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# DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-1a-1

PROBLEM 6-1a
Statement: A ship is steaming due north at 20 knots (nautical miles per hour). A submarine is laying in wait 1/2
mile due west of the ship. The sub fires a torpedo on a course of 85 degrees. The torpedo travels
at a constant speed of 30 knots. Will it strike the ship? If not, by how many nautical miles will it
miss? Hint: Use the relative velocity equation and solve graphically or analytically.
Units: naut_mile 1 knots
naut_mile
hr

## Given: Speed of ship V

s
20 knots
s
90 deg
Speed of torpedo V
t
30 knots
t
15 deg
Initial distance between ship and torpedo d
i
0.5 naut_mile
Note that, for compass headings, due north is 0 degrees, due east 90 degrees, and the angle
increases clockwise. However, in a right-handed Cartesian system, due north is 90 degrees (up)
and due east is 0 degrees (to the right). The Cartesian system has been used above to define the
1. The key to this solution is to recognize that the only information of interest is the relative velocity of one vessel
to the other. The ship captain wants to know the relative velocity of the torpedo versus the ship, V
ts
= V
t
- V
s
.
In effect, we want to resolve the situation with respect to a moving coordinate system attached to the ship.
2. The figure below shows the initial positions of the torpedo and ship and their velocities.
ship torpedo
Vs = 20 knots
0.5 n. mi.
Vt = 30 knots
3. The figure below shows the vector diagram that solves the relative velocity equation V
ts
= V
t
- V
s
. For the
torpedo to hit the moving ship, the relative velocity vector has to be perpendicular to the ship's velocity vector
(if you were on the ship observing the torpedo, it would appear to be headed directly for you). As the velocity
diagram shows, the relative velocity vector is not perpendicular to the ship's velocity vector so it will miss and
pass behind the ship.
22.89
V
ts
V
t
-V
s
4. Determine the distance by which the torpedo will miss the ship.
Time required for torpedo to travel 0.5 nautical miles due east
t
t_east
d
i
V
t
cos
t
t
t_east
62.117 s
Distance traveled by the torpedo due north in that time
d
t_north
V
t
sin
t t
t_east
d
t_north
0.134naut_mile
Distance traveled by the ship due north in that time
d
s_north
V
s
t
t_east
d
s_north
0.345naut_mile
Distance by which the torpedo will miss the ship
d
miss
d
s_north
d
t_north
d
miss
0.211naut_mile
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-1b-1
PROBLEM 6-1b
Statement: A plane is flying due south at 500 mph at 35,000 feet altitude, straight and level. A second plane
is initially 40 miles due east of the first plane, also at 35,000 feet altitude, flying straight and level
at 550 mph. Determine the compass angle at which the second plane would be on a collision
course with the first. How long will it take for the second plane to catch the first? Hint: Use the
relative velocity equation and solve graphically or analytically.
Given:
Speed of first plane V
1
500 mph := u
1
270 deg :=
Speed of second plane V
2
550 mph :=
Initial distance between planes d
i
40 mi :=
Note that, for compass headings, due north is 0 degrees, due east 90 degrees, and the angle
increases clockwise. However, in a right-handed Cartesian system, due north is 90 degrees (up)
and due east is 0 degrees (to the right). The Cartesian system has been used above to define the
1. The key to this solution is to recognize that the only information of interest is the relative velocity of one plane
to the other. For a collision to occur, the relative velocity of the second plane with respect to the first must be
perpendicular to the velocity vector of the first.
2. The figure below shows the initial positions of the two planes and their velocities.
V2 = 550 mph
40 mi.
V1 = 500 mph
plane 1
u
plane 2
3. The figure below shows the vector diagram that solves the relative velocity equation V
2
= V
1
+ V
21
. To
construct this diagram, chose a convenient velocity scale and drawV
1
to its correct length with the arrow head
pointing straight down (indicating due south). From the tip of the vector, layoff a horizontal construction line to
the left (due west) an undetermined length. From the tail of the V
1
vector, construct a circle whose radius is
equal to the scaled length of vector V
2
. The intersection of the circle and the horizontal construction line
determines the length of V
21
. Draw the arrowheads for V
2
and V
21
pointing toward the intersection of the circle
and construction line. Label the horizontal vector V
21
and the vector that joins the tail of V
1
21
as V
2
. The angle u between V
1
and V
2
is the required direction for V
2
in order that plane 2 collides with plane 1.
24.620
2
V

V
21
u
V
1
4. The angle u can also be determined analytically from the velocity triangle as
follows.
u acos
V
1
V
2
|

