratesobebi. Cemi survilia, ganvixilo sakuTari Sexeduleba olimpiur TamaSebze. studentebs wignis maRaziaSi muSaobis neba unda darTon. rodesac pirvelad vestumre SeerTebul Statebs, ar vsargeblobdi swrafi kvebis obieqtebiT da gaocebuli viyavi savaWro centrebiT. ratom ar minda, rom mosamarTle gamovide? saqarTvelos respublikur da konservatul partiebs Soris gansxvaveba. ucxo enis codna yvelasaTvis kargia. vapireb, aRvwero sakuTari saxli. Tbilissa da quTaiss Soris bevri msgavseba da gansxvavebaa. 46

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

savarjiSo # 4.2: waikiTxeT winadadebebi. gansazRvreT, romeli maTgani ar aris sakvanZo debuleba. gadawereT TiToeuli maTgani. gadaaqcieT is sakvanZo debulebad. nimuSi: me vapireb, agixsnaT, Tu ratom gadavwyvite kolejSi Cabareba. kolejSi swavlis gagrZeleba rTulad misaRebi gadawyvetileba iyo.
1. qimiuri narCenebis Senaxvis safrTxe. _______________________________________________________________________ 2. qalaqsa da sofelSi cxovreba bevri ramiT hgavs da gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisgan. _______________________________________________________________________ 3. Tbilisi saqarTveloSi yvelaze didi qalaqia. _______________________________________________________________________ 4. zRvispira qalaqSi cxovreba gacilebiT ukeTesia, vidre mTian adgilze. _______________________________________________________________________ 5. saqarTvelos universitetebi ufro met humanitarul kursebs saWiroeben; maT, agreTve, meti socialuri aqtivoba esaWiroebaT. _______________________________________________________________________

Sesavali
sakvanZo debuleba
sakvanZo debuleba mTeli eses mTavari debulebaa. ar arsebobs wesi, romlis mixedviTac sakvanZo debuleba raime gansakuTrebul adgilze unda iyos ganTavsebuli, Tumca, Cveulebriv, is Sesaval abzacSia xolme mocemuli. debuleba unda aixsnas da ganimartos ganmaviTarebel abzacSi. Sesavali abzacis maxasiaTeblebi 1. Sesavali abzaci waradgens Temas. esaa pirveli, rasac mkiTxveli ecnoba. aqedan gamomdinare, cxadia, rom am abzacma unda miawodos mkiTxvels informacia gansaxilveli Temis Sesaxeb. 2. Sesavali abzaci unda miuTiTebdes, zogadad rogor iqneba Tema gaSlili. kargi Sesavali abzaci unda miuTiTebdes, agreTve, ra iqneba ganxiluli eseSi: _ mizezebi, Sedegebi, magaliTebi; iqneba Tu ara gadmocemuli eseSi procesis aRwera, axsna Tu klasifikacia. 3. zogadad, Sesavali unda moicavdes sakvanZo debulebas. esaa zogadi wesi. xandaxan sakvanZo debuleba SeiZleba nawerSi ufro mogvianebiT gamoCndes, xandaxan _ dasasrulSic. zogierT SemTxvevaSi debuleba pirdapir arc aris mocemuli da igulisxmeba. sasurvelia, rom sakvanZo debuleba SesavalSive naTlad iyos gadmocemuli. 4. idealur SemTxvevaSi Sesavali abzaci imdenad saintereso unda iyos, rom naSromis wasakiTxad iwvevdes mkiTxvels. ramdenadac Sesaval abzacs Temis gacnobis funqcia aqvs da is gamomwvevi unda iyos, amitom sasurvelia, sakvanZo debuleba ar iyos moTavsebuli zustad Sesavali abzacis dasawyisSi. Tqven ara mxolod unda gaacnoT mkiTxvels Tema, sanam gadmoscemT Tqvens Sexedulebasa da mosazrebas, aramed unda moxibloT 47

kidec igi, rom pirveli winadadebis Semdeg man gaagrZelos kiTxva. pirvelsave winadadebaSi Tqveni Sexedulebis gadmocema, Cveulebriv, aRaraa saintereso; faqtobrivad, Tu mkiTxveli ar eTanxmeba Tqvens azrs, savaraudod, is aRar gaagrZelebs kiTxvas. amitom sakvanZo debuleba unda moTavsdes Sesavali abzacis bolos an daaxloebiT mis dasasrulTan axlos.

savarjiSo #4.3: ganixileT Semdegi abzacebi. xazi gausviT sityvas an sityvebs, romlebic pirvel winadadebaSi Cndeba da xelmeored aris mocemuli sakvanZo debulebis saxiT (Smalley R. L, Ruetten M. K. & Kozirev J.R. 2000). kompiuteri daxvewili manqanaa, romelic Zalian swrafad inaxavs da ixsenebs informacias. is Zalian martivi da saintereso ramaa gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT, Tumca, zogierTs eSinia kidec misi. mec meSinoda kompiuteris, meSinoda warumateblobis, radgan araferi vicodi programirebis Sesaxeb, magram Semdeg mivxvdi, rom kompiuterTan muSaobis procesi Zalze martivia . rodesac Zalian axalgazrdebi viyaviT, gvjeroda, rom SeuZlebelia mSoblebma raime arasworad gaakeTon. isini srulyofil arsebebad gveCvenebodnen, romlebmac yvela Cvens kiTxvaze icodnen pasuxi da romlebsac yvela Cveni problemis gadaWra SeeZloT; Tumca, roca gavizardeT, davinaxeT, rom mSoblebic uSveben Secdomebs. Cven televiziis epoqaSi vcxovrobT, sadac televizori drois flangvis saSualebaa. adamianebi sul ufro da ufro met dros atareben televizorTan da sxvas arafers akeTeben. zogierTi uaryofs amas da ambobs, rom televizoris yureba sulac ar aris drois kargva, radgan televizoris saSualebiT adamiani Zalian bevr rames swavlobs. darwmunebuli var, rom Tu didxans da yuradRebiT gadavxedavT satelevizio programebs, namdvilad SeiZleba saganmanaTleblo gadacemebis moZebna, magram, umeteswilad, televizoris yureba drois flangvaa. dRevandeli bavSvebi Cveni momavalia. erT dRes isini dominantur Zalad iqcevian. Tu maT Sesaferis xelmZRvanelobas gauweven da Tu mSvenieri bavSvoba eqnebaT, roca gaizrdebian, isini did daxmarebas gauweven Cvens sazogadoebas. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, dRevandeli bavSvebi mniSvnelovan gavlenas moaxdenen Cvens sazogadoebaze momavalSi, magram mSoblebma unda gaiTvaliswonon is Sesaferisi garemo, romelic maT Svilebs mTeli bavSvobis manZilze esaWiroebaT.

Sesavali abzacis Sefaseba


1. gvamcnobs, waradgens Tu ara abzaci Temas? 2. mianiSnebs Tu ara abzaci, rogor iqneba Tema SemdegSi gaSlili da Camoyalibebuli? 3. moicavs Tu ara abzaci sakvanZo debulebas? 4. aris Tu ara abzaci gamomwvevi, damaintrigebeli?

savarjiSo #4.4: SeadareT abzacebi zemoT mocemuli SekiTxvebis mixedviT. aris Tu ara abzacSi mocemuli yvela elementi? (Smalley R. L, Ruetten M. K. & Kozirev J.R. 2000).

48

Cven yvela vicnobT msuqani, mxiaruli adamianis xats. aris Tu ara es ase? samwuxarod, es araswori stereoti pia. msuqani adamianebi yovelTvis ar arian aseTi bednierni .

`Cven yvelani qalaqisken mivemarTebiT~, _ am sityvebs uamravi sofleli ambobs


dRes. roca maT gadaadgilebis mizezebis dasaxelebas sTxoven, isini martivad upasuxeben, rom qalaqSi cxovreba gacilebiT ganviTarebulia, vidre _ sofelSi. qalaqSi arsebobs transporti, sakomunikacio saSualebebi, saganmanaTleblo da samedicino momsaxureba. aseve, aq samsaxuris dawyebis ufro meti Sansia. me veTanxmebi am adamianebs, magram ifiqres Tu ara maT sakuTar janmrTelobaze? ifiqres Tu ara im safrTxeze, romelic maT Svilebs emuqreba? am safrTxem SeiZleba ar iCinos Tavi pirveli eqvsi Tvis manZilze, magram is aucileblad gamovlindeba momavalSi, roca qalaqi sxvadasxva erovnebisa da warmoSobis adamianebiTa da uamravi manqaniT gaivseba. miuxedavad imisa, rom sofeli moklebulia momsaxurebis zogierT sferos, romelic zemoT iqna naxsenebi, is CemTvis kvlav rCeba saukeTeso sacxovrebel garemod . msurs Cemi mSobliuri qalaqis Sesaxeb giamobT. esaa patara qalaqi daaxloebiT 8000 mcxovrebiT. mTavari saqmianoba aq saxelmwifosTvis muSaobaa, ramdenadac is samxreTis dedaqalaqia . gasul wels Cemma biZaSvilma giorgim samsaxurisTvis banks mimarTa. mogexsenebaT, rodesac aseTi TxovniT mimarTav organizacias, mzad unda iyo imisaTvis, rom bevri orazrovani kiTxvisTvis mogiwevs pasuxis gacema. zogierTi SekiTxva, romelsac gisvamT interviueri, SeiZleba ganaTlebasa da wina samsaxurs exebodes, magram giorgi ar iyo momzadebuli SekiTxvevebisTvis. interviuerma mas kiTxvebi dausva, giorgim ki umravlesobas ver upasuxa, radgan ar iyo momzadebuli interiviusTvis. Sesabamisad, ver moewyo samsaxurSi. Tu ar gsurT imave situaciaSi aRmoCndeT, unda moemzadoT gasaubrebisTvis. savarjiSo #4.5: mocemulia Temebi. gamoiyeneT ideebis Tavmoyris meTodi da daajgufeT informacia Temis irgvliv. airCieT Tema, romelic yvelaze metad mogwonT da dawereT Sesavali abzaci.
Temebi: 1. Cems samSobloSi uamravi RirsSesaniSnavi adgilia, romelTa naxvac Rirs. 2. Sidsis virusi msoflio problemaa. 3. televizoris yureba ar aris drois flangva. 4. axali weli saukeTeso dResasawaulia.

naSromis ZiriTadi nawili _ ganmaviTarebeli abzaci


ganmaviTarebeli abzacis funqcia sakvanZo debulebis axsna, ilustrireba, ganxilva da dasabuTebaa. ganmaviTarebeli abzacis maxasiaTeblebia: 1. TiToeuli ganmaviTarebeli abzaci unda ganixilavdes mTavari Temis mxolod erT aspeqts, magaliTad, Tu Tqven werT naSroms sigaretis mowevis gavlenis Sesaxeb adamianis janmrTelobaze, maSin TiToeul ganmaviTarebel abzacs unda hqondes Tema `sigaretis gavlena~. 49

2. ganmaviTarebeli abzacis wamyvani azri unda exmaurebodes sakvanZo debulebis ZiriTad ideas. Tu sakvanZo debuleba isaa, rom `moweva damangreveli Cvevaa~, maSin TiToeuli abzaci am gavlenis damangrevel Sedegebs unda Seexebodes. 3. ganmaviTarebeli abzaci Tanmimdevruli, logikuri unda iyos, sxartad, moqnilad unda ikiTxebodes da mTlianobiT unda xasiaTdebodes. aseve, abzacebic logikurad unda iyos erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli, iseve, rogorc masSi Semavali calkeuli winadadebebi. winadadebebis erTmaneTTan dakavSirebis princi pebi ZalaSia abzacebis erTmaneTTan dakavSirebis SemTxvevaSic. Temis dakonkretebis meTodi sakvanZo debulebis SemTxvevaSic gamoiyeneba. sakvanZo debuleba ufro zogadia, vidre mTavari winadadeba. garda amisa, TiToeuli ganmaviTarebeli abzaci ganixilavs sakvanZo debulebaSi mocemuli mTavari Temis erT aspeqts. debulebis SerCevis Semdeg is logikurad TiToeuli abzacisTvis Temebad unda daiyos. es Temebi, arsebiTad, Tqveni debulebis dasabuTebaa. erT-erTi meTodi, romlis saSualebiTac xdeba sakvanZo debulebis Temebad dayofa, debulebis kiTxvad gadaqcevaa. kiTxvaze pasuxebi SeiZleba ganmaviTarebeli abzacis Temad iqces.

1.

2.

3.

4.

sakvanZo sofeli saukeTeso sacxovrebeli garemoa CemTvis. debuleba: kiTxva: ra aqcevs sofels saukeTeso garemod? pasuxi: adamianTa axlo urTierTobebi. naklebad dabinZurebuli garemo. usafrTxo cxovreba. sakvanZo gasaubrebaze kargi STabeWdilebis mosaxdenad aucilebelia debuleba: momzadeba. kiTxva: rogor unda moemzado gasaubrebisTvis? pasuxi: dagegmo da winaswar unda moifiqro pasuxebi savaraudo SekiTxvebze. SearCio, ras Caicvam. ar unda daigviano. sakvanZo televizoris yureba ar aris drois fuWad kargva. debuleba: kiTxva: ratom ar aris televizoris yureba drois fuWad kargva? pasuxi: Rirebuli saganmanaTleblo gadacemebi. televizia relaqsaciis saukeTeso saSualebaa. informaciis wyaroa. sakvanZo baTumi da foTi ufro metad hgvanan erTmaneTs, vidre xalxs debuleba: hgonia. kiTxva: ratom? riT hgvanan es qalaqebi erTmaneTs? pasuxi: orive qalaqi didia. orivegan sxvadasxva eTnikuri jgufebi cxovrobs. orive saporto qalaqia.

6: savarjiSo #4.6: mocemulia sakvanZo debulebebi ori Tematuri winadadebiT. yuradRebiT waikiTxeT TiToeuli sakvanZo debuleba da mTavari winadadeba. gansazRvreT, ra logikiT xdeba Temis dakonkreteba da daumateT TiTo mTavari winadadeba. 1. sakvanZo debuleba:
qalaqi aris adgili, sadac me vicxovrebdi.

mTavari winadadebebi:

50

1.

me mizidavs gasarTobi adgilebis mravalferovneba.

2. momwons resursebis xelmisawvdomoba. 3. ___________________________________________________

2. sakvanZo debuleba:
sigaretis moweva saSiSia Tqveni janmrTelobisTvis.

mTavari winadadebebi:
1. sigaretis Warbma mowevam SeiZleba yelis daavadeba gamoiwvios. 2. moweviT SeiZleba filtvebi daiziano. 3. ___________________________________________________

3. sakvanZo debuleba:
sirbili ar aris erTaderTi gza sisxlis momoqcevis gasaumjobeseblad.

mTavari winadadebebi:
1. bevrisTvis efeqturi varjiSia velosi pedis tareba. 2. sisxlis mimoqcevis gasaumjobesebeli saSualebaa curvac. 3. ____________________________________________________________ 4. sakvanZo debuleba: universitetSi aucilebelia ucxo enis Seswavla.

mTavari winadadebebi:
1. studentebi SeZleben sxva qveynebis kulturis gacnobas.. 2. ucxo enis codna momaval saqmianobaSi dagexmarebaT. 3. ___________________________________________________

savarjiSo #4.7: waikiTxeT qvemoT mocemuli sakvanZo debulebebi da TiToeulisTvis 7: sami mTavari winadadeba dawereT.
1. inglisuri enis swavla advili araa. 1. ___________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________ 2. avtobusiT mgzavroba SeiZleba arc ise usafrTxo iyos. 1. ___________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________ 3. umuSevrobam SeiZleba adamians sakuTari Tavis pativiscema daakargvinos. 1. ___________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________

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daskvna
Sesavali abzacis funqcia Temis wardgena, Temis gacnobaa. Sesabamisad, daskvniTi abzacis funqcia diskusiis damTavreba, ganviTarebis logikuri dasasrulia. Tu ganmaviTarebeli abzaci aviTarebs, gaSlis sakvanZo debulebas, bunebrivia, rom mas daskvna mosdevdes. daskvna mTlianad ganmaviTarebel abzaczea damokidebuli, Tumca, arsebobs daskvnis daweris standartuli wesebi: daskvnaSi ganxiluli qveTemebis (an Temis sxvadasxva aspeqtis) xelaxali gacxadeba unda xdebodes. es mimoxilva ufro mokle unda iyos, ramdenadac es sakiTxebi vrclad unda iyos ganxiluli ganmaviTarebel abzacSi. daskvnaSi SeiZleba sakvanZo debulebis xelaxali gacxadebac, magram, tavtologiis Tavidan acilebis mizniT, es SeiZleba sxva sityvebiT moxdes. sakvanZo debulebis gameoreba misi mniSvnelobis dasabuTebaa. daskvnaSi ar unda xdebodes axali Temis anda Temis axali aspeqtis gaCena, romelic ar iyo naxsenebi ganmaviTarebel abzacebSi.

savarjiSo #4.8: mocemulia sakvanZo debulebebi dasabuTebuli debulebebiTa da daskvnebiT. ganixileT, aris Tu ara daskvna logikuri mocemuli winadadebebisTvis. daasabuTeT Tqveni daskvna. sakvanZo debuleba: televizoris yureba ar aris drois flangva. a) is sasargeblo saganmanaTleblo saSualebaa; b) is garTobis saukeTeso saSualebaa, romelic modunebis saSualebas iZleva; g) is masalas iZleva ojaxuri diskusiebisTvis. kritikosebi agrZeleben televizoris kritikas, magram misi saganmanaTleblo Rirebulebis da kidev imis gamo, rom is ulev masalas iZleva diskusiisTvis, Cveni ojaxi televizoris xangrZliv yurebas agrZelebs. aseve moiqcevian sxvebic. marTlac, televizoris yureba drois gayvanis, drois flangvis saukeTeso saSualebaa.

52

Tavi

5.

argumentirebuli argumentirebuli

ese

argumentirebuli eses mizania raime azris sisworeSi mkiTxvelis darwmuneba. argumentebis motanis saWiroeba maSin Cndeba, rodesac adamianebi ar eTanxmebian erTmaneTs raime sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT. erTi mxare mosazrebas gamoTqvams da am mosazrebis mxardaWeris mizezebs gvTavazobs. meore mxare sawinaaRmdego Sexedulebas gvawodebs da aseve gvTavazobs mis dasabuTebas. SeiZleba ori adamianis azri romelime konkretuli sakiTxze ar daemTxvas erTmaneTs, Tumca es ar niSnavs imas, rom is namdvilad sadavo da sakamaTo sakiTxia. magaliTad, erT-erTi mxare Tvlis, rom marwyvis nayini ukeTesia, vidre Jolosi, magram ar arsebobs aranairi xerxi, romliTac erTi SeZlebs meoris gadarwmunebas da sakuTari azris sisworeSi darwmunebas, radgan garkveuli aromatis mqone nayinisTvis upiratesobis miniWeba gemovnebis sakiTxia da ara logikisa da dasabuTebis; Tumca, SesaZloa sakamaTo iyos is, rom erT-erTi maTgani ufro popularulia, vidre meore. am SemTxvevaSi dasasabuTeblad SesaZlebelia gayiduli produqtis raodenobis maCveneblebis faqtebis motana. analogiurad, orma adamianma SeiZleba bevri ikamaTos da mainc ver SeTanxmdebs imis Taobaze, arsebobs Tu ara RmerTi; SeuZlebelia, erT-erTma daarwmunos meore da Seacvlevinos Sexeduleba, radgan religiur sakiTxebze Sexeduleba rwmenas efuZneba da ara logikasa da Semowmebad faqtebs. aseve, Tu ar emTxveva azri imis Sesaxeb, vin moigo erovnuli Cempionati, mcire gamokvlevis Semdeg SesaZlebelia amis dadgena. aq argumentad faqtebi gveqneba. amrigad, gemovneba, faqtebi da rwmena ar aris sakamaTo da sadavo Temebi. sakamaTod da sadavod SeiZleba iseTi sakiTxi iqces, romelic mosazrebas, azrs, Sexedulebas efuZneba, romlis dasabuTebac SesaZlebelia faqtebiT, eqspertTa mosazrebebiT, empiriuli monacemebiT an logikuri mizezebiT. magaliTad, Tqven gsurT daasabuToT mosazreba, rom skolis moswavleebma fizikuri momzadebis kursi yvela semestrSi unda gaiaron. Tqven amis gakeTeba relevanturi faqtebiTa da logikuri mizezebiT unda moaxerxoT, radgan sawinaaRmdego Sexedulebis mqone adamianebsac TavianTi dasabuTeba aqvT sakuTari mosazrebis sasargeblod. fizikuri momzadebis kursis saWiroeba iseTi sakiTxia, romelsac ori mxare aqvs, is ar aris arc rwmenis, arc faqtebisa da arc gemovnebis saqme (Smalley R.L, Ruetten M. K & Kozirev J.R, 2000).

argumentirebuli debuleba anu Tezisi


naSromebis umaravlesobas gamarTuli sakvanZo debuleba aqvs, magaliTad, amerikaSi pirvelma vizitma travma momayena~ debulebis centraluri ideaa travma, magram es ar aris argumentirebuli debuleba. vinaidan argumentirebuli ese aucileblad unda moicavdes argumentirebul debulebas, romelSic avtori mkiTxvelis darwmunebas, misi Sexedulebis Secvlasa da sakuTar mosazrebaze gadayvanas ecdeba, argumentirebuli ese damajerebeli da logikurad gamarTuli unda iyos. argumentirebuli sakvanZo debuleba anu Tezisi sxva ti pis debulebebisgan ZiriTadad imiT gansxvavdeba, rom masSi gadmocemulia pozicia, romelic Semdeg unda dasabuTdes. magaliTad, fizikuri kulturis kursis Sesaxeb sakvanZo debulebas SeiZleba Semdegi saxe hqondes: `saxelmwifo universitetis studentebma yovel semestrSi unda gaiaron fizikuri kulturis kursi~. ra Tqma unda, viRac SeiZleba ar daeTanxmos am mosazrebas da sapirispiro Sinaarsis sakvanZo debuleba SemogvTavazos: `saxelmwifo universitetis studentebma ar unda gaiaron fizikuri kulturis kursi yovel semestrSi~ (Smalley R.L, Ruetten M. K & Kozirev J.R, 2000).

53

savarjiSo #5.1: waikiTxeT qvemoT mocemuli sakvanZo debulebebi da dasviT `+~ : im debulebebTan, romlebic, Tqveni azriT, argumentirebulia.
1. ___ kolejis studentebi ar unda iyvnen SezRudulni saleqcio kursis arCevaSi. 2. ___ momaval mSoblebs bavSvebis gaCenisTvis licenzia unda sWirdebodeT. 3. ___ Tbilisis samSeneblo kodeqsi araadekvaturia. 4. ___ TbilisSi arsebul universitetebs Soris am universitets yvelaze meti studenti hyavs. 5. ___ studentebma unda gamoTqvan TavianTi mosazreba maswavleblebis miReba-gaTavisuflebis Taobaze. 6. ___ biblioTekaSi pornografiuli wignebi unda aikrZalos. 7. ___ am universitets ar unda hyavdes fexburTis gundi. 8. ___ am raionis moqalaqeebs iaraRis tarebis ufleba unda miscen. 9. ___ saqarTvelos mTavrobam meti ltolvili unda daakmayofilos sacxovrebeli pirobebiT. 10. ___ adamianebma mxari ar unda dauWiron klonirebas, romelsac bevri uaryofiTi Sedegis motana SeuZlia kacobriobisTvis.

sawinaaRmdego Sexeduleba
argumentirebuli eses werisas unda gvaxsovdes, rom mizani Tqveni mosazrebis sisworeSi mkiTxvelis darwmunebaa. aqedan gamomdinare, daiwyeT daSvebiT, rom mkiTxveli ar geTanxmebaT. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, sakamaToc araferi iqneboda. agreTve, aucilebelia gaxsovdeT, rom Tu mkiTxveli ar eTanxmeba Tqvens azrs, es sulac ar niSnavs imas, rom is Tqvenze naklebad Wkviani da ganaTlebulia. Tavi aarideT iseT gamonaTqvams, rogoricaa: _ is, vinc ar eTanxmeba mosazrebas, rom saxelmwifo universitetis studentebma unda gaiaron fizikuri kulturis kursi, cdeba da saTanadod ver afasebs realobas~. wereT obieqturad, logikurad, dasabuTebulad da gamoxateT pativiscema sapirispiro Sexedulebis mqone mkiTxvelis mimarT. Zalian mniSvnelovania im argumentis gaTvaliswineba, romelsac sawinaaRmdego mosazrebis mqone adamiani eyrdnoba. Tqveni azriT, ra mizezebis gamo SeiZleba inarCunebdes igi am pozicias? SeecadeT, gadmosceT da gamoyoT is mniSvnelovani mizezebi, romelTa gamoc Tqveni oponenti SeiZleba ar dageTanxmoT. Tu Tqven ar gaiTvaliswinebT am mizezebs da mxolod sakuTar argumentebs miiRebT mxedvelobaSi, mkiTxvelis darwmunebis naklebi Sansi gaqvT. magaliTad, gsurT universitetSi fizikuri momzadebis kursis swavlebis sakiTxis ganxilva da gaqvT Semdegi argumentebi: 1. studentebs moswonT es kursi da siamovnebas iReben; 2. studentebi mniSvnelovan socialur Cvevebsa da gunduri muSaobis unarebs iZenen; 3. studentebi gacilebiT ukeTesad iswavlian, Tu isini fizikurad janmrTelebi iqnebian.

