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This is a basic on-line grammar book.

It is for Spanish students of English who have just started to learn English or for those students at a middle, up to intermediate level. It concentrates on those areas of grammar which cause students the most difficulty. The explanations use simple everyday words. It can be used by students attending classes or by someone working alone at home. It covers the main areas and grammatical points and a lot of example sentences. In each grammatical point, an explanation is followed by some examples to make them easier to understand and remember. The explanations and rules are for British English. We have also added Spanish translations for those points which are often a problem for learners, in order to encourage self-learning. It tries to be a guide to help students to understand them. There are a lot of contrast and comparison among the main verbal tenses and there are a number of review pages. I would like to thank all the teachers whose grammar books helped me in the early stages of my teaching work, for their valuable examples of useful teaching. They were an example of what students need from a grammar book. They taught me that teaching is a matter of heart. Thanks to all the teachers who publish their works on line, a work that everybody can share, for their expertise and commitment. I have done my bit!. Special thanks for all my students, the previous, present and future ones, for all their help and encouragement.

Este es un libro bsico de gramtica on-line. Es para estudiantes espaoles de ingls que acaban de comenzar a aprender ingls o para aquellos que se encuentran a mitad, hasta un nivel intermedio. Se concentra en aquellas cuestiones gramaticales que causan a los estudiantes mayor dificultad. Las explicaciones utilizan palabras cotidianas sencillas. Puede ser utilizada por los estudiantes que asisten a clase o por alguien que quiera trabajar por su cuenta en casa. Abarca las principales reas y estructuras gramaticales aportando un montn de oraciones ejemplo. En cada punto gramatical, las explicaciones son seguidas de algunos ejemplos que las hacen ms fciles de aprender y recordar. Las explicaciones y las reglas son para ingls britnico. He aadido una traduccin en espaol en aquellos puntos que son frecuentemente un problema para los alumnos, en orden a motivar su proceso de autoaprendizaje. Intenta se una gua que les ayude a entenderlos. Hay un montn de contraste y comparacin entre los principales tiempos verbales y un nmero de pginas de repaso intensivo. Me gustara dar las gracias a todos los profesores cuyas gramticas me ayudaron en los inicios de mi trabajo como profesora, por sus valiosos ejemplos de enseanza til. Fueron un ejemplo de lo que cualquier alumno necesita de un libro de gramtica. Ellos me ensearon que ENSEAR ES UNA CUESTIN DE CORAZN. Gracias a todos los profesores que publican sus trabajos on line, un trabajo que todo el mundo puede compartir, por su experiencia y dedicacin. Yo he aportado mi granito de arena! Gracias especiales a todos mis alumnos, antiguos, actuales y futuros, por su ayuda y nimo.

ARTICLES (1 6)
Indefinite A / AN. Definite THE

PRONOUNS(7 8)
Personal Pronouns. Subject. Object. Possessive adjectives. Possessive pronouns.

NOUNS (9 11)
Countable / Uncountable nouns. Quantifiers: MANY, MUCH, FEW, LITTLE, A LOT OF / LOTS OF SOME / ANY. Common uncountable nouns.

WORD FORMATION (11 12) ADJECTIVES (13 19)


Word order. The old, The rich, etc. The young or The young people. Adjectives ED / -ING. Adjectives or adverbs? The LY ending. Good and Well. Compound adjectives. Other adjective endings. Adjective + Infinitive. Compound nouns.

ADVERBS AND WORD ORDER (20 23)


Adverbs of manner. NO LONGER, ANY LONGER / ANY MORE. Adverbs of degree, e.g. VERY, QUITE. TOO / ENOUGH.

STATIVE VERBS (23 24) SAXON GENITIVE. S USES (24 25) TO BE (26 28)
Form. Uses. Past simple.

TO HAVE (28 30)


Form. Uses. SPECIAL USES.

PRESENT SIMPLE (31 32)


Form. Uses. Adverbs of frequency / Time expressions. Spelling: The third person singular (he, she, it).

PRESENT CONTINUOUS (33 34)


Form. Uses. Time expressions. Future meaning. Spelling: -ING.

PAST SIMPLE (34 35)


Form. Uses. Time expressions. Regular Verbs. Spelling: -ED. Irregular verbs.

USED TO (36 37) BE USED TO (37 38)


Get / become / grow + used to.

PAST CONTINUOUS (38 39)


Form. Uses. Time expressions.

PAST TENSE. GENERAL REVIEW (39 41) PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE (41 45)
Form. Uses. How long? FOR / SINCE. Past simple / Present Perfect. YET / ALREADY / STILL / JUST / NEVER.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS (45 48)


Form. Uses. Time expressions.

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE (48 49)


Form. Uses. Time expressions.

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS (49)


Form. Uses. Time expressions.

FUTURE TENSES (50 51)


Forms. Uses. WILL / SHALL. Time expressions.

BE GOING TO (51 52)


Form. Uses. Time expressions.

MORE ON FUTURE. GENERAL REVIEW (53 55)


Present Continuous / Will / Be going to. Present Simple with a future meaning. WILL / SHALL.

FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE (55 )


Form. Uses. Time expressions.

COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE (56 62)


Short and Long adjectives. Spelling: -ER / -EST endings. Comparison of adverbs. Irregular forms. Comparative and Superlative patterns. Than me / than I am. Less and leas. Much cheaper. Faster and faster. The cheaper, the better.

CONDITIONALS (62 67)


First conditional. Second conditional. Third conditional. More uses. IF / WHEN / UNLESS / IN CASE.

WISH CLAUSES (68 69)


Wish / If only. Wishwould. Wishthe Past. Wishthe Past Perfect.

MODAL VERBS (69 81)


Can. Ability. Can / be able to. Asking permission. Making a request. Must. Talking about obligation. Talking about necessity. Could. May. Talking about probability. May / might. Possibility. Making offers. Should. Giving advice. Would. Must / have to. Should / ought to.

PERFECT MODALS (81 82) REPORTED SPEECH (82 90)


Tell or say?. Reported statements. Reported questions. Asking for information. Reported orders, offers, suggestions, etc. Reporting verbs.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS and RELATIVE CLAUSES (90 95)


Relative pronouns. Relative clauses. Uses. Defining relative clauses / non-defining relative clauses.

THE PASSIVE (95 99)


Definition. A passive verb. Structure and changes. Uses.

TO HAVE SOMETHING DONE (100 )


Form. Uses.

CLAUSES and CONJUNCTIONS (101 102)


Main clause / subclause. Main conjunctions.

PREPOSITIONS (102 104)


Definition. Prepositions of movement. Prepositions of place. Prepositions of time.

PREPOSITIONAL VERBS (104 106)


Definition. About, of and to. Verb + object + preposition.

PHRASAL VERBS (107 110)


Definition. Understanding phrasal verbs. Everyday situations phrasal verbs. Phrasal verbs and one-word verbs. Business situations phrasal verbs. Adverb meanings. Verb + adverb + preposition. Idiomatic meanings.

THE ING FORM AND THE INFINITIVE (110 112) VERBS + -ING / TO-INFINITIVE (112 116)
Verbs which can be followed by both ing / to-infinitive.

IMPERATIVO (116 117)


Lets for suggestions. Form.

A / AN THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE. (A / AN ARTCULO INDETERMINADO)


Use a before words like ship, taxi, cake, table, etc. which start with a consonant. We need a taxi. A table for two, please. Have a cake.

Use an before words which start with a vowel (a, e, i, o or u), like alligator, example, ice cream, office, umbrella, etc. Theres an alligator behind you! Can you think of an example? I want an ice-cream.

Do not use an before a word which begins with the sound of y in words like you and yellow. Is there a university here? He cant speak a European language.

The words the university and European both start with the same sound as you and yellow: [ j ]. Compare a university with an umbrella. Umbrella starts with the sound [ ^ ]. Use an before words which start with a silent h. Hes an honest man. Youre an hour late.

Compare an hour with a horse. The h in horse is not silent. Use a or an if there are other examples of the same thing, and you are not thinking of a special or specific one. Look a this example: I need a taxi.

The speaker knows there are many taxis and he does not need a special taxi. Its not important what colour it is or how big it is for example. Have a cake.

The speaker means there are a number of cakes and it is not important which one the other person chooses. Use a or an when you talk about a person or thing for the first time. Look! A snake! A boy asked me to dance.

Use a or an followed by an adjective + noun when you talk about what sort or type of person somebody is (or what sort of thing something is). Youre a pretty girl. It is an American car. Its a cold day.

Use a or an before jobs and nationality nouns. Im an actress. Hes an English man. Brians a policeman.

Use a or an when you mean one, like this: A ticket to London, please. Come back in an hour.

Use a or an in phrases like these, when they mean every or per. A hundred pounds a week. Two hundred kilometres an hour. Three times a day.

Do not use a or an before nouns in the plural. I dont like dogs. Weve got problems.

Do not use a or an before nouns you cannot count (uncountable nouns), like water, bread, information, sand, etc.: I like bread, I dont like water. El artculo indeterminado es una palabra que ponemos delante de una cosa o persona (sustantivo) para referirnos a ella de forma genrica, es decir, sin espeficar de qu cosa o persona se trata. En espaol el artculo indeterminado es un / una. En ingls, el artculo indeterminado (indefinite article) es a / an. (Cuando va delante de sustantivos que empiezan con un sonido voclico entonces aadimos una n y se convierte en an. Lo que importa es si la primera letra suena o no como vocal, no si empieza o no por vocal. Por ejemplo, la palabra university empieza por vocal pero la u suena [yuniversiti], es decir, como consonante, por ello se dice: a university y no an university. Igual ocurre con European [yuroupian], se dice a European (un europeo) . En los casos de hotel y historic se puede poner alternativamente a si se pronuncia la h como echando vaho sobre un cristal (opcin ms frecuente) o an si la h no se pronuncia. Al igual que en espaol, la palabra a / an significa uno, por tanto, slo se puede utilizar en singular. Para el plural utilizamos some / any. I would like to have an umbrella. Me gustara tener un paraguas.

Hay varios casos en que en ingls se usa el artculo indeterminado (indefinite article) y en espaol no. En la siguiente tabla vemos las diferencias. 2

Se usa en ingls a / an. En espaol NO se usa un / una 1. Profesiones: She is a doctor. Ella es mdico (no un mdico) Peter is a lawyer. Pedro es abogado. (no un abogado)

2. Con nmeros: A hundred. Cien (no un cien) A thousand. Mil (no un mil)

3. Con valor distributivo Twice a month. Dos veces al mes (no dos veces a un mes) Once a year. Una vez al ao (no una vez a un ao).

4. Con What! (como exclamacin) What a nice day! Qu da tan bonito! What a big problem! Qu problema tan grande!

Pronunciacin: La pronunciacin de a se representa fonticamente [ ] y suena entre una a y una e. An sera [ n ]. No obstante, tanto a como an se pronuncian [ei] [ein] respectivamente cuando se quiere dar nfasis y se dice lentamente. A man came to me.

THE, THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. (THE, ARTCULO DETERMINADO)


Put the before nouns. The word the is the same with all nouns, singular and plural, masculine and feminine. Singular the girl the man the house Plural the girls the men the houses

I know the girl hes with, but I dont know the men.

You can also put the before uncountable nouns. The water is cold. The information was useful. 3

Use the when you talk about special or specific people or things. Shut the door! Tell the driver to stop here.

In these examples, the speaker is talking about a specific or particular door, driver, etc. The person he is talking to knows which door, driver, etc. he is talking about. In the example Shut the door! both know which door the speaker means. Use the the second time you talk about a person or thing. I saw a man with a dog. The man was carrying the dog.

You say I saw a man with a dog because you talk about them for the first time. But you say The man was carrying the dog because you talk about them for the second time. I had a hamburger and an apple for lunch. The apple was all right, but the hamburger was awful.

Use the before words like first, second, tenth, twentieth (ordinal numbers). I live on the second floor.

Use the before words like tallest, oldest, most important, most expensive (superlatives). It is the highest building in the city. This is the most important day in my life.

Use the before musical instruments. I can play the piano. I dont like the violin.

Use the before rives (the Amazon), groups of islands (the West Indies), seas or oceans (the Mediterranean, the Atlantic), chains of mountains (the Alps), and with some countries (the USA, the United Kingdom). Do not use the with meals (breakfast, lunch, etc.): After breakfast I went to school.

Do not use the with days or months (Monday, March, etc.): Ill see you on Saturday.

Do not use the with colours (blue, red, yellow,etc.): Blue is my favourite colour.

Do not use the with names: Peters eighteen. Mrs Houses was late.

Do not use the with sports (football, tennis, etc.): I hate football.

Do not use the with countries and continents (Italy, Spain, Europe, etc.): France is bigger than Greece.

Do not use the with streets and roads: Oxford Street. Bayswater Road. Lexington Avenue.

Do not use the with holidays (Christmas, Easter, etc.): When is Easter this year?

Do not use the with nouns in the plural, if you mean all, and not just some or a special group: Giraffes have long necks.

This means giraffes in general. If you want to talk about a special group or giraffes, use the: The giraffes are over there!

We are only talking about the giraffes in this zoo. Potatoes make you fat. Cigarettes are bad for you.

Do not use the with uncountable nouns when the meaning is general, not specific. Bread is still quite cheap. (general) The bread in our local shop is still quite cheap. (specific)

Do not use the with the words school, church, college, university, prison, hospital, if you talk about what happens there, not about the buildings. Look at this example: What did you learn at school today?

Here the speaker is asking about what happens at school, not about the building. Now look at this example: The school is near the church.

Here the speaker is talking about the buildings, not about what happens in them. The es un artculo determinado. Un artculo deterninado es una palabra que antecede a un sustantivo (cosa) para determinarla, es decir, para especificar que es sa cosa y no otra. En espaol tenemos varios artculos determinados dependiendo de si hablamos en plural, o singular o si el sustantivo es femenino, o masculino l, la, los, las. 5

Afortunadamente en ingls solo hay uno: The. El opuesto de the es el artculo indeterminado a / an que en espaol corresponde a un / uno / una. El uso de the en ingls, no siempre coincide con el uso de los artculos determinados en espaol. Dado que nuestro cerebro (aunque lo queramos evitar) se dedica a traducir desde el espaol al ingls es muy frecuente que pongamos un the cuando no es necesario y viceversa. I like dogs. Me gustan los perros Not I like the dogs.

Cuando hablamos de clases en general (categoras, especies, grupos, cosas) NO ponemos the delante del sustantivo. Es exactamente lo contrario en espaol (cuando hablamos de categoras, especies, etc. s ponemos el artculo determinado delante del sustantivo). Children like to play. A los nios les gusta jugar. Cats are very flexible animals. Los gatos son animales muy flexibles. People are working more. La gente trabaja ms. Laptops are not so expensive anymore. Los ordenadores porttiles ya no son tan caros.

Cuando hablamos de periodos de tiempo como el fin de semana, el ao, mes, o semana pasada, etc. NO usamos the. Es exactamente lo contrario en espaol (s ponemos el artculo determinado delante del sustantivo). Last weekend I went shopping. El fin de semana pasado sali de compras She didn't study last year. Ella no estudi el ao pasado I went to Austria last winter. Fui a Austria el invierno pasado

S utilizamos the delante de un objeto, persona, grupo, etc. que queremos diferenciar de otros. En este caso el uso del artculo determinado es similar en espaol. The man who called me. El hombre que me llam. The money you gave me . El dinero que me diste. Get in the car. Sbete al coche.

S utilizamos the delante de objetos, personas, grupos, eventos, etc. que son las nicos que existen. En este caso el uso del artculo determinado es similar en espaol. The sun rises everyday. El sol sale todos los das.

Con las estaciones del ao se puede utilizar opcionalmente the In (the) winter, In (the) > summer, In (the) fall (Amer.) No obstante, cuando nos referimos a una estacin del ao en particular es necesario usar the. I went to Rome, in the summer, last year. Fui a Roma el verano pasado.

Nota sobre la pronunciacin de the. La th tiene dos sonidos en ingls. Uno de estos sonidos es una [d] como en espaol pero metiendo la lengua entre los dientes ( sin mordrsela !!!). Es as como suena la th de la palabra the. The tiene dos sonidos: o Si va delante de consonante o sonido de consonante es [d] The man [de man]. The university [deyuniversiti]. Aunque university empieza por vocal tiene sonido de consonante. [yu].

o Si va delante de vocal o sonido voclico es [di]. The apple. [di apol] The hour [di ager]. Aunque hour comienza por una consonante, tiene sonido voclico.

A veces cuando se quiere poner nfasis en una palabra the se pronuncia di aunque sea delante de una consonante.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS (PRONOMBRES PERSONALES) AND PRONOUNS (Y PRONOMBRES)


Qu es un pronombre? Un pronombre (pronoun) es aquella palabra que sustituye al nombre (o palabra que hace referencia al nombre) de una persona o cosa.

Por ejemplo, He is my friend si posteriormente digo que he es Pepe y descubro que he estaba sustituyendo a Pepe.
I Yo You ... T, usted He .. l She Ella It . l / ella (para designar cosas) o "lo" / "la" You Vosotros / vosotras We ..Nosotros / nosotras They .. Ellos

Pronouns (pronombres) Subject (sujeto )


I (Yo) You (T) He (l) She (Ella) It (Ello) We (Nosotros) You (Vosotros) They (Ellos/as)

Object (objeto)
Me (Me / a mi) You (Te / a ti) Him (Le / a l) Her (Le / a ella) It (Le, a ello) Us (Nos / a nosotros/as) You (os /les/ a vosotros) Them (Les / a ellos/as)

Possessive adjective adjetivo posesivo (*)


My (mi / mis) Your (tu / tus) His (su / sus - de l) Her (su / sus - de ella) Its (Su de cosa) Our (Nuestro /a/s) Your (Vuestros/a/s/, suyo/a/s/) Their (Su / s de ellos/as)

Possessive pronoun pronombre posesivo (**)


Mine (mio / mia / mios) Yours (tuyo / tuya / tuyos) His (suyo /suya / suyos - de l) Hers (Suyo /suya /suyos - de ella) Its (Suyo) Ours (Nuestro/a/s/) Yours (Vuestros/a/s/, suyo/a/s/) Theirs (Suyo/a/s/ de ellos/as)

(*) Possessive Adjective: En ingls se suelen llamar determiners y no son considerados adjetivos aunque sean llamados as en libros de gramtica. Lo importante a recordar es que van delante de los sustantivos. (**) Possessive Pronouns: Sustituyen al sustantivo. Observacin: Si te has fijado bien, habrs observado que existe una importante diferencia entre los adjetivos y los pronombres posesivos de ambos idiomas. Cul es? En espaol deben concordar con el gnero (masculino/femenino) y nmero (singular/plural) de la cosa poseda. Por ejemplo: Mis zapatos (no mi zapatos). En ingls en cambio no es necesaria dicha concordancia. En ingls los adjetivos posesivos y los pronombres posesivos deben concordar con el poseedor. Por ejemplo: My shoes o My shoe. Da igual si digo zapato o zapatos, utilizo my en ambos casos.

A) Subject (sujeto):

Lugar: El sujeto suele ir al principio de la oracin afirmativa (en ingls y en espaol igual). Funcin: El sujeto es la persona que realiza la accin. Por ejemplo: He works in a company. l trabaja en una empresa. He (l) en el ejemplo hace de sujeto, es la persona que realiza la accin (trabaja). Lugar: El objeto suele ir inmediatamente despus del verbo en las oraciones afirmativas. Funcin: Es la persona sobre la que recae la accin del sujeto. Por ejemplo: She said to me. Ella me dijo a mi. Si yo pregunto: A quin se lo dijo? La respuesta es to me (a mi) Si te fijas la accin de decir (say) recae sobre (mi), en ingls me. Por tanto, el pronombre me en este caso hace de objeto. Adems, vemos que para encontrar el objeto debemos preguntarnos sobre quin recae la accin.

B) Object (objeto):

Otros pronombres de este tipo son , por ejemplo, I told you". Te dije te cont(a ti). Nota como you no es sujeto (el sujeto es I) y you hace de objeto. En espaol con te queda claro a quin le dije algo, pero si queremos dar ms nfasis decimos a ti.

C) Possessive adjective (adjetivo posesivo):

Lugar: El adjetivo posesivo va siempre delante del sustantivo. Funcin: Es la palabra que indica de quin es el objeto. Por ejemplo: Your car is green. Tu coche es verde. La palabra Your (tu sin acento en espaol) me indica que el coche verde es tuyo.

Lugar: El pronombre posesivo va al final de la oracin. Funcin: Es la palabra que indica de quin es la cosa poseda cuando no hay un adjetivo posesivo. Por ejemplo: Those flowers are mine. sas flores son mas. Si estoy mirando unas flores que estn sobre una mesa lejana y nadie ha dicho de quin son, puedo preguntar de quin son las flores. El receptor me puede contestar: They are mine (son mas), o They are hers(son de ella) o They are theirs (son de ellos), etc. Si te fijas la palabra mineen el ejemplo est haciendo de objeto. Mine en este caso no es sujeto, pues el sujeto es: those flowers. Tampoco mine es adjetivo posesivo porque no est delante de una sustantivo, por tanto, slo puede ser objeto. That isn't yours. so no es tuyo Those things were ours. [dous zings geraurs]. sas cosas eran nuestras. 8

D) Possessive pronoun (pronombre posesivo):

The apples are yours. [diapels ariurs]. Las manzanas son vuestras (suyas en el caso de ustedes). Mi coche est al lado del tuyo. My car is next to yours. so no es suyo. (de ella) That isn't hers. La casa es de ellos. The house is theirs. No es el nuestro. It isn't ours. Tres de nuestros amigos murieron en el accidente.. Three of our friends died in the accident. Es vuestro. It's yours. Ella es una hermana suya (de l). She's a sister of his.

COUNTABLE UNCOUNTABLE (CONTABLES E INCONTABLES)


Countable noun is a noun that you can count, that is, a noun which has a plural form. Examples: child / children, country / countries, picture / pictures, etc. Decimos que un sustantivo (cosa) es contable cuando lo podemos contar. Por ejemplo: a car un coche, a house una casa, an earring un pendiente. Uncountable noun is a noun you cannot count, that is, which does not have a plural form. Examples: butter, music, money, etc. Cuando no podemos contar una cosa, decimos que es un sustantivo incontable. Por ejemplo: water, agua, money, dinero, butter, mantequilla, etc. La idea es que son objetos que constituyen una masa que no se puede separar, porque son materiales de una sola pieza o lquidos. En general, no admiten el plural (hay algunas excepciones), ni tampoco numeracin. Por ejemplo no podemos decir; milks (leches), rices (arroces), one money, two waters; un dinero, dos aguas. Observacin: Muchos de estos sustantivos incontables se pueden transformar en contables con la ayuda de otro sustantivo. Veamos ejemplos: o water (incontable) > A glass of water. Un vaso de agua. glass (contable). o money (Incontable) > How many coins do you have?Cuntas monedas tienes? coin (contable). Uno de los problemas que presentan los sustantivos contables e incontables es saber cundo se acompaan de much / many / few / little, etc.. many muchos/as How many days are you staying ? Cuntos das te quedas? (days contable).

much mucho/a How much money do you want? Cunto dinero quieres? (money incontable).

few pocos/as He is a man of few words. l es un hombre de pocas palabras. (words contable).

little poco/a They have little knowledge. Ellos/as tienen pocos conocimientos. (knowledge incontable).

a lot of, lots of un montn de, mucho/s/as He has a lot of money. l tiene mucho dinero. (money incontable). They have lots of cars. Ellos/as tienen muchos coches.(cars contable).

Some / any
Use some before nouns in the plural, like this: some students, some banks. Some does not change with masculine and feminine nouns: some boys, some girls. Look at these two sentences. (1) Banks are open on Saturdays. (2) Some banks are open on Saturdays.

In sentence (1), you mean all banks. In sentence (2), you mean a number of banks, but it is not important how many. Here is another example: (3) London buses are red. (4) Some London buses are red.

In sentence (3), you mean all London buses. In sentence (4), you mean a few, or a certain number, but not all, London buses are red. Use some with uncountable nouns, like this: some water, some bread, some petrol, some work, some sand, etc. In these examples some means a certain quantity, but it is not important exactly how much. Use any, not some, after not (in negative sentences). There werent any taxis. (this means : there were no taxis) He didnt give me any money. (this means: he gave me no money)

Use any, not some, in questions like these: Do you want to ask any questions? Dis you take any photos? Have we got any money?

Any does not change. It is the same with all nouns (masculine and feminine, countable and uncountable). You cant leave out the noun after some or any if you have talked about it before. Have you got any money? No, I havent got any. I needed some new shoes, so I bought some.

If the noun is countable and singular use one. I needed a new shirt, so I bought one. 10

Positive sentences Singular Plural Theres some sugar in this coffee There are some flowers in the garden

Negative sentences There isnt any sugar in this coffee There arent any flowers in the garden

Questions Is there any sugar in this coffee? Are there any flowers in the garden?

You can use some in questions when you make offers, like this: Do you need some help? Would you like some coffee?

You also use some when you ask for something politely, like this: Would you post some letters for me, please? Can you lend me some money, please? Could you give me some information, please? Can I have some more potatoes, please?

En la siguiente tabla relaciono los sustantivos incontables ms comunes: accomodation alojamiento baggage equipaje butter mantequilla chess ajedrez damage dao furniture mueble(s) information informacin luck suerte money dinero permission permiso progress progreso research investigacin scenery scenario thunder trueno travel viaje work trabajo advice consejo bread pan chaos caos equipment equipo grass hierba, csped homework deberes knowledge conocimiento luggage equipaje news noticias poetry poesa publicity publicidad rubbish basura spaghetti espagueti traffic trfico weather tiempo

WORD FORMATION (FORMACIN DE PALABRAS)


Word families. (Familias de palabras)
They are groups of words which share the same root. We form new words by adding a prefix or a suffix. Some of the most productive ones are ence, tion, and ment. Son grupos de palabras que comparten la misma raz a la que se le han aadido prefijos y sufijos para formar distintos tipos de palabras. Los sufijos ence, tion, y ment son tres de los ms productivos para formar nombres a partir de verbos. 11

verb + suffix

noun

differ difference insist insistence interfere interference connect connection distort distortion organize organisation amaze amazement excite excitement require requirement His insistance made me nervous. Su insistencia me puso nervioso. Do you have the address of the organisation? Tienes la direccin de la organizacin? He couldn't hide his amazement when he saw what everyone had done. No pudo ocultar su asombro cuando vio lo que todos haban hecho.