Tqveni argumentebi udavod kargia. Tqveni oponenti SeiZleba eTanxmebodes kidec maT, magram misi poziciis mTavari argumenti SeiZleba pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxi iyos: namdvilad universitetis saqmea studentis janmrTelobaze zrunva? Tu yuradRebas ar miaqcevT am arguments, ar ganixilavT mas da ar daarwmunebT 54

oponents, rom universitetSi fizikuri momzadebis kursi adekvaturi moTxovnaa, naklebad mosalodnelia, rom mkiTxveli dageTanxmoT; sawinaaRmdego Sexedulebis ganxilvis SemTxvevaSi ki ufro metad dauWerT mxars sakuTar mosazrebas (Smalley R.L, Ruetten M. K & Kozirev J.R, 2000).

savarjiSo #5.2: waikiTxeT sakvanZo debulebebi da moifiqreT mizezebi, romelTa gamoc SeiZleba daeTanxmo an ar daeTanxmo am debulebas. CamoTvaleT rac SeiZleba meti mizezi orive SemTxvevisTvis. Semdeg xazi gausviT im mizezebs, romelic, Tqveni azriT, yvelaze damajereblad migaCniaT. nimuSi: sakvanZo debuleba: marixuanas moweva legalizebuli unda iyos. argumentebi: kontrargumentebi:
a) is sasiamovno gasarTobi relaqsantia; b) mTavrobas ar aqvs ufleba, migviTiTos, riT SegviZlia gaverToT da riT ara; g) is sasargeblo medikamentia; d) bevri adamiani isedac moixmars mas. a) is adiqturi nivTierebaa; b) mTavrobam ar unda dauSvas mavne narkotikis ukontrolo gavrceleba; g) misi zemoqmedebis qveS myofma adamianebma SeiZleba ziani miayenon erTmaneTsa da sazogadoebas;

d) mis moxmarebas ufro saxifaTo narkotikebis gamoyeneba SeiZleba mohyves. SeecadeT, maqsimalurad bevri argumenti da kontrargumenti moitanoT Semdegi debulebebisTvis:
1. studentebi ar unda iyvnen SezRudulni saleqcio kursis arCevaSi. 2. mecnieruli miznebisTvis dauSvebelia cxovelebze cdebis Catareba. 3. sikvdiliT dasja gaumarTlebelia. 4. adreuli qorwineba miuRebelia.

mizezebis axsna da dasabuTeba


argumentirebul eseSi Tqveni mosazrebis dasabuTebis ramdenime xerxi arsebobs.
faqtebi. vinaidan mizani Tqveni mosazrebis marTebulobaSi mkiTxvelis darwmunebaa, abzacebis organizebis nebismieri tipis gamoyeneba SegiZliaT. magaliTad, Tu migaCniaT, rom mkacri kontroli unda dawesdes qimiuri narCenebis Senaxvasa da ganadgurebaze, am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT Tqven mier mowodebuli erT-erTi argumenti SeiZleba is iyos, rom swored qimiuri narCenebi iwveven garemos dabinZurebas. SegiZliaT, ganixiloT am narCenebis ganadgurebis Sedegebi. garda amisa, SeiZleba moitanoT qimiuri narCenebis ganadgurebis Sedegad garemos dabinZurebis magaliTebi. aseve, SegiZliaT aRweroT am narCenebis ganadgurebis procesi da axsnaT, Tu riT da rogor binZurdeba am dros garemo. nebismier SemTxvevaSi, Tqveni mosazrebis dasasabuTeblad faqtebis motana dagWirdebaT. faqtebi unda moicavdes monacemebs, romlebic obieqturad dadasturebuli da sazogadod miRebulia. magaliTad, rogoricaa istoriuli faqtebi, mecnieruli kvlevis Sedegebi da statistikuri monacemebi. faqtebis mosapoveblad SeiZleba garkveuli Teoruli Ziebis Catarebac dagWirdeT.

55

konkretuli magaliTi. dasabuTeba konkretuli magaliTebis gamoyenebiTac SesaZlebelia. Tu magaliTi pirovnuli gamocdilebidan mogaqvT, gadaamowmeT, rom am magaliTis ganzogadeba namdvilad SesaZlebelia SedarebiT did jgufze. eqspertTa mosazreba. dasabuTebisTvis eqspertTa mosazrebis motanac SeiZleba. eqsperti aris adamiani, romelsac gansakuTrebuli codna aqvs mocemul sakiTxze misi profesiis, gamocdilebisa da sakiTxis Taobaze Catarebuli kvlevebis Sesaxeb informirebulobis gamo. eqspertis azris dasamowmeblad aucilebelia citirebis wesebis codna (Fowler H.R; Aaron J. E. & Anderson D., 2000).

sawinaaRmdego mosazrebis aRiareba da gabaTileba


argumentirebul eseSi unda gaabaTiloT sawinaaRmdego Sexedulebis argumenti. vinaidan sakiTxs ori mxare aqvs da Tqven erT-erTi Sexedulebis sasargeblod gamoxatavT pozicias da gsurT am poziciis marTebulobaSi mkiTxvelis darwmuneba, Tqven ara marto imis dasabuTeba mogiwevT, rom marTali xarT, aramed imisac, rom Tqveni oponenti cdeba, an, sul mcire, rom Tqveni mosazreba ufro sando da mniSvnelovania, vidre oponentisa. sawinaaRmdego argumentis (anu kontrargumentis) gabaTileba mosazrebis simcdaris dasabuTebas niSnavs. aqedan gamomdinare, aucilebelia oponentis argumentebis mxedvelobaSi miReba da imis Cveneba, rom Tqveni argumentebi ufro sando, ukeTesi da Rirebulia. Tu oponents Rirebuli argumenti aqvs, Tqven unda aRiaroT misi Rirebuleba, daeTanxmoT, rom is namdvilad validuria da ganagrZoT Tqveni Sexedulebis ganxilva (Fowler H.R; Aaron J. E. & Anderson D., 2000).

argumentirebuli eses struqtura


argumentirebuli ese SeiZleba komponentebad an etapebad daiyos, romelTagan Semdegi oTxi TiTqmis yovelTvis unda iyos: (1) Sesavali, (2) sakiTxis dasma, (3) mosalodneli winaaRmdegoba da (4) daskvna.

Sesavali
iseTi literaturuli Janris garda, rogoricaa, magaliTad, deteqtivi, mkiTxveli, Cveulebriv, pirdapir ar erTveba xolme moqmedebaSi. eses dasawyisSi avtori, ZiriTadad, waradgens xolme im sakiTxs, romelsac SemdgomSi ganixilavs. Sesavali nawilis mizania gansaxilvel sakiTxze mkiTxvelis yuradRebis mi pyroba da misTvis orientaciis gansazRvra Semdgomi ganxilvis Temis TvalsazrisiT. Sesavals, Cveulebriv, nabij-nabij mivyavarT zogadi situaciidan konkretul gansaxilvel sakiTxamde. magaliTad, Tu albaneTSi adamianis uflebaTa dacvis evropuli konvenciis me-13 punqtis darRvevis Sesaxeb Temis ganxilva gsurT, Temaze saubris dawyeba ufro zogadad, adamianis uflebaTa dacvis sakiTxiT iqneba umjobesi. amis Semdeg mkiTxvelis yuradRebas albaneTSi adamianis uflebebs miapyrobT da bolos konkretulad albaneTSi konvenciis me-13 muxlis darRvevis sakiTxis ganxilvaze gadaxvalT. miuxedavad imisa, rom warmatebuli Sesavlis weris mza formula ar arsebobs, Cveulebriv, is moicavs Semdeg elementebs: Sesavali debuleba: Tqveni eses pirveli winadadeba sakmaod saintereso unda iyos, rom mkiTxvels kiTxvis gagrZelebis survili gauCndes. Tema STambeWdavi 56

ritorikuli xerxebiT unda miawodoT mkiTxvels. gamoiyeneT saintereso debulebebi an dasviT ZiriTadi kiTxva. mkiTxveli Temamde unda miiyvanoT da im konkretul sferoze gaumaxviloT yuradReba, romelsac ganixilavT, raTa igi Tqveni debulebis dasabuTebisTvis moamzadoT. sakvanZo debuleba: es, Cveulebriv, pirveli abzacis bolo winadadeba da eses mamoZravabeli Zalaa. is gviCvenebs pozicias, romelsac asabuTebT, romel Sexedulebasac icavT. avtoris pozicia: akademiur weraSi miRebulia, Cveuli da sasurvelic kia, rom mkiTxvels dasawyisSive auwyos avtorma Tavisi pozicia. argumentirebuli eses Sesavlis weris zogadi princi pi:

magaliTi:
sazogadoebaSi rom icxovroT da mis saqmianobaSi aqtiuri monawileoba miiRoT, sazogadoebis wevrebTan sistematuri urTierToba unda gqondeT. amitom adamianTa umravlesoba mowadinebulia, kargad flobdes komunikaciis unarCvevebs. komunikaciis kargi unar-Cveva ara marto Tqveni, aramed Tqveni garSemomyofebis warmatebis sawindaria, vinaidan komunikaciis kargi unaris SemTxvevaSi meti Sansi gaqvT, rom maT sworad aRiqvan Tqveni ideebi. urTierTobis unar-Cvevebis profesiul doneze Seswavla ioli ar aris. sauniversiteto kursebSi urTierTobis Seswavla TiTqmis ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli, ganviTarebadi qveynebis mosaxleobam ki TiTqmis araferi icis komunikaciis profesiul doneze damyarebis Sesaxeb, romelsac mxolod wignebiT ver iswavliT. axals ras gvetyvis es wigni? Rrmad varT darwmunebulni, rom Tqvens daxmarebas SevZlebT, vinaidan Cven mier axsnili princi pebi SeuzRudavad gamoiyeneba, xolo konkretuli instruqciebi princi pebis praqtikaSi danergvis saSualebas iZleva. . .
am SesavalSi swored zemoT xsenebuli princi pia gamoyenebuli: rogorc xedavT, es efeqturi da moxerxebuli principi didi daxmarebas gagiwevT damajerebeli Sesavlis SeqmnaSi. situacia faqtia, rom sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi monawileobisaTvis saWiroa urTierTobebis damyareba. isic faqtia, rom adamianTa umravlesobas surs komunikaciis unar-Cvevebis daxvewa, vinaidan esmiT, rom urTierToba warmatebis umTavresi pirobaa, marTalia, rom araTu umravlesobas, aramed uklebliv yvelas surs, ukeT exerxebodes urTierTobis damyareba, magram unda daiSvas, rom vinme SeiZleba ewinaaRmdegebodes am mosazrebas (magaliTad, biZaTqvenis biZa...) amitom umjobesia daiweros umravlesoba~, raTa iseTi mosazreba iqnes gadmocemuli, romelsac cota Tu SeewinaaRmdegeba. sirTule magram situacia SeiZleba garTuldes arasrulfasovani swavleba universitetebSi (rac dasavleTTan mimarTebiT sworia, radgan komunikaciis xelovneba arsad iswavleba), urTierTobis unar-Cvevis ucodinroba ganviTarebad qveynebSi, am unar-Cvevis mxolod wigniT swavlebis sirTule. kiTxva SeiZleba warmoiSvas iseTi SekiTxva, romelic arsebiTi iqneba TqvenTvis, rogorc mkiTxvelisaTvis: axali ra SeiZleba miTxras am wignma? gadawyveta Cveni amoxsna umTavres mosazrebas pirvel adgilze aTavsebs. esenia: princi pebi, romelTa gamoyeneba nebismier dros SeiZleba, iseve, rogorc Sesabamisi formulebis gamoyenebiT maTi koreqtireba (h. gutbrodi, n. danelia, 2006). 57

sakiTxis wardgena
SesavalSi gansaxilveli sakiTxisTvis niadagis momzadebisa da poziciis gancxadebis Semdeg eses ZiriTadi nawili Tqveni moqmedebis adgilia, romelSic gaSliT gansaxilvel sakiTxs da mkiTxvels Tqvens simarTleSi daarwmunebT. kargad warmodgenili sakiTxi daarwmunebs mkiTxvels, rom radgan garkveuli warmodgenili faqtebi simarTles Seesabameba da mkiTxveli eTanxmeba avtoris garkveul mosazrebebs, igi miiRebs avtoris daskvnebs, rogorc Rirebulsa da mniSvnelovans. akademiur weraSi sakiTxis wardgena, Cveulebriv, gancxadebis gakeTebiT an mtkicebulebebis miwodebiT da Semdeg am mtkicebulebebis dasabuTebiT (faqtebiTa da magaliTebiT) xdeba; Tumca aseve, SesaZlebelia dasabuTebisa da samagaliTo situaciebis mimoxilviT dawyeba da Semdeg daskvnis gakeTeba. qvemoT mocemuli abzaci cenzuris Sesaxeb dasabuTebis ilustraciaa:

cenzura, Tavisi bunebiT, ewinaaRmdegeba demokratiuli sazogadoebis principebs (Tezisi). is Zireulad arademokratiulia, radgan zRudavs gamoxatvis saSualebas da umciresobas upiratesobas aniWebs, ukarnaxos umravlesobas, Tu risi naxva, wakiTxva an mosmena SeuZlia an ar SeuZlia mas (dasabuTeba). magaliTad, sajaro biblioTekidan nebismieri mizeziT sakamaTo wignis amoReba mis avtors im mravali mkiTxvelisken uWris gzas, romelsac wignTan Sexebis sxva saSualeba ara aqvs. amave dros, individTa rCeuli jgufi, romelic wignis Sesaxeb iRebs gadawyvetilebas, faqtobrivad, ukrZalavs sazogadoebas am wignis wakiTxvas (es damasabuTebeli winadadebis ori magaliTia). aqedan gamomdinare, es qmedeba, diqtaturas ufro uwyobs xels, vidre demokratias (Tavdapirveli mtkicebulebis gameoreba).
am Tezisisa da dasabuTebis ZiriTadi sayrdeni is varaudia, romelsac mtkicebuleba efuZneba. varaudi aris filosofiuri an moraluri Tvalsazrisi, romelsac vimedovnebT, rom sazogadoebaSi sxva adamianebi, Cveni mkiTxvelis CaTvliT, gaiziareben. magaliTad, diskusia saxelmwifo samedicino samsaxuris dafinansebis Sesaxeb SeiZleba daeyrdnos varauds, rom ar SeiZleba adamianis sicocxle fuliT Sefasdes. umetes SemTxvevaSi imedi gvaqvs, rom Cveni mkiTxveli iziarebs Cvens varauds. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, saeWvoa, rom maT is mtkicebulebebi miiRon, romlebsac am varaudis safuZvelze vakeTebT. Tu es ase ar aris, maSin unda davasabuToT es varaudic. am SemTxvevaSi varaudi Tavad iqceva mtkicebulebad, romelsac dasabuTeba sWirdeba.

mosalodneli winaaRmdegoba
akademiuri ritorika avtorisgan sawinaaRmdego Sexedulebis codnas moiTxovs. Cveulebriv, eses werisas sakuTar Sexedulebebs warmoadgenen, Semdeg ki sawinaaRmdego Sexedulebebis kritikuli ganxilva xdeba; Tumca SesaZlebelia im SexedulebiT dawyeba, romelsac ar eTanxmebiT da misi gakritikeba an uaryofa sakuTari poziciis dasabuTebisTvis. erTi SexedviT, argumentis sawinaaRmdego mxaris Cveneba SeiZleba Tqveni poziciisTvis wamgebianad mogeCvenoT. miuxedavad amisa, uamravi mizezi arsebobs imisTvis, rom sawinaaRmdego azri icodeT. Tu mxedvelobaSi ar iRebT sawinaaRmdego azrs, e. i. ganzrax malavT sawinaaRmdego azris dasabuTebas. sawinaaRmdego azris gauTvaliswineblobam ki sruliad SesaZlebelia mkiTxvelis pativiscema dagakargvinoT. unda gaxsovdeT, rom mkiTxvelis daTanxmebas, darwmunebas cdilobT da ara mis SecdomaSi Seyvanas. argumenti ufro damajerebeli iqneba, Tu sawinaaRmdego azric iciT. yovelTvis, roca vinmes darwmunebas cdilobT, gamoCndebian adamianebi, romlebic ar geTanxmebian.

58

maTi winaaRmdegobis gaTvaliswinebiT da imis CvenebiT, rom maTi sapirispiro azri naklebad Rirebuli da safuZvliania, vidre Tqveni Sexedulebebi, an imis CvenebiT, rogor migiyvanaT sapirispiro azris codnam Tqveni poziciis Secvlamde, aZlierebT Tqvens azrs. sawinaaRmdego azris gaTvaliswinebis Cveva srulyofils xdis kritikul azrovnebas, avtors kamaTSi CarTvasa da imis aRqma-gacnobierebas aiZulebs, rom sxva Tvalsazrisi ara marto arsebobs, aramed mas Tavisi dasabuTebac aqvs.

sawinaaRmdego poziciasTan gamklavebis xerxebi


rogorc wesi, sawinaaRmdego pozicia unda daadginoT da ramdenadac SesaZlebelia, es safuZvlianad da miukerZoeblad unda gaakeToT. sawinaaRmdego azris damaxinjebiT da gaubraloebiT, albaT, mxolod yvelaze morCili mkiTxvelis simpaTias moi povebT. sawinaaRmdego Sexedulebis gadmocemisas sasurvelia: SesTavazoT gamosavali, romelsac sawinaaRmdego Sexeduleba Tqvens arguments upirispirebs; miuTiToT dasabuTebis sust mxareebsa da problemebze, romlebic amarTleben sawinaaRmdego mtkicebulebas. daTmoT sawinaaRmdego Sexedulebis sasargeblod anda SesTavazoT kompromisuli pozicia da sakiTxis gadaWra. cenzuris Sesaxeb zemoT motanil magaliTSi naCvenebia, Tu rogor uwyobs xels sawinaaRmdego argumentis gaTvaliswineba avtoris debulebis gaZlierebas. zemoT warmodgenili Sesavali abzacis Semdeg, romelSic Tezisia mocemuli, modis ramdenime abzaci, romelSic dasabuTebulia, rom cenzura `cudi azria~ sxvadasxva mizezis gamo. amis Semdeg avtors ramdenime (erTis an metis) abzacis CarTva SeuZlia, romelSic argumentis meore mxares moitans da garkveul daTmobaze wava.

miuxedavad imisa, rom cenzura saxifaToa Tavisufali sazogadoebisTvis, zogierTi Sewuxebuli moqalaqe cenzuris momxrea da, SesaZloa, amisi myari safuZvelic hqondes, rodesac isini aRniSnaven, rom bavSvebi televiziiT naCvenebi filmebiT Zaladobis msxverplni xdebian (daTmoba da sawinaaRmdego azris gaTvaliswineba). televiziiT marTlac bevr Zaladobas gadmoscemen (daTmoba da Tanxmobis momenti). amis sapasuxod, SeiZleba yvela teleqselma ganaviTaros TviTcenzura (kompromisuli gadawyvetilebis SeTavazeba). Tu televiziebi amas ufro didi pasuximgeblobiT moekidebian da mdare gemovnebis masalis Tavidan acilebas Seecdebian, xelisuflebis moxeleebs, religiur jgufebsa da Sewuxebul mSoblebs aRar dasWirdebaT maT gadawyvetilebebSi Careva.
cxadia, es abzaci (mcireodeni cvlilebebiT) SeiZleba Sesavlis Semdeg, cenzuris winaaRmdeg mTavar argumentze gadasvlis win modiodes. sad moaTavsebT kontrarguments, ra moculobis iqneba is da rogor warmoadgenT, es mxolod Tqveni arCevania efeqturi argumentirebuli eses werisas.

daskvna
bevrma studentma xSirad aRar icis, ra daweros daskvnaSi, rodesac SesavalSi ukve gamoTqmuli aqvs sakuTari pozicia. daskvna eses Zalian mniSvnelovani nawilia, radgan jamdeba sakvanZo debuleba da misi argumentebi, romlebic mkiTxvels naTel warmodgenas uqmnis avtoris poziciaze. am etapze ar aris rekomendebuli iseTi axali azris wamoweva, romelic saerTod ar ganxilula eses ZiriTad nawilSi. aramomgebiania daskvnis gamoyeneba 59

sakuTari naazrevis CvenebisTvis. amiT datovebT STabeWdilebas, rom nebismiers SeuZlia, rac moesurveba, is ifiqros. marTalia, nebismiers aqvs sakuTari azris qonis ufleba, magram unda gaxsovdeT, rom argumentirebuli eses werisas Tqveni mizania mkiTxvelisTvis Tqveni mosazrebis ara marto gacnoba, aramed misi darwmuneba, rom, rasac fiqrobT, myari da dasabuTebuli poziciaa, romelic manac SeiZleba gaiziaros an aRiaros mainc. garda amisa, Zalze aramomgebiania am etapze imis Cveneba, rom arc erTi pozicia ar aris meoreze ukeTesi an uaresi.

daskvnis zogadi maxasiaTeblebi


argumentebis sinTezi: daskvnaSi unda gaimeoroT argumentebis mTavari momentebi da mokled SeajamoT isini. SeecadeT, mkiTxvels aCvenoT, Tu rogor esadageba erTmaneTs sakiTxi, dasabuTeba da magaliTebi, romlebic argumentebis dasamtkiceblad gamoiyeneT; sakvanZo debulebis gameoreba: kvlav CamoayalibeT da xazi gausviT Tqveni Tavdapirveli debulebis mniSvnelobas, radgan mTeli ese am sakiTxis dasabuTebasa da mxardaWeras mieZRvna. zogi avtori fiqrobs, rom Tezisis sityvasityviT gameoreba efeqturi ritorikuli xerxia, zogs ki miaCnia, rom umjobesia misi perefrazi. daskvniTi debulebebi: es nawili ukve argumentirebuli eses dasasrulia, romelic saboloo STabeWdilebas tovebs mkiTxvelze. daskvniTi debulebis daweris ramdenime xerxi arsebobs: problemis momavali ganixileT, rogorc sakamaTo sakiTxi. es gaaZlierebs Tqveni eses mniSvnelobas. agreTve, SeiZleba daexmaros mkiTxvels, gamoiyenos axali informacia da ufro globalurad Sexedos sakiTxs; mkiTxvels fiqris sagani mieciT, magaliTad, Tqveni eses realur cxovrebaSi gamoyenebis gza; miubrundiT Sesaval debulebas, raTa Tqveni ese gamTliandes; kiTxva zogadad dasviT, mimarTeT mkiTxvels, rac mas ganxilul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT iseTi axali warmodgenebis SeqmnaSi daexmareba, romlebic daskvnis wakiTxvamde ar uCndeboda. am xerxiT SeiZleba Tqvens ZiriTad azrebs mouyaros Tavi da axali mosazrebebis gaCenis winapirobad eqces (Fowler H.R; Aaron J. E. & Anderson D., 2000).

argumentirebuli eseSi argumentebis dalagebis struqtura4


rogorc ukve aRiniSna, argumentirebuli eses ZiriTad ideas sakvanZo debuleba anu Tezisi ewodeba. Teziss sWirdeba dasabuTeba misi Semdgomi, ganmaviTarebeli ideebiT, romelTac argumentebi ewodebaT, argumentebs ki, Tavis mxriv, dasabuTeba aqvT da maT qveargumentebi ewodebaT. qveargumentebs xSirad ganamtkicebs dasabuTeba, romelic, ZiriTadad, yovelTvis konkretuli magaliTia.
4

qveTavi momzadebulia Semdeg wyaroze dayrdnobiT: hans gutbrodi, nana danelia. saqmiani urTierTobebi. gamomcemloba `universali~, Tbilisi, 2006.

60

argumentebis dalagebis sam ti ps ganvixilavT:

monaxazi, gegma (outline) am dalagebas aseTi struqtura aqvs:


Tezisi 1. argumenti a) qveargumenti (1) magaliTi 2. argumenti a) qveargumenti (1) magaliTi

piramida
idealur SemTxvevaSi (ix. suraTi #5.1) argumentebma erTsa da imave kiTxvas unda upasuxon: `ratom?~ monaxazi da piramida, princi pSi, sxvadasxvagvari vizualuri gamosaxulebiT mocemuli erTi da igive struqturaa.

T = A1 + A2 + A3 A1 = S1 A1 + S 2 A1 + S3 A1
es toloba gviCvenebs, rom radgan Tezisi qveargumentebis jamia, qveargumentebSi ar unda iyos iseTi ram, rac TezisSi ar aris asaxuli.
suraTi #5.1: piramida
Tezisi (T)

1arg. (A1) 2 qvearg. (S2A1) 3 qvearg. (S3A1)

2 arg. (A2) 2 qvearg. (S2A2)

3 arg. (A3)

1 qvearg. (S1A1)

1 qvearg. (S1A2)

3 qvearg. (S3A2)

magali Ti

argumentirebuli wre
argumentirebuli wris centrSi (ix. suraTi #5.2) Cveni Tezisia moTavsebuli. Semdeg doneze argumentebia ganlagebuli, Semdeg ki qveargumentebi modis da Tu Tqven mier gamoTqmuli mosazreba Zalze detaluria, maT SeiZleba magaliTic mohyvebodes. argumentirebul wres Semdegi TanmimdevrobiT viyenebT: pirvel etapze jer warmovadgenT Teziss (ZiriTad pozicias), Semdeg _ pirvel arguments, Semdeg ki mimovixilavT qveargumentebs da bolos vbrundebiT TezisTan. meore etapze warmovadgenT meore arguments, mis qveargumentebs (Tu gvaqvs, magaliTs) da isev vubrundebiT Teziss. 61

suraTi #5.2: argumentirebuli wre

S3A1 A1 S 2 A1

A3

Tezisi

A2

S1A1

aseTi wris gamoyenebiT sakmaod rTuli informaciis dalageba SegviZlia ise, rom is mkiTxvelisTvis da TqvenTvis xelmisawvdomi gaxdes. darwmundiT, rom wre yvela mimarTulebiT Tanmimdevrulia. Tezisi unda ajamebdes yvela ZiriTad arguments. es struqtura daRmavali gziT muSaobs: argumentebi uSualod/pirdapir unda dasabuTdes qveargumentebiT, xolo qveargumentebi Tqveni dasabuTebis Sejameba unda iyos. Sejameba zusti unda iyos. es niSnavs imas, rom mxolod is azrebi/ideebi (anu argumentebi, qveargumentebi da a.S.) unda iyos masSi CarTuli, romelTac uSualod SeaqvT wvlili SejamebaSi. magaliTi: Tezisi: argumenti: vizualizacia masalis aTvisebaSi gvexmareba. vizualizacia masalis aTvisebaSi gvexmareba, radgan masSi naTlad aris mocemuli azrebis urTierTmimarTeba.

qveargumenti: vizualizacia masalis aTvisebaSi gvexmareba, radgan masSi naTlad aris mocemuli azrebis urTierTmimarTeba maTi Sesatyvisobis Cvenebis gziT.

argumentebis raodenoba
argumentebis struqturaSi dalagebisas optimaluria samidan xuTamde (35) argumentis moyvana. yvela sxva danarCeni mosazreba unda dalagdes ufro qveda doneze, rogorc qveargumentebi. gaxsovdeT, rom Tqven mkiTxvelisTvis werT da dro/adgili SezRuduli gaqvT. Tu samidan xuTamde Zlier arguments moitanT, SeZlebT mkiTxvelis darwmunebas. Tu am argumentebiT ver daarwmunebT mas, Semdgomi argumentebi, miT umetes, aRar dagWirdebaT. metic, Tu Tqven yvela im arguments moitanT nawerSi, rac gagaxsendebaT, is imdenad grZeli gamogivaT, rom aravin waikiTxavs. rCevebi: moiyvaneT mxolod 3-5 argumenti; argumentebis dalagebis Tanmimdevroba (siZlieris mixedviT) auditoriazea damokidebuli, Tumca rekomendebulia siZlieriT meore argumenti pirvel adgilze moTavsdes, Semdeg yvelaze susti argumenti da bolos yvelaze Zlieri; cudi argumenti faravs danarCen karg/Zlier argumentebs; argumentTa raodenoba verasodes Caanacvlebs maT xarisxs; 62

argumentebi ar unda faravdes erTmaneTs da unda iyos mTlianobaSi erTmaneTis Semavsebeli; piramidis struqturis gamoyenebiT dawerili argumentirebuli ese, romelSic motanilia 3 argumenti, idealur variantSi 3-4 gverdi unda gamovides.

argumentirebuli eses Sefasebis meTodebi


argumentirebuli eses Sesavlis wyvilSi Sefasebis meTodi

xmamaRla kiTxva
avtori Sesavals xmamaRla orjer kiTxulobs, msmenelebi Cumad usmenen da SeniSvnebs iweren. gvacnobs Tu ara Sesavali Temas? rogoria Temis dakonkretebis meTodi? mianiSnebs Tu ara abzaci imas, sakiTxebi iqneba ganxiluli? rogor iqneba Tema gaSlili, ra

aris Tu ara Sesavali saintereso, damaintrigebeli? aris Tu ara dakonkretebuli Tezisi? toni, romliTac avtori wers.