Otros sufijos muy frecuentes para formar nombres son ity, th, ness, er, or, ship, y sion, que se pueden aadir a un adjetivo, a un verbo o a un sustantivo. adjective / verb / noun + suffix noun

minor minority strong strength light lightness employ employer govern governor partner partnership divide division noun + suffix adjectives

En otras lecciones has visto la formacin de adjetivos con los sufijos ed, ing, able, ous, ful, less, al, ive, ary y ory. Otros sufijos que tambin permiten formar adjetivos a partir de nombres son y y ent. health healthy independence independent prefix + adjective opposite adjective

Los prefijos il, im, in, un, ir, anti, y dis siempre se anteponen a determinados adjetivos para formar sus opuestos. correct incorrect satisfied dissatisfied

El prefijo il, siempre se pone delante de un adjetivo que empiece por I: illiterate (analfabeto), illogical, illegal, mientras que im, va con los adjetivos que comienzan por m o p: immortal, immoral, impatient, impossible. Los prefijos in-, un e ir se anteponen a los adjetivos que empiezan por n o r, con lo cual estas letras aparecen dos veces: innumerable, unnecessary, irrelevant, irresponsible, irreversible. En los dems casos, in, un, ir, anti, y dis se anteponen a los adjetivos sin que tampoco haya ningn cambio: inconvenient, insignificant, insincere, uninteresting, unsure, irregular, disorganised, dishonest, antisocial Fjate en el adjetivo satisfied, que forma su opuesto aadiendo el prefijo dis, no in: dissatisfied. En algn caso es posible aadir dos prefijos diferentes a un mismo adjetivo, aportando un matiz distinto a su significado. interested disinterested que no espera nada a cambio, ayuda desinteresada uninterested no estar interesado en algo 12

ADJECTIVES (ADJETIVOS)
Adjectives describe nouns. They say what something is like. They have the same form in the singular and plural. Los adjetivos describen nombres y dicen cmo es algo. Tienen la misma forma en singular y plural.

Word order
There are two places where we can use and adjective: before a noun (a quiet restaurant) and after a linking verb (feeling romantic). Podemos usar el adjetivo delante de un nombre o detrs de un verbo. Marys got a new car. It was a dark night. This is good coffee Marys car is new It was getting dark. This coffee tastes good.

Some linking verbs are: appear, be, become, feel, get, look, seem, smeel, stay, taste. We can use two or more adjectives together. Its a quiet little restaurant. Mike was wearing a dirty old coat.

We can put a word like very or quite before an adjective. It was a very dark night. Peter was feeling quite romantic.

Very and quite are adverbs of degree.

Adjective used in one position only.


Most adjectives can be used in both positions before a noun or after a linking verbs. But a few adjectives can go in one position but not in the other. La mayora de los adjetivos pueden ser usado en ambas posiciones delante del nombre o despus de un verbo, pero unos pocos adjetivos pueden ir slo en una posicin y no en la otra. Here are some examples of adjectives which can only go before a noun: the main road, the only problem, an indoor game, the former footballer, Some more examples are: chief (= main), elder (= older), eldest (= oldest), inner, outdoor, outer, principal (= main), upper. Here are some examples some adjectives which can only go after a linking verb: The baby is asleep. Im really pleased to see you. Annes two brothers are very alike. Mary looked ill.

Some more examples are: afraid, alone, ashamed, awake, alive, content (= happy), fine (= in good health), glad, unwell, well.

The order of adjectives.


We can use more than one adjective before a noun. There is usually one correct order. We order adjectives according to their meaning. This is the normal order.

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group 1. Opinin (how good?) 2. Size (how big?) 3. Most other qualities

examples wonderful, nice, great, awful, terrible Adjectives that say how good large, small, long, short, tall and how big come first. quiet, famous, important, soft, wet, difficult, fast, angry, warm Most adjectives come next if they do not belong to another group.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Age ( how old?) Colour Origin (where from?) Materials (made of?) Type (what kind?) Purpose (what for?)

new, old red, blue, green, black American, Brithish, Spanish stone, plastic, steel, paper electric, political, road transport a bread knife, a bath towel

Some of these are nouns.

Here are some examples. a small green insect (size, colur); Japanese industrial designers (origin, type); a wonderful new face cream (opinion, age, purpose); awful plastic bottle (opinion, material); a long boring train journey (size, quality, type); a beautiful wooden picture frame (opinon, material, purpose). We sometimes put commas between adjectives in groups 1-3 a horrible, ugly building a busy, lively, exciting city

The old, the rich, etc...


There are some adjectives that we can use with the to talk about groups of people in society, e.g. the disabled, the blind. Here are some more examples. What can we do to feed the hungry? Qu podemos hacer para alimentar a los hambrientos? It is our duty to care for the sick. Es nuestra obligacin cuidar de los enfermos.

What adjectives can we use?


We can use some adjectives and other words in a phrase with the.

- To do with social or economic positions:

The disadvantaged, the homeless, the hungry, the poor, the privileged, the rich, the starving, the strong, the underprivileged, the unemployed, the weak The blind, the deaf, the dead, the disabled, the handicapped, the living, the sick The ederly, the middle-aged, the old, the over-sixties, the under-fives, the young

- To do with physical condition or health: - To do with age:

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We can sometimes use an adverb before the adjective. The very poor are left without hope. Los muy pobres se quedan sin esperanza. The severely disabled need full-time care. Los seriamente discapacitados necesitan cuidados a tiempo completo.

There are some adjective in this structure that normally have an adverb. The less fortunate cannot afford to go on holiday. Los menos afortunados no pueden permitirse ir de vacaciones. Should the mentally ill be allowed to live in the community? Debera permitirse a los enfermos mentales vivir en la comunidad?

The young or the young people?


The young means young people in general. The young have their lives in front of them. Los jvenes tienen su vida por delante.

When we mean a specific persono r a specific group of people, then we use man, woman, people, etc. There was a young man standing on the corner. Haba un hombre joven de pie en la esquina. I know the young woman in reception. Conozco a la chica joven de recepcin.

ADJETIVOS ACABADOS EN -ED/-ING


Look at these examples: The book is full of information. Its very interesting.

The word interesting tells us what the book does to somebody-it interests somebody. A book can be interesting, boring, exciting or amusing, for example. Mike is very interested in UFOs.

The word interested tells us how Mike feels. A person can feel interested, bored, excited or amused, for example. They are formed by adding ed or ing to the base form of some verbs. Son los que se forman aadiendo ed o ing a la forma base de algunos verbos Amaze Annoy Bore Exhaust Frighten Frustrate Interest Amazed (sorprendido) Annoyed ([estar] molesto) Bored ([estar] aburrido) Exhausted (agotado) Frightened (aterrado) Frustrated (frustrado) Interested (interesado) Amazing (sorprendente) Annoying ([ser] molesto) Boring ([ser] aburrido) Exhausting (agotador) Frightening (aterrador) Frustrating (frustrante) Interesting (interesante) 15

Los terminados en ed describen cmo se siente uno/a, mientras que los que acaban en ing describen lo que hace que uno se sienta asi. He felt frustrated when he failed the exam. Se sinti frustrado al suspender el examen. Chayanne's energy on stage is surprising. La energa de Chayanne en el escenario es sorprendente.

Sufijos para formar adjetivos


The suffixes are endings added to the root of the words in order to form new ones. Los sufijos son terminaciones que aadimos a la raz de una palabra para formar otras nuevas. Four of the most useful are able, ous, ful, and -less. They can be added to nouns and verbs to form adjectives. Cuatro de los ms tiles que se unen a nombres y verbos para formar adjetivos son able, ous, ful, y -less. Accept Remark Luxury Danger Beauty Success Penny Use Acceptable (aceptable) Remarkable (notable, importante) Luxurious (lujoso) Dangerous (peligroso) Beautiful (bonito) Successful (con xito) Penniless (sin un cntimo) Useless (intil)

Sometimes we can add different suffises to the same noun in order to form different words. Con algunos sustantivos se pueden usar varios sufijos para formar distintas palabras. Care careful (cuidadoso) y careless (descuidado)

Adjective or adverb? (Adjetivo o adverbio?)


An adjective describes a noun. They say what something is like. e.g. a quiet voice, slow start, expensive clothes, etc An adverb describes a verb. They say how, where, when, how often someone does something. e.g. he spoke quietly, she dresses expensively, they started the race slowly, etc. We can use adverbs in other ways. An adverb like really or very can be combined with an adjective or another adverb. It was really hot in the sun. Haca muchsimo calor al sol. He checked his work very carefully. El comprob su trabajo muy cuidadosamente.

An adverb like fortunately or perhaps says something about the whole situation. Perhaps Mary is working late. Quizs Fortunately nothing was stolen. Afortunadamente 16

The ly ending
We form many adverb from and adjective + -ly. For example, politely, quickly, safely. But there are some special spelling rules: 1. We do not leave out e, e.g. nice Exceptions are true truly, whole 2. y ily after a consonant, e.g. easy Also angrily, happily, heavily, etc. nicely wholly easily, lucky luckily

3. le ly, e.g. possible possibly Also comfortably, probably, reasonably, sensibly, terribly, etc. 4. ic ically, e.g. dramatic dramatically Also automatically, scientifically, etc. (exception: publicly)

Looked nice and looked carefully


Compare these two structures. LINKING VERB + ADJECTIVE Tom was hungry. The children seemed happy. My soup has got cold.

An adjective can come after a linking verb such as be. ACTION VERB + ADVERB Paul ate hungrily. The children played happily. The man stared coldy at us.

We use an adverb when the verb means that something happens. Some verbs like look, taste and appear can be either linking verbs or action verbs. linking verb + adjective Mike looked angry. The medicine tasted awful. The man appeared drunk. action verb + adverb He looked carefully at the signature. Emma tasted the drink nervously. A waiter appeared suddenly.

Friendly, likely, etc.


The ending ly is the normal adverb ending. But a few adjective also end in ly. It was a lively party. We had a lovely time. Mary was very friendly. Some more examples are: elderly, likely, lonely, silly, ugly. The words are adjectives, not adverbs. And we cannot add ly. There is no such word as friendlily. But we can say in a friendly way / manner. She spoke to us in a friendly way. 17

Hard, hardly, near, nearly, etc.


There are some pairs of adverbs like hard and hardly which have different meanings. Here are some examples: I tried hard, but I didnt succeed. Ive got hardly any money left. (hardly any = very little, almost none) I found a phone box quite near. I nearly fell asleep in the meeting. (nearly = almost) Some more examples: lately (= in the last few days / weeks), highly (= very), free (= without paying), freely (= uncontrolled).

Good and well


Good is an adjective, and well is its adverb. The opposites are bad an badly. adjective Peter is a good violinist. Our test results were good. I had a bad night. adverb He plays the violin very well. We all did well in the test. I slept badly last night.

Well can also be an adjective meaning in good health, the opposite of ill.

Compound adjectives (Adjetivos compuestos)


Son dos palabras unidas, con un guin o sin l, y que modifican a un nombre. Algunas combinaciones son: Adjetivo o nmero + sustantivo + ed righthanded diestro, twoedged de doble filo Adjetivo o adverbio + participio de pasado Lowpaid mal pagado, wellknown famoso Adjetivo, adverbio o sustantivo + participio de presente goodlooking guapo, neverending interminable, recordbreaking que bate records Adjetivo + sustantivo lastminute de ltima hora Sustantivo + adjetivo airconditioned con aire acondicionado, suntanned bronceado Salieri was a wellknown rival of Mozart. Salieri fue un rival de Mozart muy conocido. There was a lastminute problem. Hubo un problema de ltima hora.

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Other adjective endings. (Otros sufijos para formar adjetivos)


Como ya has visto anteriormente, se pueden formar adjetivos aadiendo sufijos a sustantivos y verbos. Los sufijos al, ive, ary, y ory son algunos de los utilizados en la formacin de adjetivos. education (n) educational educativo; person (n) personal personal; create (v) creative creativo; innovate (v) innovative innovador; complement (v) complementary complementario; revolution (n) revolutionary revolucionario; obligation (n) obligatory obligatorio; satisfy (v) satisfactory satisfactorio Algunos adjetivos se pueden formar a partir de otro adjetivo al que le aaden un sufijo. prime (adj.) primary primario; second (adj.) secondary secundario,

Adjective + infinitive. (Adjetivos seguidos por un infinitivo)


Muchos adjetivos en posicin predicativa van seguidos de infinitivo para expresar sentimientos, actitudes o reacciones ante algo. He's happy to meet new people. Se alegra de conocer gente nueva. I got ready to tell her the truth. Me prepar para decirle la verdad. Teenagers are delighted to chat on the internet. Los adolescentes estn encantados de chatear por internet.

Compound nouns. (Nombres compuestos)


We use two nouns together two form a new word or phrase. Son los formados al unir dos sustantivos para formar una palabra o frase nueva. En los nombres compuestos el primer sustantivo funciona como adjetivo del segundo. o o o o o o o o afterschool activities actividades extraescolares bedroom dormitorio boyfriend novio car park estacionamiento fastfood restaurant restaurante de comida rpida school uniform uniforme escolar sports class clase de educacin fsica toothbrush cepillo de dientes The attendance at afterschool activities has increased lately. Ha aumentado la asistencia a actividades extraescolares ltimamente. Young people love fastfood restaurants. A los jvenes les encantan los restaurantes de comida rpida.

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ADVERBS AND WORD ORDER (ADVERBIOS Y ORDEN DE PALABRAS)


There are three places in the sentences where an adverb can go. They are called front position (at the beginning of a sentence), mid position (in the middle of a sentence) and end position (at the end of a sentence). Los adverbios pueden ir en tres posiciones en una oracin: al principio de la oracin, en mitad de la oracin o al final de la oracin. front mid end away. hard.

Then the ship slowly sailed Outside it was obviously snowing

Mid position means close to the verb (junto al verbo). Here are some examples of adverbs in mid position. auxiliary The visitors Mary We You The pictures I She are has dont should have adverb just always often never definitely really probably auxiliary main verb leaving. liked go take stolen. hate left Peter. to the cinema. risks. homework. the bag on the bus.

been

The adverb comes after the first auxiliary, e.g. are, has, dont, . If there is no auxiliary, then the adverb comes before the main verb, e.g. hate, left. When the verb be is on its own, the adverb usually comes after it. The boss is usually in a bad temper. Youre certainly tired.

When there is stress on the main verb be or on the auxiliary, then the adverb usually comes before it. You certainly are a lot better today.

An adverb does not usually go between the verb and the direct object. We put it in end position, after the object. He ate his breakfast quickly. We played tennis yesterday.

But an adverb can go before a very long object. The police examined carefully the contents of the dead mans pockets.

Adverbs of manner.
They tell use how something happens, e.g. noisily, quickly. It usually goes in end position, but an adverb which ends in ly can sometimes go in mid position. We asked permission politely / We politely asked permission. 20

No longer and any longer / any more.


No longer meands that something is finised. It goes in mid position. You cant buy these cakes now. They no longer make them. I used to belong to the club, but Im no longer a member. No longer can be a little formal. In informal speech we use notany longer or notany more. They dont make these cakes any longer / any more. She doesnt live here any longer / any more.

Adverbs of degree, e.g. very, quite.


An adverb of degree makes the meaning weaker or stronger. Here are some more examples. small degree (weaker) a little late slightly complicated medium degree fairly unusual pretty good rather nice large degree (stronger) absolutely sure completely mad extremely cold really ill

An adverb of degree (e.g. very) goes before an adjective (e.g. cold) or and adverb (e.g. quickly). Its very cold today (adverb + adjective). The time passed quite quickly (adverb + adverb).

Before a comparative we can use a bit, a little, a lot, far, much, rather and slightly. Im feeling a lot better today. These new trains go much faster.

Some adverbs of degree can describe a verb. Thet usually go in mid position. My hand is really hurting. Laura quite enjoys cooking.

Some adverbs of degree go at the end of a sentence when they describe a verb. They are a bit, a little, a lot, awfully, much and terribly. Mark travels a lot. Ill open the window a little.

Absolutely, completely and totally can go in mid position or at the end. We lost our way completely. Im afraid I disagree totally.

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In a positive statement we use very much. In a negative statement we can use either very much or much. I like this town very much. I dont like this town much / very much.

Quite usually means fairly or a medium amount I feel quite hungry now. Repairing the machine is quite difficult.

Quite or rather? When we make a favourable comment, we usually say quite, not rather. In unfavourable comment, we usually say rather, but quite is possible. The book was rather boring / quite boring.

Rather in a favourable comment means to a surprising or unusual degree. Its rather warm for October. (it isnt usually so warm).

We can use rather with a comparative but not quite. The meal took rather longer than we expected.

With some adjectives, quite means completely or totally. The idea is quite absurd. (=totally absurd) What you said is quite wrong. (=completely wrong)

Quite means completely with these adjectives: absurd, alone, amazing, awful, brilliant, certain, dead, different, dreadful, extraordinary, false, hopeless, horrible, impossible, perfect, ridiculous, right, sure, true, useless, wrong. Im quite tired. (= fairly) Im quite exhausted. (= completely)

TOO / ENOUGH Too goes before an adjective or adverb. Siempre precede a un adjetivo o adverbio para indicar que la cualidad de stos es excesiva, ya que significa "demasiado". These shoes are too small for me. Estos zapatos son demasiado pequeos para m. The shelf was too high to reach. La estantera estaba demasiado alta para alcanzarla.

Enough goes after an adjective or adverb. Se coloca detrs del adjetivo o adverbio y expresa la idea de "suficientemente / bastante" Her skills are good enough for that job. Sus conocimientos son lo suficientemente buenos para ese trabajo. The policeman ran quickly enough to catch the robber. El polica corri lo suficientemente deprisa para coger al ladrn. 22

En negativa se pone not delante del adjetivo o adverbio y a continuacin enough, indicando que la cualidad de stos no es "suficiente / bastante". Esta estructura suele ser ms frecuente que en afirmativa. His coffee is not hot enough. Su caf no est bastante caliente.

Fijate en que cuando enough funciona como determinante y acompaa a un sustantivo, siempre se pone delante de l. I had enough reasons to be suspicious of him. Tena motivos suficientes para sospechar de l.

Too many, too much and enough go before a noun. He spends too much time working. She went to too many parties. Did you bring enough money?

We use many with a plural noun and much with an uncountable noun. Enough goes after an adjective: The coffee isnt strong enough. Enough goes before a noun: You didnt put enough coffee in. We leave out the noun if the meaning is clear without it. Just add a little water. Not too much. Will need fifteen cups. Have we got enough?

We can use a phrase with for after too or enough. These puzzles are too difficult for children. This coat isnt warm enough for winter.

We can also use a to-infinitive. It is too dangerous to walk home at night. Are you fit enough to run a marathon?

STATIVE VERBS
They means a state better than an action in progress, thats why they are commonly used in a present-tense verb and not in a continuous form. Indican un estado ms que una accin en proceso, y por eso casi siempre se usan en la forma simple y no en la continua. They refer to. Estn relacionados con: Likes, emotions and feelings. (Gustos, emociones y sentimientos.) like gustar, dislike desagradar, love encantar, hate odiar, prefer preferir, want querer, hope esperar / desear 23

Belief and opinion. (Pensamiento y opinion.) believe creer, forget olvidar, guess adivinar / suponer, know saber, remember recorder, think creer, understand entender Perception and sense verbs. (Percepcin y sentidos) feel sentir, hear oir, see ver, smell oler, sound sonar, taste saborear / saber a , touch tocar Price and measurement verbs. (Precios y medidas) cost costar, weigh pesar, measure medir. Possession. (Posesin) belong (to) pertenecer (a), have tener, own poseer Some verbs can mean both things (state and activity), so they can be used in Present Simple and Present Continuous. Algunos verbos indican las dos cosas (estado y actividad) y pueden usarse en la forma simple y en la continua. o think en presente simple expresa opinin y en presente continuo actividad mental en proceso. I think he knows the truth. Creo / opino que l sabe la verdad. She's thinking about talking to her teacher. Est pensando en hablar con su profesor.

o see en presente continuo se refiere a una accin futura fijada de antemano. He's seeing his boss tomorrow. Maana ver a su jefe.

THE GENITIVE (EL GENITIVO SAJN)


If we talk about something which a person has or owns, we put s (an apostrophe + s) at the end of the noun. Qu es el genitivo sajn? Es la forma que usamos en ingls para indicar que alguien es poseedor de algo. En espaol es bastante fcil ya que slo utilizamos de. Por ejemplo decimos: Ann's house. La casa de Ana.

If the noun is plural and ends in s, put the apostrophe after the s. The players shorts were a bit long. Las calzonas de los jugadores. The boys names were Peter and John. Los nombres de los nios. Its a girls school. un colegio de chicas.

If the noun is plural but does not end in s, for example irregular men, women, children, put the apostrophe before the s. There is a childrens swimming-pool. una piscina de nios. 24

The mens toilet is over there. El sevicio de los hombres. The womens tennis final is on Saturday. La final de tenis de mujeres.

If the noun is a thing, not a person, use of. They came to the end of the road. al final del camino. We climbed to the top of the mountain. la cima de la montaa. The windows of the house were broken. Las ventanas de la casa

Very often you can put two nouns together, like this: the kitchen table, a garden wall, a car engine, the toilet door, the city centre

S USES. Uso de 's.


Utilizamos 's para expresar la idea de pertenencia cuando el primer sustantivo es una persona, un pas o una organizacin y especialmente si puedes expresar la misma idea con have tener. My father's car. El coche de mi padre. My father has a car. Mi padre tiene un coche. John's black eyes. Los ojos negros de Juan. John has black eyes. Juan tiene los ojos negros.

Nota: Es este caso con 's estamos describiendo una caracterstica fsica de una persona (John), un animal (A bird's feather. La pluma de un pjaro), o un pas (Spain's mineral reserves. Las reservas minerales de Espaa). Utilizamos 's cuando hay dos sustantivos y el primer sustantivo puede convertirse en el sujeto de otro verbo. The government's budget proposal. El proyecto de presupuesto del gobierno. The government made a budget proposal. El gobierno hizo un proyecto de presupuesto.

Nota: Fjate como he puesto the government como sujeto y luego he aadido un verbo made. A veces es posible utilizar tanto 's como of. The importance of the idea. The idea's importance. La importancia de la idea. The history of Spain. Spain's history. La historia de Espaa. The arrival of the plane. The plane's arrival. La llegada del avin.

Cuando hablamos de lugares podemos omitir el uso de of o 's siendo frecuente la estructura sustantivo + sustantivo. London Bridge. El puente de Londres. Amsterdam Airport. El aeropuerto de Amsterdam.

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Verbo to be (Ser o Estar)


Affirmative Long form I am You are He is She is It is We are You are They are Short form Im Youre Hes Shes Its Were Youre Theyre Negative Long form I am not You are not He is not She is not It is not We are not You are not They are not Short form Im not You arent He isnt She isnt It isnt We arent You arent They arent Interrogative Am I? Are you? Is he? Is she? Is it? Are we? Are you? Are they?

The verb Be has three different forms in the present: am, are and is. Use short forms when you speak. You can also use short forms when you write letters to a friend. It has two different meanings in spanish: ser o estar.

Uses:
Use the verb be when you talk about: o Age. Edad: How old are you? Cuntos aos tienes? Im 18 / eighteen years old. Tengo 18 / dieciocho aos. o Temperature. Temperatura: It is hot today. Hace calor hoy. Are you cold? Tienes fro? o Height. Altura: How tall is she? Qu altura tiene ella? She is 1 metre 68. Mide 1 metro 68. o Weight. Peso: How heavy are you? Cunto pesas? Im 73 kilos. Peso 73 kilos o Size. Tamao: My flat is quite big. Its 90 square metres. Mi piso es bastante grande. Mide 90 metros cuadrados. o Distance. Distancia: Its 100 kilometres to London. Hay 100 kilmetros hasta Londres. o Price. Precio: How much is it? Cunto vale? Its two pounds. Vale 2 libras. o Time. Hora: Whats the time? / What time is it? Qu hora es? Its two oclock. Son las 2 en punto. Its 21st July today. Es 21 de Julio hoy o Hunger / Thirst: Hambre / sed: Are you hungry? Tienes hambre? No, Im not but Im thirsty. No, pero tengo sed.

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There are three types of sentences: positive, negative and questions. Hay 3 tipos de oracin: positivo, negativo y pregunta. Positivo: Sujeto + verbo + predicado I am a student. Soy estudiante.

Negativo: Sujeto + verbo + not + predicado I am not a student. No soy estudiante.

Pregunta: Verbo + sujeto + predicado? Am I a student? Soy un estudiante?

Con el verbo to be nunca se utiliza el verbo auxiliar do para negar o preguntar. Infinitive: to be ser / estar Participle: been sido / estado Gerund: being siendo / estando

Cmo se niega con el verbo to be?


Se niega poniendo not despus del verbo. She is not good. Ella no es buena.

Cmo se pregunta con el verbo to be?


Si hay interrogativo (What, Where, Why, When, Who, Which, How) primero ponemos el interrrogativo. Si no hay interrogativo primero el verbo conjugado, despus el sujeto y al final el objeto (predicado). Why are you sad?. Por qu ests triste? Were you here yesterday? Estuviste t aqu ayer? Are you angry? Ests enfadado? She is not being sincere. No est siendo sincera. Where were you yesterday? Dnde estuviste ayer? Who is it? Quin es? Nota: Cuando no sabemos si es he, she, etc. ponemos it She is guilty. Ella es culpable. He was here yesterday. Ayer (l) estuvo aqu. They were eating. Ellos estaban comiendo.

Short answers.
In English we can not answer yes or no alone. We must add the positive or negative forms of the verbs. En Ingls no podemos responder solo s o no. Debemos aadir la forma positiva o negativa de los verbos. Am I tall? Is he / she / it in the bedroom? Are we / you / they doctors? Yes, I am. Yes, he / she / it is. Yes, we / you / they are. No, Im not. No, he / she / it isnt. No. we / you / they arent. 27

Verbo "to be" en pasado .


The verb to be has two different forms in the past: was and were. El verbo to be en pasado se conjuga de la siguiente manera. I was Yo fui / era / estuve / estaba You were T fuiste / eras / estuviste / estabas He was l fue / era / estuvo / estaba She was Ella fue / era / estuvo / estaba It was l / ella /ello (para cosas) era / estaba You were vosotros / ustedes fuistis /erais /estuvisteis / estabis / fueron /eran / estuvieron / estaban We were nosotros/as fuimos / ramos / estuvimos / estbamos They were Ellos/as fueron / eran / estuvieron / estaban Positivo: Sujeto + verbo + predicado I was a student. Yo era estudiante.

Negativo: Sujeto + verbo + not + predicado You were not (weren't) here. No estabas aqu.

Pregunta: Verbo + sujeto + predicado? Was he my friend? Era (l) mi amigo?

Como veis son las mismas reglas que en el Present Simple. En Past Simple hay que acordarse, que salvo los pronombres you, we y they que van con were, los dems van con was. No obstante, aunque esta teora la sabis todos; lo que ocurre es que al hablar mucha gente confunde was con were y pone were donde hay que poner was y vicecersa. Tambin es frecuente que se utilice erronamente el verbo auxiliar did / do para preguntar o negar.

HAVE GOT / HAVE (TENER )


En ingls americano no se usa tan frecuentemente como en el ingls britnico la construccin: I have ('ve) got.Yo tengo. En ingls americano es ms frecuente escuchar: I have. Yo tengo. Nota: A continuacin de have / has got podemos poner cualquier sustantivo e incluso algn verbo; I've got a cold / an appointment / a map / to go, Remember! Recuerda! I have (I've) got y I have significan exactamente lo mismo: Yo tengo, t tienes , l tiene...etc. No confundir esta estructura con el Present Perfect, en este caso, es el presente del verbo tener.

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Have got (Tener) I have (I've) got You have (You've) got He has (he's) got She has (shes) got It has (It's) got You have (You've) got We have (We've) got They have (Theyve) got

Have (Tener) I have You have He has She has It has You have We have They have

Positivo: Sujeto + have ('ve) / has ('s) (got) + predicado. I have (I've) got a watch. Yo tengo un reloj. She has (She's) got to study. Ella tiene que estudiar. It has (It's) got to work. Tiene que funcionar. + have / has not + got + predicado.

Negativo: Sujeto

They haven't got a watch. Ellos / Ellas no tienen un reloj. She hasn't got time.. Ella no tiene tiempo.

Pregunta: Have / has + sujeto + got + predicado? Have you got a car?. Tienes coche? Has he got a house?. Tiene l una casa?

No confundir la contraccin de la tercera persona: She's / He's / It's got, con la contraccin del verbo to be, no es is sino has. La estructura have / has got slo se puede utilizar en el tiempo Present Simple. Para el pasado y otros tiempos verbales hay que utilizar necesariamente el verbo have (sin got). Usos especiales de have. Cuando have se utiliza como verbo tomar / desayunar / comer, etc. tampoco se puede utilizar got. Fjate que su significado nunca es el de tener o poseer en estas oraciones. He has breakfast at seven oclock. El desayuna a las siete. She has a shower at night. Ella se ducha por la noche. They have a toast for breakfast. Toman una tostada para desayunar. We have lunch at home. Nosotros comemos en casa.

HAVEN'T GOT - DON'T HAVE (NO TENER )


Remember! Recuerda.
We cannot use havent got / dont have with cold, hungry, thirsty, sleepy, jeaulous or age. Con fro hambre, sed, sueo, celos y la edad (aos) NO se utiliza el verbo tener (havent got o don't have), sino el verbo to be: 29

I'm cold Tengo fro. I'm hungry Tengo hambre. I'm thirsty Tengo sed. I'm sleepy Tengo sueo. I'm jeaulous Tengo celos. I'm 25 years old. Tengo 25 aos.

La construccin haven't / hasn't got no se utiliza normalmente con verbos en infinitivo. .She doesn't have to come. Not She hasn't got to come

Haven't / hasn't or got don't / doesn't have En ingls es muy frecuente reforzar las negaciones con any nada / ninguno/a. En espaol, en cambio, no es necesario. I haven't got (any) money. I don't have (any) money. No tengo dinero She hasn't got common sense. She doesn't have common sense. Ella no tiene sentido comn. They haven't got (any) sisters. They don't have (any) sisters. No tienen hermanas. They haven't got a clue. They don't have a clue. No tienen ni idea.

No se suele utilizar la estructura negativa havent / hasnt got con verbos en infinitivo, aunque hay algunas excepciones. I don't have to go. No tengo que ir They don't have to say it. No tienen que decirlo You don't have to come. T no tienes que venir. She hasn't got good intentions. She doesn't have good intentions. Ella no tiene buenas intenciones. It hasn't got power. It doesn't have power. No tiene potencia.

Para el pasado NO se puede utilizar haven't / hasn't got ya que slo sirve para el presente. Por tanto, slo podemos utilizar el auxiliar didn't para el pasado. I didn't have. No tuve. Not I hadn't got.

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PRESENT SIMPLE (PRESENTE SIMPLE)


Affirmative
I, you go He, she, it goes We, you, they go

Negative
I, you do not (don't) go He, she, it does not (doesn't) go We, you, they do not (don't) go

Interrogative
Do I, you go? Does he, she, it go? Do we, you, they go?

Uses:
Habitual actions: I have breakfast at 8 o'clock General truths: It never snows in the dessert Stative verbs: Does Jennifer like Chineses food? + Timetables (+ Con horarios y programas): My music class finishes at 10.00. Mi clase de msica acaba a las 10.

Adverbs of frequency / time expressions


Always, usually, generally, regularly, frequently, often, sometimes, rarely, seldom, never, once a month, everyday, in the evening, at 11 o'clock, on Saturdays, at night, how often? El " Simple Present Tense" en ingls se utiliza para hablar de actividades habituales y verdades generales o, particulares. Qu son actividades habituales? Son actividades que realizas peridicamente, es decir, todos los das, una vez por semana, a veces, frecuentemente, siempre, nunca, etc.. I walk every day. Yo camino todos los das. You get up very early on Mondays. T te levantas muy pronto los lunes. He always comes by car. l siempre viene en coche.

Qu son verdades generales? Son afirmaciones o, negaciones, de carcter universal. Water boils at a hundred degrees Celsius. El agua hierve a cien Celsius. The sun always rises. El sol siempre sale.

Qu son verdades particulares? Son afirmaciones o, negaciones, ciertas para una persona o un para grupo de personas. She lives in London. Ella vive en Londres. They learn everything. Ellos/as aprenden todo.

Positivo: Sujeto + Verbo en Presente ( * ) Tercera persona aade "s" o "es" 000 I wake up at seven o'clock. Yo me despierto a las 7 en punto. She studies. Ella estudia. It works! Funciona! 31

Negativo: Sujeto + do not (don't)/does not (doesnt)

+ verbo principal 000 infinitivo siempre. en

They don't work hard. Ellos no trabajan duro. She doesn't live here. Ella no vive aqu.

Pregunta: Do / Does + sujeto + verbo principal en infinitivo siempre ? Do you study? Estudias (t)? Does she live here? Vive (ella) aqu?

Remember! Recuerda!
o Para negar y preguntar en presente se utiliza el verbo auxiliar DO o DOES. o El verbo DO / DOES es un verbo auxiliar (no significa hacer) y, por tanto, NO debe utilizarse conjuntamente con el verbo to be. No se dice: Don't are., sino You aren't.. o Los adverbios de frecuencia often, never, usually, hardly ever, sometimes, etc van colocados entre el sujeto y el verbo, es decir, delante del verbo principal pero van detrs de los verbos to be y can She often reads books. Pero *He is often tired. *She can sometimes go out.

Spelling: the third person singular. (he / she / it)


Verbs ending in -ss, -sh, -ch, - x, - o -es I watch he watches I go he goes Verbs ending in consonant + y -ies I study he studies BUT verbs ending in a vowel (a,e,o,u) + y I buy he buys

ys

o We use Present Simple to speak about feelings and emotions. (Usamos el presente simple para hablar de sentimientos y emociones con verbos como like gustar, dislike desagradar, love encantar, enjoy disfrutar or hate odiar). * Recuerda que todo verbo detrs de estos tiene que ir en gerundio ing. She loves coke. She loves drinking coke. He dislikes sports. He dislikes studying. o Some verbs are usually used only in the Simple tenses. Algunos verbos normalmente se utilizan solo en los tiempos simples. believe creer, belong pertenecer, decide decidir, forget olvidar, hate odiar hear oir, know conocer, like gustar, love encantar, need necesitar, remember recordar, smell oler, see ver, think creer, understand entender, want querer, etc o The verb have is used only in the Simple tenses when it means possess. Othervise, it is used in the Continuous tenses as well. El verbo have se usa solo en los verbos simples cuando significa poseer. De otra manera, con otros significados se usa en los tiempos continuos tambin. I have got two cars at present. BUT She is having a bath now. 32

PRESENT CONTINUOUS (PRESENTE CONTINUO)


Affirmative I, am going He, she, it is going You, we, they are going Negative I am (I'm) not going He, she, it is not (isn't) going You, we, they are not (aren't) going Interrogative Am I going? Is he, she, it going? Are you, we, they going?

Uses:
An action in progress at the time of speaking. The mechanic is repairing the car now. A temporary action. He is travelling a lot this month. A definite plan for the future. I'm interviewing the actors tomorrow. + Monotonous and repetitive actions. +Para quejarse de acciones repetidas y montonas Why are you always yelling at me? Por qu ests siempre gritndome?

Time expressions:
Now, right now, at the moment, tonight, this year, at present tomorrow, next week, El presente continuo lo utilizamos cuando queremos hablar de acciones que estn ocurriendo "ahora" o, en un tiempo cercano a "ahora" o, que no han terminado. Positivo: Sujeto + verbo to be en presente + verbo principal acabado en "ing".

I am working. Estoy trabajando.


Negativo: Sujeto + verbo to be en presente + not + verbo principal acabado en "ing".

She is not working. Ella no est trabajando.


Pregunta: Verbo to be + sujeto + verbo principal acabado en "ing"?

Is she working? Est ella trabajando?


Problemas que presenta el Present Continuous: En teora es un tiempo muy sencillo de dominar. No obstante, dado que a veces en espaol utilizamos el "Presente" para hablar de algo que ocurre en el momento en que hablamos, en ingls cometemos el error de utilizar el "Presente" cuando deberamos utilizar el "Present Continuous". Por ejemplo, decimos: "She comes", cuando deberamos decir: "She's coming". (Ella viene). Es verdad que en ingls hay algunos verbos que no se conjugan en "Present Continuous", por ejemplo, "want" (querer), pero son pocos. Para hablar de algo que est ocurriendo en el mismo momento en el que hablas debes utilizar ingls el "present continuous", no el tiempo "simple presente tense". Por ejemplo: "It's raining now" (ahora llueve). No "it rains now".

El presente contnuo con valor de futuro

Se llama as porque anuncia acciones fijadas de antemano que ocurrirn en un futuro cercano. My parents are arriving tomorrow. Mis padres llegan/llegarn maana. 33

Indica un futuro ms cierto que be going to (ver futuro con be going to) ya que no slo expresa la intencin del hablante, sino lo que va a ocurrir con seguridad porque se ha fijado de antemano. Se suele usar con verbos de movimiento como go, come, leave, etc. Nicole is coming to watch the match at 7.00. Nicole vendr a ver el partido a las 7. Se distingue del presente continuo normal porque la expresin temporal que va en la frase indica un tiempo futuro y no presente: tomorrow, on Sunday, later... I'm meeting my friends later. Voy a ver / ver a mis amigos ms tarde.

Remember! Recuerda! Spelling: -ING


When verbs end in one stressed vowel between two consonants, we double the final consonant. Look at the spelling of these verbs: walk walking swim swimming sit sitting BUT wait waiting stop stopping open opening lie lying die dying etc write writing drive driving etc

PAST SIMPLE (PASADO SIMPLE)


Affirmative I, you worked He, she, it worked We, you, they worked Negative I, you did not (didn't) work He, she, it did not (didn't) work We, you, they did not (didn't) work Interrogative Did I, you work? Did He, she, it work? Did we, you, they work?

Uses:

A completed action in the past. Mark finished school in 2004. A series of completed actions in the past. When he worked as a journalist, he met interesting people and travelled to far away countries. + To tell how things were in the past. + Para contar cmo eran las cosas en el pasado. In the Middle Ages, few people knew how to read and write. En la Edad Media poca gente saba leer y escribir.

+ To point that a short action interrupted a longer one. + Para indicar que una accin corta interrumpi otra ms larga que estaba en proceso. La accin breve suele ir introducida por la conjuncin when. When you called, we were having dinner. Cuando llamaste estabamos cenando. 34

Time expressions
Yesterday, last week, two days ago, in 2004, in the 1950s, in the 19thcentury, when, then,

English verbs are divided into Regular verbs and Irregular verbs depending on the
past simple tense formation.

REGULAR VERBS: We form the Past Simple of regular verbs by adding ed. Formamos el pasado simple
de los verbos regulares aadiendo al infinitivo la terminacin ed. SPELLING: -ed. -e -d double consonant + ed prefer preferred stop stopped travel travelled consonant + y carry carried study studied tidy tidied -ied vowel + y -yed

Like liked Hate hated Close closed

play played enjoy enjoyed stay stayed

IRREGULAR VERBS: Irregular verbs have a special Past form. You have to study them by heart.
The Past Simple forms are at the second column. Los verbos irregulares tienen una forma de pasado especial. Tienes que estudiarlos de memoria. Las formas de pasado simple estn en la segunda columna.

INFINITIVE PAST SIMPLE PAST PARTICIPLE MEANING Be was / were been ser / estar Become became become llegar a ser Begin began begun empezar, etc

STUDY THE LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS AT THE END OF YOUR WORKBOOK.

REMEMBER!
We need the auxiliary did / didnt to make negative and interrogative sentences. Necesitamos el auxiliar did / didnt para negar y preguntar.

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She watched TV last night. She didnt watch TV last night. Did she watch TV last night? Yes, she did / No, she didnt.

He went to the party yesterday. He didnt go to the party yesterday. Did he go to the party yesterday? Yes, he did / No, he didnt.

USED TO (Sola Hbitos pasados)


We use used to to talk about past habits or the things which people did in the past but not now. Look at this example I used to work in London. Yo sola trabajar en Londres.

Notice that used to is followed by the infinitive without to. You can also use used to to talk about things which were true in the past but are not true now. I used to have a lot of hair. Yo sola tener mucho pelo. It used to be a small fishing village. Sola ser un pequeo pueblo pesquero.

En espaol utilizamos ms la construccin: Yo trabajaba en Londres que la construccin Yo sola trabajar en Londres, porque tenemos la posibilidad de utilizar dos tipos de pretritos. El Prterito indefinido: Yo trabaj y el Pretrito Imperfecto: Yo trabajaba. Nota: Con el Pretrito Imperfecto resaltamos el hecho de que la accin transcurri en el pasado y se prolong durante un periodo de tiempo. Por ejemplo: Yo trabajaba. Con el Pretrito Indefinido, en cambio, indicamos simplemente que la accin tuvo lugar en el pasado sin poner nfasis en que se prolong en el tiempo. Por ejemplo: Yo trabaj. En ingls no existe tal posibilidad porque slo tenemos el "Past Simple Tense". Por ello, para indicar que hicimos algo en el pasado que ahora no hacemos utilizamos la construccin: Sujeto + used to + verbo en infinitivo. He used to study. l sola estudiar.

Positivo: Sujeto + used to + verbo en infinitivo I used to smoke. Now I don't smoke anymore. Yo sola fumar. Ahora ya no fumo. She used to swim when she lived in Africa. Ella sola nadar cuando viva en frica. They used to be good students. Now they are not. Ellos eran buenos estudiantes.

Negativo: Sujeto + did + not (o didn't) + use to He didn't use to study. El no sola estudiar. I didn't use to do it. Yo no lo sola hacer. o Yo no lo haca. We didn't use to read. Nosotros no solamos leer.

Ten en cuenta que el verbo "used" est en pasado, por lo tanto, necesitamos el verbo auxiliar did para negar. Adems debemos poner used en infinitivo dado que ir acompaado de did, por tanto, pondremos use.

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Pregunta: Did + sujeto + use to +? Did he use to study? Estudiaba l? Did I use to do it? Lo haca yo? Did we use to read? Solamos leer?

Como used est en pasado necesito para preguntar (igual que para negar) el verbo auxiliar did, pero en vez de ponerlo despus del sujeto, lo pongo justo antes, invertimos para preguntar. Notes. Notas. Used to se utiliza slo en Past Simple tense, nunca en Present Simple tense, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, Infinitive, etc. Se utiliza la forma used to exclusivamente para indicar que hacamos algo en el pasado que ya no hacemos, NO para hablar de acciones pasadas en general.

BE USED TO (estoy acostumbrado a HBITOS PRESENTES)


We use be used to to talk about present habits. Be used to que significa "estar acostumbrado/a a". Positivo: Sujeto + verbo to be + used to + sustantivo / verbo en -ing (nunca en infinitivo). I am used to speaking in public. Estoy acostumbrado/a a hablar en pblico. They are used to eating bread. Ellos estn acostumbrados a comer pan. We were quite used to him. Estbamos muy (bastante) acostumbrados a l.

Despus de be used to podemos utilizar un sustantivo (o sea una cosa) o un verbo en -ing, nunca un verbo en infinitivo. I'm used to speaking. Not I'm used to speak . + verbo en -ing / sustantivo

Negativo: Sujeto + to be + not + used to

He isn't used to studying. l no est acostumbrado a estudiar.

Ten en cuenta que tenemos al verbo to be despus del sujeto, as que para negar NO podemos utilizar el verbo auxiliar do. Pregunta: Verbo to be + sujeto + used to + verbo en -ing / sustantivo +? Are you used to studying?. Ests (t) acostumbrado a estudiar?

Preguntamos con el verbo to be por inversin. (verbo to be + sujeto).

More about Be used to. Ms informacin sobre Be used to.


Los siguientes verbos se pueden utilizar delante de used to, en lugar del verbo to be: o get. Al verbo get se le llama verbo comodn ya que puede utilizarse en muchas estructuras y tiene significados muy diferentes obtener, conseguir, llegar, etc. En este caso indica el "proceso de algo" y no tiene traduccin literal al espaol. Por ejemplo: He'll get used to her. l se acostumbrar a ella. (proceso de acostumbrarse). 37

o become. llegar a ser, convertirse en.. Become tambin indica el proceso de llegar a algo". Por ejemplo: They became used to eating bread. Se acostumbraron a comer pan.

o grow. "crecer", pero tambin indica "el proceso de llegar a algo.". Por ejemplo: They grew used to listening to her. Se acostumbraron a escucharla.

PAST CONTINUOUS (PASADO CONTINUO)


Affirmative
I was working You were working He, she, it was working We, you, they were working

Negative
I was not (wasn't) working You were not (weren't) working He, she, it was not (wasn't) working We, you, they were not (weren't) working

Interrogative
Was I working? Were you working? Was he, she, it working? Were we, you, they working?

Uses:

An incomplete action in progress at a specific time in the past. Last year she was working as a waitress An incomplete action interrupted by another action. Bill was cooking dinner when someone knocked at the door. Two incomplete actions taking place at the same time in the past. They were listening to music while they were sunbathing.

+ To talk about repeted and monotonous actions which are disgusting. + Al referirnos a acciones pasadas repetidas y montonas, denotando que nos desagradaban. They were always criticising people. Siempre estaban criticando a la gente.

Time expressions:
At eight o'clock, last month, last, year, when, while, as Positivo: Sujeto + was / were + el verbo principal acabado en "ing". I was working yesterday. Yo estuve trabajando ayer. She was studying last month. Ella estuvo estudiando el mes pasado. It was snowing last year. Estuvo nevando el ao pasado. Nota: Para fenmenos meteorolgicos el sujeto es siempre "It". They were looking for you. Ellas /os te estuvieron buscando.

Negativo: Sujeto + was / were + not + verbo principal terminado en "ing" She was not (wasnt) working. Ella no estuvo trabajando. She didn't live here. Ella no vivi aqu.

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Pregunta: Was / Were + sujeto + verbo principal terminado en "ing"? Was she working last year?. (Estuvo ella trabajando el ao pasado?)

Remember. Recuerda. El "Past Continuous" se forma igual que el "Present Continuous" pero cambiando "am / is / are" por "was / were" y sirve para hablar del pasado poniendo nfasis en que la accin se prolong en el tiempo. Equivale en espaol a la estructura: Yo / T..estuve / estuviste... + verbo principal acabado en ando / endo. Por ejemplo: Yo estuve durmiendo. M

Past tense. General review. (Repaso general)


En ingls para hablar en pasado empleamos dos tipos de verbos: Los verbos regulares: Son los verbos acabados en "ed", por ejemplo: I worked. Yo trabaj. I studied. Yo estudi. Los verbos irregulares: Son los verbos que aparecen recogidos en una lista de tres columnas y cuya pronunciacin hay que aprenderse de memoria (infinitive / past / participle). Por ejemplo: "do" hacer. You did it. T lo hiciste. Positivo Sujeto + Verbo en "Past Tense" + complemento I woke up at seven o'clock yesterday. Me despert a las 7 ayer. It worked! Funcion! They lived in Paris. Ellos vivieron/vivan en Paris.

Negativo Sujeto + did not (didn't) + verbo principal en infinitivo siempre + predicado They didn't work hard. Ellos no trabajaron duro. She didn't live here. Ella no vivi aqu.

Pregunta Did + sujeto + verbo principal en infinitivo + complemento? Did you study?Estudiaste (t)? Did she live here? Vivi (ella) aqu?

Remember! Recuerda!
Para negar y preguntar en pasado se utiliza el verbo auxiliar "Did"para todas las personas. El verbo "Did" es un verbo auxiliar (no significa hacer) y, por tanto, NUNCA debe utilizarse conjuntamente con el verbo "to be". Por ejemplo: No se dice: "Didn't are." (incorrecto), sino "You weren't." (correcto). Cmo preguntamos en pasado? Hay, al menos, tres frmulas: 1) La ms comn, que es la que utilizamos para casi todos los verbos, excepto el to be. INTERROGATIVO + DID + SUJETO + VERBO EN INFINITIVO? - When did he come?. Cundo vino? Aqu tenemos un interrogativo when que va en primer lugar (igual que en espaol) luego did, despus el sujeto y despus el verbo en infinitivo. 39

- Did she do it? Lo hizo ella? Sin interrogativo, lo primero que ponemos es el verbo auxiliar Did, despus el sujeto she, luego el verbo en infinitivo; por ltimo it (lo). - Why did they leave? Por qu se marcharon? Otra vez un interrogativo, que va primero, luego did, despus el sujeto y por ltimo el verbo en infinitivo. 2) La del verbo to be Cmo preguntamos con el verbo to be? En el caso del verbo to be, NO USAMOS EL VERBO AUXILIAR DID y slo debemos optar por escoger entre was / were para que concuerde con el sujeto. INTERROGATIVO + WAS / WERE + SUJETO + OBJETO+? - When was it?. Cundo fue? Aqu tenemos un interrogativo when que va en primer lugar (igual que en espaol) luego was, y despus el sujeto.. -Were you there? Estuviste all? Sin interrogativo, lo primero que ponemos es el verbo were, despus el sujeto you" y por ltimo el objeto (complemento). -Why was she busy? Por qu estaba ella ocupada? Otra vez un interrogativo, que va primero, luego was (porque es tercera persona, "she"), despus el sujeto y por ltimo el objeto (complemento). 3) Las excepciones. Por ejemplo cuando preguntamos con el verbo poder. Como can y could son modal verbs, tienen sus propias reglas. Cmo diramos en ingls Pudiste hablar con ella? S, utilizamos could (en ciertas ocasiones to be able to). Veamos como: Could you speak to her? Pudiste hablar con ella? Were you able to speak to her? Fuiste capaz de hablar con ella? Otra excepcin es cuando preguntamos con Who (quin o a quines). Por ejemplo, cmo se dice Quin vino? Quin lo hizo?. Como no sabemos cul es el sujeto ponemos directamente el verbo principal en Past Tense sin auxiliar did. De esta forma: Who came? Quin vino? Who did it? Quin lo hizo? Ahora veamos las estructuras negativas. 1) La ms comn, que es la que utilizamos para casi todos los verbos, excepto el to be. SUJETO + DID+ NOT (DIDN'T) VERBO EN INFINITIVO + OBJETO. She didn't do it. Ella no lo hizo.

2) Con el verbo to be. SUJETO + WAS/WERE + NOT (WASN'T/WEREN'T) + OBJETO. She wasn't here. Ella no estuvo aqu. 40

More examples. Ms ejemplos. Carlos invited me to have a drink. Carlos me invit a tomar una copa. Juan didn't come to pick me up. Juan no vino a recogerme. When did you go to the cinema? Cundo fuiste al cine? It took them twenty minutes to arrive. Ellos tardaron veinte minutos en llegar I couldn't buy what I wanted. No pude comprar lo que quera He/She didn't know what to say to me. No supo qu decirme. They sold the ship without thinking. Vendieron el barco sin pensarlo. I drove about twenty hours. Conduje unas veinte horas. Did you read his/her book? Leiste su libro? We had trouble finding you. Nos cost encontrarte. I didn't find what I wanted. No encontr lo que quera. When I met him, I didn't like him. Cuando lo conoci, no me cay bien. The man fell from the horse. El hombre se cay del caballo. It was very difficult to understand it. Era muy difcil comprenderlo. I couldn't get to London on time. No pude llegar a Londres a tiempo. I never thought he would come. Jams pens que l vendra. I took my keys and left. Cog mis llaves y me march.

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE (PRETERITO PERFECTO)


Affirmative I, you have talked He, she, it has talked We, you, they have talked Negative Interrogative I, you have not (haven't) talked Have I, you talked? He, she, it has not (hasn't) talked Has he, she, it talked? We, you, they have not (haven't) talked Have we, you, they talked?

Uses:
An action that took place at an unstated time in the past, but it is connected to the present I'm not going to the cinema with them tonight because I've already seen that film Broadway musicals have always been famous

An action that started in the past and continues to the present The singer hasn't performed for over a month. She has had a TV Show since 1995 How long has the band toured around the world?

Time expressions: Always, so far, ever, never, just, yet, recently, already, in recent years, for, since, how long?

Form. Estructura
Afirmativa: se forma con el presente del verbo have como auxiliar y el participio del verbo principal, que terminar en ed si es regular. Si es irregular hay que saberlo de memoria. (En la 3 columna de la lista de verbos irregulares estn los ms comunes.) Negativa: se aade not o la contraccin n't a have / has havent / hasnt Interrogativa: ponemos primero have / has, luego el sujeto y, detrs de ste, el participio.

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Uses:
A) Para hablar de acciones pasadas recientes o no, cuyos efectos son visibles en el momento actual. I have broken my leg. Me he roto la pierna (todava la tengo rota).

B) Con acciones que empezaron en el pasado y continan en el presente. Por eso a veces se traduce el verbo en presente aunque en ingls vaya en Present Perfect I have been a teacher for twenty years. He sido profesora durante veinte aos (continuo siendo)

C) Para referirnos a una accin pasada sin especificar el momento exacto en que ocurri, porque no se sabe o porque esta informacin no es importante. That group has already performed in many concerts. Ese grupo ha actuado ya en muchos conciertos.

D) Para expresar que una accin acaba de ocurrir. Entonces se utiliza just (entre have y el participio). He has just signed a contract for two years. Acaba de firmar un contrato de dos aos.

How long? Se usa para preguntar cunto tiempo ha durado la accin.


How long have you known each other? Cunto tiempo hace que os conocis?

Y tambin, cuando la accin contina en el presente, para preguntar cunto tiempo ha pasado desde que empez. How long have you lived here? cunto tiempo hace que vives aqu? Las preposiciones for y since se usan mucho: for durante va siempre con periodos de tiempo y since desde con expresiones que indican el momento concreto en que empez la accin. I haven't talked to them for two months. No he hablado con ellos durante dos meses. Maggie has played the piano since 2002. Maggie toca el piano desde 2002.