SeniSvna: kiTxulobs mxolod avtori. msmenelebi ise iweren SeniSvnebs, rom avtors ar awyvetineben kiTxvas.

fiqri
msmenelebi TavisTvis fiqroben SeniSvnebze, emzadebian, weren: jer pozitiur Sefasebas, ra aris kargad dawerili (dasabuTebiT); negatiur Sefasebas (dasabuTebiT); gzas, romelsac SesTavazeben avtors naweris gasaumjobeseblad.

msmenelis SeniSvnebi
msmeneli gamoTqvams azrebs.

SeniSvna: saubrobs mxolod msmeneli, avtori usmens da iwers mis SeniSvnebs.

avtoris pasuxi
ras eTanxmeba, ras _ ara. ris gaTvaliswinebas apirebs, axsna-ganmartebebi.

SeniSvna: saubrobs mxolod avtori.

63

argumentirebuli eses Sesafasebeli kiTxvari


1. ra aris eses Tema? ra sakiTxia ganxiluli eseSi?

2. waradgens, gvacnobs Tu ara Sesavali abzaci (abzacebi) Temas?

3.

mianiSnebs Tu ara Sesavali imas, rogor iqneba Tema gaSlili? (daasabuTeT)

4. aris Tu ara Sesavali dakonkretebuli? (miuTiTeT Temis dakonkretebis principi)

5. aris Tu ara Sesavali saintereso? (daasabuTeT)

6. gamoyaviT eses sakvanZo debuleba/Tezisi.

7. aris Tu ara Tezisi dakonkretebuli? gadmoeciT is Tqveni sityvebiT.

8. konkretuli SeniSvnebi SesavalTan dakavSirebiT.

9. konkretuli SeniSvnebi TezisTan dakavSirebiT.

64

10. avtoris mTavari argumenti.

11. motanilia Tu ara yvela SesaZlo mZlavri argumenti debulebis dasasabuTeblad? romelimes xom ar daamatebdiT?

12. aris Tu ara argumentebi damajerebeli? (daasabuTeT)

13. ganxilulia Tu ara sawinaaRmdego Sexeduleba?

14. konkretuli kontrargumentebi, romlebsac abaTilebs avtori.

15. aris Tu ara gabaTilebuli yvela SesaZlo kontrargumenti? romelimes xom ar daamtebdiT?

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16. midis Tu ara avtori daTmobaze da gvTavazobs Tu ara kompromisul gadawyvetas? (daasabuTeT)

17. aris Tu ara abzacebi mTliani, Sekruli? Tu ara, miuTiTeT konkretul abzacsa da winadadebebze, romelic am moTxovnas ar akmayofilebs.

18. aris Tu ara abzacebi Tanmimdevruli? (daasabuTeT)

19. aris Tu ara ese mTliani? (daasabuTeT)

20. aris Tu ara ese Tanmimdevruli? (daasabuTeT)

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21. aris Tu ara daskvna logikuri? (daasabuTeT)

22. raime SeniSvna xom ar gaqvT daskvnasTan dakavSirebiT?

23. romelia eses saukeTeso nawili? (daasabuTeT)

24. romeli nawili saWiroebs yvelaze met damuSavebas?

(daasabuTeT)

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Tavi

6.

krit itika kritika5

swavlis procesSi da swavlis dasrulebis Semdegac Tqvengan moelian, rom kritikulad iazrovnebT, waikiTxavT da dawerT. kritikuli niSnavs kreatuls~, skeptikurs~. kritikulad operireba niSnavs imas, rom eWvi geparebaT da amowmebT sxvebis naTqvams da sakuTar azrsa da nafiqrals gamoTqvamT. am konteqstSi sityva kritikuli ar niSnavs negatiurs~. misi mniSvneloba berZnuli sityvidan gancalkeveba~, gamijvna~, wvdoma~ momdinareobs. kritikulad moazrovne, iqneba es mkiTxveli, Tu avtori, sakiTxs Semadgenel nawilebad dayofs da arkvevs, Tu ra mimarTebaSi imyofebian es nawilebi erTmaneTTan, rogor ukavSirdeba es sakiTxi sxva sakiTxebs da (xSirad) msjelobs sakiTxis Tvisebebsa da Rirebulebaze. Tqven yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi ukve operirebT kritikulad, rodesac megobrebTan arkvevT urTierTobas (ras gulisxmobda am sityvebSi?~), an rodesac wina dRiT nanax films arCevT (rogor fiqrob, is cudi ti pi Zalian gamomwvevad iqceoda?~). aseTi kiTxvebi im mizezebis gamokveTaSi gexmarebaT, Tu ra da ratom gemarTebaT da ra mniSvneloba aqvs Tqvens gamocdilebas. aq azrovnebisa da (sapirispiro poziciidan) kiTxvis praqtikul, aseve, weris ufro formalur meTodebs warmogidgenT. bunebrivad ibadeba kiTxva: risTvis aris saWiro am meTodebis mizanmimarTulad swavla? kritikulad azrovneba swavlisa da muSaobis unars gagiumjobesebT. sadac ar unda iyoT, Tqvengan moelian wakiTxulisa da mosmenilis Sefasebas, aseve _ Tqveni mosazrebebis gamoTqmas; kritikulad azrovneba Tqveni sakuTari qmedebebisa da mosazrebebis ukeT gagebaSi, sapirispiro mosazrebebTan maTi mniSvnelobis Sefasebasa da Tqveni msjelobebisa da motivebis damajereblad gamoTqmaSi dagexmarebaT; Tqveni damoukidebloba da Tavisufleba didadaa damokidebuli kritikulad azrovnebis, kiTxvisa da weris unarze.

kritikulad azrovneba da kiTxva


nebismier saganze SesaZlebelia kritikulad fiqri da azrovneba, iqneba es avtobusSi yurmokruli argumenti, Tqveni sayvareli musikosis axali albomi, programuli uzrunvelyofa, megobris ideebi, fexburTi da ZaRlis sakvebic ki. nebismieri maTganis gamocalkevebiTa~ da wvdomiT~ Tqven misi ukeT gagebis, sxva movlenebTan Tu sakiTxebTan misi mimarTebisa da Sefasebis SesaZlebloba geZlevaT. kritikuli azrovneba swavlis periodSi, ZiriTadad, naweri teqstebis (moTxroba, Jurnalis statia, internet-korespondencia, vebgverdi) an vizualuri obieqtebis (foto, grafiki, diagrama, filmi) damuSavebisas gamogadgebaT. nebismieri sagnis kritikulad ganxilva, gadamuSavebis sul mcire, sam doneze xorcieldeba: (1) ras gveubneba an gviCvenebs avtori, (2) ra ar uTqvams an uCvenebia avtors, magram naSromSi mocemulia (igulisxmeba an ara), (3) Tqven ras fiqrobT. naSromis (vizualuris CaTvliT) TiToeuli donis ganxilva kiTxvis mTel rig meTodebs (ix. cxrili #6.1) saWiroebs. swored amaze visaubrebT qvemoT.

Tavis ZiriTadi nawili momzadebulia Semdeg wyaroze dayrdnobiT: Fowler H. Ramsey; Aaron Jane E.; Anderson Daniel (2000). The Little, Brown Handbook.

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cxrili #6.1. kritikuli kiTxvis meTodebi


wera: kiTxvis dros SeniSnvnebis Cawera; gadaxedva: ukan dabruneba, gadaTvaliereba, Tvalis gadavleba; kiTxva: teqstze muSaoba da Seswavla; Sejameba: Sinaarsis gaazreba da gageba; sakuTari kritikuli pasuxis Camoyalibeba analizi: nawilebad dayofa; interpretacia: mniSvnelobebisa da daSvebebis gaazreba da gaSla; sinTezi: nawilebis damyareba; SeerTeba, kavSirebis

Sefaseba: xarisxisa da Rirebulebis Sefaseba.

kritikuli kiTxvis meTodebi ar aris erTmaneTis miyolebiT aucileblad gasavleli safexurebi. Tqven SeiZleba ar gamoiyenoT yvela maTgani yoveli konkretuli naSromis SemTxvevaSi. zogjer, rodesac aucilebelia teqstis detalurad kritikulad wakiTxva, SeiZleba ubralod ar gqondeT mimoxilvis, wakiTxvisa da xelaxali wakiTxvis dro. sxva SemTxvevebSi, naweris wakiTxvis mizezi (Tqveni mizani) ganapirobebs imas, Tu kiTxvis romel meTods gamoiyenebT. suraTze #6.1 sqematurad mocemulia kritikuli kiTxvis etapebi.
suraTi #6.1: kritikuli kiTxvis etapebi

kritikuli kiTxva

wera kiTxvis procesSi informaciis da ideebis Cawera momavali miznebisTvis; maqsimaluri informaciis miRebis saSualeba; wignTan urTierTqmedeba; ormxriv CanawerTa dRiuri

gadaTva liereba moculoba; gamomcemloba; Sinaarsi; avtori; Tqven TviTon

wakiTxva pirveli wakiTxva (gadakiTxva); gameorebiT wakiTxva (ukve nela, detaluri kiTxva).

Sejameba sityvebisa da cnebebis moZebna (romlebic ar gvesmis); teqstis calkeul nawilTa identifikacia, maT Soris kavSiri; TiToeuli nawilisTvis Sejamebis dawera; avtoris ZiriTadi ideis gamokveTa; mTliani abzacis dawera: ZiriTadi idea dasabuTebiT; gamoiyeneT Tqveni sityvebi.

kritikuli pasuxis formireba analizi; sinTezi; interpretacia; Sefaseba.

iseTi saqmianobac ki, rogoricaa Jurnal Tbiliselebis~ wakiTxva, kiTxvis sxvadasxva meTods moiazrebs, arCeuli meTodi ki wakiTxvis mizanzea damokidebuli (ix. cxrili #6.2).

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nebismier saswavlo kursSi Semavali davalebebic gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisgan maTSi wamoyenebuli moTxovnebis mixedviT. wignis kiTxva SeiZleba saWiroebdes weras, gadaxedvas, kiTxvasa da Sejamebas, magram ara _ intensiur kritikul kiTxvas; Jurnalis statiis Sefasebisas ki zemoT CamoTvlili yvela meTodis gamoyeneba SeiZleba.
cxrili #6.2. wakiTxvis miznisa da kiTxvis meTodis urTierTmimarTeba mizani Worebis gageba eqimis mosacdelSi Jurnal Tbiliselebis, rogorc Cveni popkulturis artefaqtis, ganxilva, romelic asaxavs da xSirad afasebs kidec Tanamedrove Rirebulebebs kiTxvis meTodi swrafi, arakritikuli detaluri, kritikuli

wera kiTxvis dros


arsebobs ori kargi mizezi imisaTvis, rom weroT kiTxvis dros: (1) Caweril informaciasa da ideebs momavalSi gamoiyenebT da (2) wakiTxuli naSromidan mets gaigebT. kritikuli kiTxva aqtiuri kiTxvaa, Tqven urTierTobT naSromTan, CarTuli xarT masSi. is Tqvens gamocdilebas emateba, giCenT ideebsa da kiTxvebs. kiTxvis dros saweri kalmisa Tu dafis gamoyenebiT nawerze werilobiT reagirebT, riTac mocemul naSroms Tqvens enaze TargmniT~ (Tqveni sityvebiT gadmoscemT) da TqvenTvis mis rekonstruqcias axdenT.

gadaxedva, gadaTvaliereba
mxatvruli literaturis nimuSis kiTxvisas, Cveulebisamebr, am safexurs toveben (`axtebian~), magram sxva ti pis naSromebis kritikulad wakiTxvisas es nayofieri safexuria garkveuli molodinebisa da pirveladi kiTxvebis formirebisTvis manamde, sanam sityva-sityviT gaarCevdeT naSroms. gadaxedva kiTxvis process metad informaciulsa da nayofiers xdis. gadaxedvis erT-erTi gzaa gadaTvaliereba, romelic mowodebulia Sinaarsis, avtorisa da naSromisadmi Tqveni damokidebulebis ZiriTadi maniSneblebis mosaZieblad. gverdebis uxalisod gadafurcvlisa Tu ekranze Tvalis gadavlebiT garbenisgan gansxvavebiT, gadaTvaliereba informaciis moZiebis fokusirebuli, koncentrirebuli aqtivobaa. teqstis gadaTvalierebisas SegiZliaT qvemoT mocemuli kiTxvebi gamoiyenoT (ix. cxrili #6.3).

kiTxva
kiTxva, TavisTavad, ar aris erTsafexuriani procesi. Tqveni ZiriTadi mizania pirveli safexuris gageba, romliTac operirebs teqsti anu is, rasac avtori realurad ambobs.

pirveli wakiTxva
Tavdapirvelad axali masala SeZlebisdagvarad swrafad da uwyvetad waikiTxeT; Tan SeecadeT, gamokveToT arsi (dedaazri) da igrZnoT avtoris toni. 70

cxrili #6.3. gadaxedvisas gamosadegi kiTxvebi


masalis moculoba sakmarisad mcirea Tu ara masalis moculoba, rom erTbaSad waikiTxoT, Tu meti dro dagWirdebaT? publikaciis faqtebi iZleva Tu ara publikaciis TariRi informacias misi savaraudo gavrcelebisa da mimdinare konteqstis Sesaxeb? specializdeba Tu ara publikacia erTi mimarTulebiT (vTqvaT, samecniero statiebi Tu popularuli wignebi)? Sinaarsis maniSneblebi ras geubnebaT naSromis saTauri, rezume an abstraqti, qvesaTaurebi, ilustraciebi da sxva maxasiaTeblebi? ra kiTxvebi giCndebaT amasTan dakavSirebiT? avtori ras geubnebaT avtoris biografiuli monacemebi misi publikaciis, interesebis, tendenciebisa da reputaciis Sesaxeb? Tqven xedavT Tu ara raime konkretul sirTules SinaarsTan dakavSirebiT? Tqveni mxridan ra saxis mikerZoebam SeiZleba moaxdinos gavlena Sinaarsze reagirebisas? magaliTad, SfoTvam, cnobismoyvareobam, mowyenilobam anda avtoris radikalurad gansxvavebulma xedvam.

ukeTesi koncentraciisTvis ikiTxeT wynar adgilas, iseTi gamRizianeblebisgan moSorebiT, rogoricaa, vTqvaT, musika an saubari. gamoyaviT dro kiTxvisTvis. Tu CqarobT, an sxva rameze gaqvT yuradReba gadatanili, ver gaigebT wakiTxuls. SeecadeT, muSaobisgan siamovneba miiRoT; SeecadeT, wakiTxuli imas daukavSiroT, rac ukve iciT. moi poveT axali informacia, saintereso kavSirebi, mniSvenlovani argumentebi, iumori, kargi magaliTebi. kiTxvis dros mokle CaniSvnebi gaakeTeT. aRniSneT ZiriTadi erTeulebi, rogoricaa, magaliTad, abzaci, romelic ver gaigeT da romelsac xelmeored wakiTxvisas miubrundebiT. pirveli wakiTxvisas nu SeCerdebiT TiToeul ucxo, gaugebar sityvaze da nu daiwyebT misi mniSvnelobis garkvevas. ase veRar iqnebiT koncentrirebulni, codnas ki ver miiRebT imdens, rom koncentrirebis dakargvad Rirdes. amitom SeecadeT, rom ucnobi sityvebis mniSvneloba konteqstis mixedviT ivaraudoT, SemoxazeT es sityvebi da xelmeored wakiTxvisas gaarkvieT maTi mniSvnelobebi.

ganmeorebiTi wakiTxva
pirveli gadakiTxvis Semdeg, sul mcire, kidev erTxel unda waikiTxoT naSromi. amjerad nela ikiTxeT. am dros Tqveni ZiriTadi mizani Sinaarsisa da misi struqturis (agebis princi pis) wvdomaa. es niSnavs, rom Tqven xelaxla unda waikiTxoT abzaci, Tu ver mixvdiT, ris Tqma surda avtors, leqsikonSi unda moiZioT saWiro sityvebi anda vebgverdebze moZebnoT saTanado bmulebi (linkebi~). teqstis kiTxvisas SeniSvnebisa da komentarebis gakeTebisaTvis Tavisuflad gamoiyeneT kalami an klaviatura: Tu pirdapir teqstze ver axerxebT SeniSvnebis miweras (is Tqveni ar aris an eleqtronuli versia gaqvT), calke furcelze CamowereT SeniSvnebi da komentarebi.

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Tu pirdapir teqstze muSaobis saSualeba gaqvT, maSin TqvenTvis mosaxerxebeli nebismieri sistemis gamoyeneba SegiZliaT, magaliTad: _ gaugebari frazebis gaswvriv mindorze dasviT ?~ niSani, SemoxazeT ucnobi, gaugebari sityvebi, ZiriTad sakiTxebsa da azrebs xazi gausviT, *~-iT aRniSneT is debulebebi, romelsac eTanxmebiT, xolo `!~-iT ki isini, romlebic aRmafrTovaneblad, gamaogneblad da mimzidvelad migaCniaT, mere ra?~ SegiZliaT miaweroT iseT frazebsa Tu debulebebs, romlebic aradamajereblad geCvenebaT.

savarjiSo #6.1: qvemoT mocemulia souel Tomasis statia studenturi sesxi~, romelic stenfordSi daibeWda 1993 wels Jurnal huverSi 131-133 gverdebze. mocemuli teqsti, sul mcire, orjer waikiTxeT da SeecadeT gaigoT, ras wers avtori. CainiSneT yvela Tqveni komentari, SekiTxva Tu asociacia, romelic kiTxvisas gagiCndebaT. gaarkvieT yvela ucnobi sityvis mniSvneloba da SeecadeT, Tavad gasceT pasuxi gaCenil kiTxvebs.

studenturi sesxi
souel Tomasi Sowell, Thomas, Student Loans. Is Reality Optional? And Ather Essays. Stanford: Hoover, 1993.131-33. ekonomikis pirveli gakveTilis Tema deficitis cnebaa: _ adamianTa moTxovnebis srulad dakmayofilebisaTvis sakmarisi ram arasodes arsebobs. politikis pirvel gakveTils ki ekonomikis pirveli gakveTilis ugulebelyofa warmoadgens. rodesac politikosi xedavs adamianTa jgufs, romelic Civis, rom raRac imdeni ar aqvs, ramdenic surs, politikosis mier miRebuli gadawyvetileba maTTvis am raRacis ufro meti raodenobiT micemaa, magram saidan moaqvT politikosebs es ufro meti? cxadia, isini erTs (viRac petres) arTmeven da meores (viRac pavles) aZleven. cxadia, cota xnis Semdeg politikosebi aRmoaCenen, rom axla petres ar aqvs es raRac sakmarisi odenobiT. isev ifeTqebs maTSi TanagrZnobis talRa da axla petres gadarCenas ecdebian. imis nacvlad, rom politikosebma aRiaron, rom petres gaZarcva pavles moTxovnilebis dasakmayofileblad TavisTavad miuRebeli qceva iyo, isini axla toms, diksa da haris Zarcvaven da ase exmarebian petres. am grZeli istoriis dasasruli aseTi iqneba: _ politikosebi ucbad aRmoaCenen, rom kolejis uamravi studenti yelamde valebSi Cafluli amTavrebs universitets. maTTvis dResaviT naTeli xdeba, rom mTavrobam daxmareba unda gauwios gadamxdelebs. ramdenad mZimea is tvirTi, romelzec ase xSirad saubroben politikosebi da Jurnalistebi? saxelmwifo kolejebis studentebisTvis es Tanxa daaxloebiT 7 000 dolaria, kerZo kolejis studentebisTvis ki _ 9 000 dolars uaxlovdeba. Cveulebrivi, saSualo donis avtomobilis yidva am valze gacilebiT meti jdeba, magram, rogorc wesi, manqanis valis dafarva ufro swrafad xdeba, vidre aTwliani studenturi valis. metic, manqanis yidva ramdenime weliwadSia SesaZlebeli, kolejSi erTxel swavlis valis dafarva ki TiTqmis mTeli cxovrebis manZilze grZeldeba. cxadia, kolejis kursdamTavrebulebs ufro meti Semosavali aqvT, vidre sxvebs. Tu es asea, maSin ratomRaa atexili aseTi panika maTi valebis gamo? saSualo Semosavlis mqone kolejis kursdamTavrebuli pirvel wels wliuri Semosavlis 10%-ze naklebs ixdis sesxis dasafarad, momaval wlebSi ki es procenti gadasaxadis zrdasTan erTad sul ufro da ufro mcirdeba. politikuri isteria da media-reklama dabali Semosavlis mqone studentebze akeTebs aqcents, romelTac didi vali aqvT aRebuli. Tqven SeiZleba gulisamaCuyebeli, sruliad uCveulo, arati puri istoriebic ki moisminoT. realurad ki gasul aTwleulSi perspeqtiuli studentebi sesxs iRebdnen rogorc maRali Semosavlis mqone pirebisagan, ise _ saxelmwifo programebidan.

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1978 wlamde saxelmwifo programebidan sesxis aReba kolejis mxolod im studentebs SeeZloT, romelTa ojaxebis Semosavali garkveul niSnulze dabali iyo. es niSnuli TiTqmis orjer aRemateboda saSualo Semosavals, magram rokfeleris da vanderbiltsis msgavs mdidar adamianebs am sesxiT sargeblobis uflebas ar aZlevda. Tanamedrove TanagrZnobis~ epoqaSi ki kongresma es SezRudvebic gaauqma. am faqtma yvelasaTvis gaxsna gza. rogori mdidaric ar unda yofiliyo adamiani, mas Zalian mcire saprocento ganakveTiT SeeZlo saxelmwifosagan Tanxis sesxeba, Svilebis ganaTlebisaTvis Segrovili fuli ki SeeZlo sxva saqmeSi Caedo, saidanac maRal procents miiRebda. studenturi sesxis gadaxdis dros mSoblebs SvilebisTvis Segrovili TanxiT SeeZloT am valis gadaxda da miRebuli procentuli sxvaobis miTviseba. swrafad mzardma sesxebma politikosebsa da medias aCvena, Tu ra didi saWiroebaa amisa. is faqti, rom studentebi Tavs arideben droulad valis gadaxdas, gviCvenebs, Tu ramdenad mZimea~ vali maTTvis. sinamdvileSi ki maT, vinc valis gadaxdas gaurbis, rogorc wesi, SedarebiT mcire sesxi aqvT aRebuli da xSirad isini swavlis periodSi kolejidanac arian garicxulni. upasuxismgeblo adamianebi yvela saqmeSi upasuxismgebloni arian. kolejis standartebis gauaresebas mniSvnelovnad ganapirobebs maTi mzardi advilad misawvdomoba maTTvis, vinc ganaTlebis miRebas seriozulad ar ekideba. koleji ar aris adgili, sadac SegiZlia dro ataro, araferi akeTo da amaSi viRacam fuli ixados. ra Tqma unda, ganaTleba Zviri Rirs, magram gadasaxadebi Zalian mZime tvirTad awevT ara marto saxelmwifo universitetebsa da qalaqis kolejebs, aramed sul ufro mzard kerZo~ saswavleblebsac. uamravi saxelmwifo subsidia da sesxis programa bevr adamians socialuri resursebis uzarmazari raodenobis maTTvis dabali saprocento ganakveTiT gamoyenebis SesaZleblobas aZlevs. 1970 wlidan ramdenime aseuli procentiT gaizarda federaluri daxmareba umaRlesi ganaTlebisaTvis. aman kolejebs swavlis gadasaxadis naxtomiseburad gazrdis da profesorebisaTvis ufro mdare xarisxis swavlebis procesSi sul ufro metis gadaxdis saSualeba misca. bunebrivia, yvela, vinc aseTi SeRavaTebiT sargeblobs, am isteriebisa da reklamebis iniciatoria. is amiT cdilobs gadasaxadebis gadamxdelTa fuliT sargeblobis gaxangrZlivebas, magram Cven sulelebi viqnebiT, Tu gavagrZelebT maTTvis ganusazRvreli raodenobis Tanxaze qviTrebis gamoweras. Tu Tqven am faqtebs ekonomikis kuTxidan SexedavT, amas gacvlas uwodeben, politikaSi ki _ siZunwes. rogorc Cans, Tuki am sakiTxs ubralod sxva kuTxiT mivudgebiT, deficiti aRar iqneba.

Sejameba
mocemuli teqstis miRma qveteqstis ufro Rrma Sinaarsis danaxvamde da mis mimarT sakuTari mosazrebis Camoyalibebamde, Tqven zustad unda gaarkvioT da gaigoT, realurad ras ambobs avtori. teqstis Sinaarsis wvdomisa da misi Zlieri da susti mxareebis danaxvis saukeTeso saSualebaa teqstis Sejameba anu ZiriTadi punqtebis, mosazrebebis dawmenda, gamijvna, gamoyofa da sakuTari sityvebiT gadmocema. Tqven mogiwevT davalebebis Sesruleba, romelSic mcire zomis Sejamebas mogTxoven, amasTan, Sejameba kvleviTi (samecniero statia, sakurso Tu sabakalavro) naSromisa da iseTi sxva ti pis nawerebis arsebiTi, mniSvnelovani nawilia, romelSic wyaroebis gamoyeneba dagWirdebaT. Tumca, am SemTxvevaSi, wakiTxulis ukeT gagebis mizniT mis Sejamebaze visaubrebT. Sejameba mocemuli teqstis ZiriTadi mosazrebebis SeZlebisdagvarad mokled, ramdenime winadadebiT gadmocemas gulisxmobs. rodesac ramdenime abzacis an mokle statiis Sejamebaa saWiro, is ar unda aRematebodes originaluri (mTliani) teqstis erT mexuTeds. ufro didi moculobis naSromisTvis, rogoricaa wignis

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erTi Tavi an mTlianad wigni, miRebuli Sejameba sawyis teqstTan SedarebiT sakmaod mcire zomis unda iyos. Sejamebis monaxazis Seqmnis procesis aRwera mocemulia cxrilSi #6.4.
cxrili #6.4. Sejamebis monaxazis Seqmnis procesis aRwera moZebneT da gaarkvieT im sityvebisa da cnebebis mniSvnelobebi, romlebic xels giSlian avtoris mier dawerili teqstis Sinaarsisa da masSi mocemuli kavSirebis danaxvaSi. daamuSaveT teqsti da gamoyaviT nawilebi (qveTavebi, seqciebi) _ calkeuli abzacebi an abzacTa erTobliobebi, romlebic erT Temas Seexeba. raTa ufro naTlad gamoikveTos, Tu rogor ukavSirdeba naSromis nawilebi erTmaneTs, SeecadeT, Sinaarsi grafikulad gamosaxoT (piramidis saxiT) an monaxazi gaakeToT (ix. werisTvis mosamzadebeli etapi). ukve garCeuli nawilebi erTi-ori winadadebiT SeajameT. yuradReba am nawilis ZiriTad punqtebze gaamaxvileT da gamotoveT magaliTebi, faqtebi da dasabuTebebi. erTi-ori winadadebiT CawereT avtoris ZiriTadi idea. dawereT erTi mTliani (da Tu saWiroa metic) abzaci, romelic ZiriTadi ideiT daiwyeba da dasabuTebis funqcias naSromis TiToeuli nawilis Sejamebisas dawerili winadadebebi Seasruleben. es abzaci mokled (SemWidrovebulad) da zedmiwevniT unda aRwerdes mTlian naSroms. wereT Tqveni sityvebiT. werisas naSromis Sinaarsi im sityvebiT unda gadmosceT, romelic TqvenTvis iqneba gasagebi, amitom yovelTvis Tqveni sityvebiT wereT da nu SeecdebiT TqvenTvis ucxo da uCveulo sityvebis gamoyenebas.

erTi abzacis Sejamebac ki SeiZleba rTuli da Sromatevadi iyos.