Contraste. Past Simple / Present Perfect.


Ambos se refieren a acciones pasadas, pero el Simple Past indica claramente un hecho concreto que ocurri en un momento determinado, mientras que la accin expresada con el Present Perfect no est delimitada en el tiempo. Jim booked some tickets for the concert but he hasn't paid for them yet. Jim reserv entradas para el concierto pero todava no las ha pagado. I only bought one CD because the shop hasn't received the whole collection. Slo compr un CD porque la tienda no ha recibido la coleccin entera.

Qu diferencia hay en espaol entre estas dos oraciones?


He trabajado mucho / Trabaj mucho En el primer caso hablamos de un pasado reciente, por ejemplo: He trabajado mucho hoy En el segundo caso hablamos de un pasado lejano, por ejemplo: Ayer trabaj mucho. 42

El tiempo que utilizamos en espaol para hablar de un pasado reciente se llama Present Perfect Yo he comido / l ha venido / Nosotros hemos dicho. Positivo: Sujeto + have / has + participio del verbo principal I have (I've) worked a lot today. Yo he trabajado mucho hoy. It has (Its's) snowed today. Ha nevado hoy.

Nota: Para fenmenos meteorolgicos el sujeto es siempre It.


We have (We've) read many books. Nosotros/as hemos ledo muchos libros. They have (they've) seen Peter. Ellos/as han visto a Peter

Negativo: Sujeto + have / has + not + verbo principal en "past participle" She has not (She hasnt) worked. Ella no ha trabajado.

Pregunta: Have / has + sujeto + verbo principal en "past participle"? Has she worked today? Ha trabajado ella hoy?

El verbo have / has no significa en este caso "tener" sino "haber". Have en el Present Perfect es un verbo auxiliar y siempre debe ir acompaado de un verbo principal. Es posible que el verbo have sea utilizado como verbo principal. La construccin sera entonces: I've had a car. Yo he tenido un coche

El Present Perfect es un tiempo verbal muy utilizado en el ingls britnico y poco utilizado en ingls americano

Nota! Al hablar, hay dos tipos de problemas que deben resolverse con la prctica es decir, repetir

y repetir las estructuras hasta el cansancio. El primero es confundir "have" por "has" y viceversa. ("has" se utiliza nicamente con "She /He / It" y "have" con el resto de los pronombres personales.). El segundo problema es la confusin entre " Past Simple " y el "Present Perfect."

Remember! Recuerda!
Past Simple para pasado lejano, acabado, acompaado generalmente de "yesterday" (ayer), "last week / month / year" (la semana / mes / ao pasado). El Present Perfect en cambio es para un pasado reciente y no suele acompaarse de referencias temporales, aunque puede aparecer, por ejemplo, con "today", "recently", etc.

Yet
Uses:
Yet se utiliza para preguntar y negar con el "Present Perfect". Nota: En ocasiones se pregunta con "already" en Present Perfect y otros tiempos verbales para expresar sorpresa. Por ejemplo: Have you already started? That was fast. Has empezado ya? so ha sido rpido. Have they come yet?Han venido ya? No, they haven't come yet. No, no han venido todava. Has she bought the tickets yet? Ha comprado las entradas ya? No , she hasn't bought them yet. No, no las ha comprado todava.

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Meaning. Significado. Yet se puede traducir al espaol como ya, todava o an, dependiendo del sentido de la frase. Collocation. Colocacin. Yet se coloca al final de la oracin. Negativo: Sujeto + haven't / hasn't + participio pasado + yet. I haven't said it yet. No lo he dicho an.

Pregunta: Have / has + sujeto + participio pasado + yet? Have they said it yet? Lo han dicho ya?

Pronunciation. Pronunciacin No digas yet [llet] porque estars diciendo jet (avin). Hay que decir [iet] con i latina.

Already
Uses:
Already se utiliza para indicar que hemos realizado una accin antes de lo esperado. Have you called her? Yes, I've already called her. La has llamado? S, ya la he llamado. Has she done it? Yes, she's already done it. Lo ha hecho ya? S, ya lo ha hecho. Have you seen that film? Yes, I've already seen it. Has visto ya esa pelcula? S, ya la he visto.

Meaning. Significado. Already se traduce al espaol como ya. Collocation. Colocacin. Already se coloca entre el verbo auxiliar have / has y el Past Participle. As: I have already said it. Ya lo he dicho.

Positivo: Sujeto + have / has + already + participio pasado I have already sent them. Ya las he enviado

Still
Aclaracin sobre el uso y significado de still. La palabra still" presenta cierta confusin porque en espaol tambin se traduce como todava o an, pero a diferencia de yet (para preguntar y negar) y already (para decir que algo ha ocurrido antes de lo esperado) still se utiliza para indicar que una accin contina. Are you still there ?Ests todava ahi? It's midnight and she is still studying. Es medianoche y todava est estudiando. Are you still working? Estn an trabajando?

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Just
Use
Just se utliza para indicar que acabamos de realizar una accin. Ojo! En espaol no utilizamos el Pretrito Perfecto en este caso, sino la expresin acabar de + verbo en infinitivo. I've just seen her. La acabo de ver. They've just come. Ellos/as acaban de venir. We've just bought it. Nosotros/as acabamos de comprarlo/la.

Meaning. Significado. Just se traduce al espaol como acabo de ms verbo principal en infinitivo. Collocation. Colocacin. Just se coloca entre el verbo auxiliar have / has y el Past Participle. As: I have just said it. Lo acabo de decir.

Positivo: Sujeto + have / has + just + participio pasado She has just told me. Me lo acaba de contar

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS (PRETRITO PERFECTO COMPUESTO CONTINUO)


Affirmative I, you have been talking He, she, it has been talking We, you, they have been talking Negative I, you have not (haven't) been talking He, she, it has not (hasn't) been talking We, you, they have not (haven't) been talking talking?

Interrogative Have I, you been talking? Has he, she, it been talking? Have we, u, they been

Uses:
An ongoing action that started in the past and continues until the present. Para hablar de acciones prolongadas que empezaron hace algn tiempo y todava continan. Se suele traducir al castellano por "llevar + gerundio". This cinema has been showing the same film all summer. Este cine lleva poniendo la misma pelcula todo el verano. It is raining now. It has been raining for two hours. Est lloviendo ahora. Ha estado lloviendo durante dos horas. 45

A completed action that still influences the present. Para hablar de una accin recin terminada cuyos efectos se ven en el presente. I'm going to bed. We've been studying for more than eight hours. Me voy a la cama. Nosotros hemos estado estudiando durante ms de ocho horas. Youre out of breath. Have you been running? Estas sin aliento. Has estado corriendo ?

You can also use the Present Perfect Continuous (with how long, for and since) for actions repeated over a period of time. Puedes usar el presente perfecto continuo con how long, for y since para acciones repetida durante un periodo de tiempo. She has been playing tennis since she was eight. Ella ha estado jugando al tenis desde que tena los ocho aos. How long have you been smoking? Cuanto tiempo llevas fumando?

Time expressions Estructura

For, since, all summer,how long, Afirmativa: se construye con have / has + been + el verbo principal terminado en ing. Negativa: ponemos la partcula not detrs de have / has. Tambin se puede formar con las formas contradas haven't / hasn't despus del sujeto. Interrogativa: se construye anteponiendo have / has al sujeto de la frase.

Remember! Recuerda!
El Presente Perfect Continuous sirve para hablar de un pasado reciente poniendo nfasis en que la accin se prolong durante un tiempo. Equivale en espaol a la estructura: Yo / T..he / has... + estado + verbo principal acabado en ando/endo. Por ejemplo: Yo he estado durmiendo. Positivo: Sujeto + have / has + been + verbo principal terminado en "ing" . I have been working. Yo he estado trabajando She has been studying. Ella ha estado estudiando. It has been snowing. Ha estado nevando.

Para fenmenos meteorolgicos el sujeto es siempre "It". Negativo: Sujeto + have / has + not been + verbo principal terminado en "ing" She has not (hasnt) been working. Ella no ha estado trabajando.

Pregunta: Have / Has + sujeto + been + verbo principal terminado en "ing"? Has she been working? Ha estado trabajando (ella)?

En teora el Present Perfect Continuous es un tiempo verbal muy sencillo, pero en la prctica la mayora de los estudiantes confunden el have por el has. Para evitar cometer errores hay que repetir muchas veces las estructuras. He estado trabajando mucho hoy. Qu quiero decir? Quiero decir que he realizado una accin (trabajar) hace muy poco tiempo atrs (es hoy mismo) y que esa accin se ha prolongado en el tiempo. 46

Cmo he formado este tiempo en espaol? Con haber en presente + estado + el verbo principal terminado en ando. En ingls diramos: I've been working a lot today. Para una oracin afirmativa utilizo la frmula del Present Perfect Continuous: Sujeto + have / has (contrado 've /'s) + been + verbo principal en ing. Los tiempos verbales compuestos que incluyen el verbo auxiliar to be conjugado y un verbo principal terminado en ing indican que la accin se prolonga en el tiempo. Los tiempos verbales compuestos que incluyen el verbo auxiliar to be y otro verbo principal terminado en ing indican que la accin se prolonga en el tiempo. What have you been doing? I've been studying. Qu has estado haciendo? He estado estudiando.

Observa como en ingls utilizo la frmula to be conjugado (have / has been) + verbos en ing y en espaol haber conjugado + estado + los verbos terminados en endo y ando para expresar que la accin se prolonga en el tiempo. What are you reading? I'm reading a very interesting novel. Qu ests leyendo? Estoy leyendo una novela muy interesante.

Observa que en este caso utilizo el Present Continuous no el Present Perfect Continuous para indicar que la accin se prolonga en el tiempo. Y entonces cmo diferenciamos el uso del Present Perfect Continuous de otros tiempos verbales con usos semejantes? El tiempo a utilizar depender de la eleccin que haga la persona al hablar para expresar una idea. Podemos escoger entre expresar la idea en: Present Perfect Continuous: Cuando me interesa resaltar que he realizado una accin recientemente y que esa accin se ha prolongando en el tiempo. Puede ser que esa accin todava la realice, pero tambin es posible que ya no la haga. I've been studying grammar.He estado estudiando gramtica.

Si aado all my life indico que todava estudio I've been studying grammar all my life. He estado estudiando gramtica toda mi vida

Nota: Compara este uso con el del Present Continuous ms abajo. Ah resalto que estoy realizando la accin ahora mismo. Present Perfect : Cuando nos fijamos en el resultado de una accin reciente. I've studied grammar. He estudiado gramtica.

No pongo nfasis en si la accin de estudiar gramtica se prolong o no en el tiempo, sino slo en que estudi hace poco gramtica: es la conclusin de la accin lo que resalto. Compara este uso con el anterior, Present Perfect Continuous donde no destaco el resultado sino la prolongacin en el tiempo de la accin. Past Perfect Continuous: Cuando narramos y queremos referirnos a una accin ocurrida en el pasado que se prolong en el tiempo y que tuvo lugar justo antes de otra accin que acab. She had been reading a book, just before her husband came into the room. Ella haba estado leyendo un libro, justo antes de que su marido entrara en la habitacin.

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Fjate como este podra ser el texto de una historia de un libro.Qu quiero decir aqu? Que ella estuvo leyendo (accin que se prolongo) y en ese momento entr su marido (accin que empez y acab en el pasado) Present Continuous: Cuando me interesa resaltar que la accin la realizo ahora. I'm studying grammar. Estoy estudiando gramtica.

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE (PLUSCUAMPERFECTO)


Affirmative I, you had eaten He, she, it had eaten We, you, they had eaten Negative I, you had not (hadn't) eaten He, she, it had not (hadn't) eaten We, you, they had not (hadn't) eaten Interrogative Had I, you eaten? Had he, she, it eaten? Had we, you, they eaten?

Uses:

An action which happened before another action in the past. Para indicar que una accin ocurri antes que otra tambin pasada. I had never been to a live concert until I went to the Dido concert. No haba estado nunca en un concierto en directo, hasta que fui al concierto de Dido. The actor had grown a beard before appearing in that film. El actor se haba dejado crecer la barba antes de aparecer en esa pelcula. already, by the time, after, before, until, never, just.

Time expressions Form. Estructura.

Afirmativa: se forma con el pasado de have (had) y el participio del verbo principal. Negativa: Aadimos a had la negacin not o la contraccin n't (hadn't) en todas las personas Interrogativa: ponemos had delante del sujeto. Positivo: Sujeto + had + participio del verbo principal. I had gone out when she came. Yo haba salido cuando ella vino. She had studied before the exam. Ella haba estudiado antes del examen. It had rained a lot in the winter. Haba llovido mucho durante el invierno. We had seen the film before him. Nosotros/as habamos visto la pelcula antes que l.

Negativo: Sujeto + hadnt + verbo principal en "Past Participle" She had not (She hadnt) worked. Ella no haba trabajado.

Pregunta: Had + sujeto + verbo principal en "past participle"? Had she worked? Haba trabajado ella?

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Algunas observaciones: El Past Perfect es un tiempo utilizado para narrar. En este caso va acompaado del Past Simple unidos por when (cuando). Ejemplo: I had (already) eaten (Past Perfect) my lunch when I saw (Past Simple) the restaurant. Yo haba (ya) comido cuando vi el restaurante.

El Past Perfect se utiliza tambin con una de las formas del condicional, que veremos ms adelante. El verbo had no significa en este caso "tuve" sino "haba". Had en el Past Perfect es un verbo auxiliar y siempre debe ir acompaado de un verbo principal. Es posible que el verbo had sea utilizado como verbo principal. La construccin sera entonces: I had had a car. Yo haba tenido un coche

Remember! Recuerda! El Past Perfect es un tiempo que se utiliza para narrar una accin pasada, generalmente en unin con el Past Simple: She had gone out when he came in. Ella haba salido cuando l entr.

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS (PRETRITO PLUSCUAMPERFECTO CONTINUO)


Affirmative I, you had been eating He, she, it had been eating We, you, they had been eating Negative I, you had not (hadn't) been eating He, she, it had not (hadn't) been eating We, you, they had not (hadn't) been eating Interrogative Had I, you been eating? Had he, she, it been eating? Had we, you, they been eating?

Uses:
A continuous action which preceded another action in the past. Para expresar acciones prolongadas que estaban ocurriendo en el pasado antes de otra accin breve. He had been writing the script for the show before I arrived.

Time expressions Estructura

All morning, when, for, since, by the time, before, after.

Afirmativa: se construye con had + been + el verbo principal terminado en ing Negativa: Ponemos la partcula not entre had y el participio been o usamos la forma contrada hadn't Interrogativa: Se forma invirtiendo el orden de had y del sujeto. 49

FUTURE SIMPLE (FUTURO SIMPLE)


Affirmative I, you will stop He, she, it will stop We, you, they will stop Negative I, you will not (won't) stop He, she, it will not (won't) stop We, you, they will not (won't) stop Interrogative Will I, you stop? Will he, she, it stop? Will we, you, they stop?

Uses:
Predictions: Lucy will be a succesful singer one day. A planned schedule: They will travel to India in March. A decision at the moment of speaking: I'll have a cup of coffee, please. Time expressions: This evening, later, next week, soon, around midnight, at 11 o'clock, in the future, in March, tomorrow, in an hour, in a few minutes, one day Cuando en espaol utilizamos el tiempo futuro, en frase tales como, "Yo ir....Ella comprar.... T vendrs..." en ingls debemos utilizar Will. Y qu es Will? Will es un verbo modal (o auxiliar) que se utiliza para formar el futuro. "Will" siempre debe ir acompaado de otro verbo para formar el futuro.

Remember! Recuerda!
Para hablar de un futuro no planificado e incierto, debes utilizar will o won't (negativo). Tambin se utiliza will para hacer predicciones. Por ejemplo: I think it will snow. Creo que nevar. Will tambin sirve para dar rdenes. Por ejemplo decimos: Will you close the door please? Por favor, podras cerrar la puerta? Positivo: Sujeto + will + "verbo principal en infinitivo" I will work. Yo trabajar. She will study. Ella estudiar It will work. (Ello) Funcionar They will learn. Ellos/Ellas aprendern.

Negativo: Sujeto + won't + verbo en infinitivo I will not (won't) work. Yo no trabajar. They will not (won't) learn. Ellos/Ellas no aprendern.

Pregunta: Will + sujeto + verbo en infinitivo? Will I work? Trabajar?

Ambos son verbos modales (auxiliares) que se utilizan para formar el futuro. Shall es ms usado en ingls britnico y Will en ingls americano. No obstante, shall puede utilizarse (en ingls britnico) para hacer una sugerencia o invitacin. Por ejemplo: Shall we go?Nos vamos? 50

Cul es la diferencia entre will y shall?

Cmo se contrae Will? I will.....I'll You will..You'll He will He'll She will. She'll It will.. It'll We will...We'll They will... They'll

FUTURE CONTINUOUS (FUTURO CONTINUO)


Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I, you will be travelling I, you will not (won't) be travelling Will I, you be travelling? He, she, It will be travelling He, she, it will not (won't) be travelling Will he, she, it be travelling? We, you, they will be travelling We, you, they will not (won't) be travelling Will we, you, they be travelling?

Uses:
An action in progress at specific time in the future. At this time tomorrow, we will be flying to Rome.

Time expressions:
At this time tomorrow, at this time next year, on Thursday. I will be playing football at this time tomorrow. Yo estar jugando al ftbol a esta hora maana. You will be flying at seven tomorrow. T estars volando a las siete maana. He will be swimming on Friday. l estar nadando el viernes. She will be taking an exam at this time tomorrow. Ella estar hacienda un examen maana. It will be eating its bone all day. Estar comiendo su hueso todo el da. M

BE GOING TO (FUTURO DE INTENCIN)


Affirmative
I am going to do You are going to do He, she, it is going to do We, you, they are going to do

Negative
I am not (I'm not) going to do You are not (aren't) going to do He, she, it is not (Isn't) going to do We, you, they are not (aren't) going to do

Interrogative
Am I going to do? Are you going to do? Is he, she, it going to do? Are we, you, they going to do?

Uses:
Plans: Arthur is going to check his email this evening. Something about to happen: The shop is going to close in five minutes. 51

Time expressions:

This evening, later, next week, soon, at 10 o'clock, in the future, tomorrow, in an hour, now, tonight.

En espaol es frecuente que utilicemos la expresin: "Voy al cine...Voy a comer....Vamos a dormir...." Si nos fijamos utilizamos esa expresin para referirnos a algo que haremos en un futuro inmediato y planificado. Para un futuro ms lejano y no planificado utilizamos el tiempo futuro: Yo ir.... Que es, en realidad, muy poco usado en espaol. El equivalente en ingls de Voy a + "verbo en infinitivo" es I am going to + infinitive". I am going to do my homework. Voy a hacer mis deberes.

Positivo: Sujeto + am / are / is + "going to". I am (I'm) going to work . Yo voy a trabajar She is (She's) going to study. Ella va a estudiar. It is (It's) going to rain. Va a llover They are (They're) going to look. Ellos/Ellas van a mirar.

Negativo: Sujeto + am / are / is + not + "going to" She is not (isnt) going to work. Ella no va a trabajar. "going to"?

Pregunta: Am /are / is + sujeto

Is she going to work?. Va ella a trabajar?

Remember! Recuerda!
To express things already decided in the near future. Para hablar de algo que has planificado y vas a hacer en un futuro inmediato, debes utilizar la expresin going to, es decir , el verbo go en Present Continuous. He is going to fly to Rome tomorrow. Va a volar a Roma maana.

To express intention. Para expresar intencin. He likes acting. He is going to be an actor. A l le gusta actuar. l va a ser actor.

When there is evidence that something will definitely happen. Cuando hay evidencia de que algo va a suceder con certeza. Watch out! Youre going to fall over. Cuidado! Vas a caerte.

When it is not certain that something will happen but it is just a prediction. Cuando quieras hablar de un futuro no planificado e incierto, debes utilizar will o won't (negativo). If he comes early, we will go to the cinema. Si viene temprano, iremos al cine.

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More on future (Repaso general)


En ingls, al igual que en espaol, hay muchas maneras de referirse a una accin futura y precisamente, al hablar, no es el tiempo futuro el que ms se utiliza (will / shall en ingls); se utilizan otros tiempos verbales. Veamos cules.

Present Continuous / Future (WILL) / Be going to + Infinitive.

Si queremos hablar del futuro es muy frecuente que en espaol utilicemos el tiempo presente con una referencia futura. Por ejemplo decimos: Maana (referencia futura) como (presente de comer) con John. Tambin podemos decir: Maana comer con John o Maana voy a comer con John. Cules son las diferencias entre estas distintas formas de expresar el futuro? Si digo Maana como con John o Maana voy a comer con John estoy expresando una certeza, es decir, es seguro que voy a hacerlo porque lo tengo previsto o planificado. En cambio, si digo Maana comer con John estoy expresando que s lo har, pero an hay ciertas dudas. Vers esta idea ms claramente si aades, por ejemplo, si puedo. Maana comer con John, si puedo. Ves ahora la diferencia? En ingls tambin existen estos matices cuando hablamos de acciones futuras. Sin embargo, hay una diferencia importante a la hora de escoger el tiempo verbal que expresa accin planificada o esperada del futuro. En ingls para expresar que vamos a realizar una accin futura planificada o que va a ocurrir con toda seguridad NO utilizamos el presente como en espaol, sino el Present Continuous, es decir, el verbo to be ms el verbo principal acabado en ing. Tambin es muy frecuente usar la estructura be going to + infinitive (voy / vas a + infinitive). Maana como con John. I'm eating with John tomorrow. > Present Continuous . Maana voy a comer con John. I'm going to eat with John tomorrow > Be going to + infinitive. No obstante, puede que hayas escuchado que el Simple Present tambin se utiliza para hablar de futuro. S, es verdad pero slo en contadas situaciones. Veamos las reglas: El Simple Present puede utilizarse para hablar del futuro pero slo cuando nos referimos a : Los horarios de medios de transporte. The train leaves at 5 o'clock today. El tren sale hoy a las 5pm.

Eventos: The show starts at ten o'clock. El show empieza a las diez. La agenda prevista. Por ejemplo, una secretaria explica a un empleado lo que har su jefe segn la agenda prevista: Mr. Blake goes to Paris tomorrow. El Sr. Blake va a Paris Maana.

Para todas los dems casos, utilizamos el Present Continuous o la frmula be going to + infinitive. As que, por ejemplo, si quieres explicar a alquien que maana vas a ir al mdico, no dices: I go to the doctor tomorrow sino, I' m going to the doctor tomorrow o I'm going to go to the doctor tomorrow. Recuerda: Nos estamos refiriendo a un futuro planificado.

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A piece of advice. Consejo: Si dudas a la hora de escoger entre el SimplePresent y el Present Continuous o la frmula Be going to + infinitive, utiliza la forma going to (voy / vas...a + infinitivo). As ser mucho ms difcil que te equivoques.

Will / Shall
Will se utiliza para hacer oraciones en futuro cuando hablamos de un futuro ms incierto. Pero hay otras reglas que debes recordar. Las veremos ahora. Nota: En ingls britnico en ocasiones se utiliza shall en sustitucin de will. En ingls americano shall no es frecuente.

Utilizamos will / shall para:


Predecir o pronosticar. I think I will be ready by 10 o'clock. Creo que estar listo/a a las 10 am. You'll find it out if you investigate. Lo descubrirs si investigas. Expresar intenciones. I will do it. Yo lo har. Pedir algo. Will you come in please? Entras por favor? Expresar decisiones. I`ll let you know as soon as possible. Te lo dir lo antes posible. A piece of advice. Consejo: Si te cuesta recordar todas estas reglas al hablar utiliza will siempre que no ests muy seguro/a de que vas a hacer o no hacer algo, as tendrs ms probabilidades de acertar. Future Perfect Cmo expresaras en ingls la siguiente oracin? Para el prximo otoo habr escrito dos novelas. By next fall I'll have written two novels. Qu he hecho? He utilizado will ms have written." Use. Uso: Se utiliza el Future Perfect para expresar que en un determinado momento en el futuro completaremos o acabaremos de realizar una actividad. Es una forma de predecir. Veamos ms ejemplos: By five o'clock we'll have finished. A las cinco habremos acabado. In a couple of months he'll have read your report. En un par de meses habr ledo tu informe. In some weeks she will have seen your movie. En unas semanas ella habr visto tu pelcula.

Positivo: Sujeto + will + have + past participle By next Tuesday you will have bought a house. Para el prximo martes habrs comprado una casa. 54

Negativo: Sujeto

+ won't (will not)

+ have

+ past participle

By next Tuesday she won't have done her homework. Para el prximo martes ella no habr hecho sus deberes. + sujeto + have + past participle?

Pregunta: Will

Will you have finished by next Tuesday? Habrs terminado para el prximo martes?

PERFECT FUTURE (FUTURO PERFECTO COMPUESTO)


Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I, you will have stopped I, you will not (won't) have stopped Will I, you have stopped? He, she, it will have stopped He, she, it will not (won't) have stopped Will he, she, it have stopped? We, you, they will have stopped We, you, they will not (won't) have stopped Will we, you, they have stopped?

Use:
A completed action at a specific time in the future. Para indicar que una accin habr terminado en un momento concreto del futuro. By this time next week, I will have finished all my exams. La semana prxima, a esta hora, habr acabado todos mis exmenes.

Time expressions.
by this time next week, by ten o'clock, by then, by August, by the end of May.

Form. Estructura.
Afirmativa: Se construye con will + have + el participio del verbo principal. By the end of May, we will have paid our house. Para finales de Mayo habremos pagado nuestra casa.

Negativa: Slo hay que aadir a will la partcula not, y stas palabras se contraen en won't, forma habitual hablado. They wont have come by then. Ellos no habrn venido por entoces.

Interrogativa: para hacer preguntas con el futuro perfecto hay que invertir el orden de will y el sujeto. Will you have finished by ten oclock? Habrs terminado para las diez?

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COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE forms (COMPARATIVOS Y SUPERLATIVOS)


We use the comparative to compare two people or things and the superlative to compare three or more people or things. Jenny is younger than Mary. Jenny is the youngest of all her friends.

We use than with the comparative and theof / in with the superlative. We use in with the superlative, usually when we refer to places. London is bigger than leeds. It is the biggest city in England.

Some adjectives form their comparatives either by adding er / -est or with more / most. Some of these are: clever, stupid, narrow, gentle. clever cleverer the cleverest OR clever more clever the most clever.

asas is used to compare two people or things which are the same. Hes as tall as Peter.

Not as / so as is used in negative sentences. He isnt as / so rich as John.

Short and long adjectives


One-syllable and two-syllable adjectives (e.g. small, big, nice,) usually have the er, -est ending. Your hi-fi is bigger. This is the biggest computer.

But we use more, most before words ending in ed. Everyone was pleased at the results, but Mary was the most pleased.

We also use more, most with three-syllable adjectives (e.g. exciting) and with longer ones: more elegant, the most interesting project, the most reliable machine, The films was more exciting than the book.

Some two-syllable adjectives have er, -est, and some have more, most. Look at this information. Two-syllable adjectives 1. Words ending in a consonant + y have er, -est, e.g. happy happier, happiest. Examples are: busy, dirty, easy, funny, happy, heavy, lovely, lucky, pretty, silly, tidy. narrower, narrowest or 2. Some words have er, -est or more, most, e.g. narrow more narrow, most narrow. Examples are: clever, common, cruel, gentle, narrow, pleasant, polite, quiet, simple.

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3. The following words have more, most, e.g. useful

more useful, most useful.

a) Words ending in ful or less, e.g. careful, helpful, useful; hopeless. b) Words ending in ing or ed, e.g. boring, willing; annoyed, surprised. c) Many others, e.g. afraid, certain, correct, eager, exact, famous, foolish, frequent, modern, nervous, normal, recent.

Spelling
There are some special spelling rules for the er and est endings. 1. e -er, -est, e.g. nice nicer, nicest; large larger, largest. happier, happiest.

Also brave, fine, safe, etc. 2. y -ier, -iest after a consonant, e.g. happy Also lovely, lucky, pretty, etc.

3. Words ending in a single vowel letter + single consonant letter e.g. hot hotter, hottest, big bigger, biggest. Also fit, sad, thin, wet, etc (but w does not change, e.g. new

double the consonant. newer, newest.

The comparison of adverbs


Some adverbs have the same form as an adjective, e.g. early, fast, hard, high, late, long, near. They form the comparative and superlative with er, -est. faster, fastest, harder, hardest, earlier, earliest. Many adverbs are an adjective + -ly, e.g. carefully, easily, nicely, slowly. they form the comparative and superlative with more, most, more easily, most easily, more carefully, most carefully.

Irregular forms
Good, well, bad, badly and far have irregular forms. adjective / adverb good / well bad / badly far comparative superlative best worst farthest / furthest

better worse farther / further

Youve got the best handwriting. How much further are we going?

We can use elder, eldest + noun instead of older, oldest, but only for people in the same family. My elder / older sister got married last year.

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Comparing quantities
We use more, most and their opposites less and least to compare quantities. I havent got many books. Youve got more than I have. The Hotel Bristol has the most rooms. Mary spends less on clothes than Laura does. Emma made the least mistakes.

Comparative and superlative patterns


There are a number of different sentence patterns with comparative and superlative forms, e.g. older than me, the sweetest man in the word, We often use a phrase with than after a comparative. This restauranr is nicer than the Pizza House. The wine is more expensive than the coke.

We normally use the before a superlative. The quickest way is along this road. This question is the most difficult.

Note the pattern with one of. Michael Jackson is one of the most famous pop singers.

We can use in or of after a superlative. We use in with places and with groups of people, e.g. team. He is the best player in the team. Its the most expensive hotel in London.

We ofthen use a clause after a superlative. That was the most delicious fish (that) Ive ever eaten. She is the nicest person you could meet.

We use asas to say that things are equal or unequal. Our house is as big as yours. Today is warm. It isnt as / so cold as yesterday.

Note that in a negative sentence we can also use soas, but this is less common. Note also the same as (= lo mismo que). The result of the match was the same as last year.

Than me / than I am
Both are correct, and they have the same meaning. Youre three years older than me. Her husband isnt as tall as her.

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After than or as, a personal pronoun on its own has the object form, e.g. me, her Youre three years older than I am. Her husband isnt as tall as she is.

But if the pronoun has a verb after it, then we use the subject form, e.g. I, she.

Less and least


Less and least are the opposites of more a most. We use less and least with both long and short words. A bus is less expensive than a taxi. I am the least musical person in the world.

Much cheaper
We can put a word or phrase (e.g. much, far, a bit) before a comparative to say how much faster, cheaper, etc something is. Look at these examples. This sofa is a bit more comfortable. A bus is far cheaper than a taxi. It is much cheaper by train.

Before a comparative we can use much mucho, a lot un montn, far con diferencia, rather bastante, slightly ligeramente, a bit un poco, a little un poco.

Faster and faster, more and more expensive


We use expressions like these to say that something is increasing all the time. He was driving faster and faster. Everything gets more and more expensive.

The form depends on whether the comparative is with er (e.g. faster) or with more (e.g. more expensive). We can also use less and less for something decreasing. As we faced new problems, we felt less and less enthusiastic.

The cheaper, the better


This pattern is used to say that a change in one thing goes with a change in another. Look at these examples. The higher the price, the more reliable the product. The sooner we leave, the sooner well get there. The faster you drive, the better. We are late. The cheaper holiday, the better one.

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Cmo hacemos el comparativo?


1) Primero, tienes que ver de qu tipo de adjetivo se trata. Adjetivo corto. Son los de una sola sbala. Por ejemplo: o fat gordo/a, tall alto/a, big grande, Si es un adjetivo de una sola slaba entonces debemos aadir er al final para hacer el comparativo, de esta forma: fatter ms gordo/a Doblo la ltima consonante (tt) porque hay una vocal entre 2 consonantes. taller ms alto/a bigger ms grande Doblo la ltima consonante (gg) porque hay una vocal entre 2 consonantes. Adjetivo terminado en "y".Por ejemplo: o funny divertido, easy fcil, Si el adjetivo termina en y cambiamos la y por una i y aadimos -er, de esta forma: funnier ms divertido easier ms fcil Adjetivo largo. Es decir, tiene dos o ms slabas. Por ejemplo: o beautiful bonito, interesting interesante, En este caso ponemos la palabra more delante del adjetivo igual que hacermos en espaol. Por ejemplo: more beautiful ms hermoso more interesting ms interesante Adjetivo irregular. Hay un grupo de adjetivos en ingls que son especiales porque el comparativo no sigue las reglas anteriores. Algunos ejemplos: o good bueno/a better mejor o bad malo/a worse peor o old viejo older / elder viejo, ms viejo o mayor 2) A continuacin, para unir las dos oraciones que comparamos utilizamos "than" que significa "que". My car is bigger than yours. Mi coche es ms grande que el tuyo. I am taller than Peter. Yo soy ms alto que Pedro. Ana's house is smaller than Susan's. La casa de Ana es ms pequea que la de Susana. He is more intelligent than his brother. l es ms inteligente que su hermano. My laptop is faster than yours. Mi ordenador porttil es ms rpido que el tuyo. 60

Cmo hacemos el superlativo?


Puede ocurrir que queramos comparar una sola cosa o categora de personas o circunstancias respecto a un todo (el mundo, el planeta, el universo) o a otra categora. Este tipo de comparacin se llama comparacin en grado superlativo. Es muy importante recordar la diferencia entre estos dos tipos de comparaciones (el comparativo y el superlativo), para que puedas aprender a hacerlas correctamente. Puedo decir: Peter is more intelligent than you.Pedro es ms inteligente que t.

Este tipo de comparacin es slo entre dos personas. Puedo tambin decir: Peter is the most intelligent in the class.Pedro es el ms inteligente de la clase.

En este ejemplo no comparo a Pedro con una sola persona, sino con otra categora o grupo de personas (la clase). En espaol he utilizado la frmula: el ms + adjetivo (inteligente)+ de + una categora." En ingls hemos utilizado la frmula the most + adjetive (intelligent) in (the) + category." Al igual que hemos visto en los comparativos, en el grado superlativo debemos distinguir los distintos tipos de adjetivos. Veamos a continuacin cuales son las reglas para hacer oraciones en grado superlativo en ingls: 1) Primero, tienes que ver de qu tipo de adjetivo se trata. Adjetivo corto. Son los de una sola sbala. Por ejemplo: o fat gordo/a, tall alto/a, big grande, fast rpido/a, Si se trata de un adjetivo de una sola slaba entonces debemos aadir est al final para hacer el Superlativo. Al construir la frase antes del adjetivo hay que poner the. the fattest el ms gordo En este caso doblo la (tt) porque hay una vocal entre dos consonantes. the tallest el ms alto the biggest el ms grande En este caso doblo (gg) porque hay una vocal entre dos consonantes. the fastest el ms rpido Adjetivo terminado en -y. Por ejemplo: o funny divertido, easy fcil, Si el adjetivo termina en y cambiamos la y por una i y aadimos -est. the funniest el ms divertido the easiest el ms fcil Adjetivo es largo, es decir, tiene dos o ms slabas. Por ejemplo: o beautiful bonito, interesting interesante 61

En este caso ponemos las palabras the most delante del adjetivo. As: the most beautiful el ms hermoso the most interesting el ms inteligente Adjetivo irregular. Hay un grupo de adjetivos en ingls que son especiales porque no siguen las reglas anteriores. o good bueno/a the best el mejor (de todos) o bad malo/a the worst el peor (de todos) o old viejo the oldest / eldest el ms viejo o mayor (de todos) 2) A continuacin aadiremos la categora o conjunto al que estamos comparamos. Pueden ser categoras muy distintas. Por ejemplo: of all de todos/as, in the class de la clase, in the universe del universo, in the world, del mundo, He is the tallest in the class. l es el ms alto de su clase. Ana's house is the smallest of all. La casa de Ana es la ms pequea de todas. He is the best in the world. l es el mejor del mundo. My laptop is the fastest in the market. Mi ordenador porttil es ms rpido del mercado.

FIRST, SECOND, THIRD CONDITIONAL (CONDICIONALES)


Las oraciones condicionales son de tres clases segn el tipo de condicin que expresen. Las oraciones condicionales son oraciones en las que la persona que habla expresa una accin que slo puede cumplirse si se dan uno, o ms, requisitos. La oracin condicional expresa una accin sometida a "condicin" (de ah el nombre de "condicional"). Las estructuras condicionales estn compuestas por dos oraciones divididas por una coma; as una accin "condiciona" a la otra. El orden de las oraciones no altera el significado, por ello, es posible poner en primer lugar la oracin que aparece en segundo lugar.

If you hit me, Ill hit you. First Conditonal


Use if + Present Simple (for example: If it rains) to talk about things in the future which can happen or which are possible. Then use the future (will) for the result (for example: we will get wet.). In other words, If A happens, B will happen. Su estructura bsica es: if + presente simple en la condicin y futuro en el resultado. Expresa lo que ocurrir con seguridad si se cumple la condicin. No importa el orden en que coloques el resultado y la condicin, pero si sta va primero, se pone siempre una coma entre ambas partes. 62

Para expresar que algo no ocurirr a menos que se cumpla la condicin se puede negar el verbo que est en presente o bien ponerlo en afirmativa pero introducido por la conjuncin unless (si no, a menos que, a no ser que), que equivale a if not. Con en este tipo de oracin condicional la persona que habla indica que si realizas una accin determinada "es muy posible" que se d un resultado determinado. Este tipo de oracin condicional es relativamente fcil de aprender pues su estructura es semejante a la del espaol. In the example: If it rains, we will get wet, it is possible or probable that it will rain. We will get wet will be the result. If you lend me some money, Ill buy you a drink. Si me prestas algn dinero, te comprar una bebida. If you hit me, Ill hit you. Si me golpeas, te golpear.

You can also start the sentence with B will happen and follow it with If A happens. The meaning of the sentence is the same. Well get wet if it rains. Nos mojaremos si llueve. Ill come in if the waters not too cold. Me meter si el agua no est demasiado fra.

In all these examples, it is the part of the sentence after if (the if clause) which tells you what can happen or what is possible (if A happens). The other part of the sentence is the result (B will happen).

If-clause If If we If we If it If I Present Simple hurry, miss it, doesnt rain, dont practise,

main clause will we ll catch the bus. there ll be another one. we ll be having a picnic. I wont get any better.

If you wore glasses, youd see better. Second conditional.


Use if + the Past Simple (if you wore glasses) to talk about things which are possible but not very probable. Then use would + a main verb for the result (youd see better). In other words, If A happened, B would happen. If you went to England for a year, youd learn a lot of English. Si t fueras a Inglaterra durante un ao, (t) aprenderas un montn de ingls. If he won a lot of money, hed travel round the world. Si l ganara un montn de dinero, (l) viajara por todo el mundo.

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In these two examples it is not probable that the other person will go to England for a year or win a lot of money. You can also use if + the Past Simple to talk about things which are impossible. If you were taller, I would dance with you. Si fueras ms alto, bailara contigo. If I were you, Id see a doctor. Si yo fuera t, vera a un mdico.

In these examples it is imposible for the boy to be taller or for I to be you. Notice that you can use either was or were after the 1st and 3rd persons singular in the if clause. Su estructura es if + pasado simple en la condicin y condicional simple en el resultado. Expresa condiciones hipotticas referidas al presente, es decir, que es poco probable que ocurran. Fjate en que en castellano se usa el pretrito imperfecto de subjuntivo en lugar del pasado. Si el verbo de la oracin subordinada es to be se suele utilizar were en todas las personas. In the same way as with the 1st conditional you can start the sentence with B would happen and follow it with if A happened. The meaning of the sentence is the same.

If wed run, wed have caught the bus. Third conditional.


Use if + the Past Perfect (if we had run) to talk about things which did not happen in the past. Then use would have + a main verb for the result (we would have caught it). In order words, If A had happened, B would have happened. If Id (I had) known it was your birthday, Id (I would) have bought you a present. Si hubiera sabido que era tu cumpleaos, te habra comprado un regalo. If shed asked me, Id have come. Si ella me lo hubiera pedido, yo habra venido. (Ella no me lo pidi, por eso no vine.)

La estructura bsca es: if + pretrito pluscuamperfecto en la condicin y condicional compuesto en el resultado. En este caso la hiptesis es imposible, pues se refiere al pasado y, por tanto, ya no puede realizarse. In the same way as with the 1st and 2nd conditionals, you can start the sentence with B would have happened and follow it with if A had happened. The meaning of the sentence is the same.

Conditionals (1)
Type 1: If we hurry, well catch the bus. The verb in the if-clause (e,g, hurry ) is in the Present Simple, not the future. But we can use will in the if-clause when we make a request. If youll just wait a moment, Ill find someone to help you. (= Please wait a moment)

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We can use the Present Continuous (e.g. are doing) or the Present Perfect (e.g. have done) in the if-clause. If were expecting visitors, the flat will need a good clean. If youve finished with the computer, Ill put it away.

The main clause often has will. But we can use other modal verbs (e.g. can). En lugar del futuro con will, es posible expresar el resultado con los modales may y might, con el presente de indicativo y con el imperativo. Con might la probabilidad de que se cumpla la hiptesis es an menor que con may. If you havent got a television, you cant watch it, can you? If Henrry jogs regularly, he might lose weight.

We sometimes use the Present Simple in both clauses. If you heat water, it boils. If Daniel has any money, he spends it.

This means that one thing always follows automatically from another. The if-clause usually comes first, but it can come after the main clause. Ill phone you if I hear any news.

More uses of type 1


We can use type 1 conditionals in offers and suggestions. If you need a ticket, I can get you one. If you feel like seeing the sights, we can take a bus tour.

We can also use them in warnings and threats. If you go on like this, youll make yourself ill. If you dont apologize, Ill never speak to you again.

Conditionals (2)
Type 2: If I ate cake, Id get fat. As well as the Past Simple we can use the Past Continuous (e.g. was doing) in the if-clause. If Rachel was playing her stereo, it wouldnt be so quiet in here.

In a type 2 if-clause we sometimes use were instead of was, especially in the clause if I were you. If I were you, Id ask a lawyer for some advice.

The main clause often has would. We can also use could or might. La variante de would en el segundo condicional son los modales could y might, pero ambos indican que la probabilidad de que la hiptesis se cumpla es an menor. Equivalen al condicional "podra" o a las expresiones "tal vez" / "quizs".

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If we had a calculator, we could work this out a lot quicker. If Rachel worked harder, she might do even better at her studies.

In the type 2 conditional, the action is less probable. Type 2 is less direct than type 1. The speaker is less sure that you want to do something.

More uses of type 2


We can use type 2 conditionals in offers and suggestions. If you needed a ticket, I could get you one. If you felt like seeing the sights, we could take a bus tour.

Conditionals (3)
Type 3: If we had gone earlier, we would have had better weather. The main clause often has would have. We can also use could have or might have. Las variantes posibles de esta estructura son could / might + infinitivo compuesto en la oracin principal. If Id had my mobile phone yesterday, I could have contacted you. We just caught the train. If wed stopped to buy a newspaper, we might have missed it.

The short form d can be either had or would. If youd (= had) rung me, Id (= would) have come to see you.

More uses of type 3


We use type 3 conditional to talk about things in the past happening differently from the way they really happened. This sometimes means criticizing people or pointing out their mistakes. If youd been a bit more carefull, you wouldnt have cut yourself. If Mary had set her alarm clock, she wouldnt have overslept.

We can also use this structure to express regret about the past. If I hadnt fallen ill and missed the interview, I might have got the job.

If, when, unless and in case


Present Simple for the future. Look at these examples. Youll be tired tomorrow if you stay up late. T estars cansado maana si te quedas levantado tarde. Tell me when the water boils. Avsame cuando el agua hierva. I wont do anything unless you agree. No har nada a menos que ests de acuerdo. Write the name in case you forget it. Escribe el nombre en caso de que lo olvides.

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We use the Present Simple for the future after linking words such as if, when, unless and in case.

If or when?
We use if for something that we think might happen. We use if (not when) for something impossible or imaginary. Usamos if para algo que creemos que podra suceder. Usamos if (no when) para algo imposible o imaginario. If you hear any news, can you ring me immediately? Si escuchas alguna noticia, puedes llamarme inmediatamente? If I were you, Id refuse. Si yo fuera tu, me negara.

We use when for something that we know will happen. Usamos when para algo que sabemos que suceder. Ill make myself an omelette when I get home tonight. (I will get home tonight). Me har una tortilla cuando llegue a mi casa esta noche.

We can use either if or when in contexts where they mean every time. If / when you run, you use up energy. Si / Cuando t corres, tu desgastas energa. (= Cada vez que corres)

If and unless
If...not means the same as unless. I cant see if I dont wear glasses. = I cant see unless I wear glasses. Yo no puedo ver si no llevo gafas. = No puedo ver a menos que lleve gafas. I wouldnt say that if I didnt believe it. = I wouldnt say that unless I believed it. No dira eso si no lo creyera. = No dira eso si no lo creyera.

In case
Look at these examples: Take a sndwich with you in case you get hungry. Llvate un sandwich por sit e da hambre. Laura took two photos in case one of them didnt come out. Laura sac dos fotos por si una de ellas no vala.

We use in case to talk about doing something to avoid a possible problem later on. Usamos in case para hablar sobre hacer algo para evitar un posible problema ms tarde. Compare if and in case. Ill bring in the washing if it rains. (= Ill bring it in at the time it starts raining.) Meter la colada si llueve. Ill bring in the washing in case it rains. (= Ill bring it in now because it might rain later.) Meter la colada por si llueve.

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WISH CLAUSES
Refer to a desired situation in the present. Se refieren a una situacin a una situacin deseada en el presente.

Wish and if only.


We can use I wish or if only to express a wish. If only is stronger an more emphatic than wish. We can use a clause with if only on its own, or we can add another clause. Posemos usar I wish o if only para expresar un deseo. If only es ms fuerte y ms enftico que wish. Podemos usar una oracin con if only slo, o podemos aadir otra proposicin. If only I wasnt so fat. Si no estuviera tan gorda. If only I wasnt so fat, I would be able to get into these trousers. Si no estuviera tan gorda, sera capaz de meterme en estos pantalones.

Wishwould.
Look at these examples. I wish you would put those shelves up soon. Deseara que montaras esas estanteras pronto. Tom wishes his neighbours wouldnt make so much noise. Tom desea que sus vecinos no hiciran tanto ruido. If only youd try to keep the place tidy. Si slo intentaras mantener el lugar limpio.

Wish / If only would expresses a wish for something to happen, or to stop happening. Expresa un deseo de que algo suceda o deje de suceder.

Wishthe past.
Wish and if only with a past-tense verb express a wish for things to be different. Expresa un deseo de que las cosas fueran diferentes. I wish I lived in a big city. Its so boring in the country. Deseara vivir en una gran ciudad. Es tan aburrido el campo.

We can use were instead of was. Were is used as the form of be in all wishes about the present. (This is a subjunctive form.) If only I were taller, I might be better at basketball. Si fuera ms alto, podra ser mejor en baloncesto.

El verbo wish suele llevar como complemento directo una oracin subordinada introducida por la conuncin that (que se puede omitir). Equivale al castellano "ojal" + subjuntivo I wish(that) I were home. Ojal estuviese en casa.

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We cannot use would in these sentences, but we can use could. I wish I could sing (but I cant). Yo deseara poder cantar. (pero no puedo)

Compare wish with would and with the past. I wish something exciting would happen. (I wish for an action in the future.) Yo deseara que algo excitante sucediera. (yo deseo una accin futura.) I wish my life was more interesting. (My life isnt interesting.) Deseara que mi vida fuese ms interesante. (Mi vida no es interesante.)

Wishthe Past Perfect


We use wish and if only with the Past Perfect to express a wish about the past. Usamos wish y if only con el pasado perfecto para expresar un deseo sobre el pasado. I wish Id got up earlier. Deseara haberme levantado ms temprano. If only David had been a bit more careful, hed have been all right. Si David hubiera sido un poc ms cuidadoso, l habra estado bien.

We do not use would have for the past, but we can use could have. No usamos would have para el pasado, pero podemos utilizar could have. I wish I could have been at the wedding, but I was in New York. Deseara poder haber estado en la boda, pero estaba en New York.

MODAL VERBS (VERBOS MODALES)


There is a special group of verbs called modals (modal auxiliaries). They usually go before the main verb. Subject Modal verb can could may might will would shall should ought to must need to Main verb

I You He They etc

walk come leave try etc

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The modals are different from the auxiliaries do, have and be, because they mean something. Los modales son diferentes de los verbos auxiliares (do, have, be), porque los verbos modales significan algo. Look at this sentence: He can speak English. Can here means know how to. But in the sentence: He is speaking, the word is has no meaning. Most modal verbs have more than one meaning. La mayora de los verbos modales tiene ms de un significado. Can he drive? = Does he know how to drive? (ability) Can he come with us? = Is it all right if he comes with us? (permission)

All these modal verbs share common characterictics. Estos verbos tienen algunas caractersticas comunes: They are usually used to refer to present or future situations. The only exception is going to be the modal verb could which is used for past situations. Normalmente se emplean para referirse a situaciones presentes o futuras a excepcin del modal could que se usa en pasado They are invariable, I mean they dont add an s ending at the third person singular of present simple tense; they have an unique form for singular and plural and they havent got different forms for the infinitive, past participle or compound tenses. Son invariables: no aaden s en la tercera persona de singular del presente, slo tienen una forma tanto en singular como en plural, y no tienen infinitivo, participio ni tiempos compuestos. They make negative with not. They dont need to use the auxilary do helping to form the negative and interrogative sentences, with the only exception of have to . No necesitan do para formar la negativa ni la interrogativa (salvo have to) They are never followed by a to-infinitive Nunca llevan detrs un infinitivo con to (menos be able to, have to, need to y ought to, que ya llevan incorporada esta preposicin) Be able to, have to y need to son semimodales porque no comparten todas estas caractersticas, pero s algunos usos de los verbos modales (obligacin, habilidad, etc.) We are going to describe the different uses and meanings of the modal verbs, and of phrases with a modal function. Vamos a describir los diferentes usos y significados de lso verbos modales y frases con una funcin modal.

The verb Can:


He can drive. Talking about ability.
Look at these two sentences. They mean the same thing: He can drive. El puede conducir. He knows how to drive. El sabe cmo conducir.

Notice that can never has and s at the end. Nota que can nunca lleva s de tercera persona. I can swim. Yo puedo nada. She can play tennis. Ella puede jugar al tenis. They can help us. Ellos pueden ayudarnos. 70

We form the negative like this: I cant speak Spanish. Yo no puedo hablar espaol. She cant drive. Ella no puede conducir.

When you write formal English use cannot. (= can + not) Babies cannot / can not walk. Los bebs no pueden caminar. Elephants cannot / can not jump. Los elefantes no pueden saltar.

We form questions like this: Can you understand Italian? Puedes entender el italiano? Can he cook? Puede (l) cocinar?

When you want to talk about things in the past (last year, in 1982,) use I could, I couldnt (could not) He could play football when he was young. El poda jugar al ftbol cuando era joven. She could swim when she was one, but she couldnt walk. Ella poda nada cuando tena un ao, pero no poda caminar. He couldnt speak English last year. El no poda hablar ingls el ao pasado.

Can / be able to
Can tiene varios usos, ya que sirve para: Expresar habilidad o capacidad: "saber", "poder". Hacer un ofrecimiento o una sugerencia. Hacer peticiones, dar y pedir permiso. Indicar posibilidad You can communicate with your friends by email. Puedes comunicarte con tus amigos por email.

En negativa tiene, adems de stos, otros dos usos: Para expresar deduccin o certeza. Para indicar prohibicin. You can't use the mobile if you're driving. No se puede usar el mvil si vas conduciendo.

Be able to en presente, se puede usar en otros tiempos verbales. Will he be able to learn his rol for Friday? Podr aprenderse el papel para el viernes?

Can es un verbo modal (auxiliar). Eso significa que es un verbo que necesita ir acompaado de otro verbo en la oracin para tener sentido. Can slo se puede utilizar en Presente, es decir: Yo puedo, T puedes, etc. You can work. T puedes trabajar. 71

Can significa "poder" (ser capaz de). No obstante, tambin puede significar "saber hacer algo", es decir, indica tener una habilidad. Can se usa para: Solicitar o pedir algo: Can you come? Puedes venir? Pedir y dar permiso You can go. Te puedes ir Indicar una posibilidad Who's that man? It can only be your friend. Quin es se? Slo puede ser tu amigo. Habilidades She can drive. Ella sabe conducir. Positivo Sujeto + can + verbo siempre en infinitivo. I can eat a lot. Yo puedo comer mucho. She can study now. Ella puede estudiar ahora. It can work. Puede funcionar. (Una mquina, por ejemplo) They can see us. Ellos / Ellas pueden vernos.

Negativo Sujeto + cannot (can't) + verbo principal en infinitivo siempre. They cannot (can't) work. Ellos / Ellas no pueden trabajar

Pregunta Can + sujeto + verbo siempre en infinitivo? Can you open the door? Puedes abrir la puerta (t)?

Be able to es el verbo to be ms un adjetivo able que significa "ser capaz de", tener una habilidad especfica. Be able to se puede utilizar en todos los tiempos. Veamos algunos ejemplos: Present: I am able to do it. Yo soy capaz de hacerlo. Past: You were able to swim T sabas (podas) nadar Present Perfect: She hasn't been able to come. Ella no ha podido venir. Future: They will be able to fly Ellos podrn volar. Conditional: I would be able to do it, if you let me Yo sera capaz (podra) de hacerlo, si t me dejaras.