SeniSvna: sakuTari sityvebiT Sejamebisas darwmundiT, rom plagiatori ar xarT. Sejamebis Tqveni sityvebiT werisas Tu raimes sxvaTa mier dawerils iyenebT, aucileblad unda miuTiToT wyaro, romlidanac iRebT am azrs, ideasa Tu pozicias. savarjiSo #6.2: daubrundiT wina savarjiSoSi mocemul teqsts da Tqveni sityvebiT dawereT misi erTabzaciani Sejameba.

kritikuli pasuxis formireba


wakiTxulis Sinaarsis _ avtoris mier naTqvamis _ wvdomisa da gaazrebis Semdeg Tqven ukve SegiZliaT teqstTan mibruneba da imis garkveva, Tu ra ar uTqvams avtors pirdapir, magram igulisxma, ra ivarauda, anda ra mosazreba SemogvTavaza. kiTxvis am etapze Tqveni yuradReba avtoris ganzraxvaze an/da mizanze da am miznis miRwevis xerxebze gadadis. wasakiTxi teqstis Taviseburebebidan da kiTxvis miznidan gamomdinare, Tqven arkvevT, Tu rogor asabuTebs avtori sakuTar pozicias, rogoraa teqsti organizebuli, rogori eniT wers igi da rogoria teqstis sxva elementebi. kritikuli azrovneba da kiTxva oTx operacias gulisxmobs: esenia analizi, interpretacia, sinTezi da (xSirad) Sefaseba. miuxedavad imisa, rom es operaciebi qvemoT Tanmimdevruladaa ganxiluli, realurad isini mWidrod urTierTqmedeben da faraven erTmaneTs. pirveli sami operacia xSirad gaerTianebulia da maT erTad analizs uwodeben, xolo Sefaseba ganixileba, rogorc am procesis Sedegi.

analizi
sakiTxis ukeT gagebis mizniT mimarTaven mis Semadgenel nawilebad (elementebad) dayofas, daSlas. wasakiTx teqstSi am elementebis gamoxSirvisaTvis dasviT SekiTxva, romelSic teqstis analizis mizani iqneba mocemuli: _ ratom 74

gainteresebT, an ris garkvevas cdilobT. es SekiTxva erTgvari gamadidebeli SuSis funqcias Seasrulebs _ is gamokveTs zogierT Strixs da SeumCnevlad datovebs danarCenebs. qvemoT (ix. cxrili #6.5) sailustraciod mocemulia kiTxvebi, romelTa dasmac SesaZlebelia Jurnal `sarkis~ mimarT; aseve, aRniSnulia, am JurnalTan dakavSirebul romel nawils, elements Seexeba TiToeuli maTgani. rogorc magaliTidan Cans, analizis mizniT kiTxvebis gamoyenebiT Tqveni yuradReba teqstis relevantur anu saTanado maxasiaTeblebze warimarTeba, irelevanturi ki yuradRebis miRma rCeba. magaliTad, Jurnal `sarkis~ mier garkveuli momsaxurebis gamoyenebisken biZgis Sesaxeb kiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad Tqveni yuradReba iseT debulebebze unda SeaCeroT, romlebic momsaxurebisa da garTobis saSualebebis moxmarebas Seexeba: _ silamazis salonebis, klubebisa Tu solariumebis sareklamo fotoebze, im cnobili adamianebis interviuebze, romlebic ukve sargebloben SemoTavazebuli momsaxurebiT da kmayofilni arian. amasTan, Tqven unda gamotovoT (gadaaxteT~) is debulebebi, romlebic mcirediT an saerTod ar exeba moxmarebis Temas. magaliTad, konkretuli ojaxis amaRelvebeli istoria an romelime cnobili wyvilis mogonebebi piradi cxovrebidan.
cxrili #6.5. konkretul elementebze mimarTuli kiTxebi analizisTvis. kiTxvebi analizisTvis qmnis Tu ara Jurnali `sarke~ stereotipebs? sTavazobs Tu ara Jurnali dadebiT rolur modelebs Tavis mkiTxvelebs? JurnalSi mocemuli statiebi da maTi Tanmxlebi fotoebi ubiZgeben Tu ara mkiTxvels, rom gaxdes SeTavazebuli momsaxurebisa da garTobis saSualebebis momxmarebeli? elementebi stereotipebi: eqsplicituri da implicituri stereotipebi an gamowvevebi JurnalSi. roluri modelebi: teqsti da fotoebi dadebiTi an uaryofiTi roluri modelebis funqcias asruleben. biZgi moxmarebisTvis: momsaxurebisa da garTobis saSualebebis moxsenieba, momxmareblebze aqcentis gakeTeba, SeTavazebuli momsaxurebisa da bednierebis an warmatebis gaTanabreba.

interpretacia
cxadia, rom mTelis elementebis identificireba procesis mxolod dasawyisia. amitom am etapis bunebrivi gagrZelebaa TiToeuli elementisa da maTgan Seqmnili mTelis mniSvnelobisa Tu mniSvnelovnebis interpretirebaa. interpretacia, rogorc wesi, gulisxmobs mocemul sakiTxze avtoris daSvebis, mosazrebisa Tu rwmenis wvdomas (mtkicebulebebze dayrdnobiT daskvnebis gamotanas). sityva daSveba aq ufro viwro mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba, vidre yoveldRiur metyvelebaSi, romelSic is SeiZleba molodins (`vvaraudob, rom aanazRaurebs~), spekulacias (`es naklebad dasaSvebia~), anda Secdomas (`angariSi varaudebiT iyo savse~) aRniSnavdes. ufro zustad Tu ganvmartavT, daSveba aris is, rac individis varaudiT, marTali da gardauvalia. TiToeul adamians Tavisi mosazrebebi aqvs. adamianebi aseTi daSvebebis garemocvaSi cxovroben. miuxedavad imisa, rom aseTi yovlismomcvlia, daSvebebi yovelTvis ar aris pirdapir da gasagebad mocemuli. momxsenebeli an avtori, SesaZloa, gulisxmobdes, rom misi auditoria an mkiTxveli ukve icnobs mis daSvebebs da miRebuli aqvs isini, Tumca SeiZleba auditoriam an mkiTxvelma sruliad araferi icodes am daSvebebis Sesaxeb anda momxsenebeli/avtori sruliad Segnebulad Tavs ikavebdes sakuTari daSvebebis deklarirebisgan auditoriis/mkiTvelis mier miuReblobis SiSis gamo.

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swored amitomaa saWiro kritikulad wakiTxvis dros avtoriseuli daSvebebis interpretireba.

sinTezi
Tu analizisa da interpretaciis procesiT dakmayofildebiT da aq SewyvetT teqstis kritikulad wakiTxvas, mxolod calkeuli elementebisa da SesaZlo mniSvnelobebis grova SegrCebaT xelSi da ver SeZlebT mocemuli teqstis, rogorc erTi mTlianobis aRqmas. sinTezis etapze nawilebis an calkeuli erTeulebis urTierTdakavSireba xdeba. Tqven kavSirebisa da daSvebebis Sesaxeb daskvnebis gamotaniT axal mTlianobas qmniT. sinTezis saSualebiT Tqven raRac axals, sawyisi masalisgan gansxvavebuls qmniT. magaliTad, Jurnal `sarkis~ mkiTxvelebisTvis is garTobis saSualebaa, xolo Tqven, kritikulad wakiTxvis Semdeg (rodesac Tqven gaaanalizeT, interpretireba da sinTezireba moaxdineT) es Jurnali (yovel SemTxvevaSi, misi is konkretuli nawili, romelic daamuSaveT) momxmarebelTa kulturis formirebis mniSvnelovan saSualebad aRiqviT. es gansxvaveba kritikulad wakiTxvidan gamomdinareobs. qvemoT mocemulia analizis, interpretaciisa da sinTezisTvis gamosadegi kiTxvebi (ix. cxrili #6.6).
cxrili #6.6. kiTxvebi analizis, interpretaciisa da sinTezisTvis ra mizniT kiTxulobT? ra kiTxvebi giCndebaT naSromTan dakavSirebiT? romeli kiTxvebi gainteresebT yvelaze metad an romeli kiTxvebi iZleva yvelaze met SesaZleblobas? ra elementebi unda iqnes detalurad ganxiluli? Sedegad, romeli elementebis ignorirebaa SesaZlebeli? ra interpretacias aZlevT elementebis mniSvnelobasa da mniSvnelovnebas rogorc individualur doneze anu calkeul elementTan, ise _ mTlian naSromTan mimarTebiT? ra daSvebebi gaqvT naSromis Taobaze? avtoris daSvebebis Taobaze? rogor axdenT maT sinTezs? ra mimarTebaa elementebs Soris? ra mimarTebaa am konkretul naSromasa da sxva Sromebs Soris? ra daskvnas akeTebT naSromis Sesaxeb? ras matebs es daskvna naSroms?

Sefaseba
xSirad kritikulad kiTxva da wera mxolod analiziT, interpretaciiTa da sinTeziT Semoifargleba. Tqven ganmartavT avtoris naTqvamis Tqveneul gagebas, magram Tavad arafers ambobT. kritikulad kiTxvisa da werisas mxolod maSin unda ganacxadoT da daicvaT Tqveni pozicia naSromis xarisxisa da mniSvnelovnebis Sesaxeb, rodesac misi Sefasebac mogeTxovebT. SefasebaSi erTad SekrebT Tqvens mosazrebebs, ganmartavT, Tu ratom arian isini zogadad misaRebni da maT debulebebis formiT ayalibebT; amasTan, Tavad asabuTebT Tqvens TiToeul mosazrebas originaluri teqstis citirebis saSualebiT. Sefaseba kompetenturobis garkveul dones moiTxovs. SeiZleba ifiqroT, rom gakliaT codna da gamocdileba imisaTvis, rom sxvisi naSromis logikasa da azrTa dinebas mihyveT, gansakuTarebiT maSin, rodesac teqsti rTulia an misi avtori kargad cnobili pirovnebaa. sruliad marTalia, rac ufro metad xarT informirebulni da meti iciT mocemul sferoSi, miT ukeT waikiTxavT kritikulad, magram isic gaxsovdeT, rom keTilsindisierad kiTxva da analizi Sinagan darwmunebulobas SegZenT da SeZlebT imis garCevas, Tu rogor weria realurad, Tqven rogor aRiqvamT dawerils da amaSi xels ar SegiSliT Tqveni gamocdileba, dakvirvevebi da damokidebulebebi.

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qvemoT mocemulia sxvadasxva ti pis naSromis SefasebisTvis gamosadegi kiTxvebi (ix. cxrili #6.7).
cxrili #6.7. kiTxvebi SefasebisTvis ra reaqcia gaqvT naSromze? konkretulad ras exmaurebiT naSromSi? Seesabameba Tu ara naSromi ZiriTad ideas? aris Tu ara faqtebi, magaliTebi da sxva mtkicebulebebi naTlad da adekvaturad mocemuli? miaRwia Tu ara avtorma dasaxul mizans? aris Tu ara es mizani Rirebuli? aris Tu ara avtori avtoritetuli, gulwrfeli da imsaxurebs Tu ara ndobas? aris Tu ara naSromi mTliani? Seesabameba Tu ara misi yvela nawili ZiriTad ideas? aris Tu ara is Tanmimdevruli _ gasagebad mihyveba Tu ara misi nawilebi erTmenTs? Tu naSromi Seicavs ferad grafikebs, sqemebs, multimediis elementebs (eleqtronuli versiis SemTxvevaSi), es elementebi naSromis Sinaarss amdidreben da avseben, Tu ubralod aqsesuaris funqcias asruleben? mTlianobaSi ramdenad Rirebulia naSromi? ra Rirebuleba aqvs mas ufro farTo konteqstSi ganxilvisas? eTanxmebiT Tu ara naSromSi mocemul mosazrebebs? SegiZliaT daasabuToT an uaryoT isini?

savarjiSo #6.3: waikiTxeT qvemoT mocemuli debulebebi masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis Sesaxeb da gaiazreT ara marto maTi Sinaarsi, aramed is mizezebic, romelTa gamoc SeiZleba avtors ase efiqra da nimuSis mixedviT werilobiT gaarCieT TiToeuli maTgani. nimuSi:
debuleba analizi yovel wels ufro da ufro meti wignis gamomcemlobis gauCinareba xdeba, radgan didi kompaniebi STanTqaven patarebs. ratom gaakeTa avtorma es ganacxadi? garkveuli sityvebi miuTiTebs avtoris mizanze: ufro da ufro meti gamomcemloba; radgan, didi kompaniebi STanTqaven patarebs.

interpretacia `ufro da ufro meti~ niSnavs, rom sxva kompaniebs mouwiaT gaqroba. `radgan~ akonkretebs mizezs. STanTqavs gulisxmobs momxmareblis mtaceblur qcevas. avtoris daSveba: didi kompaniebi iqcevian, rogorc mtacebeli cxovelebi. didi kompaniebis amgvari qceva iwvevs patarebis gaqrobas, rac ufro meti kompaniebia, miT ukeTesi. sinTezi avtori yuradRebas amaxvilebs didi kompaniebis mtaceblur qcevaze, romelTac akisrebs pasuxismgeblobas patara gamomcemlobebis gauCinrebasa da maTi ricxvis totalur Semcirebaze. debuleba mimarTulia didi gamomcemlobebis winaaRmdeg, romlebsac ekisrebaT pasuxismgebloba kompaniaTa ricxvis saerTo Semcirebaze. magram aris ki mxolod didi gamomcemlobebi pasuxismgebeli amaze? da bolos, ratomaa kompaniaTa ricxvis Semcireba cudi?

Sefaseba

1.

JurnalgazeTebi informaciis miRebis ukeTesi saSualebaa, vidre televizia, radgan isini kiTxvas saWroeben da ara ubralod yurebas.

2. virtualuri (onlain~) urTierToba safrTxes uqmnis pirispir urTerTobis unars. 77

kritikis struqtura
teqstis kritikulad wakiTxvis Semdeg iwereba misi kritika. kritika~ teqstis formalizebuli, kritikuli Sefasebaa. is, aseve, pasuxicaa, Tumca kritikulad wera metad skurpulozuri samuSaoa, vidre imis Tqma, rom teqsti `didebuli~, `saintereso~ an `aradamakmayofilebelia~. CamoTvlili Sefasebebi reaqciebia, Tumca isini sakiTxs yvelasTvis gasagebs ver xdian, amitom Tqven unda axsnaT, Tu rogor mixvediT am daskvnebamde. Tu kritikulad kiTxvis zemoT aRweril process SevajamebT, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom kritikis daweramde Tqven unda gaarkvioT, ra Tqva avtorma, ramdenad kargad SeZlo sakuTari mosazrebebis gadmocema, ra daSvebebi udevs safuZvlad mis argumentebs, ra sakiTxebia ganxiluli, ra gamoyeneba SeiZleba moeZebnos am sakiTxebs. kritikaSi, iqneba es dadebiTi, Tu uaryofiTi Sefaseba, samarTlianad da gasagebad unda Sejamdes teqsti. aseve, mocemuli unda iyos Tqveni sakuTari mosazrebebi. kritikuli Sefasebis werisas aucileblad mogiwevT Tqveni codnis, rwmenisa da varaudis gadasinjva, Sesabamisad, kritika axal codnas SegZenT. kritika SeiZleba oTx nawilad daiyos, esenia: Sesavali, Sejameba, Tqveni pasuxi teqstze da daskvna (ix. cxrili #6.8).
cxrili #6.8. kritikuli eses struqtura Sesavali naSromis saTauri da avtoris saxeli; naSromis wyaro, saidan iqna aRebuli, sad daibeWda; sakiTxis zogadi mimoxilva da avtoris ZiriTadi argumentebi. naSromis Sesaxeb informaciis miwodeba mkiTxvelisTvis, raTa man ukeT aRiqvas gansaxilveli teqsti. es masala SeiZleba moicavdes: imis axsnas, Tu ratomaa es sakiTxi amJamad saintereso da ratom daiwera masze es naSromi; biografiuli cnobebi avtoris Sesaxeb; pirobebi, viTareba, romelSic daiwera mocemuli naSromi; miTiTeba savaraudo mkiTxvelze. sakiTxis Sesaxeb SesaZlo arsebuli urTierTsapirispiro Sexedulebebi; miTiTeba imaze, Tu rogor dayofT naSroms sadiskusiod, ra elementebs ganixilavT; Tqveni pozicia naSromis mimarT. Sejameba avtoris Tvalsazrisis Sejameba; naSromis mokle mimoxilva _ ZiriTadi mosazrebebi; avtoris mizani. pasuxi teqstze avtoris romel Sexedulebebs eTanxmebiT; romels ar eTanxmebiT; ratom? erTad SeajameT es mizezebi da moitaneT Tqveni argumentebi; am nawilSi, aseve, SeiZleba pasuxis gaeces Semdeg kiTxvebs: ramdenad Rirebulia naSromi? ras iZleva es naSromi axals? ramdenad sainteresoa naSromi? ra wvlili SeiZleba Seitanos am naSromma mkiTxvelis profesiul zrdaSi?

daskvna daskvna mTeli teqstis validurobis Sesaxeb; mxolod Tqveneuli Sefasebebis Sejameba; ramdenad warmatebulad miaRwia avtorma dasaxul mizans; ramdenad Rirebulia naSromi, misi Zlieri da susti mxareebi.

wyaro: http://homepage.uhwo.hawaii.edu/writing/critique.htm. bolo naxva: 25.05.2007

savarjiSo #6.4: dawereT im statiis kritika, romelic mocemulia savarjiSoSi #6.1.


78

Tavi

7.

plagiati plagiati ra aris plagiati

plagiati inteleqtualuri qurdobaa da gulisxmobs erTi adamianis mier nebismieri sxva adamianis sityvebisa Tu mosazrebebis gamoyenebas am adamianis (anu originaluri azrisa Tu sityvebis avtoris) wvlilis sworad warmoCenis gareSe an misi ignorirebiT. plagiatis gamo SeiZleba ar CagiTvalon Sesrulebuli davaleba, gavlili kursi an samsaxuridanac ki dagiTxovon (Campbell, 2007. abz. 1).
termini plagiati~ laTinuri plagiatrus-dan momdinareobs da adamianTa motacebas niSnavda. aleqsander lindli Tavis naSromSi `plagiati da originaluroba~ (1952) mas gansazRvravs, rogorc avtorobis mcdar daSvebas: esaa sxva adamianis gonebis nayofis sakuTar naSromad gasaRebis mcdari qmedeba~. amrigad, rodesac akademiur weraSi adamiani sxvisi naSromidan erT frazas, mTlian winadadebas, ramdenime winadadebasa Tu mTlian abzacs iRebs, ucvlelad an arsebiTad saxecvlilad gadaaqvs is Tavis naSromSi avtorisa da naSromis wyaros miuTiTeblad, is plagiatoria. plagiatTan ara marto maSin gvaqvs saqme, rodesac adamiani sakuTrad asaRebs sxva adamianis winadadebebsa Tu konkretul frazebs, aramed maSinac, rodesac sxvis argumentebs sakuTrad warmoaCens (Carter, 2007, abz. 1). SeiZleba ifiqroT, rom akademiur weraSi SeuZlebelia plagiatis gareSe naSromis Sesruleba, vinaidan nebismieri davalebis Sesrulebisas pirveli, rasac nebismieri Tqvengani akeTebs, davalebis Sesabamisi literaturis mimoxilvaa saWiro informaciis, ideebis, argumentebisa Tu magaliTebis mosaZieblad (Carter, 2007, abz. 2). cxadia, aravin ibadeba, vTqvaT, daviT aRmaSeneblis mefobis periodis saqarTvelos cxovrebis detalebis anda fizikis fundamenturi aqsiomebis Tandayolili codniT. amitom, bunebrivia, rom rodesac romelime konkretul Temaze gaqvT dasaweri naSromi, Tqven sxvaTa naSromebs mimarTavT informaciisTvis da zogjer erTi sityvisTvisac ki. es Cveuli praqtikaa studentebisa Tu mecnierebis muSaobisas, Tumca es avtomaturad ar niSnavs plagiats. rodesac werilobiT naSromSi sxvaTa mosazrebebis, frazebisa da winadadebebis gamoyeneba saTanado wesebis dacviT xorcieldeba, maSin sruliad SesaZlebelia plagiatisgan Tavis arideba.

citireba da perifrazireba
citireba erTi adamianis mier sakuTar naSromSi nebismieri sxva adamianis sityvebis gamoyenebas niSnavs. citirebis dros aucilebelia sxvisi naSromidan amoRebuli teqstis brWyalebSi Casma da saTanado wesebis dacviT teqstis wyaros miTiTeba. perifrazi erTi adamianis mier sakuTar naSromSi nebismieri sxva adamianis mosazrebebis sakuTari sityvebiT gadmocemas niSnavs. swored am xerxs iyeneben adamianiebi yvelaze xSirad TavianT naSromebSi ukve gamoqveynebuli masalebis gamoyenebisas (Writing Tutorial Services, Indiana University, 2004). perifrazi mxolod sityvebis gadanacvlebas ar niSnavs. sxvaTa naSromis Sejameba da perifrazi xSirad originaluri teqstis avtoris naazrevis xelaxal gaazrebas, sakuTari kulturisa da sametyvelo enis Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebasa da leqsikur maragTan morgebas gulisxmobs (Campbell, 2007. abz. 3). miuxedavad imisa, rom perifrazis dros sakuTar sityvebs iyenebT, mainc aucilebelia informaciis wyaros zustad miTiTeba, radgan idea, azri, ZiriTadi informacia Tqven ar gekuTvniT (Writing Tutorial Services, Indiana University, 2004). 79

misaRebi da miuRebeli perifrazi


qvemoT mocemulia originaluri teqsti joi uiliamsis wignis `lizi bodeni: ojaxi da danaSauli 1890-ian wlebSi _ SemTxvevis aRwera~ pirveli gverdidan:

industriis ganviTareba, qalaqebisa da mosaxleobis zrda me-19 saukunis bolos amerikis istoriaSi ganviTarebisa da winsvlis sami yvelaze TvalsaCino magaliTia. mas Semdeg, rac axali, didi da orTqlze momuSave qarxnebi aRmosavleT amerikis peizaJis Cveul maxasiaTeblad iqca, miwaTmoqmedi fermerebi am qarxnebis muSebad iqcnen. amave qarxnebSi emigrantTa mozRvavebuli talRisTvis Seiqmna samuSao adgilebi. industrializaciam didi qalaqis (rogoricaa fol riveri, masaCusetsi, sadac bordenebis ojaxi cxovrobda) urbanizaciac moitana Tan. swored es qalaqebi iqca rogorc warmoebis, ise _ komerciuli saqmianobisa da vaWrobis centrebad.
miuRebeli perifrazi, plagiatis magaliTi:

industriis ganviTareba, qalaqebisa da mosaxleobis zrda me-19 saukunis bolos amerikis ganviTarebis sami ZiriTadi faqtoria. mas Semdeg, rac qveynis aRmosavleT nawilSi orTqlze momuSave kompaniebi ufro SesamCnevi gaxda, miwaTmoqmedi fermerebi am qarxnebis muSebad iqcnen. amave qarxnebma uzrunvelhyo samuSao adgilebi emigrantTa mozRvavebuli talRisTvis. didi qalaqis (rogoricaa fol riveri sadac bordenebis ojaxi cxovrobda) industrializaciam is rogorc warmoebis, ise _ komerciuli saqmianobisa da vaWrobis centrad aqcia.
es nawyveti ori mosazrebis gamo ganixileba, rogorc plagiatorobis magaliTi: avtorma mxolod ramdenime sityva da fraza Secvala da ramdenime winadadeba gadaanacvla; avtorma ar daasaxela arc erTi mosazrebisa Tu faqtis wyaro.

yuradReba miaqcieT, rom es abzaci imis gamocaa problemuri, rom masSi Secvlilia zogierTi winadadebis mniSvneloba. magaliTad, gamoyenebulia fraza `orTqlze momuSave kompaniebi~, riTac sruliad dakargulia originalur teqstSi qarxnebze gakeTebuli aqcenti. misaRebi perifrazi:

fol riveri, sadac bordenebis ojaxi cxovrobda, me-19 saukunis amerikis ti puri Crdilo-aRmosavluri industriuli qalaqi iyo. orTqlze momuSave warmoebis ganviTarebas muSaxelis miwaTmoqmedebidan manufaqturul warmoebaze gadanacvleba mohyva, ramac, Tavis mxriv, mosaxleobis zrda da didi urbanuli dasaxlebebis warmoqmna gamoiwvia. fol riveri swored erT-erTi aseTi industriuli da komerciuli centri iyo (uiliamsi, gv. 1).
es nawyveti misaRebi perifrazia, radgan avtori: zustad teqstSi mocemul informacias iyenebs da mas sakuTari sityvebiT gadmoscems; mkiTxvels acnobs wyaros, saidanac es informacia amoiRo.

misaRebi perifrazisa da citirebis kombinirebuli magaliTi:

fol riveri, sadac bordenebis ojaxi cxovrobda, me-19 saukunis amerikis ti puri Crdilo-aRmosavluri industriuli qalaqi iyo. orTqlze momuSave warmoebis ganviTarebis Sedegad `miwaTmoqmedi fermerebi am qarxnebis muSebad iqcnen~ da emigrantebisTvisac Seiqmna samuSao adgilebi. amasTan, mosaxleobis zrdam dasaxlebuli punqtebis zomebis zrda gamoiwvia. fol riveri erT-erTi

80

aseTi dasaxleba iyo, romelic `iqca rogorc warmoebis, ise komerciuli saqmianobisa da vaWrobis centrad~ (uiliamsi, gv. 1).
es nawyveti misaRebia, radgan avtori: zustad gadmoscems mocemuli originaluri teqstidan aRebul informacias; teqstSi mocemuli ideebis wyaros asaxelebs;

brWyalebis gamoyenebiTa da gverdis dasaxelebiT miuTiTebs, Tu romeli frazebi aqvs uSualod originaluri teqstidan aRebuli.

yuradReba miaqcieT, rom avtors es frazebi an winadadebebi sakuTar naSromSi brWyalebSi Casmis gareSe rom gamoeyenebina, plagiatTan gveqneboda saqme. sxva adamianis frazebisa Tu winadadebebis sakuTar naSromSi gamoyeneba brWyalebSi Casmis gareSe maSinac ki ganixileba plagiatad, rodesac naSromSi miTiTebulia is wyaro, romlidanac man es fraza Tu winadadeba amoiRo (Writing Tutorial Services, Indiana University, 2004).

savarjiSo #7.1: waikiTxeT qvemoT mocemuli situacia, upasuxeT kiTxvebs da SeasruleT davaleba ( , 2004, . 89) studenti werda sakurso naSroms tyuilis Sesaxeb da kiTxulobda pol ekmanis wigns `tyuili~. is gaecno gavrcelebul situacias, rodesac adamiani realurad simarTles ambobs, magram am dros nerviulobs da ise Cans, TiTqos ityuebao. qvemoT mocemulia ramdenime amonaridi wignidan: ...simarTlis ardajerebis kidev erTi mniSvnelovani wyaroa e.w. otelos Secdoma. es maSin xdeba, rodesac erTi adamiani cdilobs meoris tyuilSi gamoWeras, is ver acnobierebs, rom Tu simarTlis mTqmeli adamiani nerviulobs an stresul situaciaSi imyofeba, SeiZleba moeCvenos, rom is ityueba. ...patiosan adamianebs SeiZleba eSinodeT, rom ar daujereben da es SiSi SeiZleba tyuilSi gamoWeris SiSad aRiqvan. ...am Secdomas otelos Secdoma vuwode, radgan mkvlelobis scena Seqspiris tragediaSi aseTi Secdomis mSvenieri da Zalze cnobili SemTxvevaa... (Ekman, 1985; p. 169-170). studentis sakurso naSromSi waikiTxavdiT Semdeg abzacs: simarTlis ardajereba kidev erTi problemaa tyuilis amocnobisas. zogjer adamiani, romelic vinmes tyuilSi gamoWeras cdilobs, ar iTvaliswinebs, rom Tu simarTlis mTqmeli adamiani stresul situaciaSia an nerviulobs, SeiZleba moeCvenos, rom es adamiani ityueba. es fenomeni otelos Secdomis saxeliTaa cnobili. amrigad, zogjer SeiZleba adamiani simarTles ambobdes, magram am dros eSinodes, rom aravin daujerebs. amis Sedegad is ise Cans, rogorc adamiani, romelsac eSinia, rom tyuilSi gamoiWeren. rodesac students Semowmebuli naSromi daubrunda, is Sokirebuli iyo: profesorma igi plagiatorobaSi daadanaSaula da aradamakmayofilebeli Sefaseba dauwera.
kiTxvebi: rogor fiqrobT, ratom moxda ase? rogor unda daewera students igive abzaci ise, rom is profesors plagiatorobaSi ar daedanaSaulebina? davaleba: dawereT abzacis swori varianti.

81

rogor avaridoT Tavi plagiats


imisaTvis, rom plagiatorobis safrTxe ar dagemuqroT, yovelTvis daicaviT qvemoT mocemuli sami ZiriTadi wesi: Tu nebismieri sxva adamianis ideebs iyenebT, zustad daasaxeleT wyaro; Tu Tqvens naSromSi bundovnad Cans, rogor gamoiyeneT esa Tu is wyaro, ise SecvaleT misi motanis forma, rom es sruliad calsaxad gasagebi gaxdes; Tu vinme dagexmaraT werilobiTi naSromis Sesrulebisas, aucileblad moixsenieT is da gamoyaviT, daafaseT misi wvlili (Georgetown University, 2007. abz. 2). qvemoT mocemulia is konkretuli strategiebi, romlebic dagexmarebaT plagiatorobisgan Tavis aridebaSi. yovelTvis CasviT brWyalebSi nebismieri ram, rasac pirdapir amoiRebT teqstidan, gansakuTrebiT, werisTvis mosamzadebel etapze, rodesac CaniSvnebs akeTebT; gaakeTeT perifrazi, Tumca gadaamowmeT, rom perifrazirebis nacvlad ubralod sityvebis gadanacvleba ar gamogivideT; yuradRebiT waikiTxeT teqsti, romlis perifrazsac akeTebT, Semdeg xeli daafareT teqsts an Tvalebi daxuWeT, raT Tvali ar gageqceT da originalSi Caxedvis gareSe Tqveni sityvebiT CawereT teqsti. SeadareT perifrazi originals da darwmundiT, rom ar gaqvT gamoyenebuli igive frazebi an sityvebi, xolo informacia (anu Sinaarsi) zustadaa gadmocemuli. Tqven ar gWirdebaT iseTi faqtebis wyaros miTiTeba, romlebic sayovelTaodaa cnobili da romelTa Sesaxebac uamrav wyaros moiZiebT. magaliTi: `jon kenedi aSS-is prezidentad 1960 wels airCies~. es winadadeba sayovelTaod cnobil faqts aRwers, amitom Tqven ar gevalebaT misi dokumentireba anu wyaros miTiTeba, Tumca aucilebelia dokumentireba maSin, rodesac mogaqvT iseTi faqtebi, romlebic ar aris sayovelTaod cnobili da iseTi ideebi, romlebic faqtebis interpretacias gulisxmoben. magaliTi: organizacia amerikuli ojaxis koaliciis axali wignis `ojaxis sakiTxebi da kongresi~ mixedviT, prezident buSisa da kongresis 82

urTierTobis Sedegad veto daedo am organizaciis mier wardgenil kanonproeqts (6). mosazreba imis Taobaze, rom `prezident buSisa da kongresis urTierTobis Sedegad veto daedo am organizaciis mier wardgenil kanonproeqts~ interpretaciaa da ara _ faqti. Sesabamisad, Tqven unda miuTiToT konkretuli wyaro, saidanac amoiReT es mosazreba (Writing Tutorial Services, Indiana University, 2004).

savarjiSo #7.2: qvemoT mocemulia perifrazirebisa da citirebis ramdenime varianti. SeadareT TiToeuli maTgani sawyis nawyvets. romelia plagiatorobis magaliTi, arazusti perifrazireba anda orive erTad? romelia swori varianti? daasabuTeT (Fowler H.R; Aaron J. E. & Anderson D., 2000). originaluri teqsti: me veTanxmebi sociologebs, rom fsiqiatriuli iarliyebis miwera saxifaToa. sazogadoebas SeuZlia saSineli tkivili miayenos adamianebs janmrTelobisa da fsiqikuri aSlilobis, fsiqikuri aSlilobisa da cudad moqcevis erTmaneTSi areviTa da diskriminaciiT. jorj vailanti, cxovrebisadmi adaptacia, gv. 361. variantebi: 1. jorj vailantis Tanaxmad, sazogadoeba xSirad tkivils ayenebs adamianebs fsiqiatriuli iarliyebis miweriT, fsiqikuri aSlilobis, janmrTelobisa da cudad moqcevis cnebebis erTmaneTSi areviT (361).

2. jorj vailantis Tanaxmad, fsiqiatriuli iarliyebis miwera (rogoricaa `homoseqsualizmi~ da `Sizofrenia~) saxifaToa. sazogadoebas SeuZlia saSineli tkivili miayenos adamianebs janmrTelobis fsiqikur aSlilobasTan, fsiqikuri aSlilobis cudad moqcevasTan areviT... (361) 3. jorj vailantis Tanaxmad, roca fsiqiatriuli iarliyi erTmaneTisgan gamijnavs janmrTelobasa da fsiqikur aSlilobas an fsiqikur aSlilobasa da cudad moqcevas, amas SeuZlia saSineli tkivili miayenos im adamianebs, romelTac es iarliyi miaweres (361). 4. fsiqiatriul iarliys SeuZlia cudi gavlena iqonios im adamianze, romelsac es iarliyi miaweres, ambobs jorj vailanti. iarliyi ver ganasxvavebs erTmaneTisgan janmrTelobas, avadmyofobasa da gansxvavebul qcevas (361). 5. iseTi iarliyebi, rogoricaa `homoseqsualzmi~ da `Sizofrenia~, SeiZleba mtkivneuli aRmoCndes, radgan maTi saSualebiT SeuZlebelia erTmaneTisgan ganvasxvavoT janmrTeloba, avadmyofoba da gansxvavebuli qceva (361). 6. `me veTanxmebi sociologebs, rom fsiqiatriuli iarliyebis miwera saxifaToa. sazogadoebas SeuZlia saSineli tkivili miayenos adamianebs janmrTelobisa da fsiqikuri aSlilobis, fsiqikuri aSlilobisa da cudad moqcevis erTmaneTSi areviTa da diskriminaciiT~ (vailanti, 361).

83

Tavi

8.

marTlweris marTlweris

wesebi

da

savarjiSoebi

ricxviTi saxelebis marTlwera


raodenobiTi ricxviTi saxeli:
1) erTad iwereba yvela ricxviTi saxeli erTidan asis CaTvliT, agreTve _ aseulTa saxelebi (oTxasi, xuTasi, aTasi). 2) cal-calke iwereba raodenobiTi ricxviTi saxelebi, romlebic Sedgeba martivi an rTuli komponentebisagan: xuTas ormocdarva, aTas Svidas ocdaeqvsi, xuTi milion oTxi aTas Svidasi.

rigobiTi ricxviTi saxelis arabuli cifrebiT gamosaxvisas:


1) mawarmoebeli me- TavsarTis Semdeg defisi iwereba da Semdeg saTanado ricxvi: me-7; me-15. 2) roca me- TavsarTi rTuli ricxviTi saxelis ukanasknel nawils moudis, maSin jer saTanado ricxvi, Semdeg defisi da bolos -e iwereba: 27-e; 267-e. * SeniSvna: `pirveli~ arabuli cifriT unda daiweros 1-li; 1-ls; 1-lSi. 3) rigobiTi ricxviTi saxelis romauli cifrebiT gamosaxvisas mawarmoebels ar vwerT, sworia: XIX; XVII da ara: me-XIX; me-XVII. 4) ricxvis cifriT gamoxatvisas brunvis niSani (garda saxelobiTisa) cifrs defisiT gamoeyofa: 6-ma, 27-s; XII-s, XIV-s. 5) Tu rigobiTi ricxviTi saxeli arabuli cifriTaa gadmocemuli, -e mawarmoebeli da brunvis niSani erTad iwereba: 45-em, 27-ed. aseTive wesiT daerTvis ricxviT saxels nawilaki da Tandebuli: 25-eSi, me-9-Si, me-10-ze. 6) -ve nawilakdarTuli ricxviTi saxelis brunebisas gabatonebulia Sezrdili saxeoba: oTxive, oTxivem; dasaSvebia aseTi formebic: oTxsave, oTxisave, oTxmave, magram mcdari formebia: oTxTave, oTxTaveni, oTxTaves. * SeniSvna: defisi saWiroa maSinac, roca sxvadasxva ricxviTi saxelia SeerTebuli: aTi-TerTmeti, 80-90.

wilobiTi ricxviTi saxeli::


1) wiladis gamomxatveli sityvebi iwereba cal-calke: erTi meoTxedi, sami mexuTedi. 2) swori formebia: or-naxevari, xuT-naxevari, xuTlar-naxevari. (d. TvalTvaZe; n. gafrindaSvili; gv. 48-50)

savarjiSo #8.1: gaasworeT Secdomebi.


1. XX-e saukuneSi bevri ram aRmoaCines. 2. xuTas ocda rva kaci daeswro TaTbirs. 3. 19-e saukune, didze didi asi weli. 4. me-15-e rigSi nodari idga. 5. samiaTas Svidasocdasami adamiani movida stadionze. 6. giorgi X-e daRonda. 84

7. me-45 qarxana Sors iyo.

savarjiSo #8.2: gamosaxeT rigobiTi ricxviTi saxelebi arabuli cifrebiT.


1. ocdameerTe saukuneSi bevri ram moxdeba. 2. giorgi meaTe sarTulze cxovrobs. 3. pirveli sarTuli saxls TiTqmis ar hqonda. 4. meore Svili sad muSaobs? 5. meoTxe klasi meore sarTulze ganTavsda. 6. ocdameore sarTulze asvla fexiT SeuZlebelia. 7. xuTas ocdamecamete mxedars sikvdili undoda.

sxvaTa sityvis marTlwera


mosaubre sxva piris naTqvamis an ganzraxvis ucvlelad gameorebis gamosaxatavad qarTulSi gamoyenebulia nawilakebi: -meTqi, -Tqo da -o. 1) -meTqi ixmareba pirveli piris (mosaubris) winaT naTqvamis an ganzraxvis ganmeorebiT gadmosacemad: CemTvis vTqvi, am kacs ra emarTeba-meTqi; ase megona, damunjda-meTqi. mravlobiT ricxvSi -meTqis nacvlad -o nawilaki ixmareba: ase vambobdiT _ didi kacia, radgan Tavisi RvawliT xalxis saqme gaaumjobesao. 2) -Tqo ixmareba pirveli piris naTqvamTan, rodesac pirveli piri meore pirs sTxovs an avalebs, rom Tavisi naTqvami mesame pirs gadasces: uTxari, roca bebia kvdeboda-Tqo, Sen glocavda-Tqo; daarwmune yvela, rom baSi-aCuki movkaliTqo. 3) -o nawilaki daerTvis mesame piris naTqvams an ganazraxs: aTasi maneTic rom momceT, mainc ar gavyidio _ SemouTvala petrem pavles; cxenis daRupvas Civis imereli, rogor ver gadavarCineo. -meTqi da -Tqo nawilakebi sityvisagan defisiT gamoiyofa, o winadadebis wevrTan erTad iwereba.

savarjiSo #8.3: gaasworeT sxvaTa sityvis gadmosacemad umarTebulod naxmari formebi.


1. _ aTanase madliani kacia, ar ityvis uars. an ratom unda Tqvas? mas araferi dauSavebia da TqvenTvis ki didi Semweoba iqneba, an maincdamainc ra saWiroa gaumxiloT aTanases, rom sofona gerad aris dawerili. aTanasem xom xelnaweris kiTxva ar icis... erTi sityviT, Sen amaze mets nuras etyvi: saqmeze mwerali mogviyvaneT da dagveswariT-Tqva. (e. ninoSvili)

2. Tu gkiTxon, raze gesaWiroebiTo, Tqven ase uTxariT: mwerali gvikeTebs qaRalds da iman gviTxra, saWiro arian, sxva ara vici-Tqo. (e. nininoSvili) 3. Cven rom mivediT, viTom loginSi iwva da eZina. ise tkbilad eZina-Tqva, ise magra, rom Segvecoda da aRar gavaRviZeT-meTqi. (l. qiaCeli)

4. gana amisTana kacis mokvla didi codva unda iyos-Tqva? _ vfiqrobdi gulmosuli da brazmoreuli. (ilia) 5. maS, RvTis samarTalma aRar unda gaiRviZos-Tqva? _ vambobdi da ufro vbrazdebodi. 6. cxenis daRupvas Civis, rogor ver gadavarCine-Tqo. 85

7. maspinZels vetyvi, saqme gvaqvs, usaTuod xval adrianad wasasvleli varTqva. 8. me madli movaxsene da siciliT vuTxari: dRes kidev gadavrCi-Tqo. (akaki) 9. ase vuTxari TqvenTvis arc mosvla mikiTxavs da arc wasvlas gkiTxavTo. (e. ninoSvili) 10. _ asi maneTic rom mogecaT, arc fulze mogyididiT da arc samagieroze gagicvlidiT, _ SeuTvala bagratma pasuxad. (e. ninoSvili)

Tandebulisa da Tandebuliani sityvebis marTlwera


-ze, -Si, -Tan Tandebulebis darTvisas zog sityvaSi Tavs iyris ori erTnairi Tanxmovani (aqedan erTi fuZiseulia): asparezze, baliSSi, baraTTan. -Si micemiTSi dasmul saxels daerTvis da brunvis niSans akargvinebs saxels: `wign-s-Si~!wignSi; `skola-s-Si~!skolaSi; calke mdgom Tandebulsa da zmnisarTebTan saxelis SewyobaSi rom Secdomebi ar davuSvaT, unda davicvaT wesebi: 1. Soris, Sua _ unda vixmaroT yovelTvis micemiT brunvaSi dasmul saxelebTan: klaselebs Soris, Tvalsa da xels Sua. 2. garda, iqiT, aqeT, ukan, Semdeg, qveS, gamo, winaSe, win, mier, gaRma, gamoRma, winaT, zeviT, qveviT, qvemoT, magier, nacvlad, axlos, Soriaxlo, maxloblad, msgavsad, moSorebiT, irgvliv, garSemo, piras, Ziras, Sesaxeb da sxva TandebulzmnisarTebi ixmareba naTesaobiT brunvaSi dasmul saxelebTan: amis garda, saxlis iqiT, erTi kviris win, amxanagis mier. 3. zemoT CamoTvlil formaucvlel sityvebs Sewyobili piris nacvalsaxelebi ar unda avurioT kuTvnilebiT nacvalsaxelebSi. Sens, Cvens, Tqvens kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxelebis naTesaobiTi brunvis formaa da ara piris nacvalsaxelebis, amitom sworia: Sen mier, Tqven win, Cem mimarT, Cem garda, Cven winaSe (da ara: Sens mier, Tqvens win, Cems mimarT, Cems garda, Cvens winaSe) * SeniSvna: igive wesi vrceldeba Soris, Sua zmnisarTul Tandebulebzec: Cven Soris, Cven Sua, me da Sen Soris, Sen da Cem Soris. 4. erTi da igive Tandebuli SeiZleba daerTos ramdenime sityvas. Tu Tandebuli daerTvis da~ kavSiriT SeerTebul or sityvas, maSin is meore sityvasTan daismeba: turistebi Camovidnen Tbilissa da baTumSi, magidasa da iatakze wignebi eyara. * SeniSvna: aseT SemTxvevaSi uTandebulo sityva a xmovniT unda iyos gavrcobili. 5. -gan Tandebuli daerTvis naTesaobiTsa da moqmedebiT brunvaSi dasmul saxelebs. naTesaobiTis SemTxvevaSi saxeli miugebs kiTxvaze visgan an risgan: werili miviRe megobrisgan, xolo moqmedebiTi brunva miugebs kiTxvaze saidan: manZili saxlidan skolamde. 6. Tanamedrove qarTulSi daniSnulebis aRmniSvneli Tandebuli -Tvis xSirad gvxvdeva saTaurSi: gogolis SexedulebaTa sakiTxisaTvis xelovnebaze~, demokratiuli aRzrdisaTvis~. aseTi saTaurebi xSirad gamoyenebulia winadadebis wevrad da romelime brunvaSi unda Caisvas: Jurnal demokratiuli aRzrdisaTvis~ redaqcias / saxalxo ganaTlebis~ redaqcias. qarTulSi aRzrdisaTvisis~ forma arabunebrivia. riT SeiZleba aseTi formis Secla? a) msazRvrel-sazRvrulis rigis SecvliT: redaqcia Jurnalisa 86

demokratiuli aRzrdisaTvis~, redaqciam Jurnalisa demokratiuli aRzrdisaTvis~. b) msazRvrel-sazRvrulis Cveulebrivi wyobiT, oRond saTauri gamoiyos tireTi: Jurnalis _ demokratiuli aRzrdisaTvis~ _ redaqcias. 7. aseTive viTarebaa -ze, -Si, -Tan Tandebulian sakuTar saxelebTan: s. Ciqovanis poemaSi simRera daviT guramiSvilze~ (da ara: s. Ciqovanis poema simRera daviT guramiSvilze~) (g. SalamberiZe, qarTuli marTlwera~, Tb. 1965, gv. 113-115)

savarjiSo #8.4: mcdari formebi gaasworeT Tanamedrove saliteraturo qarTulis normaTa mixedviT.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. cota xnis Semdeg amohyo Tavi cxenma da iwyo curva gverdigverd. mxedari zurgze ekra da Tavs uWerda. imis xelismomkides es SemTxveva TavSi arc ki mosvlia, iqamdis garTuliyo sakuTari mdgomareobiT. mxolod xmis kankalze SeatyobdiT, rom sawyeni sityvebi gulamdis Caswvdomoda. yovel sityvazed, yovel kiTxvazed laxvari mitrialebs gulSid. derefnis win, erTi ociod nabijzed, uSvelebeli kakali dgas. glexkacobis kvalobazed oTaraanT qvrivs bevri Senatroda. yinulad qceuli nawuri CurCxelebsaviT ekida xis totebs. _ qalaqiTgan geaxlebiT, Cemo batono, _ upasuxa Tedom. mze iq wverzed Semdgariyo. arCili da kesoc gamosuliyvnen saxlidam. oTxi uremi oTx kuTxiv mosdgomoda saTives. am dros giorgis Toxi mxarzed gaedo da modioda. _ petre, ai, petre! _ dauZaxa Soridam Tivis mdgmels. im mxriv, saidamac giorgi modioda, arCils win uremi efara.

saTaurebis marTlwera
1. Tu saTauri erT, or da metsityviania da saxelobiTi brunvis formiTaa gadmocemuli, iseve ibrunvis, rogorc sazRvruli, romlis winac SeTanxmebuli msazRvreli daismis: sax. wigni qarTlis cxovreba~, moTx. wignma qarTlis cxovrebam~, mic. wign qarTlis cxovrebas~, naT. wign qarTlis cxovrebis~, moq. wign qarTlis cxovrebiT~, viT. wign qarTlis cxovrebad~, wod. wigno qarTlis cxovreba(v)~, Tu msazRvreli xmovanfuZiania, maSin is ucvlelia da ibrunvis mxolod sazRvruli. 2. Tu saTauri narTaniani mravlobiTis (Serisxulni~), an romelime brunvis formiT (vumRer samSoblos~) aris warmodgenili, an Tandebuliania (aspinZisaTvis~) da an vrcelia (demokratiis ganviTarebis gzebi saqarTveloSi~), maSin ibrunvis msazRvreli: sax. S. nadiraSvilis monografia pirovnebis socialuri fsiqologia~. moTx. S. nadiraSvilis monografiam pirovnebis socialuri fsiqologia~. mic. S. nadiraSvilis monografias pirovnebis socialuri fsiqologia~. naT. S. nadiraSvilis monografiis pirovnebis socialuri fsiqologia~. 87

moq. S. nadiraSvilis monografiiT pirovnebis socialuri fsiqologia~. viT. S. nadiraSvilis monografiad pirovnebis socialuri fsiqologia~. wod. S. nadiraSvilis monografia(v) pirovnebis socialuri fsiqologia~. sworia: besikis leqsSi aspinZisaTvis (da ara: besikis leqs aspinZisaTvisSi~). * SeniSvna: Tandebulebi da brunvis niSnebi brWyalebis SigniT unda daiweros: dawesebuleba kaTarzisSi~ (da ara: dawesebuleba kaTarzis~-Si). * SeniSvna: qarTulSi saTauris Semdeg wertili ar iwereba. (d. TvalTvaZe, n. gafrindaSvili, marTlweris wesebi da savarjiSoebi~, Tb. 2004w. gv. 56)

qvemdebarisa da Semasmenlis SeTanxmeba ricxvSi


Zvel qarTulSi narian mravlobiTSi dasmuli qvemdebare Semasmenels yovelTvis iTanxmebda ricxvSi, -eb-ian mravlobiTSi dasmuli ara. Semdeg nariani mravlobiTi -eb-iani mravlobiTiT Seicvala. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT unda vicodeT: 1. -eb-ian mravlobiTSi dasmul sulieri sagnis aRmniSvnel qvemdebares Semasmeneli mravlobiT ricxvSi Seewyoba: moswavleebi swavloben, ZaRlebi yefen, buzebi bzuian. -eb-ian mravlobiTSi dasmul usulo sagnis aRmniSvnel qvemdebares Semasmeneli mxolobiT ricxvSi Seewyoba: saxlebi dgas, mdinareebi adidda, saavadmyofoebi aSenda. gapirovnebis SemTxvevaSi usulo sagnis aRmniSvnel qvemdebares Semasmeneli mravlobiT ricxvSi Seewyoba: wuTebi miqrian, foTlebi CurCuleben. moqmedebiTi gvaris zmniT gadmocemuli Semasmeneli qvemdebares Seewyoba ricxvSi: faqtebi gvarwmuneben, magaliTebi gviCveneben, elsadgurebi gvaZleven. krebiT saxelebs Semasmeneli mxolobiT ricxvSi Seewyoba: xalxi Relavs, axalgazrdoba dros atarebs. Tu qvemdebares gansazRvrebad axlavs ricxviTi saxeli (iseTi saxeli, romelic erTze mets gulisxmobs), Semasmeneli mxolobiT ricxvSi Seewyoba: samasma aragvelma Tavi isaxela, bevrma wyalma Caiara. roca Serwymul winadadebaSi ramdenime qvemdebare gvaqvs, isini Semasmenels ise Seerwymian, rogorc mravlobiTSi dasmuli qvemdebare. sulieri: gia da nika swavloben; usulo: saxli da ofisi aSenda; gapirovneba: nakaduli da mdinare CuxCuxeben; moqmedebiTi gvaris aRmniSvneli zmna: cda da gamokvleva gvarwmuneben. Sedgenili Semasmenlis SemTxvevaSi: a) Tu Sedgenili Semasmenlis saxelad nawilad gamoyenebulia arsebiTi saxeli, maSin igi mravlobiT ricxvSi dasmul zmnur nawils mravlobiTis formiT unda Seewyos: isini studentebi arian, amxanagebi moswavleebi arian. b) Tu Sedgenili Semasmenlis saxelad nawilad mimReobaa gamoyenebuli, is mxolobiTi formiT Seewyoba zmnur nawils: mayureblebi aRtacebuli iyvnen, isini gabrazebuli arian. g) Tu mimReoba arsebiT an zedsarTav saxelad aris qceuli, aseT SemTxvevaSi, is mravlobiT ricxvSi dasmul zmnur nawils mravlobiTis formiT Seewyoba: Cemi ufrosi Zmebi maswavleblebi arian, Cven axali qveynis mSeneblebi varT. 88

2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

8.