Can I use your telephone, please? Asking permission.


When you want to know if it is all right to do something, you normally use Can I? Can I use your telephone? Puedo usar tu telfono?

Use Could I..? or May I? if you want to be very polite. Usa Could o May si quieres ser ms educado. The answers to these questions are usually: Yes, of course or No, Im afraid not. Can I borrow your bicycle, please? Yes, of course. Puedo tomar prestada tu bici, por favor? S, por supuesto. Could I sit downd here, please? No, Im afraid not. Podra sentarme aqu, por favor? No, me temo que no. May I come in? Yes, of course Puedo entrar? S, por supuesto.

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Can you help me, please? Making a request.


If you want to ask somebody to do something, you normally use: Can you? Can you help me, please? Puede ayudarme, por favor?

Use Could you? or Would you? if you want to be very polite. Usa Could o Would si quieres ser ms educado. Could you answer the phone, please? Podras responder al telfono, por favor? Would you post this letter, please? Me mandaras esta carta por correo, por favor?

You can answer these questions with: Yes, of course, No, Im sorry, I

The verb Must:


You must stay in bed! Talking about obligation.
If you want to talk about rules, orders or duties, use: You must You have (got) to You should You ought to Its late. You must do your homework. Es tarde. Debes hacer tus deberes. You have (got) to go to school. Tienes que ir al colegio. You should help him. Deberas ayudarlo. You ought to get a job. Tendras que conseguir un trabajo.

When the speaker says You must, he is ordering the other person to do something. Cuando el que habla usa You must, l est ordenando a la otra persona que haga algo. If the speaker says You have (got) to, he means that there is a rule or law which forces or obliges the other person to do something. Si el hablante dice You have (got) to, l quiere decir que hay un regla o ley que fuerza u obliga a la otra persona a hacer algo. If the speaker says You should or You ought to, he thinks it is right for the other person, or the other person has a duty, to do something. Should and ought to mean the same. Si el hablante dice You should o You ought to, l cree que es lo correcto para la otra persona, o que la otra persona tiene un deber, u obligacin de hacer algo. Should y ought to tendran el mismo significado. If there are no rules, orders or duties you can say: You dont have to (but not You mustnt, You shouldnt or You oughtnt to). You dont have to do your homework now. You can do it tomorrow. T no tienes que hacer tus deberes ahora. Puedes hacerlos maana. You dont have to help him. He can manage on his own. T no tienes que ayudarlo. l puede aparselas slo.

If you want to ask about rules and orders, you can usually say: Must I?, Have I got to?, Do I have to? or Should I?. Must I go to bed now? Debo acostarme ahora? Have I got to wear a seat belt? Tengo que llevar cinturn de seguridad? Do I have to open it? Tengo que abrirlo? Should we give him some money? Deberamos darle algn dinero?

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We must take an umbrella. Talking about necessity.


If you want to talk about things it is necessary to do, use I have to, I must, or I need to He has to walk to school. (Es necesario para l caminar) I must get a new passport. (Es necerario para m conseguir) I need to buy some petrol. (Es necesario para m comprar) He had to go to hospital. (Era necesario para l ir)

If something is not necessary, use I dont have to, or I dont need to (but not I mustnt). We dont have to run, we are not late. No necesitamos corer, no llegamos tarde. You dont need to get there till 9 oclock. No necesitas estar all hasta las 9.

Compare these two sentences: We mustnt run. (We are not allowed to run). We dont have to run. (Its not necessary for us to run). You can us questions like this: Do you have to walk to school? Necesitas ir caminando al colegio? Do we need to do this again? Necesitamos hacerlo otra vez?

Could
Se usa: Para indicar abilidad y capacidad en el pasado Para hacer peticiones o pedir un favor de manera ms formal que con can. Para hacer sugerencias Para expresar una posibilidad ms remota que con can. She could become a great star. Podra convertirse en una gran estrella.

Could. Es un verbo modal que slo se puede utilizar: En Pasado: "Yo pude, T pudiste, etc. " Ejemplo: "Could you work yesterday?." Pudiste trabajar ayer? En Condicional: "Yo podra, T podras, etc. I could do it. Yo podra hacerlo. Subjuntivo: Puede que... She could come. Puede que (ella) venga.

Observacin: La traduccin del ingls al espaol, "puede que" o "podra", depender del contexto de la oracin.

He may bite! Talking about probability.


If you want to talk about the chances (risks) of something happening or not happening you can use may, could or might, but not can. It could rain tomorrow. Podra llover maana. It may crash. Puede chocar. We might win. Pdramos ganar.

You can put NOT after may and might for the negative: 74

She may not come. Ella podra no venir. They might not like it. A ellos podra no gustarle.

Notice that could not has a different meaning things in the past.

May / might
Ambos verbos expresan la posibilidad de que algo ocurra en el presente o en el futuro, sin ser seguro. Might expresa una posibilidad ms remota que may . Como has visto, can tambin expresa posibilidad pero denota que las circunstancias reales lo permiten. May tambin se utiliza para hacer peticiones y pedir y dar permiso de una forma ms educada que con can. Por otro lado "maybe" ("may" + "be" juntos) es un adverbio que significa "quiz", "tal vez", "a lo mejor". May se puede traducir de dos maneras: "Puede que". En espaol este tiempo se llama "subjuntivo" y en ambos idiomas indica una accin hipottica o una probabilidad. Por ejemplo: It may rain. Puede que llueva "Poder" . Esto es Presente del verbo poder. En este caso, este verbo es muy verstil porque lo podemos utilizar para hablar en: Presente: You may leave now. Ahora te puedes marchar. Futuro: It may snow tomorrow. Puede que nieve maana. Al aadir "tomorrow" lo convierto en futuro. Para pedir algo de forma educada y formal (polite) (*): May I open the door Puedo abrir la puerta?

Cmo diferenciamos "May" de "Can" y "Could"? Son distintos grados de formalidad. Veamos: Entre amigos: Can I open the door? (informal) Entre conocidos: Could I open the door? (formal) Entre desconocidos: May I open the door? (muy formal) (*) OBSERVACIN: El ingls hablado (sobre todo el britnico) utiliza unas construcciones mucho ms formales que el espaol. Siempre se pregunta con "please"; "could"; "may" Would you be so kind? Sera usted tan amable?

Positivo Sujeto + may + verbo principal en infinitivo. She may help me. Puede que ella me ayude. It may rain. Puede que llueva.

Negativo Sujeto + may + not + verbo en infinitivo It may not work. Puede que no funcione.

Pregunta May + sujeto + verbo en infinitivo ? Do you think he may come? Crees que (l) vendr?

Nota: May y Might nunca llevan "to", ni delante ni detrs. 75

May not (al igual que "might not") significa puede que no, es probable que no. Cannot / can't significa no puedo. Los verbos modales may y might se utilizan para hablar de probabilidades; pero utilizamos "might" para indicar una probabilidad menor que la de "may". Veamos un ejemplo: He may come tomorrow Puede que (l) venga maana = es probable que venga. He might talk to you then Puede que (l) hable contigo en entonces. = es menos probable que suceda

Qu significa "Might"? "Might" significa al igual que "May"; "puede que" (subjuntivo del verbo poder) y tambin el presente del verbo "poder": Yo puedo, T puedes, etc. En ciertas ocasiones, tambin lo podemos traducir por "quiz(s)" o en condicional "podra..." Positivo Sujeto + might + verbo principal en infinitivo. He might fly to London. Puede que l viaje a Londres .Escasa probabilidad. If you come you might be surprised. Si vienes, puede que te sorprendas. Uso condicional. They said that he might be ill. Ellos/as dijeron que quiz l est enfermo.

Negativo Sujeto + might + not (mightn't) + verbo en infinitivo Pregunta I wonder + if + sujeto + might + verbo en infinitivo I wonder if he might come in. Me pregunto si l puede/podra entrar.

He can be very good! Talking about possibility.


You use can / could to say that situations or events are / were possible. It can be quite cold in April. Puede hacer bastante fro en Abril. Smoking can damage your health. Fumar puede daar tu salud. It could be very lonely on the island in those days. Se podia estar muy solo en la isla esos das.

You can ask questions about how posible / probable things are with can or could. Can this be true? Puede ser cierto? Could it happen? Poda suceder?

You can also ask: Do you think will? Do you think they will come? Crees que vendrn?

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Can I help you? Making offers.


If you want to do something for somebody, for example help somebody or buy somebody a drink, you can say: Ill, Shall I?, Can I?, Would you like? Ill carry that for you. Te lo llevar. Shall I do the washing up? Friego los platos? Can I give you a lift? Te llevo? Would you like a cup of coffee? Te gustara una taza de caf?

You can answer these questions with: Thank you, Yes, please, No, thank you, No, thanks. Ill pay for this. Thank you. Yo lo pagar. Gracias. Shall I open the window? Yes, please. Abro la ventana? S, por favor. Can I post that letter for you? Yes, please. Puedo mandar la carta por t? S, por favor. Would you like a sandwich? No, thanks. Te gustara un sandwich? No, gracias.

You should see a doctor. Giving advice.


If you want to advise someone what to do, you can say: You must, You should, You ought to Must is stronger than should and ought to. You must buy a new suitcase. Debes comprar una nueva maleta. You should be more careful. Deberas ser ms cuidadoso. You ought to eat more fruit. Tendras que comer ms fruta.

If you want to advise somebody not to do something, you can say: You must not (mustnt), or You should not (shouldnt) You mustnt smoke so much. T no debes fumar tanto. You shouldnt ask so many questions. No deberas hacer tantas preguntas.

Notice that mustnt is stronger than shouldnt. Oughtnt to is very uncommon. If you want to ask for advice, you can say: Should I?, Should we? Should we call an ambulance? Deberamos llamar a una ambulancia?

He can play the drums and the guitar. Ability in the present You can introduce her to my cousin.Suggestion Can you drive me home? Request He is able to play the drums and the guitar. Ability She can't win the Oscar. The other actress is better. Certainty that something is impossible Deduccin negativa He could play the drums and the guitar. Ability in the past You could try asking for help. Polite request Javier Bardem may play the main character. Polite suggestion Javier Bardem might play the main character.Probability May I use your phone? Polite request Would you please drive me home? Polite request Would you like a drink? Offer

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You must leave now. Obligation, necessity Learning Japanese must be very difficult. Certainty that something is true. Do you have to leave now? Obligation You need to leave quickly. Obligation, necessity She needn't wait for them Lack of obligation. You mustn't arrive late. Prohibition She doesn't have to wait for them. Lack of obligation You should improve your pronunciation Advice / opinion You ought to improve your pronunciacion Advice / opinion. Shall I help you with the project? Offer

Would

Hacer peticiones de forma educada Hacer ofrecimientos

Cundo usamos Would? Usamos Would para formar el tiempo condicional en ingls. En espaol, equivale a los verbos que acaban en "ra". Por ejemplo: Yo comera. Si te fijas, este tiempo indica que "el sujeto realizar la accin slo si se cumple una condicin." De ah lo de "condicional". Positivo Sujeto + would + verbo principal en infinitivo. I would work. Yo trabajara. She would study. Ella estudiara. It would work. (Ello) Funcionara.

Negativo Sujeto + would + not (wouldn't) + verbo en infinitivo I would not (wouldn't) work. Yo no trabajara. She would not (wouldn't) study. Ella no estudiara.

Pregunta Would + sujeto + verbo en infinitivo? Would I work? Trabajara? Would she study? Estudiara (ella)?

La forma contrada wouldn't es la que se utiliza habitualmente al hablar. Si se dice would not al hablar, es normalmente para dar nfasis. Lista de contracciones: I would.I'd You wouldYou'd He would. He'd She would.. She'd It would It'd We would.We'd They would.They'd

Must / have to
Must slo se usa para expresar obligacin en presente. En los dems tiempos verbales se usa have to. Los dos expresan necesidad y obligacin, pero con must la necesidad es ms fuerte. Si queremos suavizar la frase utilizamos have to.

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You must tell the police the truth. Debes decir la verdad a la polica. Jane has to work this weekend. Jane tiene que trabajar este fin de semana.

Must tambin sirve para expresar la seguridad que se tiene de que algo es cierto "deber de". Must se puede traducir como "deber", es decir, tener la obligacin de hacer algo. Yo debo, T debes, l debe... Por tanto, su significado es ms de obligacin que should "deberas (recomendacin, sugerencia, consejo). Positivo Sujeto + must + verbo principal en infinitivo I must do it. Yo debo hacerlo. She must help me. Ella me debe ayudar. It must be good. (Ello) debe ser bueno. (**)

Negativo Sujeto + must + not (mustn't) + verbo en infinitivo I must not (mustn't) do it. Yo no debo hacerlo. She must not (mustn't) know it. Ella no debe saberlo It must not (mustn't) be good. (Ello) No debe ser bueno.

Pregunta Must + sujeto + verbo en infinitivo? Must I do it? Debo (yo) hacerlo? Must she come? Debe (ella) venir? Must it be that way? Debe (ello) ser as?

(**) En este caso, "must" sirve para hacer un juicio o una valoracin, igual que la expresin en espaol debe ser/estar bueno. Nota: Must / Should /Can / Could NUNCA LLEVAN "to", ni delante ni detrs. La forma contrada "mustn't" es la que se utiliza habitualmente al hablar. Si se dice "must not" al hablar, es normalmente para dar nfasis. Cul es la diferencia entre must y have to? A menudo encontrars en los libros de gramtica la expresin have to junto a must. Primero aclaremos que have to no es un "modal verb". Es simplemente el verbo principal "tener". Se explica junto a must con el fin de diferenciar dos tipos de obligaciones: Have to expresa una obligacin externa a ti. Algo que te obliga a hacer una ley; una norma, un poder externo. Must expresa una obligacin interna; un deber autoimpuesto por el sujeto. Estas diferencias son confusas para los hispanoparlantes pues no existe tal diferencia en espaol; ambas expresiones se utilizan de forma equivalente. Por ejemplo es practicamente igual decir Debes conducir por la derecha queTienes que conducir por la derecha. Veamos algunos ejemplos: You have to drive on the right. Tienes que conducir por la derecha. Nota: Aqu utilizamos have to porque es una obligacin impuesta por las leyes. They have to work on Saturdays. Ellos tienen que trabajar los sbados. Nota: Suponiendo, por ejemplo, que es una obligacin impuesta por la empresa. 79

He must do his homework. l debe hacer sus deberes. Nota: Es una una obligacin que el se debe autoimponer.

Positivo Sujeto + have to + verbo en infinitivo. We have to be there at 5 o'clock. Tenemos que estar all a las 5.

Pregunta Do / does + sujeto + have to + verbo en infinitivo? Do we have to be there at 5 o'clock. Tenemos que estar all a las 5?.

Have to no es un modal verb; admite todos los tiempos verbales. Must es invariable, no se puede conjugar.

Should / ought to
Se pueden utilizar indistintamente para dar consejos y hacer recomendaciones, aunque should es mucho ms frecuente. Ought to apenas se usa en negativa e interrogativa. Que significa should? Podemos traducir should por "debera": You should study more. Deberas estudiar ms.

Positivo Sujeto + should + verbo principal en infinitivo. I should work. Yo debera trabajar. She should learn. Ella debera aprender.

Negativo Sujeto + should + not (shouldn't) + verbo en infinitivo I should not (shoudn't) work. Yo no debera trabajar. She should not (shouldn't) study. Ella no debera estudiar.

Pregunta Should + sujeto + verbo en infinitivo? Should I work? Debera (yo) trabajar? Should she study? Debera (ella) estudiar ?

Ought significa "debera, deberas, etc". Es, por tanto, exactamente igual que should; una sugerencia, invitacin. Positivo Sujeto + ought to + verbo principal en infinitivo We ought to tell him. Deberamos contrselo. I ought to work more. Debera trabajar ms. You ought to turn right. Debes girar a la derecha.

Negativo (formal) Sujeto + ought + not (oughtn't) + to + verbo en infinitivo We ought not to go there. No deberamos ir all. 80

Negativo (informal) Sujeto + don't / doesn't + think + pronombre personal + ought+ to + ver en infinitivo We don't think we ought to go there. No creemos que deberamos ir all.

Pregunta (informal) Do / Does + sujeto + think + pronombre personal + ought to + verbo en infinitivo? Do you think he ought to write a letter? Crees que l debera escribir una carta?

Pregunta (formal) Ought + sujeto + to + verbo en infinitivo? Ought he to write a letter? Debera l escribir una carta?

PERFECT MODALS (VERBOS MODALES PERFECTOS)


Should / ought to have + participio
She should / ought to have asked for permission Criticism given after an event.

Shouldn't have + participio


They shouldn't have told anybody Criticism given after an event.

Must have + participio


The documentary must have already started A logical conclusion about a past action.

May / might have + participio


Kim may / might have missed the bus A guess about a past action.

Could have + participio


The author could have written a more interesting story Ability to have done something.

Couldn't have + participio


He couldn't have spent all the money A certainly that something did not happen.

Needn't have + participio


You needn't have got up so early An unnecesary action in the past.

Should / ought to have + participio


Expresa crtica ante un hecho ya ocurrido. Se utiliza para lamentar que algo no ocurriera en el pasado y que no se haya cumplido lo que esperbamos. Kate should / ought to have come to the party. Kate debera haber venido a la fiesta. 81

Shouldn't have + participio Must have + participio

Con este modal expresamos nuestra opinin crtica sobre un hecho pasado indicando. que no debera haber ocurrido. Se usa para expresar certeza o una conclusin lgica sobre un hecho pasado "deber de haber...". Se usa para hacer una suposicin sobre algo pasado. Indica habilidad o capacidad en el pasado para hacer algo que finalmente no se llev a cabo. En negativa expresa la incredulidad de que lo ocurrido sea cierto. Expresa que no exista necesidad ni obligacin de llevar a cabo algo que ya se ha hecho.

May / might have + participio Could have + participio

Couldn't have + participio Needn't have + participio

REPORTED SPEECH (ESTILO INDIRECTO)


He said he was ill! Indirect or reported speech.
I am ill are the words he speaks. This is an example of direct speech. Direct speech is often in Inverted commas like this: . If you write down or tell another person what he said, it changes to: He said he was ill. This is an example of indirect or reported speech. Notice that in this example the personal pronoun I changes to he. The verb also changes, from am (present) to was (past). In reported speech we give the meaning of what was said rather than the exact words. El estilo indirecto se utiliza para contar lo que alguien dijo pero sin citar exactamente sus palabras. Direct speech Im American. I am visiting England I come from Dallas I have three Cadillacs Indirect speech He said he was American He said he was visiting England He said he came from Dallas He said he had three Cadillacs

Notice that in all these examples the verbs changes from present to past in indirect (reported) speech. Nota que en todos estos ejemplos los verbos cambian de presente a pasado en estilo indirecto.

Esta formula de poner, en el estilo indirecto, los verbos en un tiempo ms pasado del que se habla en estilo directo, se llama en ingls "back shift" (cambio hacia atrs). En algunos casos no hacemos se cambio hacia atrs porque la situacin sigue siendo cierta, por ejemplo: She told me that she speaks French. "Ella me dijo que habla francs". Todava es cierto que ella habla francs. 82

Now look at these examples: Direct speech I flew to England on Concorde Ive been to Oxford Im going to watch a cricket match Ill (will / shall) come back again soon Indirect speech He said he had flown to England on Concorde He said he had been to Oxford He said he was going to watch a cricket match He said he would come back again soon

Notice that in all these examples the tense of the verb changes. Modal verbs also change when you change from direct to indirect speech. Look at these examples: Direct speech I can swim I must go I will help I may come Indirect speech She said she could swim She said she had to go She said she would help She said she might come

Some other words also change when you change from direct to indirect speech. Changes from direct speech to reported speech depend on changes in the situation. We may have to make changes when we are reporting something another person has said, or when we report it in a different place or at different time. We can have changes in personal pronouns, possessive adjectives, adverbs of time demonstrative pronouns and so on. Here are some typical changes:

Person: I we my Desmonstrative: this these Place: here Time: now today yesterday tomorrow next week / year this week last week an hour ago

he / she they his / her that those there then, at the time that day, on Monday, etc the day before, the previous day the next / following day, on Saturday, etc the following week / year, etc that week the week before, the previous week an hour before / earlier, etc

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In reporting we use verbs such as announce, answer, explain, mention, promise, reply, say, suggest, tell, warn. The most common of these are say and tell. We can also report thoughts. We think the meal was expensive. Nick knew Rita wanted to be with someone else.

When we report statements, we often use that, but we can sometimes leave it out. You promised (that) you wouldnt be late. Sarah was saying (that) there was a problem.

Tell or Say?
We use tell if we want to mention the hearer (the person spoken to). Sarahs boss told her she could leave early. NOT Sarahs boss told she could leave early. Daniel tells me hes ready.

We use tell without an direct object (e.g. her, me) only in the expressions tell a story, tell the truth and tell a lie. We use say when we do not mention the hearer. Sarahs boss say she could leave early. NOT Sarahs boss said her she could leave early. Daniel says hes ready.

We sometimes use to after say, especially when the words are not reported. The boss wanted to say something to Sarah. What did Matthew say to you?

When do we change the tense?


After a past tense verb (e.g. said), there is often a tense change. It really is cold today Vicky said it was cold.

If the statement is still up to date when we report it, then we have a choice. We can either leave the tense the same, or we can change it. You said you like / liked chocolate. T dijiste que te gusta / gustaba el chocolate. Claire told me her father owns / owned a racehorse. Claire me dijo que su padre posee / posea un caballo de carreras.

If the statement is no longer up to date, then we change the tense. Claire once told me that her father owned a racehorse. (He may no longer own one) Claire una vez me dijo que su padre posea un caballo de carreras. (Puede que ya no lo tenga) 84

We usually change the tense if we think the statement is untrue or may be untrue. You said you liked chocolate, but you arent eating any. T dijiste que te gustaba el chocolate, pero no ests comiendo ninguno.

Remember this:
When you change from direct to indirect (reported) speech the tenses change like this: Direct speech Present simple I visit Present continuous I am visiting Past simple I visited Past continuous I was visiting Present perfect simple I have visited Present perfect continuous I have been visiting Future going to I am going to visit Future will I will visit Indirect speech Past simple He visited Past continuous He was visiting Past perfect He had visited Past perfect continuous He had been visiting Past perfect simple He had visited Past perfect continuous He had been visitng Future in the past He was going to visit Future in the past He would visit

Examples:
Present Simple Students go to class every day. He said that students went to class every day.

Past Simple Students went to class every day. He said that students had gone to class every day. Future Simple Students will go to class every day. He said that students would go to class every day. Present Continuous Students are going to class every day. He said that students were going to class every day. Past Continuous Students were going to class every day. He said that students had been going to class every day. Present Perfect Simple Students have gone to class every day. He said that students had gone to class every day. Present Perfect Continuous Students have been going to class every day. He said that students had been going to class every day. 85

Past Perfect Simple Students had gone to class every day. He said that students had gone to class every day Past Perfect Continuous Students had been going to class every day. He said that students had been going to class every day.

Reported statements. Summary.


Podemos contar en presente lo que alguien acaba de decir sin hacer ningn cambio, excepto suprimir las comillas y cambiar los pronombres segn corresponda. "I attend music lessons." She says that she attends music lessons Dice que va a clases de msica.

Sin embargo, lo normal es contar en pasado lo que dijo otra persona. Entonces el verbo que introduce el estilo indirecto va en pasado (said) y el de la oracin subordinada da un salto atrs, es decir, el presente simple pasa al pasado simple, ste al pretrito pluscuamperfecto, etc. Adems de suprimirse las comillas, tambin cambian los adjetivos posesivos y demostrativos, los pronombres personales y las expresiones de tiempo y de lugar. La oracin subordinada va introducida por la conjuncin that, pero en el ingls hablado se suele omitir. "My students ask me many questions," he said. He said (that) his students asked him many Questions. Dijo que sus alumnos le hacan muchas preguntas.

Cuando la frase en estilo indirecto enuncia una verdad general, no hay cambios en los tiempos verbales. "English is spoken in Australia." She said that English is spoken in Australia. Dijo que en Australia se habla ingls. Los verbos ms frecuentes para introducir el reported speech son say y tell. Fjate en que tell debe llevar necesariamente un complemento indirecto de persona sin to, mientras que say puede llevarlo o no; pero si se pone, debe ir precedido de la preposicin to. "Amy is studying for the exam."

He told us that Amy was studying for the exam. He said that Amy was studying for the exam. He said to us that Amy was studying for the exam. Nos dijo que Amy estaba estudiando para el examen.

I asked if he was all right. Indirect or reported questions.


When you change a question from direct to indirect (reported) speech the word order changes like this. Direct speech Are you all right? Indirect speech I asked if he was all right.

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Notice that in the direct question the verb (are) comes before the subject (you). In the indirect question, the verb (was) comes after the subject (she). In a reported question the subject comes before the verb, as in a statement. Here are some examples: Can Lisa come? Is it raining? Will Granada win? He asked if Lisa could come. I asked if it was raining. He asked if Granada would win.

We can report questions with verbs like ask, wonder or want to know. There are two types of questions in English: Yes / no questions or Wh-questions. Hay dos tipos de preguntas en ingls: Yes / no questions o Wh-questions. Yes / no questions look for a yes / no answer. Reported yes / no questions have if or whether. Las yes / no questions son las que se pueden contestar con un s o un no. Para pasarlas a estilo indirecto se suele usar if o whether. Como la frase ya no es pregunta, no hay inversin del sujeto verbo, ni signo de interrogacin y tampoco comillas. "Does the lesson start at 11.00?", she asked. She asked if / whether the lesson started at 11.00. Pregunt si la clase empezaba a las 11. "Is Paul Irish?" he asked me. He asked me if / whether Paul was Irish. Me pregunt si Paul era irlands.

Wh-questions do not look for a yes / no answer. We are looking for a particular answer. Wh-questions have a question word like what, who, where, when, why, whose, how, and so on, both in direct speech and in reported speech. Las whquestions no se pueden contestar con un s o un no. Comienzan con una partcula interrogativa (what, who, where, when, why, whose, how, etc.) y al pasarlas al estilo indirecto mantienen esa partcula al principio. Luego van el sujeto y el verbo, y prescindimos del signo de interrogacin y de las comillas. "Where is the gym" the girl asked. The girl asked where the gym was. La chica pregunt dnde estaba el gimnasio. "How can students improve their marks?" he asked. He asked how students could improve their marks. Pregunt cmo podan mejorar sus notas los alumnos.

Asking for information.


To ask politely for information, we sometimes use a reported question after a phrase like Could you tell me? or Do you know? Could you tell me what time the concert starts? Podra decirme a qu hora comienza el concierto? Do you know if theres a public phone in the building? Sabe si hay un telfono pblico en el edificio? Have you any idea how much a taxi would cost? Tiene idea de cunto costara un taxi? Note the word order a taxi would cost. (the subject comes before the verb, as in a statement). 87

Reported orders
We can use the structure order, tell / ask someone to do something. We will have to change the inperative into and infinitive. Nosotros podemos utilizar la estructura order, tell / ask someone to do something. Para pasar una orden a estilo indirecto se cambia el imperativo por un infinitivo. "Keep quiet." The teacher told us to keep quiet. El profesor nos dijo que estuviramos callados.