* SeniSvna: Sedgenil SemasmenelSi arian~ meSveli zmna ar SeiZleba Semokldes da saxelad nawils SeuerTdes. mcdari formebia: isini studentebia, Zmebi maRlebia / unda iyos: isini studentebi arian, Zmebi maRlebi arian. (g. SalamberiZe, qarTuli marTlwera~, Tb. gv. 125-127)

savarjiSo #8.5: monaxeT qvemdebareebi, gadaiyvaneT mravlobiT ricxvSi da SeuwyveT Semasmenlebi.


1. dilis niavma daqrola, nisli Searyia, moeSvela mzis Suqic da nislma aRSfoTebuli sayviriviT, romlisTvisac ganTiads moeswro, wynarad mTamTa daiwyo parva. gamoCnda xeoba da masTan erTad gvelsaviT daklaknili, gamxecebuli da aqafebuli Tergi. soflebic moZraobaSi mosuliyvnen. yvelgan xalxi midi-modioda, soflebis win jgufdeboda da raRacas mRelvarebda. yovel sofelTan xalxis Sua moCanda sasoflo droSa, romelic niavisgan wynarad frialebda. am xanSi wmindis samebis samrekloze zarebis rekva ar wydeboda. erTbaSad xalxi SeinZra, gaisma gergetulas~ simRera. grgvinvasaviT banis mimcemma xalxma qudebi moixada. medroSeni droSebiT gauZRvnen wina: ukan wamohyva mowiwebiT xalxi, romelic Tavisi pativisa da saxelis niSans, saxalxo wmindans, cecxlSiac warbSeuxrelad gahyveboda (a. yazbegi). 2. zed saurme gzis pirad idga erTi Zveli sabZeli, gomurze midgmuli. gomuris CasavalSi CardaxsaviT iyo win wamoweuli. am sabZelis garSemo adamianis kvali ara Canda. is iyo, mgonia, ayrilis kacisa, an amowyvetilisa Tavminebebuli da patroniviT daviwyebuli. rasakvirvelia, xSirad Semxvedria am sabZlisaken avla da Cavla, arc erTxel arc erTi sulieri me iq ar daminaxavs, Tu iqneboda isic xandaxan zurgwamxdari, daWlevebuli glexkacis cxenebi, romelic uilajobiT Sors ver wasuliyo da sabZelis garSemo sjijgnida golvisagan gamxmar balaxs (ilia). Cqara i pova pirveli xe. xeli Seavlo Stoebs da miealersa. odnav Seirxnen foTlebi da nami daapkures ucnobs. frTxili nabiWiT ahyva mgzavri saurme gzas. nela midioda, nabijs iTvlida. xeliT sinjavda Saras da kaklis xeebis nawvimar Stoebs. wyvdiadi wamowoliliyo yvelgan. ra moCanda irgvliv. koSkTan misuli Sedga. mkafiod Semoesma ZaRlis yefa da es yefa ucnobma icno. kankaliT daeSva qvemoT da xarataanT karebs miadga.

3.

nacvalsaxelTa marTlweris sakiTxebi


1. xSiria kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxelebis misi da Tavisi xmarebis aRrevis SemTxvevebi. orive nacvalsaxeli mesame piris (is, man, mas) kuTvnilebas gamoxatavs. Tu obieqti (kuTvnilebis sagani) zmniT gamoxatuli moqmedebis subieqts ekuTvnis, maSin unda gamoviyenoT Tavisi: giorgim Tavisi wigni maTxova. roca obieqti (kuTvnilebis sagani) subieqtis kuTvnileba ar aris, maSin nacvalsaxeli misi unda gamoviyenoT: giorgim misi (sxvisi) wigni maTxova. aseTi SemTxvevebis Tavidan asacileblad (misi Tu Tavisi) CavunacvloT winadadebaSi sxvisi da Tu is Seuferebeli aRmoCnda, amis Semdeg gamoviyenoT Sesabamisi nacvalsaxeli. nacvalsaxeli Tavisi gamoiyeneba maSin, roca subieqti mxolobiT ricxvSia dasmuli, krebiTi saxelia an mravlis gamomxatveli nacvalsaxelia: giorgim Tavisi, brbom Tavisi, zogma Tavisi.

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Tu subieqti mravlobiTi ricxvis formiTaa gamoxatuli, maSin unda vixmaroT nacvalsaxeli TavianTi: nestanma da nanam TavianTi kabebi italiur maRaziaSi SeiZines. 2. I piris nacvalsaxels (me-s) Tandebulian micemiTsa da naTesaobiTSi Cem enacvleba (Cemze, Cemken, CemTvis) 3. Tandebulian I da II piris nacvalsaxelebs s ar daerTvis (Senken, Cem mier, Tqven Sua). 4. maT piris nacvalsaxelia, maTi _ kuTvnilebiTi. maT ixmareba zmnasTan erTad: maT gaakeTs, maT ecotavaT. maT piris nacvalsaxeli ar dairTavs moTxrobiTi brunvis niSans, mcdari formebia: maTma gaakeTes, maTma miaRwies. kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxeli ki saxels axlavs da brunvis niSans dairTavs: maTma mondomebam, maTma naTqvamma (da ara: maT mondomebam, maT naTqvamma). 5. nacvalsaxeli Cvengani, Tqvengani, maTgani aRniSnavs erT romelimes, amitom swori formebia: TiToeuli Cvengani, TiToeuli Tqvengani da ara: TiToeuli TqvenTagani, TiToeuli CvenTagani. kuTvnilebiT nacvalsaxelebs (rogorc wesi, msazRvrulia) micemiTSi s unda daerTos: Cems saxls, Sens megobars, maTs gaZlebas (da ara: Cem saxls, Sen megobars, maT gaZlebas).

6.

7. gansazRvrebiT da ganusazRvrelobiT, aseve ricxviTi saxelis Semcvel nacvalsaxelebTan arsebiTi saxeli mxolobiT ricxvSi daismis: yvela bavSvi, ramdenime Senoba, imdeni Tevzi (da ara: yvela bavSvebi, ramdenime Senobebi, imdeni Tevzebi). 8. -Rac nawilakdarTuli nacvalsaxelebis mravlobiTi ricxvis formebia viRacebi, raRacebi, raRac-raRacebi (da ara: viRaceebi, raRaceebi). 9. erTi da igive sazRvrulTan ase ibrunvis: sax. erTi da igive saxli moTx. erTma da imave saxlma mic. erTsa da imave saxls naT. erTisa da imave saxlis moq. erTi da imave saxliT viT. erT da imave saxlad wod. ...........................................

kompozitebis (rTuli sityvebis) marTlwera


erTcnebiani kompozitebi
erTad, udefisod, iwereba: fuZegaormagebuli kompozitebi, romelTac axali, gansxvavebuli mniSvneloba aqvT: wamwami, TavTavi... fuZegaormagebuli kompozitebi, romelTa nawilebi mniSvnelobamoklebuli marcvlebia: laplapi, cimcimi... fuZegaormagebuli kompozitebi, romelTa fuZeSi bgeris Secvla an damateba xdeba: aremare, qoxmaxi... ,,da~ kavSiriT SeerTebuli fuZegaorkecebuli kompozitebi: sxvadasxva, pirdapir... da ricxviTi saxelebi 21-dan 100-mde: ocdaori, samocdaoTxi...

90

ori sityvis SeerTebis Sedegad miRebuli kompozitebi, miuxedavad fuZis Semadgeneli pirveli nawilis brunvis formisa: jariskaci, SviliSvili, vardisferi... mravalwevriani kompozitebi: Tavgzaabneuli, Tavqudmoglejili... rTuli sityvebi, romlebSic pirveli wevri zmnisarTi an Tandebulia: zegavlena, Tanaklaseli... kompozitebi, romlebSic msazRvreli kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxelia da meore adgilze dgas: dedaCemi, mamaTqveni... kompozitebi, romlebSic atributuli msazRvrelis fuZe Sezrdilia arsebiTi saxelis fuZes: qalbatoni, lukmapuri, avdari... -a sufiqsdarTuli fuZegaorkecebuli kompozitebi: narnara, kamkama...

mravalcnebiani kompozitebi
defisiT iwereba: mniSvnelobiT erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli fuZeebis gaerTianebiT miRebuli rTuli sityvebi: ded-mama, da-Zma, oqro-vercxli... sinonimuri mniSvnelobis kompozitebi: Zal-Rone, sicil-kiskisi... antonimuri mniSvnelobis kompozitebi: did-patara, sikvdil-sicocxle... fuZegaorkecebuli ricxviTi saxelebi: or-ori, Svid-Svidi... fuZegaorkecebuli zedsarTavebi: cxel-cxeli, patar-patara... saxelis fuZis gaorkecebiT miRebuli brunvis niSnis uqoneli zmnizedebi: quCa-quCa, mindor-mindor... erTi da imave fuZis mqone zmniswiniT gansxvavebuli kompozitebi: miixedmoixeda, aiar-Caiara... kuTvnilebiTi kompozitebi, miuxedavad fuZeTa raodenobisa: maRalqusliani, lamazkabiani, samsarTuliani... orcnebiani defisiani kompoziti, romelsac sityvis sawarmoebeli afiqsi daerTvis: daZmuri, colSviliani, ucolSvilo...

erTad iwereba:

(d. TvalTvaZe, n. gafrindaSvili, marTlweris wesebi da savarjiSoebi~, Tb. 2004w. gv. 62, 67)

savarjiSo #8.6: gaasworeT Secdomebi.


1. 2. me is Tbilisis erTerT cnobil restoranSi davpatiJe. onise da maTia Zmad naficebi iyvnen. 91

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

guSin Zmis Svilma miambo es araki. sxvada sxva dargis cnobili mecnierebi Camovidnen. giorgi Tav qudmoglejili garboda. ar surda esmas Tavadis-Svilis coloba. is Zalian gaaoca fexda fex mimyolma megzurma. gogim ver gaigo mariamis abda ubda laparaki. vin icis, ratom garboda ivane iaraR asxmuli. orori da samsami lariT aba, ras iyididi. misi xvewnamudara aravis mousmenia. mas Tavisi colSvili ar anaRvlebda. aseTi kaS-kaSa mze iyo erTi Tve. ras miedmoedo TviTonac ar icoda. Cami-Cumi ar ismoda. es taepi 20 marcvliania. 4 adgiliani kupe dajavSna. isini Tana mSromlebi iyvnen. glex kacoba Sromobda, magram uSedegod. navT qura mainc unda Seinaxo. iagom yurimokra am saubars. vin icis kidev ras ilaq-laqebda. isini dReda Rame erTad iyvnen. Tav-dauzogavi iyo ivane. Zalian uyvarda qaT-qaTa TeTreulSi wola. yovelgvari siyvaruli deda-Sviluria. quCa quCa daexeteboda giorgi. xuT sarTulian saxlSi cxovrobda elene. onisem cxeni gaaWen gamoaWena.

10. aravin icoda ratom ar dawera mecnierma wliuri angariSi.

punqtuacia
metyvelebis kulturisaTvis anu marTlmetyvelebisa da marTlwerisaTvis didi mniSveloba aqvs sasveni niSnebis sworad gamoyenebas. punqtuacia (laT. Punctum, wertili) sasveni niSnebis gamoyenebis wesebs gulisxmobs. is gamoxatavs winadadebis sxvadasxva Sinaarss, grafikulad gamoyofs winadadebis nawilebs, migvaniSnebs, ra urTierTobaa winadadebis nawilTa Soris.

1.

wertili

dasrulebuli TxrobiTi winadadebis bolos wertili iwereba. mag: qveyana damSvidda. qali, kaci da bavSvi yvela saqmes kidebda xels.

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wertils vsvamT Semasmenelian (mag: daiSalnen stumrebi.) da uSemasmenlo, saxeldebiTi winadadebis bolosac (mag.: saRamo. mkrTali sinaTle.). wertils vxmarobT maSin, roca ricxvebs rigis gamosaxatavad viyenebT (mag.: enaTmecnierebis dargebia: 1. gramatika. 2. stilistika.). wertili sityvis Sewyvetis (Semoklebis) niSanic aris. sof. (sofeli), e.w. (egreT wodebuli). * SeniSna: wertils ar vwerT moTxrobis, leqsis, werilis, samecniero statiis, naSromis, zRapris da a.S. saTaurebis bolos.

2.

kiTxvis niSani kiTxvis niSans vwerT kiTxviTi winadadebis bolos. mag.: ra moxda? vin movida?

saidan gaCndi aq? a) kiTxvis niSani daismis kiTxvis Semcveli damokidebuli winadadebis bolos, roca moubari gadmoscems Tavis da sxvis naTqvams. mag.: bolos hkiTxa man _ vin xar, Svilo? vin aris aq? _ ikiTxa maspinZelma. b) kiTxvis niSani daismis nawilakiani pirdapiri sxvisi naTqvamis bolosac. mag.: man mkiTxa _ ra ginda Cemgan? tyis mcvelma hkiTxa _ vina xar? g) zogjer erTad ramdenime kiTxva iyris Tavs, aseT SemTxvevaSi mZimeebs vixmarT, kiTxvis niSans ki winadadebis bolos vsvamT. mag.: ra vuTxra, rogor gavagebino, ras mivmarTo?

3.

Zaxilis niSani
Zaxilis niSani daismis: Zaxilis winadadebis bolos. brZanebiTi winadadebis bolos. mimarTvasTan, roca is calkea xmarebuli (mag.: Zmebo! amxanagebo!) da maSinac, roca Zlieri grZnobiT gadmoicema (mag: ar gecodebi, Cemo sosia!)

Zaxilis niSani iwereba SorisdebulTanac, Tu mZafri grZnobiTaa warmoTqmuli: vaime! oh! va! Zaxilis niSani ixmareba migebiT nawilakTan, Tu is calkea grZnobas gamoxatavs: ki! diax! da Zlier

Zaxilis niSani ixmareba STabeWdielabis gasaZliereblad gameorebuli Sorisdebulis, mimarTvis an nawilakis bolos: kargi, kargi! egre iyos! zogjer teqstSi gvxvdeba frCxilebSi Casmuli (!) Zaxilis niSani, rac moyvanili azrisadmi mTqmelis damokidebulebas (dacinvas, gakvirvebas, aRSfoTebas) gamoxatavs. mag.: bevrs miaCnia, rom dRes saqarTveloSi mecniereba mokvda (!)

4. kiTxva-Zaxilis niSani
a) kiTxva-Zaxilis niSani (?!) daismis maSin, roca winadadebaSi kiTxvasTan erTad gamoxatulia gakvirveba an aRtaceba: nuTu Tvalebi matyueben?! b) kiTxva-Zaxilis niSani ixmareba wyvetilad warmoTqmuli iseTi arasruli winadadebis gamosayofadac, romelic gamoxatavs rogorc kiTxvas, ise gakvirvebas: rao?! rao?! 93

g) zogjer teqstSi gvxdeba frCxilebSi Casmuli (?!) kiTxva-Zaxilis niSani. amiT avtors surs gamoxatos sxvisi naTqvamis mimarT eWvica da gakvirvebac: parlamentis Tavmjdomarea (?!)

5.

wertil-mZime

a) wertil-mZime erTmaneTisagan gamoyofs (mijnavs) erTnair enobriv elementebs. wertil-mZime daismis rTul qvewyobil winadadebaSi, rodesac meordeba mTavari winadadebis Semasmeneli: axla saWiro iyo mxolod nafiqri saqmis asruleba; saWiro iyo moenaxa misi mxsneli; saWiro iyo ornaqmarevi uSvilo qali. b) wertil-mZime daismis damoukidebel winadadebebs Soris, romlebic erT rTul winadadebad arian gaerTianebuli ukavSirod: avarda korianteli; yvela mtvriT daifara. g) wertil-mZime daismis CamonaTvalTa bolos: weris zogadi miznebi: 1) mkiTxvelis garToba; 2) grZnobebisa da mosazrebebis gamoxatva; 3) mkiTxvelisaTvis raimes axsna; 4) mkiTxvelis darwmuneba.

6.

mravalwertili
a) mravalwertili iwereba daumTavrebeli azris, gawyvetili winadadebis bolos: Cven xedvad da smenad uRononi varT da iq ki... iq ki ramodena Rone yofila Seqmnisa... giorgi... b) mravalwertili daismis winadadebaSi an TviT sityvebSi mRelvarebiT an sxva raime mizeziT (enis mokideba) gamowveuli Seferxebis gamosaxatavad: giorgi majobe... vkvdebi. siz...mar...Si? gaocebiT ikiTxa erisTavma da piri gaaRo. g) mravalwertili daismis citatis TavSi an boloSi, Tu citirebuli dasawyisi an bolo ar emTxveva winadadebis dasawyiss an bolos dedanSi: ilia werda: `... Tu mTqmelsa da gamgones erTmaneTis ena ar esmiT, iq arc Tqmaa da arc gagoneba...~ d) mravalwertili daismis citataSi romelime sityvis an winadadebis gamotovebis aRsaniSnavad: `kacia adamianSi~ vkiTxulobT: `maWankali ... gaxldaT erTi moxucebuli, darbaiseli, lamazi da qvrivi dedakaci~.

7.

orwertili
a) orwertili daismis Serwymul winadadebaSi erTgvari wevrebis win _ yvela me Camomekida: mamasaxlisi, gziri. * SeniSvna: Tu ganmazogadebeli sityva erTgvar wevrebs mosdevs, tire daiwereba. (mag.: damWknari diyi, Supa, Sambi, aryi da cacxvi _ yvelanairad SfoTavdnen.). b) orwertili daismis winadadebis bolos, romelsac mosdevs pirdapiri an iribi naTqvami: ymawvilma kacma miiwia misken da xmadadablebiT hkiTxa: _ Tqven marTla eZebT sadedinacvlo qals? g) orwertili daismis citatis win. ilia werda: `CvenTvis RmerTs ara dauSavebia ra, ara dauzogvia ra, ara dauklia ra; Tu qveyanaze erTi-ori kuTxea imisTana,

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rom kacs eTqmodes, _ qriste RmerTma Tavisi kalTa uxvebisa daibertyao, imaTSi ukanaskneli saqarTvelo ar aris.~ d) orwertili daismis ukavSiro rTuli winadadebis bolos, romelsac mosdevs erTi an ramdenime winadadeba da masSi axsnilia, dakonkretebulia is, razedac saWiroa saubari mTavar winadadebaSi: `qveyanaze ori mopirispire Zala arsebobs: simdidre da siRaribe, Zlieri da susti~. e) orwertili daismis mTavar winadadebasTan maSinac, roca momdevnoSi mocemulia mizezi, Sedegi, safuZveli imisa, ris Sesaxebac masSia saubari: Sah-abazi cecxliTa da maxviliT SemoiWra kaxeTs da musri gaavlo: cixe-qalaqebi daaqcia, soflebi aaoxra.

8.

mZime
a) mZime daismis Serwymuli winadadebis erTnair wevrebs Soris: Aaivanze darCnen besarioni, pelagia da solomoni. goCas daRonebuli, gafiTrebuli, sevdiani Tvalebi zRvisken miepyro. b) mZime daismis majgufebeli (mag.: xan ucnauri var, xan brZeni), macalkevebeli (mag.: an momacileT borkili, an xmliT momWeriT Tavi) kavSirebis win, Tu makavSirebeli sityva gameorebulia. g) mZime daismis magram, oRond, xolo, Tu, Tumca, Torem mapirispirebeli kavSirebis win: Cven Tund sul erT dRes davixocebiT, oRond Sen iyav, mefev, dRegrZeli! d) mZime daismis winadadebaSi gameorebuli sityvebis win: ZiZias Sestrfodnen bevrni, Zalian bevrni. e) mZime daismis Sedarebis dros, kavSirebTan rogorc, TiTqos, vidre: xelebi win gaiSvira, TiTqos undoda xelSi aeyvana vinme. v) mZimeebiT gamoiyofa gameorebuli sityvebi da gamoTqmebi: 1. gankerZoebuli gansazRvreba: am saxls walmiT daxuruli marani edga, oTxkuTxiv Ria da farRalala.

2. gankerZoebuli garemoeba: Tbilisis samxreTiT, ormoci versis manZilze, aris mozrdili sofeli. 3. danarTi: marine, kacis ufrosis qaliSvili, karTan idga. 4. mimarTva: axla ki, amxanagebo, davlioT Cveni maspinZlis sadRegrZelo! 5. CarTuli: CarTul sityvebad xSirad gamoyenebulia: amrigad, amgvarad, ase vTqvaT, ase rom, davuSvaT, erTi sityviT, ra Tqma unda, rasakvirvelia, magaliTad, vfiqrob, sxvaTa Soris, Cemi azriT, erTi mxriv da sxv. es sakiTxi, Cemi azriT, isev moiTxovs ganxilvas. CemTvis, ra Tqma unda, moulodneli ar iyo.

6. migebiTi nawilaki: 1. dadebiTi _ ki, ho, diax da 2. uaryofiTi _ ara, vera. _ ho, imas vambobdi. _ ara, ver wamoval. _ ki, batono! 7. Sorisdebulebi: oh, eh, uh, vah, vai, fu, viS, hoi, ui, vaSa da sxv. mZimiT gamoiyofa: oh, Sena xar? vai, ra carielia es savse qveyana uadamianod!

8. mZime daismis rTul qvewyobil winadadebaSi ukavSirod SeerTebis dros: Tergi rbis, Tergi Rrialebs, kldeni bans eubnebian. 9. mZime daismis qvewyobil winadadebaSi mTavarsa da winadadebebs Soris. damokidebul

95

1) damokidebuli winadadeba mTavris Semdeg: bundovnad axsovda, rom is da kirile cxenebze Sesxes da sadRac gaaqanes. 2) mTavari winadeba damokidebulis Semdeg: vinc moyvaresa ar eZebs, igi Tavisa mteria. 3) damokidebuli winadadeba mTavarSi moqceuli: swored im dros, roca ori darbaiseli mama-Svili buxris win sayvedurobdnen, Teimuraz mefe marTla CaketilSi ijda.

9.

tire

a) tire iwereba winadadebis romelime gamotovebuli wevris (qvemdebare, Semasmeneli, damateba, kavSiri) adgilas: elferobiT vardi aris, sinaziT ki morcxvi ia. Tvali mqonia minaxavs, yuri mqonia msmenia. b) tire iwereba ganmazogadebeli sityvebis win. kaci, qali, didi, patara, eri, mRvdeli misTvis sul yvela erTi iyo. waiRebdnen xelsawyoebs culs, najaxs, Toxs. g) tire iwereba danarTis win, Tu is winadadebis boloSia, xolo Tu winadadebaSia moqceuli, orive mxridan tireebiT gamoiyofa. Cemi ojaxi winandeli, awindeli da momavali icode, saZirkvelia Cveni cxovrebis. d) tireebiT gamoiyofa winadadebebi, sityvebi, romlebic teqstSi CarTulia misi axsnisa da Sevsebis mizniT: amas winaT sul ori kvira ar iqneba kinaRam soflis sasamarTlom gomurSi ar daamwyvdia. e) tire iwereba or winadadebas Soris, Tu meoreSi gamoxatuli azri mkveTrad upirispirdeba pirvels: ikra petrem jibes xeli da orive moWrili hqonda. v) tire iwereba mZimis Semdeg, rodesac CarTuli winadadeba vrcelia: Cvenc ai, amoagdo RmerTma avi kacis qoqi erT russ gavurigdiT, rva maneTi miveciT, rom qalaqSi CaveyvaneT. z) tire iwereba mZimis Semdeg, rodesac rTul qvewyobil winadadebaSi mTavar winadadebas win uZRvis ramdenime damokidebuli winadadeba: ra iyo es mizezi, saidan qroda niavi, romelsac, mas, rogorc nadirs, suns ayrida da akrTobda, moxuci ver mimxvdariyo. T) tire iwereba dialogebSi personaJTa metyvelebis da gamosayofad: Seni saxelic miTxari mkiTxa man. aki, giTxari ukve! axla me vupasuxe. sadauri xar? isev mkiTxa man. i) tire iwereba sakuTar saxelebs Soris, romelTa erToblioba qmnis raime moZRvrebis an samecniero dawesebulebis dasaxelebas: marqsizm-leninizmi, saswavlosaaRmzrdelo programa. avtoris remarkebis

10. frCxilebi
1. frCxilebSi Caismis: a) sityvebi, romlebic winadadebaSi CarTulia gadmocemuli azris gansamartavad, dasazusteblad: aRmoCnda, rom mamaCemma dagvitova qoxi, damsxvreuli taxti, 96

erTi Zveli Wilofi, erTi daglejili fardagi (dedaCemis mziTvebi), erTi Zveli logini, sami Cinuri jami, erTi qvabi da ori Samfuri. b) sityvebi da winadadebebi, romlebic moyvanilia damatebiTi SeniSvnis saxiT: rogor momiwonebs kato (kato moses meuRles erqva saxelad), roca getyvi am ambavs. * SeniSvna: frCxilebSi mocemul winadadebas azrobrivi kavSiri ar aqvs am winadadebasTan. 2. aris SemTxvevebi, roca mocemuli winadadeba azrobriv kavSirs amyarebs winadadebasTan, magram damatebiTi, meorexarisxovani SeniSvnis saxiT: Tanaswori iaraRiT brZolas ar gaveqcevi (rom gaveqce, sadamdis unda virbino?). a) stenografiul angariSebSi frCxilebSi Caismis frazebi, romlebic miuTiTeben msmenelTa damokidebulebasa da azrze: oratoris gamosvla dasrulda (moZraoba darbazSi). b) frCxilebSi Caismis citirebuli avtoris saxeli, gvari da naSromis saTauri citatis bolos: `cdis pirebi unda yofiliyvnen informirebuli im zegavlenis Sesaxeb, rac SeeZlo maTze moexdina eqsperiments~ (baumridi). g) frCxilebSi Caismis remarkebi dramatul teqstSi: anduyafari (oTaxidan) _ vin laparakobs manda?

11.

brWyalebi
a) brWyalebSi Caismis citatebi. ilia wers: `qriste RmerTi jvars ecva qveynisaTvis da Cvenc jvars vecviT qristesTvis~. b) brWyalebSi Caismis gazeTebis, organizaciebis, dawesebulebebis da a.S. saxelwodebebi da saTaurebi: samkiTxvelo darbazSi magidaze ewyo gazeTebi: `kviris palitra~, `alia~, Jurnalebi `anabeWdi~ da `sarke~. g) brWyalebSi Caismis ironiulad gamoyenebuli sityvebi: osma Secdoma Seiswora~ _ me wagaqcies, seni wili me, mena. d) brWyalebSi Caismis barbarizmebi da moZvelebuli sityva-gamoTqmebi: Semawuxe amdeni kiTxviT, poJolusta~ damexseni.

savarjiSo #8.7: dasviT sasveni niSnebi.


1. ritualis safuZveli ontogenezisSi yalibdeba yoveldRiurad deda-Svilis misalmebidan rac ganviTarebis sruliad sxvadasxva safexurze mdgomi arsebebisaTvis sasicocxlod aucilebeli emociuri moTxovnilebaa. drois garkveuli intervali amgvari mzrunvelobis gamovlineba bavSvs uqmnis Tavisi rogorc sasurveli arsebis gancdas da amzadebs imisTvis rom SemdgomSi gaumklavdes separaciisa da mitovebulobis gancdas. dedas amgvari ritualizacia exmareba gadalaxos ambivalenturoba erTi mxriv bavSvis ganuwyveteli moTxovnebiT gamowveul diskomforts da meore mxriv Tavgadakluli da mzrunveli dedis gancdebs Soris rogoric is cdilobs rom iyos (CitaSvili m., 1998.). 2. 1932 wels ki iungi wers ar mqonia arc erTi SemTxveva, rom yvela Cemi pacienti Tavisi cxovrebis meore naxevarSi es aris daaxloebiT 35 wlis zemoT ar yofiliyos dakavebuli cxovrebaze saWiro religiuri Sexedulebis ZiebiT. SeiZleba sruliad sarwmunod iTqvas rom TiToeuli gaxda avad radgan dakarges macocxlebeli religia romelic asakis miuxedavad amyarebs mimdevrebs da arc erTi bolomde ar gankurnebula manamde sanam ar daubrunda Tavis religiur Sexedulebebs. (iungi, 1932, gv. 334) 97

3. TavisTavad avtoritarizmis ara toleranturobisa da konservatizmis skalebis interpretirebisas gamoiyeneba cvladebis iseTi sistemebi rogoricaa inteleqti, ganaTleba socialur-ekonomikuri statusi da nacionaluri regioni. yvela am SemTxvevaSi konservatizmis gamoyeneba sruliad sxvadasxva konteqstiT SeiZleba Segvxvdes. 4. veberi axdens msoflio religiebis klasifikacias misi azriT indoeTi aris Teoriulad da praqtikulad samyarosadmi yvelaze mtrulad ganwyobili religiuri eTikis akvani. konfucianeloba piriqiT samyaros mimReblobiT xasiaTdeba. iseTi religiebi rogorebicaa islami da qristianoba samyaros iReben misi gaumjobesebis pirobiT. 5. ebi seiqsezi statiaSi RmerTis xati-ganviTarebasTan ganviTarebasTan dakavSirebuli perspeqtiva msjelobs RmerTis xatis arsisa da masTan dakavSirebuli fsiqologiuri kanonzomierebebis raobis Sesaxeb da am damokidebulebaTa TvalsaCino ilustrirebas axdens pekis ana-maria rizultos hiuston smitisa da sakuTari fsiqoTerapiuli praqtikidan moyvanili magaliTebiT (CitaSvili m., 1998). 6. berlinis xelSekrulebam Cven erTi didi sikeTe SegvZina da am mxriT SarSandeli weliwadi CvenTvis friad Rirsaxsovaria: Cveni Zmebi Cveni sisxlxorci CvenTan erTad `mebrZoli Savis bedisa~ Cvenis gmirebis bude Cvenis uwindelis ganaTlebisa da swavlis akvani Cveni Zveli saqarTvelo, _ dRes Cven SemogvierTda, da Tu kargad moeqcevian _ vis xelTac aw imaTi bedia, CvenTan iqneba kidec samudamod. warsulma omma bevri sisxli dansTqa qarTvelobasa, bevrma vaJkacma dasdo Tavi bevrma Cvenma oficerma Tavisi ymawvilkacobis dReni dalia am omSi, bevri wavidameTqi am wuTisoflidam TvistomTagan dautirebeli bevri daixoca saxelovanis sikvdiliT,_ da maTi saxeli arc ki aravin axsena da aRiara. sawyalno egre gulgmirad Tavdadebulno ymawvilkacno Tqven saca Wiri iyo pirvelni iyaviT nebiT Tu uneblied da saca lxini iyo ukanasknelni!... saxeli da dideba Tqvenc romelnic bedma sikvdilisagan gixsnaT. (ilia)

98

Tavi

9.

dokumentis dokumentis

formati formati amerikis amerikis

socialur fsiqologiur iqologiuri fsiqologiuri

mecnierebebSi mecnierebebSi

stiliT asociaciis (APA) stiliT6

dokumentis Sedgenis formaluri maxasiaTeblebi


Tavfurceli
Tavfurcelze mocemuli unda iyos naSromis sruli dasaxeleba, Tqveni saxeli da gvari, kursis dasaxeleba, xelmZRvanelis gvari da saxeli, TariRi. garda amisa, rogorc Tavfurcelze (Tumca, qarTulad Sesrulebul naSromebSi es komponenti yovelTvis ar aris mocemuli), ise mTel naSromSi furclis zeda marjvena mxares mocemuli unda iyos naSromis mimdinare (anu Semoklebuli) saTauri da gverdis nomeri.
nimuSi
daZlevis strategiebi
oTxi xazi

5 pozicia

daZlevis strategiebisa da
xazebs Soris ormagi intervali, centrSi

pirovnuli profilis urTierTmimarTeba avtori: saxeli, gvari fsiqologia 03 xelmZRvaneli: saxeli, gvari Tbilisi, 2007

abstraqti
naSromis pirveli nawili, romelsac abstraqti ewodeba, ajamebs kvlevis sakiTxs, meTods, Sedegebsa da daskvnas. Cveulebriv, is erTi abzaciTaa warmodgenili calke gverdze da daaxloebiT 100 sityvas moicavs, romelSic pirveli striqoni ar aris Seweuli.

qveTavi momzadebulia Semdeg wyaroze dayrdnobiT: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5 th edition.

99

abstraqti

daZlevis strategiebi
5 pozicia sami xazi

abstraqti

centrSi oTxi xazi

pirveli striqoni ar aris Seweuli teqsti 1 teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti xazebs Soris ormagi intervali 1

Sesavali
naSromis ZiriTadi nawili iwyeba naSromis sruli dasaxelebiT (arasavaldebulo) da SesavliT (romlis miTiTebac ar xdeba). Sesavali mokled waradgens sakvlev problemas, meTods, informaciul fons (sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT arsebul sxva kvlevebs) da kvlevis mizans.
naSromis pirveli gverdi

daZlevis strategiebi 2

5 pozicia

daZlevis strategiebisa da pirovnuli


centrSi

profilis urTierTmimarTeba

xuTi pozicia teqsti 1 teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti xazebs Soris ormagi intervali 1

teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti

teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti

teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti

teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti

teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti

teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti

100

meTodi
naSromis Semdegi nawili, romelsac meTodi~ ewodeba, gvawodebs detalur informacias cdis pirebis, cdis masalis, xelsawyoebis, instrumentebis (magaliTad, kiTxvarebis) da proceduris Sesaxeb. dasaxeleba meTodi~ ilustraciis TvalsazrisiT, pirvel qvesaTaurs warmoadgens. rodesac meore da mesame qvesaTaurebis motanaa saWiro, gamoiyeneT qvemoT mocemuli formati, xazebs Soris ormagi intervaliT: pirveli qvesaTauri meore qvesaTauri

mesame qvesaTauri, romelic ukve teqstTan erTadaa mocemuli.


nimuSi
daZlevis strategiebi? *

teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti

meTodi SerCeva

xazebs Soris ormagi intervali

teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti teqsti

Sedegebi
Sedegebis nawilSi Sejamebulia kvlevaSi mopovebuli monacemebi. mocemulia maTi analizi da is cxrilebis, grafikebisa da diagramebis saxiTaa warmodgenili.

Sedegebis ganxilva (Discussion)


Sedegebis ganxilva warmoadgens naSromis Semdeg nawils, romelSic mocemulia monacemTa interpretacia da daskvnebi. rodesac ganxilva Zalian moklea, is SeiZleba gavaerTianoT naSromis wina nawilTan saTauriT: Sedegebi da diskusia.

naSromis sxva formaluri maxasiaTeblebi: _ manZili, gverdebis numeracia, ilustraciebi


mindori: marcxniv 1,5", zemoT 0,5", danarCeni 1"; 101

gverdebis nomrebi mimdinare saTaurTan marjvena zeda kuTxeSi; cxrilebisa da grafikebis danomvra.

literaturis citirebis wesebi APA-is standartis mixedviT


amonaridis motana
40 sityvaze naklebi
40 sityvaze naklebi amonaridi brWyalebSi unda Caisvas da teqstSi unda iyos CarTuli.

jorj vailanti eTanxmeba sociologebs, rom fsiqiatriuli iarliyebis miwera saxifaToa. sazogadoebas SeuZlia adamianebs saSineli tkivili miayenos janmrTelobis da fsiqikuri aSlilobebis, fsiqiqikuri aSlilobis da gansxvavebuli qcevis erTmaneTSi areviTa da diskriminaciiT.~ 40 sityvaze meti
40 sityvaze meti amonaridi brWyalebSi ar unda Caisvas da teqstSi ar unda iyos CarTuli. is gamoeyofa ZiriTad teqsts zemoT da qvemoT xazebs Soris ormagi intervaliT, xolo citatis striqonebs Soris erTmagi intervaliT.

1994 wels gamocemul wignSi msoflios mwvervalze~ Jurnalisti rebeka stefensi everestze asvlas aRwers:
xuTi pozicia

everestis romantika ai, ra mxiblavda da mizidavda. mwvervalze rom avediT, sul cota, orasi an samasi adamiani mainc viyaviT sxvadasxva erovnebis, sarwmunoebisa da rasis warmomadgeneli. TiToeul Cvengans mwvervalze asvlis dauZleveli survili amoZravebda. everesti yvelaze maRali adgilia msoflioSi da uamravi mizezi arsebobs, romelic misken iseve izidavs adamianebs, rogorc CrdiloeT Tu samxreT polusisken da okeanis siRrmeebisken.

avtorTa citireba
1. avtori, romelsac ar moixseniebT teqstSi

milgremis eqsperimentis erT-erTi kritikosi aRniSnavda, rom cdis pirebi unda yofiliyvnen informirebulni im zegavlenis Sesaxeb, rac SeeZlo maTze moexdina eqsperiments~ (baumrindi, 1968, gv. 44).
rodesac ar moixseniebT avtors, frCxilebSi CasviT misi gvari da wyaros gamocemis TariRi. rodesac pirdapiri citireba xdeba da ara _ perifrazireba an Sinaarsis mokled gadmocema, maSin gverdebic unda mieTiTos. Semadgeneli komponenti, zemoT moyvanili magaliTis msgavsad, erTmaneTisgan wertilebiT unda gamoiyos). es literatura ise miuTiTeT, rom gasagebi iyos, Tu romeli wyaro miuTiTeT da ise, rom es xels ar uSlides naSromis wakiTxvas. zemoT mocemul variants aseTi formac SeiZleba mieces:

milgremis eqsperimentis erT-erTi kritikosis SexedulebiT (baumrindi, 1968), cdis pirebi unda yofiliyvnen informirebulni im zegavlenis Sesaxeb, romelic SeeZlo maTze moexdina eqsperiments~ (gv. 34).

102

2. avtori, romelsac moixseniebT teqstSi

baumrindi (1968) aRniSnavda, rom milgremis eqsperimentis cdis pirebi unda yofiliyvnen informirebulni im zegavlenis Sesaxeb, rac SeeZlo maTze moexdina eqsperiments (gv. 34).
rodesac Tqven miuTiTebT avtoris gvars, aRar aris saWiro misi miTiTeba frCxilebSi. avtoris gvaris gverdiT miuTiTeT TariRi. Tu mogaqvT citata igive wyarodan imave abzacSi, maSin aRar aris saWiro damowmebis gameoreba, ramdenadac isedac naTelia, rom imave wyaros eyrdnobiT, magaliTad:

baumrindi eqsperimentis logikur dasabuTebasac akritikebs.


3. naSromi, romelsac ori avtori hyavs

pepinski da destefano (1987) miuTiTeben, rom maswavlebelTa metyvelebaSi xSirad vlindeba maTi faruli miswrafebebi. erT-erTi kvlevis Tanaxmad (pepinski da destefano, 1987), maswavlebelTa metyvelebaSi xSirad vlindeba maTi miswrafebebi.
rodesac gamoyenebuli literaturis miTiTeba inglisur enaze xdeba, teqstSi avtorebis gvarebi `da~ kavSiriT ukavSirdeba erTmaneTs, xolo frCxilebSi ori avtoris dakavSirebisas ,,&~ simbolo gamoiyeneba, magaliTad, (Pepinsky & DeStefano, 1987). 4. naSromi, romelsac xuTi avtori hyavs

pepinski, duni, smiti, renti da korsoni (1993) aRweren, Tu rogor vlindeba Sexedulebebi JestebiT.
pirveli citirebis SemTxvevaSi xuTive (an samive) avtoris gvaris miTiTeba xdeba, rogorc es zemoT moyvanil magaliTSia naCvenebi, xolo meored amave avtorTa moxseniebisas mxolod pirveli avtoris gvari da `da sxv.~ unda miuTiToT.

pepinsikis da sxv., kvlevaSi (1993) Jestebi Tavis daqnevasac moicavs da TvalebiT kontaqtsac.
rodesac ori an meti wyaro gamoqveynebulia erTsa da imave wels, am SemTxvevaSic imave wesiT xdeba Semokleba da imdeni avtoris gvari unda miuTiToT, ramdenic saWiroa wyaroebis erTmaneTisgan gasarCevad (magaliTad, pepinsiki, duni da sxv., 1993) da (pepinski, bredli da sxv., 1993). 5. naSromi, romelsac eqvsi an meti avtori hyavs.

erT-erTi kvleva (rutteri da sxv., 1996) cdilobs gansxvavebebis axsnas mozardebis magaliTze.
eqvsi avtoris SemTxvevaSi, pirveli citirebis drosac ki mxolod pirveli gvari miuTiTeT, romelsac mosdevs `da sxv.,~. Tu erTsa da imave wels gamocemuli ori wyaro gvaqvs, Semokleba imave wesis mixedviT xdeba, rogorc me-4 punqtSia mocemuli. 6. naSromi, romelic avtorTa jgufs ekuTvnis.

adreuli winaswarmetyveleba ar aRmoCnda dasabuTebuli (lorencis kvleva, 1997).

103

institutis, saagentos, korporaciis an avtorTa sxva jgufis SemTxvevaSi, jgufis saxelwodeba aRiniSneba, rogorc individualuri saxeli. 7. ucnobi avtoris naSromi

erT-erT statiaSi (`sikvdilis ufleba~, 1997) aRniSnulia, rom . . .


anonimuri naSromis SemTxvevaSi avtoris gvaris nacvlad naSromis saTauri miuTiTeT. saTauri brWyalebSi unda Caisvas (Tumca, gamoyenebuli literaturis CamonaTvalSi saTauri brWyalebSi ar Caismis). 8. erTisa da imave avtoris ori an meti Sroma

daaxloebiT 7 wlis asakSi bavSvebi aqtiurad iyeneben Jestebs sakuTari monayolis efeqturobis gasaZliereblad (Gardnei, 1973a).
erTisa da imave avtoris ori an meti wyaros miTiTebis SemTxvevaSi TariRiT mkiTxvels awodebT informacias imis Sesaxeb, Tu romel wyaroze saubrobT, magram Tu orive naSromi erTsa da imave wels aris gamoqveynebuli, am SemTxvevaSi weli asoebiTac aRiniSneba (rogorc es zemoT magaliTSia naCvenebi). aseve, aRiniSneba gamoyenebuli literaturis CamonaTvalSic. 9. sxvadasxva avtoris ori an meti Sroma

ori kvlevis (markoni da hambleni, 1990; herkovici, 1994) Sedegebi aCvenebs, rom...
aseT SemTxvevaSi wyaroebis miTiTeba anbanuri TanmimdevrobiT xdeba. 10. arapirdapiri wyaro

damadasturebeli sabuTebi Cndeba vondis eqsperimentebSi (citirebulia kvlevaSi: markoni da hambleni, 1990).
sityva `citirebuli~ miuTiTebs, rom vondis miTiTebuli kvleva mopovebulia (aRmoCenilia) markonisa da hamblenis kvlevaSi. gamoyenebuli literaturis CamonaTvalSi ki mxolod markoni da hambleni unda miuTiToT. 11. eleqtronuli wyaroebi

fergunsoni da hopkinsi (1998) ar monawileobdnen TvalsaCino mtrulobis eqsperimentSi (abz. 7).


eleqtronuli wyaroebis citireba eqvemdebareba zemoT aRniSnul citirebis standartebs. miTiTebuli unda iyos avtoris gvari da gamoqveynebis TariRi. mxolod am SemTxvevaSi, amonaridis motanisas, statiisa da wignebisagan gansxvavebiT, gverdis nacvlad abzacis nomeri unda miuTiToT.

sqolio da SeniSvna
sqolio
sqolio avsebs da amdidrebs teqstSi mocemul ZiriTad informacias. sqolioSi ar unda iyos mocemuli rTuli, ararelevanturi anda araarsebiTi informacia. vinaidan sqolio mkiTxvelis yuradRebas iqcevs, teqstSi misi CarTva mxolod maSinaa rekomendebuli, rodesac is aZlierebs, amyarebs ZiriTad teqstSi mimdinare msjelobasa Tu gamoTqmul azrs. 104

es mcire nawyvetebi, faqtobrivad, mouTiTebs abstraqtulobaze, romelic damaxasiaTebelia mTlianad msxvilmasStabiani gamokiTxvisaTvis, romelTa analizi realurad arsebuli adamianebis gamocdilebisa da arCevanisgan damoukideblad xorcieldeba.
sqolioSi mxolod erTi azri unda iyos mocemuli. Tu erTze met abzacs werT an maTematikuri formula mogyavT, maSin umjobesi iqneba, rom es ZiriTad teqstSi an/ da danarTSi gaakeToT da ara sqolioSi. sqolioSi, aseve, SeiZleba miuTiToT, romel sxva avtorTan SeiZleba ama Tu im masalis moZieba.

miiCnevdnen ra gamokiTxvaTa Sedegebs sargeblianobis motivis uSualo sazomad, gutmanma da misma kolegebma amerikis 1976 wlis saprezidento arCevnebisTvis SeimuSaves indiferentulobis sazomi (sxvaoba am skalaze fordisa da karteris maCveneblebs Soris) da gaucxoebis sazomi (kandidatis prioritetis skalaze absoluturi done). miCiganis universitetis 1972-1976 wlebis monacemebis analizis Sedegad maT daadgines, rom xmis micemis albaTobaze statistikurad mniSvnelovani gavlena hqonda sargeblianobis absolutur dones, magram ara kandidatTa Sedarebis sxvaobas.
kargad Sesrulebul naSromSi arsebiTi informacia ZiriTad teqstSi unda iyos mocemuli da ara _ sqolioSi.

cxrilis Tanmxlebi SeniSvna


cxrilis Tanmxlebi SeniSvna Tavsdeba cxrilis qvemoT, sadac axsnilia cxrilSi warmodgenili monacemebi an mocemulia damatebiTi informacia maT Sesaxeb.
cxrili N#9.1. liberaluri demokratiis zrda 1990-1995 wlebSi liberaluri demokratiebi qveynebi 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 1995 4 9 18 15 12 26 32 31 35 39 40 mosaxleoba (milionebiT) 130 163 371 346 217 869 1169 1263 1636 2070 2263 msoflios mosaxleoba raodenoba (milionebiT) 1608 n.a. 1860 2008 2294 2516 3019 3693 4450 5246 5765 demokratiul saxelmwifoSi mcxovrebTa % 8 n.a. 20 18 10 34 39 34 37 39 39

SeniSvna: demokratiuli qveynebis monacemTa wyaro iyo londonis ekonomikis


skolis samTavrobo politikis kvlevis ganyofilebis masalebi. monacemebi msoflios mosaxleobis Sesaxeb ix.: Borrie, 1970: 6, 1950-wlidan ki _ `gaero: msoflio mosaxleoba _ molodini da perspeqtivebi~.

105

cxrilebi da suraTebi
cxrilebi

cxrilebi Tu teqsturi masala


cxrilebi mkvlevars didi raodenobiT monacemebis kompaqturad, moxerxebulad warmodgenis saSualebas aZlevs. cxrilebSi, rogorc wesi, konkretuli ricxobrivi monacemebi garkveuli TanmimdevrobiT dalagebul svetebad da mwkrivebadaa wamodgenili, rac aiolebs maT urTierTSedarebas. ramdenime mosazrebis gamo xelsayrelia, rom winaswar gaiazroT da gadawyvitoT, ramden cxrils CarTavT naSromSi; kerZod: 1. Tu naSromSi didi raodenobiT cxrilebi geqnebaT, mkiTxvels SeiZleba gauWirdes maTi daxarisxeba da Tvali veRar miadevnos Tqvens azrebs. 2. araTanabari gadanawileba cxrilebsa da teqsts Soris _ bevri cxrili da mcire moculobis teqsti _ SeiZleba problemebis winapiroba gaxdes naSromis formaluri mxaris gaformebisas, rodesac verbaluri nawili xSirad wydeba cxriliT, mkiTxvels uWirs xolme teqstis Tanmimdevrulad aRqma da avtoris logikuri jaWvisTvis Tvalis midevneba. 3. cxrilebis Casma arTulebs naSromis formalur organizebas da amitom cxrilebiT mdidari naSromis dabeWdva ufro Zviri jdeba, vidre cxrilebiT naklebad datvirTuli teqstia. amitom teqstis gasamartiveblad cxrilebis saxiT mxolod yvelaze arsebiTi, SinaarsTan uSualod dakavSirebuli monacemebi moitaneT. naklebefeqturi varianti:

normaluri mozardis fsiqologiuri me-s aRwerisas mozardTa 91% eTanxmeba debulebas: normalur pirobebSi Tavs mSvidad vgrZnob~, gamokiTxul mozardTa 90% siamovnebas iRebs cxovrebisgan; gamokiTxulTa igive raodenoba, Cveulebriv, akontrolebs Tavs, 86% Tavs janmrTelad da Zlierad grZnobs, erTi procentiT naklebi mozardebi, ZiriTadad, bednierebi arian da, bolos, mxolod 83%-s aniWebs kargi xumroba siamovnebas, rodesac sevdiani da mowyenilia.
ufro efeqturi varianti: mkiTxvelisTvis gacilebiT ioli iqneba am Sedegebis aRqma da gaazreba, rodesac isini cxrilSia mocemuli, Tumca rodesac monacemebi uCveulod cotaa (erTi sveti an mwkrivi), maSin umjobesia, rom isini teqstSi CarToT da ar gaitanoT calke cxrilad. gansazRvreT im monacemTa raodenoba, romlis motanac aucilebelia teqstSi mimdinare msjelobis gasagebad da Semdeg gadawyviteT, cxrilis an grafikis saxiT warmoadgenT maT Tu teqstSi CarTavT. araarsebiTi an ukiduresad detalizebuli monacemebi SeiZleba saerTod amoiRoT naSromidan anda danarTSi gaitanoT. cxrilebi, romlebSic raodenobrivi monacemebia warmodgenili, mxolod maSinaa efeqturi, rodesac monacemebi gasagebad, naTlad da iolad aRsaqmeladaa organizebuli. cxrilSi Sesadarebeli erTeulebi (magaliTad, saSualo, standartuli gadaxra, SerCevis zoma da a.S.) erTmaneTis gverdiT unda ganTavsdes. am princi pis

106

mixedviT, sxvadasxva maCvenebeli cxrilis sxvadasxva nawilSi Tavsdeba. cxrilSi #9.3. swored am princi piTaa monacemebi dalagebuli.
cxrili #9.2. normaluri mozardis fsiqologiuri me mozardTa procenti, romelic eTanxmeba TiToeul debulebas 91 90 90 86 85 83

debuleba normalur pirobebSi Tavs mSvidad vgrZnob. siamovnebas viReb cxovrebisagan. Cveulebriv, Tavs vakontroleb. Tavs janmrTelad da Zlierad vgrZnob. ZiriTadad, bednieri var. kargi xumroba maSinac maniWebs siamovnebas, roca sevdiani, mowyenili var.

SeniSvna: cxrili aRebulia r. gerigi, f. zimbardo `fsiqologia da cxovreba~, 2007

cxrili #9.3. SeWmuli namcxvrebis saSualo raodenoba

SeuzRudavi kveba gemrieli namcxvrebi sakontrolo jgufi mSfoTvare jgufi 6.2 5.1

SezRuduli kveba

gansxvaveba

5.1 7.6

-1.1 +2.5

ugemuri namcxvrebi sakontrolo jgufi mSfoTvare jgufi 3.0 2.7 2.6 3.7 -0.4 +1.0

SeniSvna: cxrili aRebulia r. gerigi, f. zimbardo, `fsiqologia da cxovreba~, 2007

cxrilisa da teqstis urTierTmimarTeba


informaciuli cxrili avsebs teqsts da ar imeorebs mas. mkiTxvels teqstSi unda miuTiToT cxrilze da uTxraT, Tu ras miaqcios yuradReba. teqstSi mxolod cxrilis yvelaze gamokveTili nawilebi gaarCieT. Tu cxrilSi motanil mTel masalas teqstSi gaarCevT, maSin cxrili aRaraferSi gWirdebaT. darwmundiT, rom cxrili TavisTavad gasagebi unda iyos. TiToeuli cxrili teqstSi unda iyos integrirebuli, magram teqstis gareSec sruliad gasagebi unda iyos. ganmarteT yvela abreviatura (gamonaklisia iseTi statistikuri abreviaturebi, rogoricaa M, SD da df), gamokveTili teqstisa Tu frCxilebis mniSvneloba. yovelTvis miuTiTeT sazomi erTeulebi.

107

cxrilis miTiTeba teqstSi. teqstSi cxrilebi maTi nomrebiT moixsenieT:

rogorc aris cxrilSi #8 mocemuli, cdis pirTa... gamokiTxulTa naxevari aRiarebs (ix. cxrili #8), rom...
ar gamoiyenoT frazebi `zemoT/qvemoT mocemul cxrilSi~ an `32-e gverdze warmodgenil cxrilSi~, vinaidan naSromis sxvadasxvagvari formatirebisas yovelTvis SeiZleba Seicvalos rogorc cxrilis adgilmdebareoba teqstSi, ise _ gverdebis numeracia.

cxrilebis urTierTmimarTeba
SeecadeT, rom ar gaimeoroT monacemebi sxvadasxva cxrilSi da erTad warmoadginoT. Cveulebriv, monacemTa identuri mwkrivebi an svetebi ar unda meordebodes or an met cxrilSi. erT naSromSi warmodgenili yvela cxrili erTnairad unda iyos formatirebuli, raTa gaioldes maTi aRqma da maTSi warmodgenili monacemebis Sedareba. gamoiyeneT erTnairi formati, dasaxeleba, saTaurebi da terminologia (magaliTad, saSualo maCvenebeli an centraluri tendenciis maCvenebeli).

cxrilebis danomvra
cxrilebi yovelTvis inomreba arabuli cifrebiT.

cxrili N2, cxrili N3 cxrili N4 da a.S. da ara: cxrili 2, cxrili 2a, cxrili 2b da a.S.

cxrilebis dasaxeleba
TiToeul cxrils mokle, magram gasagebi da axsniTi saTauri unda hqondes. zedmetad telegrafuli:

kolejis ZiriTad sagansa da Sedegebs Soris damokidebuleba (gaugebaria, ra ti pis monacemebia cxrilSi warmodgenili).
zedmetad detalizebuli:

kolejis studentebis mier ZiriTad saganSi _ fsiqologiaSi, fizikaSi, inglisursa da maTematikaSi miRebuli saSualo qulebi A, B da C testebSi (aq meordeba cxrilis nawilebis saTaurebiT gadmocemuli informacia).
kargi:

kolejis sxvadasxva ZiriTad sagnebSi studentebis mier miRebuli saSualo Sefasebebi.


cxrilSi an mis romelime saTaurSi mocemuli abreviatura SeiZleba cxrilis dasaxelebaSi frCxilebSi iyos motanili.