En oraciones negativas, se pone not delante de to. "Don't forget your keys." She reminded me not to forget my keys. Me record que no me olvidara las llaves.

We use ask for when someone asks to have something. Can I have some brochures, please? I asked (the travel agent) for some brochures. Yo ped (al agente de viajes) algunos folletos.

It is also posible to report an order or request like this. A policeman told me (that) I had to move the car. Un polica me dijo que tena que mover el coche. We asked our neighbours if they would mind turning the music down. Nosotros pedimos a nuestros vecinos si les importara bajar la msica.

Reported offers, suggestions, etc.


We can use agree, offer, promise, refuse and threaten with a to-infinitive. Podemos usar agree, offer, promise, refuse y threaten con un to-infinitive. Well pay for the damage. We offered to pay for the damage. Nos ofrecimos a pagar por el dao.

We can also use an object + to-infinitive after advise, invite, remind and warn. I think you should take a taxi. Mark advised us to take a taxi. Mark nos aconsej coger un taxi. Dont forget to ring me. I reminded David to ring me. Record a David que me llamara.

We can use an ing-form after admit, apologize for, insist on and suggest. I really must have a rest. Emma insisted on having a rest. Emma insisti en descansar. Shal we go to a nightclub?. Claire suggested going to a nightclub. Claire sugiri ir a un club.

Las sugerencias se pasan de dos formas:

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Usando una oracin de complemento directo introducida por that, con su sujeto y el verbo en la forma base. "Let's take the bus!" He suggested that we take the bus. Sugiri que cogiramos el bus.

O usando el gerundio, sin especificar ningn sujeto. "Let's start tomorrow!" She suggested starting tomorrow. Sugiri que empezramos maana.

Reporting verbs
Los verbos ms utilizados para introducir el estilo indrecto son say, tell y ask, que transmiten el mensaje sin aadir ms informacin. Pero si adems queremos comunicar la intencin o el tono del hablante, podemos utilizar otros muchos reporting verbs, por ejemplo: o Afirmaciones: answer, admit, announce, apologise, declare, explain, inform, mention, offer, remind, reply, state, insist, complain, accept, agree. o Preguntas: enquire, question, request, wonder, want to know. o rdenes: order, shout, beg, demand, warn. o Sugerencias advise, suggest, recommend, invite. "I cheated in the exam." She admitted that she had cheated in the exam. Reconoci que haba copiado en el examen. Will it be a good idea?" He wondered if / whether it would be a good idea. Se preguntaba si sera una Buena idea. "Don't skip class any more!" She warned me not to skip classes any more. Me advirti que no faltara ms a clase. "You should talk to your teacher." His mother advised him to talk to his teacher. Su madre le aconsej que hablara con su profesor.

Al "reported speech" se le llama "estilo cotilla", porque suele ser la forma que empleamos para narrar o contar lo que ha dicho otra persona. Adems de "reported" que es un adjetivo en este caso, hay en ingls un verbo "to report" que significa informar sobre algo. El "reported speech" es un estilo frecuentemente utilizado en el lenguaje periodstico dado que los periodistas cuentan o narran lo que dijeron otras personas. Cuando hablamos sobre lo que dijo otra persona podemos hacerlo de dos maneras:

Directamente. Direct Speech.


Mark said, 'I want to be rich.' Mark dijo: "Quiero ser rico". Como vis repito exactamente lo que dijo Mark, es decir, lo digo "directamente". De ah que se llame "estilo directo" y en ingls "direct speech". Si decido escribir la frase que ha dicho Mark, debo entrecomillarla. Nota: Cmo se dice en ingls "comillas"? Se dice: "Quotation marks". En ingls se usa ' (una comilla para abrir y cerrar la frase que citamos) y en espaol " (dos comillas a cada lado). Fjate como despus de "said" en ingls pongo una coma (,) y en espaol dos puntos (:) 89

Indirectamente. Indirect Speech or Reported Speech.


'Mark said (that) he wanted to be rich.' "Mark dijo que quera ser rico." Qu he hecho en este segundo ejemplo? No he repetido directamente las palabras de Mark, sino que "las he hecho mias". Cmo? He aadido una conjuncin (es decir, una palabra que sirve para unir a dos palabras) "that" (que en este caso se puede omitir). Adems he cambiado el tiempo verbal. En el primer ejemplo he usado el "Present Tense" y en el segundo ejemplo "Past Tense." En las oraciones indirectas hay dos tipos de oraciones, una oracin principal y otra subordinada. La principal llamada en ingls "reporting clause", es la que lleva generalmente los verbos "say" o "tell". Por ejemplo: He said. l dijo He told me "l me cont" "l me dijo". La oracin subordinada llamada "reported clause" es la segunda oracin en la que indicamos qu nos dijeron. Por ejemplo: "...(that) he went to Brazil." ."... que fue a Brasil." Supresin del "that". En ingls la conjuncin that ("que) puede en ocasiones suprimirse. Especialmente, tras ciertos verbos que se utilizan habitualmente para hablar en estilo indirecto como "say" y "think": He said he thought. l dijo que crea / pensaba... En espaol nunca se suprime. Esta formula de poner, en el estilo indirecto, los verbos en un tiempo ms pasado del que se habla en estilo directo, se llama en ingls "back shift" (cambio hacia atrs). En algunos casos no hacemos se cambio hacia atrs porque la situacin sigue siendo cierta, por ejemplo: She told me that she speaks French. "Ella me dijo que habla francs". Todava es cierto que ella habla francs.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS (PRONOMBRES DE RELATIVO)


Thats the dog which bit me! Relative pronouns and clauses.
You can make two sentences into one, like this: Thats the dog. The dog bit me. Thats the dog which bit me.

The word which is a relative pronoun. We use it because we do not want to say the dog again. Which stands in place of the dog and introduces the relative clause: which bit me. Here is another way to join two sentences into one: Thats the boy. The boy hit me. Thats the boy who hit me.

In this example the relative pronoun is who. It ntroduces the relative clause who hit me. Use which when you talk about animals and things. Use who when you talk about people. 90

Remember this:
Animals and things People which who

When the pronoun is the object of the clause, you can use whom, instead of who, but this is very formal and uncommon: The people whom we met yesterday are our new neighbours. Las personas que conocimos ayer son nuestros nuevos vecinos.

After a preposition you must use whom, not who. The man to whom you spoke is the manager. El hombre con quin hablaste es el manager.

But it is less formal and more common tos say: The man who you spoke to is the manager. The person who you have an appointment with will be back soon. (informal) La persona con la que tiene la cita volver pronto.

You can use that instead of who or which in relative clauses. Thats the man who / that took my bag. Ese es el hombre que cogi mi mochila. These are the shoes which / that I bought yesterday. Esos son los zapatos que compr ayer.

Notice that that is the same with masculine, feminine, singular and plural nouns. It does not change. The possessive form of the relative pronouns is whose (cuyo, cuya, cuyos, cuyas). You can use it about people, animals and things. He married a girl whose father was very rich. El se cas con una chica cuyo padre era muy rico. This is John whose mother works for us. Este es Juan cuya madre trabaja para nosotros. We saw a house whose windows were all broken. Vimos una casa cuyas ventanas estaban todas rotas. They gave her a horse whose legs were very short. Le dieron un caballo cuyas patas eran muy cortas.

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RELATIVE CLAUSES (ORACIONES DE RELATIVO)


The use of relative clauses.
There are two kinds of relative clauses: identifying clauses and non-identifying clauses or adding clauses. Identifying clauses identify which thing the speaker is talking about. The man who lives next door to Melanie is rather strange.

The clause who lives next door to Melanie tells us which man we are reffering to. Without the relative clause the sentence would be incomplete. The man is rather strange makes sense only if we know which man. An identifying clause does not have commas around it. Most relative clauses are identifying. We use them both in speech and in writing. Non-identifying clauses or adding clauses add extra information about something which is already identified. John, who lives next door to Melanie, is rather strange.

The clause who lives next door to Melanie adds information about John. But we can say the sentence on its own without the relative clause. John is rather strange makes sense because the name John identifies who we are talking about. An adding clause has commas around it. Instead of commas, we can use brackets() or dashes - -. If the adding clause is at the end of the sentence, we need only one comma or dash. Thats John, who lives next door.

Adding clauses can be rather formal. We use them mainly in writing. They are common in news reports. In speech we often use to short sentences. John lives next door to Melanie. Hes rather strange. Qu funciones hacen los relatives pronouns who/whom, which, that? Dos funciones que ya hemos mencionado, pero que repetiremos para que las memorices. Identifican a una persona o cosa. Este tipo de oraciones se llaman identifying relative clauses He is the person whom I spoke about. l es la persona de la que habl. The bag which you gave me. La bolsa que me diste.

Proporcionan ms informacin sobre una persona o cosa previamente identificada. Este tipo de oraciones se llaman: nonidentifying relative clauses. Ten en cuenta que la diferencia con el anterior tipo de oracin identifying relative clauses es muy sutil y la nica manera de saber si estamos ante una nonidentifying clause es fijndose si ya se ha identificado o no a la persona o cosa antes de utilizar who, which o that. Veamos ejemplos de non-identifying relative clause: You already know Mr. Smith, who is one of my best friends. T ya conoces al Sr. Smith que es uno de mis mejores amigos. 92

Nota: En la primera parte de la oracin ya hemos identificado a la persona es el Sr. Smith al cual ya conoces; luego aadimos ms informacin. Thirty years ago my uncle built this house, which is now worth 4.000.000 euros.

Nota: En la primera parte de la oracin identifico la casa, luego which ya no me sirve para identificar sino para aadir ms informacin sobre la casa.

Para qu nos sirve saber distinguir entre identifying y nonidentifying relative clauses?
La distincin entre indentifying y nonidentifying relative clauses nos sirve para saber cundo utilizar that. Estudia esta regla: That se utiliza generalmente para identificar personas y cosas en las identifying relative clauses (no se usa generalmente en las nonidentifying). The woman that you know. The woman who you know. La mujer que t conoces.

Nota: Con that estoy identificando a la mujer. The horse that I like. The horse which I like. El caballo que me gusta.

Nota : Con that estoy identificando a un animal. En ambos ejemplos that me sirve para identificar a una persona the woman o animal. Remember. Recuerda: That se utiliza generalmente para sustituir a who o which en oraciones que identifican a la persona o cosa. No se suele utilizar en oraciones en las que ya se ha identificado a la persona o cosa. Las oraciones de relativo son oraciones subordinadas introducidas por un pronombre o un adverbio relativo, y las hay de dos tipos: Identifiying o defining (especificativas) y non-identifying o nondefining (explicativas).

Examples Rules
Defining relative clauses The police can arrest anyone who / that commits a crime. Who / that refer to people. The boy spoke with an accent which / that sounded British. Which / that refer to things. This is the man whose identity can't be established. Whose refers to possession. Summer is the season when most people go on holiday. When refers to a moment in time. Vancouver is the city where they got married. Where refers to a particular place.

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Nondefining relative clauses Emma, who was born in Canada, lived in Germany all her life. The film, which is based on a novel, is a great success.

In non-defining sentences, the word that cannot replace who or which.

Defining relative clauses


Las especificativas aportan informacin esencial sobre su antecedente, y sin ellas el sentido de la frase quedara incompleto. Por eso van unidas a la oracin principal sin coma entre ellas. Los pronombres relativos son: Who se refiere slo a personas. Which se emplea exclusivamente con cosas. That se usa cuando el antecedente es una persona o una cosa. En ingls los tres se pueden omitir si funcionan como complemento de la oracin de relativo. Tom Hanks is an actor (who) people like a lot. Tom Hanks es un actor que le gusta mucho a la gente. It's a mystery (which) the experts cannot explain. Es un misterio que los expertos no pueden explicar. This is the law (that) the government has just passed. sta es la ley que el gobierno acaba de aprobar.

Whose indica posesin (cuyo/a, cuyos/as) y nunca acta como sujeto. No se puede omitir ni sustituir por that. Los siguientes adverbios tambin funcionan como pronombres relativos e introducen defining relative clauses: When hace referencia a un tiempo (cuando, en que). Se puede utilizar that en su lugar u omitirse. I don't remember the date (when / that) she was born. No recuerdo la fecha en que naci.

Where indica lugar (donde, en el que), nunca se omite ni se puede sustituir por that. Russia is the country where this story takes place. Rusia es el pas donde tiene lugar esta historia.

Cuando el pronombre relativo lleva preposicin, lo ms comn es omitirlo y poner la preposicin detrs del verbo. That's the person I was talking to. sa es la persona con la que estuve hablando. Yesterday they visited the company Tom works for. Ayer visitaron la empresa para la que trabaja Tom. 94

Nondefining Relative Clauses


Son oraciones explicativas que slo aaden informacin extra sobre el antecedente, es decir, sin ellas el sentido de de la frase se mantiene igual; no son indispensables y por eso siempre van entre comas. Anastasia, who was a princess, is the main character in the film. Anastasia, que fue una princesa, es la protagonista de la pelcula.

Se construyen con los pronombres y adverbios relativos who, which, whose, when y where pero nunca con that. Para personas slo usamos who (que, quien, quienes), para cosas which y para un tiempo when. Adems, nunca se omite el pronombre o adverbio relativo. In 1999, when I finished university, I found my first job. En 1999, cuando acab la universidad, encontr mi primer trabajo. Heathrow Airport, which is in London, receives thousands of passengers every day. El aeropuerto de Heathrow, que est en Londres, recibe miles de pasajeros cada da.

Whom se emplea poco en el ingls hablado ya que es una construccin de uso formal. Normalmente se utiliza who y se pasa la preposicin al final de la oracin. Mary, about whom you told me, might be a genius. Mary, who you told me about, might be a genius. Mary, sobre quien me hablaste, podra ser un genio.

THE PASSIVE (VOZ PASIVA)


The chicken was killed by the fox. Passive
Look at these two sentences:
subject verb object

(1)

The fox
subject

killed

the chicken.
verb agent

(2)

The chicken was killed by the fox.

In sentence (1) the subject is active. The fox does something. In sentence (2) the subject is passive. The chicken does nothing. Sentence (1) is an active sentence. Sentence (2) is a passive sentence. The two sentences mean the same. Use the passive when you think the object of the active sentence is more important than the subject. Look at this example: All our chickens were killed by a fox. 95

The speaker uses the passive because the chickens are more important to him than the fox. This is what happen when a sentence changes from active to passive. A) The object of the active sentence, the chicken, changes places an becomes the subject in the passive sentence. B) The subject of the active sentence, the fox, changes places and becomes the agent after the preposition by. The agent in a passive sentence is the person or thing that does something. C) The verb killed in the active sentence becomes a passive verb. To make this verb passive, use the same tense of the verb be, that is, was. After the verb be comes the past participle of the verb kill, that is, killed.

A passive verb is a form of be + a past participle. e.g. was killed, is baked,


and so on. Active: The president welcomed the king. Passive: The king was welcomed by the president. Active: The doctor examined the patients. Passive: The patients were examined by the doctor. Active: Two boys broke the window. Passive: The window was broken by two boys. Active: My wife drove the car. Passive: The car was driven by my wife.

Form all the passive tenses with the verb be + the past participle (-ed in regular verbs, 3rd column in irregular verbs). Present Simple Active: Many people in India speak English. Passive: English is spoken by many people in India. Active: Doctors help patients. Passive: Patients are helped by doctors.

Present Continuous Active: Angelo Bettini is driving car number 7. Pasive: Car number 7 is being driven by Angelo Bettini. Active: Doctors are helping patients. Passive: Patients are being helped by doctors.

Past Simple Active: They built these flats in 1980. Passive: These flats were built in 1980. Active: Doctors helped patients. Passive: Patients were helped by doctors. 96

Past Continuous Active: Two men were painting the house. Passive: The house was being painted by two men. Active: Doctors were helping patients. Passive: Patients were being helped by doctors.

Present Perfect Simple Active: Theyve shown this film before. Passive: This film has been shown before. Active: Doctors have helped patients. Passive: Patients have been helped by doctors.

Past Perfect Simple Active: The company had paid the bill. Passive: The bill had been paid by the company. Active: Doctors had helped patients. Passive: Patients had been helped by doctors.

Future be going to Active: Parliament is going to change the law. Passive: The law is going to be changed by Parliament. Active: Doctors are going to help patients. Passive: Patients are going to be helped by doctors.

Future Simple will Active: A guide will show you round the church. Passive: You will be shown round the church by a guide. Active: Doctors will help patients. Passive:Patients will be helped by doctors.

Modals Form passives with modals (must, can, should, may, ought to, might, etc) like this: modal + be + past participle Active: Parliament must change the law. Passive: The law must be changed by Parliament. Active: Doctors should help patients. Passive: Patients should be helped by doctors.

Modal Perfect Have to Active: Doctors have to help patients. Passive: Patients have to be helped by doctors. 97 Active: Doctors must have helped patients. Passive: Patients must have been helped by doctors.

Structure. Estructura.
Afirmativa: Se forma con el verbo to be + el participio del verbo principal The scene was filmed in France. La escena fue filmada / se film en Francia.

Al pasar una oracin a pasiva se pone el verbo to be en el mismo tiempo que tena el verbo principal en activa. Si se nombra al sujeto de la activa, se pasa a pasiva como complemento agente precedido de la preposicin by. Mr. Bean was broadcast by several TV channels. Mr. Bean fue emitida por varios canales de TV. The film rights were bought by the airline. Los derechos de la pelcula fueron comprados por la compaa area.

Si el sujeto de la oracin activa es un pronombre personal, al pasarla a pasiva debes cambiarlo por su correspondiente pronombre objeto (me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them), ya que va detrs de la preposicin by. They will overcome any difficult situation. Cualquier situacin difcil ser superada por ellos.

Si la oracin activa tiene complemento directo e indirecto, los dos pueden ser el sujeto de la oracin pasiva, siendo el ltimo caso ms frecuente y exclusivo del ingls. En castellano es imposible formar la pasiva de esta forma. New discoveries give hope to sick people. Hope is given to sick people by new discoveries. Sick people are given hope by new discoveries. Los nuevos descubrimientos dan esperanza a los enfermos.

Si el complemento indirecto es un pronombre, hay que usar la forma de sujeto al pasar la oracin a pasiva. The doctor gave me some pills. I was given some pills by the doctor. El mdico me dio unas pastillas.

Como los verbos modales, have to y be going to van seguidos de un infinitivo, es ese infinitivo que va detrs el que se pone en pasiva (be + participio). Laughter can reduce blood pressure. Blood pressure can be reduced by laughter. La risa puede disminuir la tensin sangunea. The doctor had to heal Dan. Dan had to be healed by the doctor. Dan tuvo que ser curado por el mdico. They are going to translate the film. The film is going to be translated. Se va a traducir la pelcula.

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Negativa: Slo hay que aadir not o n't al verbo to be. This programme isn't shown on TV any more. Este programa ya no lo echan en la televisin.

Interrogativa: El orden es: to be + el sujeto + el participio. Is Atkinson considered a funny actor? Se considera a Atkinson un actor gracioso?

Las preguntas con partcula interrogativa tambin invierten el orden de to be y el sujeto, menos cuando la partcula hace de sujeto. When was the research published? Cundo se public la investigacin? Who was chosen as leading actor? A quin se eligi como actor protagonista?

Uses. Usos.
La voz pasiva es muy frecuente en ingls, pero al traducir solemos poner el verbo en la forma impersonal o en la voz activa. Se utiliza sobre todo para indicar que la accin o la persona o cosa que recibe sus efectos es ms relevante que el sujeto que la realiza, bien porque ste es desconocido, poco importante o no se quiere nombrar. Tambin se suele usar la pasiva cuando el sujeto de la oracin activa es they, nobody, somebody, etc. They made the story into a film. The story was made into a film. La historia fue llevada al cine. They carried out AIDS research. AIDS research was carried out. Hicieron una investigacin sobre el sida.

Cuestiones generales sobre la voz pasiva La voz pasiva se utiliza mucho ms en ingls que en espaol. La voz pasiva se utiliza ms en el lenguaje periodstico y cientfico que en el coloquial. Tambin la voz pasiva se utiliza para poner mensajes en lugares pblicos. Por ejemplo, Dogs are not allowed. No se permiten perros. Algunas veces se suprime el verbo "to be". Por ejemplo, Help wanted. Se necesitan empleados. La expresiones con "se" tales como: "se dice, se habla, etc.; se expresan en ingls con la voz pasiva as: It is said, It is spoken, etc.

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TO HAVE SOMETHING DONE


Compare these situations: Claire decorated the room. (She did the work herself). Claire had the room decorated. (A decorator did the work).

We can use have in a passive structure. Claire had the room decorated means that she arranged for a decorator to do it for her as a professional service. Look at these examples: HAVE You should He usually We Youve Our neighbours are have has had had having SOMETHING your car his suits the television your hair a new garage DONE serviced cleaned repaired cut. built. regularly. at Superclean. last month.

En espaol cuando te cortas el pelo dices: Me he cortado el pelo o Me cort el pelo. Si te fijas parece como si t mismo hubieses realizado la accin de cortarte pelo, cuando lo cierto es que un peluquero te corta el pelo, por tanto, se presupone que ha sido otra persona. Pero en ingls no es as, indicamos que la accin la ha realizado otra persona para nosotros: Utilizamos la frmula siguiente: Verbo have / had + objeto + participio pasado I had my hair cut. Me cort el pelo.

Nota: Tambin puedo decir: I got a haircut. Con el verbo comodn got consigo expresar que alguien me cort el pelo (Obtuve un corte de pelo). Utilizando el verbo have / had hacemos nfasis en que otra persona hizo el trabajo para nosotros. La frmula es muy sencilla, pero hay que saberse bien los participios pasados de los verbos. Veamos ms ejemplos: I had my nails polished. Me hice (pintaron) las uas. I need to have my car painted Necesito pintar mi coche. They are having the school repaired. Estn arreglando el colegio. She had her carpet cleaned. Ella mand a limpiar la alfombra. Where did you have that photograph taken? Dnde te tomaron esa foto? They had an extra room built. Les hicieron una habitacin adicional.

Recuerda: Tambin existe una forma informal para expresar la idea de que alguien hace algo para t. Se trata de una frmula con el verbo get. I got my car repaired = I had my car repaired. Me arreglaron el coche.

Todo lo que tengo que hacer es sustituir have / had por get / got (u otros tiempos verbales).

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CLAUSES and CONJUNCTIONS (PROPOSICIONES y CONJUNCIONES)


The following sentence has two clauses:

1
Tina is singing and

2
Peter is playing the guitar.

They are both main clauses. This means that they can stand alone as sentences: Tina is singing. Peter is playing the guitar.

Here are two more examples or sentences with two main clauses: main clause I cried We can walk but or main clause John laughed. We can take a taxi.

And y, but pero and or o are conjunctions. The following sentence also has two clauses, but this time there is a main clause and a subclause (subordinate clause): main clause I was at home subclause when he arrived.

A subclause cannot stand alone as a sentence. Only the first clause in the example above can stand by itself: I was at home. The subclause (when he arrived) can only be part of a sentence. It needs another clause to form a complete sentence. Here are some examples of sentences with a main clause and a subclause: main clause I was on the train He left school She lost her job We went to work They said subclause which crashed. when he was 16. because she was always late. although it was Sunday. that I was wrong.

Sometimes the subclause comes first in the sentence, but the meaning stays the same. Subclause When he was 16 main clause he left school.

Words like and, but, or, if, when, because and although are conjunctions (linking words). Las palabras como and, but, or, if, when, because, although son conjunciones (conectores). 101

And, but and or join two equal things together, for example two main clauses (see examples above) or two nouns (an apple and a banana). Conjunctions like if, when, because and although come first in subclauses.

PREPOSITIONS
Prepositions are words like by, in, in front of, on. Notice that you cannot always use English prepositions in the same way as in your own language. It is therefore not always possible to translate prepositions. You can use a preposition + a noun when you say where you do something or where something is. Las preposiciones en ingles no siempre pueden ser usadas igual que en espaol; adems no siempre es posible traducirlas. Puedes utilizar una preposicin ms un nombre para decir donde haces algo o donde est algo. I live in a flat.

In this example in is a preposition of place. You can also use a preposition + a noun when you say when you do something or when something happens. Puedes tambin utilizar una preposicin ms un nombre al decir cuando haces algo o sucede algo. My birthday is in June.

In this example in is a preposition of time. So prepositions can have different meanings or uses. Sometimes two or three words can make a preposition: next to, in front of, on top of. Las preposiciones pueden tener diferentes significados o usos.Algunas veces dos o tres palabras pueden formar una preposicin.

Prepositions of movement.
Some prepositions describe the movement or action which takes place. They always follow a verb of movement, like walk, run, drive, sail, jump. Algunas preposiciones describen el movimiento o accin que tiene lugar. Siempre van detrs de un verbo de movimiento. We walked up (hacia arriba) the hill and cycled down (hacia abajo) the other side. He climbed over (por encima) the wall and got into (hacia dentro) the room through (a travs de) the window. We flew across (cruzando) the Atlantic in five hours. She walked along (a lo largo de) the road past (pasando) the hospital. He threw the bottle out of (fuera de) the window. Dont try to run away from (alejandose de) me. We drove over (sobre) Brooklyn Bridge towards (hacia) Manhattan. He jumped on to (sobre) his motorbike and rode round (alrededor de) Trafalgar Square at (a) high speed. The ship sailed under (debajo de) the Golden Gate Bridge into (entrando en) San Francisco Bay. 102

Prepositions of place
Some prepositions describe where something or someone is. They always follow a verb like be, stand, lie and sit. Algunas preposiciones describen donde est algo o alguien. Siempre siguen a un verbo. Theres a picture above (encima de, sobre) the televisin. There are some flowers on (sobre) the table. Theres a photograph on top of (encima de) the bookcase. Theres a dog under (debajo de) the table. Theres a lamp behind (destrs de) the armchair. There are two children in front of (delante de) the television. Theres a light over (sobre) the table. Theres a vase of flowers below (debajo de) the light. Theres a bookcase beside / by / next to (junto a) the sofa. There are two children in (en) the room.

Prepositions of time
We use prepositions of time when we talk about when something happens (times, dates, etc.). Usamos preposiciones de tiemp para decir cuando ocurre algo (horarios, fechas, etc.).

o IN
With parts of the day.We watch televisin in the evening. With monthsMy birthday is in July. With seasons..It snows a lot in winter. With yearsI left school in 1984. With centuries.My grandfather was born in the 19Th century. To say how soon something will happen.Ill see you in two days.

o AT
Wiith exact times...I get up at 7 oclock and go to bed at midnight. With holidays / religious festival.I only see my parents at Chistmas and sometimes at Easter. With nightI cant sleep at night. With the beginning and the endI wasnt there at the beginning of the lesson. With the weekend..What did you do at the weekend?

o ON
With days.......................I finish work early on Friday. With dates.....................The meetings on 2nd May. With a day + morning, afternoon. etc ....Ill see you on Monday afternoon.

o UNTIL / TILL
To mean up to a certain time...I slept until / till 9.30. We waited until / till they left.

o BY
To mean before or not later than.Ill be home by four. You must finish by the time I leave.

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o DURING
To mean in or for a period of time..I woke up twice during the night. Notice you can only use during with an expression which answers the question When? (during the morning, during the summer, during November). You cannot use during with an expression which answers the question How long? (three days, ten weeks).

o FOR
Use for with a period or timeIve been here for six months. It answer the question How long? They only stayed for five minutes.

PREPOSITIONAL VERBS, e.g. wait for (VERBOS SEGUIDOS DE PREPOSICIN)


A prepositional verb is a verb + preposition. Im waiting for you. Estoy esperndote. The dog belongs to our neighbours. El perro pertenece a nuestros vecinos.

The preposition always goes before the object. In questions the preposition usually goes at the end of the sentence. Who are you waiting for? A quin ests esperando?

Some verbs can go with a numbers of different prepositions. Im looking at these photos. Theyre really good. Estoy mirando a estas fotos. Son realmente buenas. Im looking for my ticket. I cant find it. Estoy buscando mi entrada. No puedo encontrarla. Im looking after the children while their parents are out. Estoy cuidando a los nios mientras sus padres estn fuera. The police are looking into the matter. La polica est investigando el asunto.

Muchos verbos en ingls van siempre seguidos de una determinada preposicin igual que sucede en castellano. La preposicin siempre va delante del objeto. En preguntas la preposicin normalmente va al final de la oracin. Here are some more examples. Accuse of..acusar de Agree with.estar de acuerdo con Apply for...solicitar [appliance > solicitud] Complain about .quejarse de [Complaint > queja] 104

Hear of..or hablar de, enterarse de Laugh atreirse de Laugh withrerse con Listen toescuchar a Participate inparticipar en Protect from.proteger de Provide with.proveer de, proporcionar Replace withsustituir por Rely on..confiar en, fiarse de Walk by.pasar al lado de I love Jim Carrey, I always laught at the faces he makes. Me encancanta Jim Carrey. Siempre me ro con las caras que pone Actors rely on the director's piece of advice. Los actores confan en los consejos del director.

We do not normally use a preposition after these verbs: answer, approach, control, demand, enter, expect, leave, reach, request The president is entering the building. El president est entrando en el edificio.

About, of and to
We can use about after many verbs. Here are some of them: ask, complain, dream, enquire, hear, know, learn, protest, speak, talk, think, wonder Did you hear about the accident? Mark was talking about golf.

We do not use about after discuss. We discussed the problem. Not We discussed about the problem.

Note the meaning of dream of, hear of and think of. Id never tell you a lie. I wouldnt dream of it. Whos Ron Mason? ~ I dont know. Ive never heard of him. Did you like the play? What did you think of it?

We can apologize to, complain to, talk to and write to a person. Im writing to my sister. We talked to Mary about classical music.

We do not use to after phone. Im phoning the office. Not Im phoning to the office.

Verb + object + preposition


We can use some verbs in the estructure: verb + object + preposition. 105

People admired Cleopatra for her beauty. The trees protect the garden from the wind.

In the passive, the preposition comes after the verb. Cleopatra was admired for her beauty. The garden is protected from the wind.

Here are some more examples of verb + object + preposition. Tom accused Nick of cheating at cards. Can I add something to your list? You should never aim / point a gun at someone. The player was arrested / punished for hitting and opponent. Lets ask someone for directions. The passengers blamed / criticized the airline for the delay. Ill have to borrow the money from my parents. If you compare these figures with / to last year, you can see the improvement. I congratulated Andrew on his excellent exam results. Melanie cut / divided / split the pudding into four portions. The cameras discourage / prevent motorists from speeding. You should insure your camera against theft. Victor translated the letter into English. Dont forget to thank Tom for his help.

We can use about with tell and ask. Did I tell you about my operation? Ask your travel agent about cheap flights.

We inform we can use about or of. You should inform every one about / of the decisin.

Look at these examples with warn. A sign warned motorists about / of the danger. (warn of / about a danger) A sing warned motorists about the hole in the road. (warn about something that might be dangerous)

With remind, there is a difference in meaning between about and of. Emma reminded me about my appointment. (= Emma told me not to forget.) Emma reminds me of my sister. (= Emma is like my sister.)

We can write, describe or explain something to a person. Ive written several letters to the company. The woman described her attacker to the police.

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PHRASAL VERBS
Un verbo frasal es una combinacin de verbo + partcula (adverbio / preposicin) cuyo significado en conjunto, es diferente del significado qure tendran las palabras por separado. Hay muchos verbos frasales en ingls y se utilizan mucho. A phrasal verbs is a verb + adverb, e.g. come in, sit down, take off. There are very many phrasal verbs in English. Here are some adverbs wihich are used in phrasal verbs: about, along, around, away, back, behind, by, down, forward, in, off, on, out, over, round, through, up Some of these words can also be prepositions.

Understanding phrasal verbs.


Some phrasal verbs are easy to understand. Algunos verbos frasales son fciles de entender. Tom asked Mary to come in. The man in front turned round and stared at me.

The meanings are clear if you know the words come, in, turn and round. Los significados son claros si conoces las palabras sueltas. But many phrasal verbs are idiomatic. The verb + adverb has a special meaning. Pero muchos verbos frasales son idiomticos (idioms). El verbo + el adverbio tienen un significado especial y diferente. Fortunately the plan came off. (= succeeded) Afortunadamente, el plan result. Why did you turn down such a good offer? (= refuse) Por qu rechazaste tan buena oferta? I cant make out if its a man or a woman over there. (= see clearly) No puedo ver claramente si es un hombre o una mujer.

Sometimes a phrasal verb has the same meaning as a one-word verb. Algunas veces el verbo frasal tiene el mismo significado que un verbo de una sola palabra. find out = discover go back = return go on = continue leave out = omit make up = invent (a story) put off = postpone send out = distribute throw away = discard turn up = arrive

The phrasal verb is usually more informal than the one-word verb. El verbo frasal es normalmente ms informal que el verbo de una sola palabra.

Word order with phrasal verbs


When a phrasal verb has an object, the object can go either before or after the adverb. Cuando un verbo frasal tiene objeto, el objeto puede ir delante o detrs del adverbio. verb Anne I took wrote object her coat the number adverb off down or or Anne I verb took wrote adverb off down object her coat the number.

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A long object goes after the adverb. The gang have carried out a number of bank raids in the last few months.

A pronoun (e.g. it, them) always goes before the adverb. Anne felt hot in her coat, so she took it off.

La mayora de los phrasal verbs transitivos permiten separar el verbo de la partcula: si el complemento directo es un nombre, ste puede ir detrs del verbo o de la partcula, pero si es un pronombre siempre debe colocarse detrs del verbo. Turn the volume up, please. Sube el volumen, por favor. Turn up the volume, please Turn it up, please. The judge has put off the hearing. El juez ha aplazado la vista. I don't think they will go along with your decision. No creo que apoyen tu decisin.

Everyday situations.
Here are some phrasal verbs in everyday situations. Come on, were going now. (= vamos) Trevol dug up an old coin in the garden, (= desenterr) You have to fill in your name and address. (= rellenar) How did you get on in the test? (= cmo te fue?) Im going out for the every. (= salir) Melanie poured tea for the guests and handed the cakes round. (=pas) Hurry up. We havent got much time. (= date prisa) David hit his head on a lamppost and knocked himself out. (= quedarse sin sentido) John picked up the cassette and put it in the player. (= fue y cogi) You have to plug the machine in first. (= enchufar) Im going to throw these old clothes away. (= tirar) We were too tired to wash up after the meal. (= fregar) Sarah woke up suddenly in the night. (= despertarse) Look out! Its boiling over. (= cuidado / derramarse hirviendo)

Phrasal verbs and one-word verbs.


Bring in (= introduce)presentar Come about (=happen)ocurrir Fall out (= quarrel)discutir Fix up (= arrange)concertar Give up (= stop / abandon)parar o dejar de hacer algo Go away (= disappear) desaparecer Go off (= explode)explotar Hold up (= delay)retrasar Set up (= establish)establecer Work out (= calculate)calcular / evaluar

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Business situations.
Cut back (= spend less)gastar menos, reducir gastos Draw up (= write)redactor o escribir Fall behind (= be slower than others)ser ms lentos que otros / quedarse atrs Fight off (= managed to stop)detener o conseguir parar Get through (= make contact)contactar / ponerse en contacto Print out (= write down)poner por escrito Put forward (= suggest)sugerir / proponer Ring back (= phone again)...volver a llamar Sort out (=put right)resolver / corregir Step down (= left the job, abandon)dejar el trabajo / dimitir Take on (= accept)asumir / aceptar Take over (= take control of)controlar

Adverb meanings.
Look at these adverbs and their meanings. Remember that an adverb can have a number of different meanings. Mira estos adverbios y su significado. Recuerda que un adverbio puede tener varios significados. down (= becoming less) down (= completely to the ground) down (= stopping completely) down (= on paper) off (= away, departing) off (= disconnected) on (= connected) on (= wearing) on (= continuing) out (= away, disappearing) out (= to different people) out (= aloud) out (= from start to finish) up (= increasing) up (= completely) turn down the music / bring down the cost of living. knock a house down / cut down a tree the car broke down / a factory closing down copy down the words / write down the message / note down the details set off on a journey / see Emma off at the station / jump in the car and drive off / the plane took off / the pain is wearing off switch off the heater / cut off our electricity / the caller rang off switch on the kettle / turn on the TV / leave the lights on put a coat on / try the sweater on carry on working / drive on a bit further hang on / hold on a minute wash out the dirt / cross out a mistake / blow out the candle hand out free tickets / share out the winnings read out the article / call out anxiously write out the whole list / work out the answer price are going up / put up taxes / speak up so we can hear eat up these chocolates / fill up with petrol count up the money / tear up the paper

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Verb + adverb+ preposition.


A verb + adverb + proposition often has a special, idiomatic meaning which isnt clear from the individual words. Un verbo + adverbio + preposicin a menudo tiene un significado idiomtico especial que no es claro por el significado de las palabras por separado. Look at these examples. verb So youve The old man I couldnt David decided to It was nice to We Everyone Mary They have got simple meanings. come fell get get go look looked ran adverb in down through up out out up away preposition from on to onto into over at from the cold. the pavement. directory enquiries. the roof. the fresh air. the sea. the aeroplane. the fire.

Idiomatic meanings
call in on / drop in on (= pay short visits) catch up with (= reach the same place as) clamp down on (= take strong action against) come up against (= be stopped by) come up to / live up to (= be as good as expected) cry out for (= in great need of) cut back on (= reduce) cut down on (= reduce) do away with (= abolish) face up to (= not avoid) fall back on (= use if necessary) feel up to (= have enough energy for) fit in with (= go together with) get away with (= steal and take away) get on to (= contact) get on with (= start, continue) get on with (= have a good relationship with) get round to (= find the right time for) go back on (= break, fail to keep) go in for (= enter, compete in) go on with (= continue) hold on to (= keep your hands around) make up for (= compensate for) put up with (= tolerate) run out of (= have none left) send away for (= write to ask for) looking forward to (= thinking ahead with pleasure about) look out for / watch out for (= be careful about)

THE ING FORM AND THE INFINITIVE (EL GERUNDIO Y EL INFINITIVO)


The -ing form. El gerundio
It is the ing form used as a noun. En ingls es la forma verbal terminada en ing que se usa no en los tiempos continuos sino como un sustantivo, en cuyo caso tiene los siguientes usos.

Uses
o It goes after the prepositions. Detrs de las preposiciones: at, by, of, throught, etc. You can get some information by surfing the net. Puedes conseguir informacin navegando por la red.

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o It goes after the structures be / get used to. Detrs de be / get used to He is used to living alone. Est acostumbrado a vivir solo. I'm getting used to working at night. Me estoy acostumbrando a trabajar por la noche.

o It is the subject of the sentence. Como sujeto de la oracin cuando hablamos de acciones o hechos en general. Running helps you keep fit. Correr te ayuda a mantenerte en forma.

o It is the direct object for many verbs. Como complemento directo de muchos verbos: continue, like, dislike, prefer, enjoy, love, recommend, hate, miss, suggest, I like reading comics. Me gusta leer comics.

o After some verbal forms. Detrs de las siguientes formas verbales: can't help, don't mind, It's no use, can't stand, feel like, look forward to, He feels like going to the cinema tonight. Le apetece ir al cine esta noche.

To-infinitive. El infinitivo
Es la forma verbal que va precedida de to.

Uses
o After some verbs we can use a to-infinitive. Podemos usar un to-infinitive detrs de algunos verbos tales como: agree, expect, promise, choose, learn, want, appear / seem, hope, refuse, decide, plan, wish, He promised to help her. Prometi ayudarla.

o After adjectives and some adverbs. Detrs de los adjetivos y algunos adverbios She thinks it is hard to learn Chinese. Cree que aprender chino es dificil. He spoke too quickly to be understood. Habl demasiado deprisa para poder entenderle.

o We use to-infinitive after verbs with a personal indirect object. Con verbos que llevan complemento indirecto de persona. Some of them are: advise, persuade, tell, help, teach, warn, invite, Ben told me to go home. Ben me dijo que me fuera a casa. 111

Some sense verbs (hear, feel, see, ...), make and let are followed by an infinitive without to. Algunos verbos de percepcin, make y let llevan infinitivo sin to. I heard him go down the stairs. Le o bajar las escaleras. Let me open the door. Djame abrir la puerta.

We never use a to-infinitive after a modal verb. Tampoco van seguidos de infinitivo con to los verbos modales, excepto los que llevan incorporada esta partcula (have to, ought to, y need to)

VERB + -ING / TO-INFINITIVE. (VERBOS SEGUIDOS DE GERUNDIO O INFINITIVO)


Some verbs can be followed either by an ing form or an infinitive without a change of meaning. Algunos verbos pueden ir seguidos de gerundio o de infinitivo indistintamente sin que cambie su significado. It started to rain / raining. Empez a llover.

But there are some verbs, e.g. regret, remember, forget and stop, which change the meaning depending on the use. They have different meanings followed by an ing form or a to-infinitive. En cambio los verbos regret, remember, forget y stop tienen distinto significado segn lleven gerundio o infinitivo. o Regret + ing: Se refiere a una accin pasada. He regrets saying that. Lamenta haber dicho eso.

o Regret + to: Se usa para anunciar una mala noticia. I regret to tell you that the concert has been cancelled. Lamento deciros que el concierto se ha cancelado

o Remember + ing: Se refiere a una accin pasada. She remembers watching the Mr.Bean series. Recuerda haber visto la serie de Mr. Bean

o Remember + to: Se refiere a una accin futura que es importante realizar. Remember to phone the dentist this evening. Acurdate de llamar al dentista esta tarde.

o Forget + ing: Se refiere a una accin pasada y se suele usar en negativa. Amy will never forget seeing her favourite actor. Amy nunca olvidar haber visto a su actor favorito. 112

o Forget + to: Se refiere a una accin futura y tambin se suele utilizar en negativa. Don't forget to invite Jenny to the party. No olvides invitar a Jenny a la fiesta

o Stop + ing: Significa "dejar de hacer algo". Stop laughing! It's not funny. Deja de rerte. No tiene gracia.

o Stop + to: significa "parar de hacer una cosa para hacer otra diferente". They stopped to go for lunch. Pararon para ir a comer.

Verbs followed by an ing form.


Lista de verbos que generalmente van seguidos de verbos en la forma ing. admit admitir They admitted going there. Admitieron haber ido all. appreciate apreciar We appreciate doing that. Apreciamos hacer eso. avoid evitar I avoid seeing him. Evito verlo. burst out (crying/laughing) (Romper a llorar, reirse a carcajadas). He burst out crying when I told him the truth. Se ech a llorar cuando le dije la verdad He burst out laughing when he saw me. Se ri a carcajadas cuando me vio. consider considerar, plantearse. We considered buying that house. Nos planteamos comprar esa casa. contemplate rontemplar, considerar They contemplated selling it. Consideraron venderla. delay retrasar, posponer. I delayed telling the truth. Pospuse contar la verdad. deny negar He denied stealing my purse. Neg haber robado mi cartera. detest detester I detest working on Saturdays. Detesto trabajar los sbados. dislike no gustar We dislike walking back home. No nos gusta caminar de vuelta a casa. endure soportar, aguantar. She won't endure having an operation. Ella no soportar una operacin. enjoy disfrutar I enjoy coming here. Disfruto viniendo aqu. escape escapar We escaped running. Escapamos corriendo. face enfrentarse He will face having to resign. Se enfrentar a tener que renunciar. fancy gustar She would fancy living there. A ella le gustara vivir all. feel like tener ganas I don't feel like going there. No tengo ganas de ir ah. finish terminar We finish working at 6pm. Terminamos de trabajar a las 6pm forgive perdonar Forgive me for interrupting. Perdonarme por interrumpir. give up renunciar He gave up writing every day. Renunci a escribir todos los das. can't help no poder evitar I can't help talking in class. No puedo evitar hablar durante la clase. imagine imaginar We couldn't imagine living with her. No nos podamos imaginar viviendo con ella. involve suponer, involucrar That involved calling many people. Eso supona llamar a mucha gente. keep on continuar You should keep on trying. Deberas continuar intentndolo. leave off dejar, parar I'm going to have to leave off writing. Voy a tener que dejar de escribir. 113

mention mencionar She never mentioned selling it. Ella nunca mencion haberlo vendido. mind importar I don't mind you coming here. No me importa que vengas aqu. miss perder, errar, librarse de You missed getting wet. Te libraste de mojarte. postpone aplazar, posponer He always postpones helping me. Siempre pospone ayudarme. practice practicar I haven't practiced reading for a long time. No he practicado la lectura durante mucho tiempo. put off postergar, retrasar He put off signing the contract several times. Posterg la firma del contrato varias veces. resent molestar, sentar mal I resent coming here. Me sienta mal venir aqu. resist resistir He couldn't resist saying something. l no pudo resistir decir algo. risk arriesgar I don't want to risk losing you. No quiero arriesgarme a perderte. can't stand no soportar We can't stand listening to you. No soportamos escucharte. suggest sugerir They suggested flying to Rome. Sugirieron volar a Roma. Understand Entender, comprender I understand why being good is important. Comprendo porque ser bueno es importante.

Verbs which can be followed by both ing or infinitive.


Lista de verbos que pueden ir seguidos de la forma -ing o infinitivo. Algunos de estos verbos cambian de significado segn se opte por la forma -ing o infinitivo. advise aconsejar. Si no hay objeto utilizamos ing. I don't advise coming here on Sundays. No aconsejo venir aqu los domingos. Si hay objeto utilizamos el infinitivo. I don't advise you(object) to come here on Sundays. No te aconsejo que vengas aqu los domingos. allow permitir. Si no hay complemento utilizamos ing He doesn't allow smoking in his room. No permite fumar en su habitacin. Si hay complemento utilizamos el infinitivo. He doesn't allow you (object) to smoke in his room. No te permite fumar en su habitacin. be accustomed to estar acostumbrado/a a. No hay diferencia de significado importante entre ing o infinitivo. He isn't accustomed to being with you. No est acostumbrado a estar contigo. He isn't accustomed to be with you. No est acostumbrado a estar contigo. be committed to comprometerse. No hay diferencia de significado importante entre ing o infinitivo. She is committed to doing that. Ella est comprometida a hacer eso. She is committed to do that. Ella est comprometida a hacer eso. can't bear no poder soportar. No hay diferencia de significado importante entre ing o infinitivo. They can't bear having an operation. They can't bear to have an operation. No pueden soportar una operacin. begin empezar. No hay diferencia de significado importante entre ing o infinitivo When you begin talking, I'll leave. Cuando empieces a hablar me marchar. When you begin to talk, I'll leave. Cuando empieces a hablar me marchar. continue continuar. No hay diferencia de significado importante entre ing o infinitivo You should continue reading. Deberas continuar leyendo. You should continue to read. Deberas continuar leyendo.

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forbid prohibir. Si no hay complemento utilizamos ing. They forbidded smoking. Prohibieron fumar. Si hay complemento utilizamos el infinitivo. They forbidded me (object) to smoke. Me prohibieron fumar. forget olvidar. Utilizamos la forma ing cuando nos referimos acciones realizadas en el pasado. I'll never forget working with you. Nunca me olvidar de haber trabajado contigo. Utilizamos el infinitivo cuando nos referimos a acciones pendientes. I always forget to take the garbage out. Siempre me olvido de sacar la basura. go on continuar. Seguido de ing. You can go on talking. Puedes continuar hablando. Significa un cambio de actividad con infinitivo She was angry and went on to call me. Estaba enfadada y fue a llamamarme. hate odiar. No hay mucha diferencia de significado entre ing y el infinitivo. I hate doing homework. Odio hacer los deberes. I hate to do homework. Odio hacer los deberes. hear oir. Nos referimos a una accin que se prolonga en el tiempo. I heard her making a lot of noise. La escuch (que estaba) haciendo mucho ruido. Nos referimos una accin que empez y acab. I heard she made a lot of noise. Escuch que hizo ruido. intend tener intencin de. No hay diferencia de significado importante entre ing o infinitivo We intended staying there. Tuvimos intencin de quedarnos all. We intended to stay there. Tuvimos intencin de quedarnos all. learn aprender Se refiere a materias de estudio. He learned swimming when he was very young. Aprendi a nadar cuando era muy joven. Se refiere al resultado de ese estudio. He learned to swim very well. Aprendi a nadar muy bien. like gustar. No hay mucha diferencia de significado entre ing y el infinitivo. I like walking in the rain. Me gusta caminar bajo la lluvia. I like to walk in the rain. Me gusta caminar bajo la lluvia love amar, encantar. No hay mucha diferencia de significado entre ing y el infinitivo. I love eating chocolate. Me encanta comer chocolate. I love to eat chocolate. Me encanta comer chocolate. permit permitir. Si no hay complemento (objeto) utilizamos ing They permitted touching the objects. Permitan tocar los objetos. Si hay complemento (objeto) utilizamos el infinitivo. They permitted me (object) to touch the objects. Me permitieron tocar los objetos. prefer preferir No hay diferencia de significado entre ing y el infinitivo. I prefer coming here. Prefiero venir aqu. I prefer to come here. Prefiero venir aqu. propose proponer Si no hay complemento (object) utilizamos ing. He proposed using a new method. Propus utilizar un nuevo mtodo. Si hay complemento (object) utilizamos el infinitivo. He proposed me (object) to bring my CDs. Me propus que trajera mis cds. regret lamentar. Se refiere a una accin del pasado que lamentamos haber realizado. I'll always regret doing that. Siempre lamentar haber hecho eso. Se utiliza para anunciar malas noticias. I regret to tell you that we aren't leaving. Lamento decirte que no nos vamos. remember recordar. Utilizamos la forma ing cuando nos referimos a acciones realizadas en el pasado. I remember running very fast. Recuerdo haber corrido muy rpido. Utilizamos el infinitivo cuando nos referimos a acciones pendientes. I must remember to run everyday. Debo recordar (que debo) correr todos los das. 115

see ver. Nos referimos a una accin que se prolonga en el tiempo. She saw you walking. Ella te vio caminando. Nos referimos a una accin que empez y acab. She saw you walk and run. Ella te vio caminar y correr. start empezar. No hay diferencia de significado importante entre ing o infinitivo. You should start doing something. Deberas empezar a hacer algo. You should start to do something. Deberas empezar a hacer algo. stop parar, dejar de. Se utiliza ing para indicar que dejamos de realizar una accin ( hbito.) She stopped smoking last June. Ella dej de fumar el pasado mes de junio. Se utiliza el infinitivo cuando se detiene la accin. She stopped to call me. Ella se detuvo para llamarme. teach ensear Se refiere a materias de estudio. She teaches reading comprehension. Ella ensea comprensin de lectura. Se refiere al resultado de ese estudio. She taught me to read well. Ella me ense a leer bien.

THE IMPERATIVE (IMPERATIVO)


Use the imperative of the verb when you give a command or warning. The imperative is the same as the infinitive of the verb, without to. It does not change if you talk to one person or many people. It is the same in the singular and the plural. Shut the door! Go to sleep! Wait for me! Speak English! Go away!

In all these examples you can add the word please to the beginning or the end of the sentence. This makes the imperative more polite. Please shut the door! Wait for me, please!

When you tell or warn somebody not to do something, use dont + the infinitive of the verb. Dont worry. Dont drive so fast. Dont touch it!

Lets go! Lets for suggestions


Use lets, which is short for let us, to make suggestions. Lets wait. Lets sit down. Lets have a drink.

El imperativo es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para dar rdenes (algunos autores aaden tambien sugerencias, invitaciones, etc.). Work hard.Trabaja duro. Don't come. No vengas. Do it. Hazlo.

Cmo se hace el tiempo imperativo?


Slo ponemos el verbo en infinitivo sin to y sin el sujeto. Positivo Verbo en infinitivo sin sujeto y sin "to". Run. Corre

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Hurry up. Date prisa. Look! Mira!

Negativo: Don't + verbo en infinitivo sin sujeto y sin "to". Don't run! No corras!

Verbo to be. El verbo to be es incompatible con do pues ambos son auxiliares. En el imperativo tenemos una excepcin a esta regla: Dont ( do not ) puede ir con el verbo to be. Don't be silly. No seas tonto.

En ingls coloquial casi siempre se utiliza don't . La forma do not sirve para dar nfasis. Al hablar ms lento y pronunciar ambas palabras do y not por separado, parece que se insiste ms. Tambin es posible dar nfasis de forma corts en afirmativo poniendo do delante del verbo en infitivo. Do come. Es algo as como decir: S, ven. Tanto cuando utilizamos la forma afirmativa como la negativa en el imperativo podemos estar refirindonos a una sola persona (t / usted) o a ms de una persona (vosotros / ustedes). Para distinguir entre un grupo de personas u otro, debo empezar diciendo you people, y a continuacin la frase en imperativo. You people, shut up. Vosotros, callaos.

En los ejemplos que hemos visto hasta ahora hemos mencionado la forma de dar rdenes a una persona o a ms de una persona. Tambin es posible que uno mismo se incluya en la orden. En este caso utilizamos let us. Let us = Lets Positivo: Let's + verbo en infinitivo y sin to. Let's do it. Hagmoslo. Let's play. Juguemos Lets sing. Cantemos.

Negativo: Let's + not + verbo en infinitivo sin to. Let's not do it. No lo hagamos. Let's not play. No juguemos. Let's not write. No escribamos.

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