Tematuri apercepciis testiT (TAT) miRebuli Sedegebi.


108

suraTebi

ramdenad gvWirdeba suraTi


APA-is standartiT Sesrulebul naSromebSi cxrilisgan gansxvavebuli nebismiri tipis ilustracias suraTi (figure) ewodeba. suraTi SeiZleba iyos diagrama, grafiki, foto, naxati an sxva gamosaxuleba. JurnalebSi raodenobrivi monacemebis aRsawerad xSirad cxrilebs aniWeben xolme upiratesobas, vinaidan maTSi zusti, konkretuli informaciaa mocemuli, suraTebze, ki, Cveulebisamebr, mkiTxvelma unda Seafasos monacemis mniSvneloba; Tumca, meore mxriv, suraTze erTi SexedviTac kargad Cans Sedegebis paterni. isini gansakuTrebiT gamosadegia or cvlads Soris mimarTebis (an am mimarTebis ararsebobis) da arawrfivi damokidebulebis aRsawerad. garda amisa, kargad momzadebuli suraTi SeiZleba teqstze ufro struqturirebulad an TvalsaCinod gadmogvcemdes ama Tu im Sedegsa Tu cnebas. naSromis Seqmnisas suraTis gamoyenebis gadawyvetilebis miRebisas gamosadegia Semdeg kiTxvebze pasuxis gacema: ra azris gadmocema gsurT suraTiT? aucilebelia suraTis gamoyeneba? Tu is imeorebs teqsts, maSin ar gWirdebaT. Tu avsebs teqsts an lakonurad gadmoscems xangrZliv msjelobas, maSin is informaciis gadmocemis optimaluri saSualeba SeiZleba iyos. Tqveni miznisTvis romeli ti pis suraTia (grafiki, diagrama, ruka, foto Tu sxva rame) yvelaze adekvaturi? SesaZlebelia Tu ara martivi grafikiT gadmoices Tqveni azri da ar dagWirdeT ZviradRirebuli fotoebis gamoyeneba?

suraTis standartebi
kargi suraTis standartia simartive, TvalsaCinooba da Tanmimdevruloba. kargi suraTi: avsebs teqsts da ar imeorebs mas; mxolod arsebiT faqtebs aRwers; ar moicavs vizualurad yuradRebis gamfantav detalebs; martivia wasakiTxad misi elementebi (ti pi, xazebi, dasaxelebebi, simboloebi da a.S.) sakmarisad didi zomisaa, rom nabeWdi saxiT wakiTxvadi iyos; martivia gasagebad misi mizani TvalsaCinodaa mocemuli; konsistenturia erT naSromSi erTnairi stiliT Sesrulebuli msgavsi suraTebia. sxva sityvebiT, erTnairi zomis asoebiT gakeTebuli warwerebi, erTnairi sisqis xazebi da erTi ti pis vizualuri maxasiaTeblebi aqvT; detalurad damuSavebuli da momzadebulia.

suraTis ti pebi
14

suraTi #2

mkiTxvelisTvis monacemebis warsadgenad sxvadasxva saxis suraTebi SeiZleba gamoviyenoT. zogjer saWiro ti pis suraTis arCeva martivia, zogjer ki ara. kargad momzadebuli suraTebi Sedegebis mTlian paterns dasamaxsovrebels xdis.

12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

111

grafiki monacemTa simravleebs Soris mimarTebebs Sedarebasa da ganawilebas gviCvenebs anda SeiZleba gviCvenebdes, magaliTad, maT absolutur mniSvnelobebs, procentul ganawilebasa Tu indeqsebs. grafikSi xazebi gasagebad unda iyos mocemuli da masSi ar unda iyos zedmeti detalebi. informacia horizontalur da vertikalur RerZebze mzardi TanmimdevrobiT da Sedarebadi erTeulebiT unda iyos warmodgenili. gafantvis grafiki calkeuli wertilebisgan Sedgeba, romlebic erTi movlenis calkeul an ori cvladis (abscisasa da ordinataze gadazomil) mniSvnelobebs warmoadgenen (ix. suraTi N1 ) . w e r t i l e b i s m n i S v n e l o v a n i klasterebi korelaciebs asaxaven. magaliTad, diagonalis gaswvriv dajgufebuli wertilebi wrfiv korelacias gamosaxaven, xolo Tu wertilebi zustad diagonalis wrfeze lagdebian, maSin korelaciis koeficienti mis maqsimalur mnSvnelobas +1-s utoldeba. wrfivi grafiki or raodenobriv cvlads Soris damokidebulebis saCveneblad gamoiyeneba. damoukidebeli cvladi horizontalur RerZze gadaizomeba, damokidebuli ki vertikalurze (ix. suraTi #2). RerZebze danayofebi sazomis erTeulebs gviCvenebs. RerZebiT aRniSnuli skalebi SeiZleba iyos wrfivi, logariTmuli an logariTmulwrfivi.
suraTi N3
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

suraTi N4 Apr Mar Feb May Jan

svetebiani grafiki gamoiyeneba maSin, rodesac damoukidebeli cvladi kategorialuria (magaliTad, sxvadasxva eqsperimentuli situacia. ix. suraTi #3). wriuli diagrama (pie) procentuli ganawilebisa da proporciis saCveneblad gamoiyeneba. Sesadarebeli erTeulebis raodenoba xuTs ar unda aRematebodes. segmentebi klebadi TanmimdevrobiT unda iyos dalagebuli, yvelaze didi segmenti ki vertikaluri xazidan iwyebodes.

suraTis identificireba da teqstSi moxsenieba


suraTebi arabuli cifrebiT aRiniSneba da inomreba teqstSi moxseniebis TanmimdevrobiT (anu suraTi #1, suraTi #2 da a.S.) suraTs nomeri ewereba zeda marjvena kuTxeSi. teqstSi moxseniebis wesebi:

rogorc me2 suraTzea naCvenebi, es damokidebuleba. . . maT Soris aRmoCnda mWidro kavSiri (ix. suraTi #2).
ar gamoiyenoT frazebi zemoT mocemul suraTze~ an me-12 gverdze mocemul suraTze~, vinaidan suraTis mdebareoba da gverdebis numeracia SeiZleba Seicvalos. suraTis nomers Tan unda axldes dasaxeleba, romelic unda iyos sakmaod detaluri da amomwuravi. 112

organizacia
wyaroebis miTiTeba anbanuri TanmimdevrobiT gvarebis mixedviT xdeba. Tu Sromis avtori ar aris aRniSnuli, maSin miTiTeba saTauris pirveli sityvebis mixedviT xdeba.

xazebs Soris intervali


xazebs Soris ormagi intervali (Tumca qarTulSi erTnaxevaric dasaSvebia _ SesaTanxmebelia xelmZRvanelTan).

abzacis pirveli Seweuli striqoni (indention)


TiToeuli striqonisTvis Sesabamisi abzaci unda iqnes gamoyenebuli. APA-is stiliT rekomendebulia TiToeuli wyaros pirveli striqonisTvis 57 poziciis gamotoveba. Rodrigues, R. (1982). A hanger of memory: The education of Richard Rodrigeues. Boston: Godine. Tumca arsebobs meore variantic: roca miTiTebul literaturaSi pirvel striqonSi pirveli sityva, piriqiT, gamoweulia da meore striqoni 5 poziciiT Seweulia. Rodrigues, R. (1982). A hanger of memory: The education of Richard Rodrigeues. Boston: Godine. hkiTxeT xelmZRvanels, romeli variantis gamoyeneba gevalebaT.

avtorebi
pirvelad unda miuTiToT avtoris gvari, Semdeg saxeli (erTmaneTisgan mZimeebiT gamoiyofa). rogorc wesi, saxelis (aseve, meore saxelis) misaTiTeblad inicialebi gamoiyeneba. bolo avtoris gvaris win & kavSiri iwereba.

gamocemis TariRi
gamocemis weli unda miuTiToT frCxilebSi avtoris an avtorebis gvarebis gverdiT. Cveulebrivad, es aris xolme weli, magram zogierTi ti pis gamocemebisTvis (magaliTad, Jurnalebi da sagazeTo statiebi) unda miuTiToT Tve da, iSviaT SemTxvevaSi, dReebic.

saTauri
inglisur enaze wignis an statiis saTauris miTiTebis SemTxvevaSi, didi asoTi iwereba mxolod saTauris pirveli sityva, qvesaTauris pirveli sityva da sakuTari saxelebi. sxva yvela danarCeni sityva iwereba patara asoebiT. statiis saTauri brWyalebSi ar unda Caisvas.

gamocemis adgili
wyarosTvis, romelic periodul gamocemas ar warmoadgens, unda miuTiToT gamocemis adgilic. Tu gamomcemeli romelime konkretul universitets warmoadgens da qalaqis (an provinciis) dasaxeleba miTiTebulia universitetis saxelwodebaSic, maSin misi gameoreba saWiro aRar aris.

114

gamomcemlobis dasaxeleba
araperioduli wyaroebisTvis gamomcemlobis miTiTebac aucilebelia. gamocemis adgilis Semdeg orwertili da Semdeg gamomcemlobis dasaxeleba unda miuTiToT. zogierTi gamomcemlobisaTvis SesaZlebelia Semoklebuli variantic gamoiyenoT (William Morrow-is nacvlad Morrow). SesaZloa gamotovoT sityvebi: gamomcemeli, kompania da a.S. (CO., Inc., Publisher). Tumca asociaciebis, korporaciebis da universitetis gamocemlobebis miTiTebisas sruli saxelwodebebi unda aRiniSnos da am SemTxvevaSi gamomcemlobis dasaxelebis gamotoveba ar xdeba (magaliTad, Harvard University Press).

gverdebis numeracia
wignebis an gazeTebis gverdebis miTiTebisas abreviatura `gv.~ miuTiTeT. gverdebisTvis yvela cifri moitaneT: `667-668.~

wignebi
1. wigni, romelsac erTi avtori hyavs Rodriguez, R. (1982). A Hanger of Memory: The Education of Richard Rodrigeues. Boston: Godine. avtoris saxelis sruli miTiTebis nacvlad misi iniciali unda miuTiToT, Tumca misi saxeli wyaros dasaxelebaSic ikiTxeba. didi asoTi saTauris da qvesaTuris mxolod pirveli sityva da sakuTari saxelia mocemuli. 2. wigni, romelsac ori an meti avtori hyavs Nesselroade, J.R., & Baltes, P.B. (1999). Longitudinal research in behavioral studies. New York: Academic Press. avtorebis gvarebs erTmaneTisgan & gamoyofs. 3. wigni, romelsac redaqtori hyavs Dohrenwend, B. S., & Dohrenwend, B. P. (Eds). (1994). Stressful life events: Their nature and effects. New York: Weley. redaqtorTa saxelebi miuTiTeT, rogorc avtoris saxeli da gvari, magram frCxilebSi Semoklebuli formiT mocemuli unda iyos: (red.). inglisurenovani wyaros miTiTebis SemTxvavSi Tu redaqtori erTia: (Ed), Tu ramodenime (Eds). iqve, frCxilebSi unda miuTiTeT gamocemis welic. 4. wigni, romelsac mTargmneli hyavs Trajan. P. D. (1927). Psychology of animals (H.Simone, Trans.). Washington, DC: Halperin. 5. wigni, romlis avtori mkvlevarTa jgufia Lorenz Research. (1997). Research in social studies teaching. Baltimore: Arrow Books. roca wignis avtori avtorTa jgufia, rogoricaa, magaliTad, mkvlevarTa jgufi, saxelmwifo saagento, korporacia da a.S. aseT SemTxvevaSi, jgufis saxeli unda miuTiToT, rogorc individualuri sakuTari saxeli. gamoyenebuli literaturis nusxaSi ki anbanuri TanmimdevrobiT swored es saxeli unda gaiTvaliswinoT. 6. wigni, romlis avtori ucnobia

Mariam-Websters collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1997). Sprinfield, MA: Mariam-Webster.

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Tu wignis avtori ucnobia unda miuTiToT wignis saxelwodeba anbanuri TanmimdevrobiT. 7. erTi da imave avtoris ori an meti Sroma, romelic erTsa da imave welsaa gamoqveynebuli Gardner, H. (1973a). The arts and human Development. New York: Weliy. Gardner, H. (1973b). Ithe guest for mind: Pieaget, Levi-Strauss, and the structuralist movement. New York: Knopf. rodesac gamoyenebulia erTi da imave avtoris erTsa da imave wels gamoqveynebuli Sroma, isini unda miuTiToT anbanuri TanmimdevrobiT, saTauris pirveli sityvis mixedviT da gamocemebi unda gamoirCes erTmaneTisgan asoebis (a, b da a.S. ) saSualebiT. magram Tu uTiTebT erTi da imave avtoris or sxvadasxva Sromas, romlebic erTsa da imave wels ar aris gamoqveynebuli, aseT SemTxvevaSi, jer unda miuTiToT ufro adre gamoqveynebuli Sroma. 8. wigni, romelic xelaxla gamoica Bollinger, D.L. (1975). Aspects of language (2nd ed). NewYork. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. xelaxali gamocemis TariRi saTauris Semdeg unda miuTiToT. Semdeg gamomcemloba unda aRiniSnos. 9. wigni, romelic erTze meti tomisagan Sedgeba Lincoln, A. (1953). The collected works of Abraham Lincoln (R.P. Basler, Ed.). (Vol.5). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Lincoln, A. (1953). The collected works of Abraham Lincoln (R.P. Basler, Ed.). (Vols.1-8). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. 10. statia an Tavi redaqtirebuli wignidan Paykel, E. S. (1994). Life stress and psychiatric disorder: Applications of the clinical approach. In B.S. Dorhewend & B.P. Dorhenwend (Eds.), Stressful life events: Their nature and effects (pp. 239-264). New York Weliy. gamocemis TariRi aucileblad unda aRiniSnos. statiis an Tavis saTauris Semdg unda miuTiToT, romeli wyarodan aris amoRebuli nakveTi. gverdebis numeracia unda miuTiToT frCxilebSi.

perioduli gamocemebi: samecniero Jurnalebi, Jurnalebi da gazeTebi


11. statia yovelwliuri Jurnalidan Emery, R.E. (1992). Marital turmoil: interpersonal conflict and the children of discord and divorce. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 310-330 statiis saTauri brWyalebSi ar unda Caisvas. Jurnalis saxelwodeba daxrili unda iyos. 12. statia Jurnalidan, romelsac calkeuli nomrebi aqvs Dacey, J. (198). Managment participation in corporate buy-outs. Management Perspectives, 7(4), 20-31 Jurnalis nomeri daxrili ar unda iyos, is frCxilebSi unda CasvaT.

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13.

statiis abstraqti Emery, R.E. (1992). Marital turmoil: interpersonal conflict and the children of discord and divorce. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 310-330 (From Psychological Abstracts, 69, Item 1320) rodesac abstraqti da ara statiis sruli teqstia gamoyenebuli, frCxilebSi mowodebul unda iyos amomwuravi informacia: saTauri, tomis nomeri, gverdebi, abzacis nomeri. ramdenadac saTaurSi sityva abstraqti ar figurirebs, amitom is unda miuTiToT wyaros saTaursa da periodizacias Soris, rom cxadi gaxdes, ra gamoiyeneT.

14.

statia Jurnalidan Van Gelder, L. (1996, Desember). Countdown to motherhood: When shoud you have a baby? Ms., 37-39, 74. Tu Jurnals aqvs calkeuli gamocemebi da nomrebi, aucileblad unda iyos aRniSnuli. aseve, nomris gamocemis sruli TariRi da statiis gverdebi unda iyos dafiqsirebuli, oRond abrevituris (gv.) gareSe.

15.

sagazeTo statia Lewis, P.H. (1999, Jenuary 21 ). Many updates cause profitable confusion. The New York Times, pp. D1, D5. unda miuTiToT, rogorc gamocemis weli, aseve, Tve da dRe. gverdebis misaTiTeblad SeiZleba gamoiyenoT abraviatura: gv.~

16.

xelmouwereli statia The right to die. (1976, Octomber 11). Time, 121. 101 miuTiTeT CamonaTvalSi anbanuri TanmimdevrobiT statiis saTauris mixedviT. iseve, rogor anonimuri avtoris wignis miTiTebis SemTxvevaSi.

17.

mimoxilva Dinnage, R. (1987, November 29). Against the master and his men [Review of the book A mind of her own: The life of Karen Horney]. The New York Times Book Review, 10-11.

Tu mimoxilva dasaTaurebuli araa, gamoiyeneT frCxilebSi mocemuli informacia, rogorc saTauri. wignis miTiTebis SemTxvevaSi saTauri daxrili unda iyos, Jurnalebis SemTxvevaSi ki dasaxelebaa daxrili.

danarTi
danarTi or mizans emsaxureba. is avtors mkiTxvelisTvis kiTxvis Seuwyvetlad detaluri informaciis miwodebisa da weris stilis, wesebis dacvis saSualebas aZlevs. Cveulebrivad, danarTSi maTematikuri dasabuTeba, didi cxrilebi, kiTxvaris nimuSebi an kvlevaSi gamoyenebuli sxva xelsawyoebi da kompiuteruli programebia aRwerili. naSromi SeiZleba erT an met danarTs moicavdes.

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danarTis identifikacia da teqstSi motana


Tu naSroms mxolod erTi danarTi aqvs, mas mxolod danarTi ewereba. Tu mas ramdenime danarTi aqvs, maSin unda miuTiToT: danarTi A, danarTi B da a.S. im TanmimdevrobiT, ra TanmimdevrobiTac is teqstSia motanili. TiToeul danarTs unda hqondes saxelwodeba. teqstSi danarTebi Sesabamisi saxelwodebebiTaa motanili:

orive kvlevam erTi da igive Sedegi aCvena (ix. danarTi A da danarTi B).

ZiriTadi nawili da saTaurebi


teqstis msgavsad, danarTs aqvs saTauri da qvesaTauri (danarTis SigniT saTauris donis gansazRvris mizniT danarTi teqstisgan gancalkevebiT unda iyos mocemuli, magaliTad, ZiriTad teqsts SeiZleba oTxdoniani saTauri hqondes, magram Tu danarTs ordoniani saTuri aqvs, dasaTaureba xdeba iseve, rogorc ordoniani ZiriTadi teqstis). ZiriTadi teqstis msgavsad, danarTi SeiZleba moicavdes cxrilebs da suraTebs da, agreTve, vrclad mocemul maTematikur formulebs. danarTis cxrilebi da suraTebi unda dainomros. agreTve, unda dainomros maTematikuri formulebi, Tu es aucilebelia Semdgomi miTiTebisTvis. cxrilebis nomers Tan unda daerTos danarTis dasaxelebac (magaliTad, cxrili NA1). im SemTxvevaSi, roca danarTi erTia, danarTis cxrilebis da suraTebis gadanomrvisas gamoiyeneT aso A, rom ZiriTadi teqstis cxrilebisgan da suraTebisgan garCeva SesaZlebeli iyos. danarTSi citirebis wesebi igivea, rac ZiriTadi teqstis SemTxvevaSi: _ danarTis yvela cxrili da suraTi miTiTebuli unda iyos danarTSi da danomrili unda iyos motanis rigis mixedviT.

cxrilebi, romlebic danarTis saxiTaa mocemuli


Tu cxrili mTlianad danarTs warmoadgens, centrSi mocemuli danarTis saxelwodeba da saTauri cxrilis nomris da saTauris Canacvlebasac warmoadgens. mravaldoniani cxrilebi calkeuli danarTebis saxiT moitaneT. Tu aseTi cxrilebi (magram ara teqsti) kombinirebulia erT danarTSi, danomreT cxrilebi.

kiTxvarebi da testebi
Tu Tqven gsurT gamoaqveynoT axali testi APA-is JurnalSi, maSin saavtoro uflebebis mflobeli iqneba APA (avtors, romelsac surs, rom rom saavtoro uflebebi SeinarCunos, unda miuTiTos: saavtoro ufleba [weli] [avtoris gvari]). Tu gsurT miuTiToT sxva avtoris kiTxvari an testi, amis ufleba werilobiTi formiT unda moi povoT.

naSromis formaluri maxasiaTeblebis Sesafasebeli kiTxvari


formati
warmodgenili naSromi Sesrulebulia Tu ara A4 formatis furcelze? mTel naSromSi citirebis, gamoyenebuli literaturis, avtoris SeniSvnis, sqolios, suraTebis dasaxelebis da cxrilis yvela nawilis CaTvliT, daculia Tu ara striqonebs Soris ormagi (qarTulSi _ 1,5) intervali? aris Tu ara naSromi mowesrigebuli da guldasmiT gaformebuli? mindvrebi aris Tu ara, sul mcire, 1" anu 2,54 sm? 118

calke gverdebze aris Tu ara mocemuli Tavfurceli, abstraqti, gamoyenebuli literatura, avtoris SeniSvna, cxrilebi da suraTebi (erTi cxrili/suraTi erT gverdze) calke gverdebze? Tanmimdevrulad aris Tu ara gadanomrili gverdebi Tavfurclidan gamoyenebuli literaturis CaTvliT?

Tavfurceli da abstraqti
Sedgeba Tu ara saTauri 10-12 sityvisgan? Tavfurcelze miTiTebulia Tu ara instituti/dawesebuleba, sadac Sesrulda naSromi? Tavsdeba Tu ara abstraqti 120 sityvaSi?

abzacebi da saTaurebi
aris Tu ara erTi abzaci erT winadadebaze meti, magram ara umetes erTi xelnaweri gverdisa? qvesaTaurebi zustad asaxaven Tu ara naSromis struqturas? erTnairi qvesaTaurebi erTnairi formatiTaa Sesrulebuli Tu ara?

abreviatura
amoRebulia Tu ara naSromidan yvela araarsebiTi da arasaWiro abreviatura? ganmartebulia Tu ara yvela saWiro da naSromSi Setanili abreviatura? cxrilebsa da suraTebSi mocemuli abreviaturebi axsnilia Tu ara cxrilis Tanmxleb SeniSvnasa Tu suraTis legendaSi?

gamoyenebuli literatura
gamoyenebuli literatura citirebulia rogorc teqstSi, ise boloSi saTauriT `gamoyenebuli literatura~? sxva sityvebiT, rac teqstSia mocemuli, miTiTebulia boloSic da piriqiT? teqstSi citirebuli da gamoyenebuli literaturis CamonaTvalSi mocemuli wyaroebi erTnairadaa dawerili da Tanxvdeba Tu ara gamocemis wlebi? srulad aris Tu ara mocemuli Jurnalis dasaxelebebi? gamoyenebuli literatura dalagebulia Tu ara avtorTa gvarebis mixedviT anbanuri TanmimdevrobiT?

sqolio
miTiTebulia Tu ara teqstSi yvela sqolio? gadanomrilia Tu ara sqolioebi Tanmimdevrulad da sworadaa Tu ara isini ganlagebuli teqstSi?

cxrilebi da suraTebi
TiToeuli cxrilis svetebs aqvs Tu ara saTauri? cxrilebSi amoRebulia Tu ara yvela vertikaluri xazi? suraTebis elementebi aris Tu ara sakmarisad didi zomis, raTa suraTis zomebis Semcirebis SemTxvevaSi mainc wakiTxvadi iyos? TiToeuli suraTi danomrilia Tu ara Tanmimdevrulad da aqvs Tu ra mokle saTauri? 119

yvela suraTi da cxrili moxseniebulia Tu ara teqstSi da danomrilia Tu ara moxseniebis rigis mixedviT?

bolo SeniSvna
miuxedavad imisa, rom APA-is standartiT mogeTxovebaT naSromis Sesruleba, konkretuli departamentisa Tu pedagogis moTxovna SesaZloa, garkveulwilad, gansxvavdebodes APA-is standartisgan. am SemTxvevaSi upiratesoba departamentis/ maswavleblis moTxovnebs eniWeba. orive APA-isa da departamentis/maswavleblis moTxovnebis codna students naSromis damakmayofileblad momzadebis saSualebas miscems. Tumca gaxsovdeT, rom akademiuri sazogadoeba SeTanxmebulia weris stilze da namdvilad ar Secvlis mas erTi individis axirebis gamo.

gamoyenebuli literatura
arabuli a., qarTuli metyvelebis kultura, gamomcemloba universali~, Tbilisi, 2004. gutbrodi h., danelia n. saqmiani urTierTobebi. gamomcemloba `universali~, Tbilisi, 2006. TvalTvaZe d., gafrindaSvili n. marTlweris wesebi da savarjiSoebi, Tbilisi, 2004. SalamberiZe g., qarTuli marTlwera, gamomcemloba ganaTleba~, Tbilisi, 1965. SaniZe a., qarTuli enis gramatikis safuZvlebi, Tsu, Tbilisi, 1973. ., , . 3- . , 2004. Carter D., Beyond the Loan Word: Plagiarism and Academic Writing. Published in http:// www.engelsk.au.dk/en/studies/exams/guides/plagiarism (2000, Revised 07.05.2007). bolo naxva 15.08.2007 Campbell S., The Problem of Plagiarism Published in http://www-personal.umich.edu/~sdcamp/up540/writingtips.html (last updated: February 22, 2007). bolo naxva 15.08.2007 Fowler H. Ramsey; Aaron Jane E.; Anderson Daniel (2000). The Little, Brown Handbook. 8th edition. Addison-Wesley. Georgetown University. What is Plagiarism. Published in http://gervaseprograms.georgetown.edu/hc/ plagiarism.html (2007). bolo naxva 15.08.2007 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edition. Published by APA. Regina L Smalley., Mary K. Ruetten., & Joann Rishel Kozyrev (2000). Refining Composition Skills. Heinle & Heinle: Thomson Learning.

Writing Tutorial Services, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. Plagiarism: What It is and How to Recognize and Avoid It. Published in http://www.indiana.edu/~wts/pamphlets/plagiarism.shtml (2004). bolo naxva 15.08.2007

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