\
|
|
.
:= u 24.620 deg =
5. The time it will take for the second plane to catch the first is the time that it will take plane 2 to travel the 40 miles
to the west.
t
d
i
V
2
sin u ( )
:= t 628.468 s = t 10.474 min =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-2-1
PROBLEM 6-2
Statement: A point is at a 6.5-in radius on a body in pure rotation with e= 100 rad/sec. The rotation center is
at the origin of a coordinate system. When the point is at position A, its position vector makes a 45
deg angle with the X axis. At position B, its position vector makes a 75 deg angle with the X axis.
Draw this system to some convenient scale and:
a. Write an expression for the particle's velocity vector in position A using complex number
notation, in both polar and Cartesian forms.
b. Write an expression for the particle's velocity vector in position B using complex number
notation, in both polar and Cartesian forms.
c. Write a vector equation for the velocity difference between points B and A. Substitute the
complex number notation for the vectors in this equation and solve for the velocity difference
numerically.
d. Check the result of part c with a graphical method.
Given:
Rotation speed e 100
sec
:=
Vector angles u
A
45 deg := u
B
75 deg :=
Vector magnitude R 6.5 in :=
1. Calculate the magnitude of the velocity at points A and B using equation 6.3.
V R e := V 650.000
in
sec
=
2. Establish an X-Y coordinate frame and draw a circle with center at the origin and radius R.
3. Draw lines from the origin that make angles of 45 and 75 deg with respect to the X axis. Label the intersections of
the lines with the circles as A and B, respectively. Make the line segment OA a vector by putting an arrowhead
at A, pointing away from the origin. Label the vector R
A
. Repeat for the line segment OB, labeling it R
B
.
4. Choose a convenient velocity scale and draw the two velocity vectors V
A
and V
B
at the tips of R
A
and R
B
,
respectively. The velocity vectors will be perpendicular to their respective position vectors.
4 8 2 6
500 in/sec
4
2
0
R
A
B
R
8
6
B
V
B
V
A
Y
A
X
Velocity scale:
Distance scale:
0
0 1 2 in
a. Write an expression for the particle's velocity vector in position A using complex number notation, in both
polar and Cartesian forms.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-2-2
Polar form: R
A
R e
j u
A

:= R
A
6.5 e
j
t
4

:=
V
A
R j e e
j u
A

:= V
A
650 j e
j
t
4

:=
Cartesian form: V
A
R j e cos u
A ( ) j sin u
A ( ) + ( ) :=
V
A
459.619 459.619j + ( )
in
sec
=
b. Write an expression for the particle's velocity vector in position B using complex number notation, in both
polar and Cartesian forms.
Polar form: R
B
R e
j u
B

:= R
A
6.5 e
j
t
4

:=
V
B
R j e e
j u
B

:= V
B
650 j e
j
75 t
180

:=
Cartesian form: V
B
R j e cos u
B ( ) j sin u
B ( ) + ( ) :=
V
B
627.852 168.232j + ( )
in
sec
=
c. Write a vector equation for the velocity difference between points B and A. Substitute the complex number
notation for the vectors in this equation and solve for the position difference numerically.
V
BA
V
B
V
A
:= V
BA
168.232 291.387j ( )
in
sec
=
d. Check the result of part c with a graphical method. Solve the equation V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
using a velocity scale
of 250 in/sec per drawing unit.
Velocity scale:
0.673
V
1.166
V
BA
B
v
O
V
A
Y
500 in/sec
X
0
Velocity scale factor
k
v
250
in
sec
:=
Horizontal component
V
BAx
0.673 k
v
:=
V
BAx
168.3
in
sec
=
Vertical component
V
BAy
1.166 k
v
:= V
BAy
291.5
in
sec
=
On the layout above the X and Ycomponents of V
BA
are equal to the real and imaginary components calculated,
confirming that the calculation is correct.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-3-1
PROBLEM 6-3
Statement: A point A is at a 6.5-in radius on a body in pure rotation with e = -50 rad/sec. The rotation center is
at the origin of a coordinate system. At the instant considered its position vector makes a 45 deg
angle with the X axis. A point B is at a 6.5-in radius on another body in pure rotation with e = +75
rad/sec. Its position vector makes a 75 deg angle with the X axis. Draw this system to some
convenient scale and:
a. Write an expression for the particle's velocity vector in position A using complex number
notation, in both polar and Cartesian forms.
b. Write an expression for the particle's velocity vector in position B using complex number
notation, in both polar and Cartesian forms.
c. Write a vector equation for the velocity difference between points B and A. Substitute the
complex number notation for the vectors in this equation and solve for the position difference
numerically.
d. Check the result of part c with a graphical method.
Given:
Rotation speeds e
A
50
sec
:= e
B
75
sec
:=
Vector angles u
A
45 deg := u
B
75 deg :=
Vector magnitude R 6.5 in :=
1. Calculate the magnitude of the velocity at points A and B using equation 6.3.
V
A
R e
A
:= V
A
325.000
in
sec
=
V
B
R e
B
:= V
B
487.500
in
sec
=
1. Establish an X-Y coordinate frame and draw a circle with center at the origin and radius R.
2. Draw lines from the origin that make angles of 45 and 75 deg with respect to the X axis. Label the intersections of
the lines with the circles as A and B, respectively. Make the line segment OA a vector by putting an arrowhead
at A, pointing away from the origin. Label the vector R
A
. Repeat for the line segment OB, labeling it R
B
.
3. Choose a convenient velocity scale and draw the two velocity vectors V
A
and V
B
at the tips of R
A
and R
B
,
respectively. The velocity vectors will be perpendicular to their respective position vectors.
Velocity scale:
Distance scale:
R
2
2
0
4 B
4 6
R
A
V
A
B
B
6
8
Y
V
A
8
X
0
0 1
500 in/sec
2 in
a. Write an expression for the particle's velocity vector on body A using complex number notation, in both polar
and Cartesian forms.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-3-2
Polar form: R
A
R e
j u
A

:= R
A
6.5 e
j
t
4

:=
V
A
R j e
A
e
j u
A

:= V
A
325 j e
j
t
4

:=
Cartesian form: V
A
R j e
A
cos u
A ( ) j sin u
A ( ) + ( ) :=
V
A
229.810 229.810j ( )
in
sec
=
b. Write an expression for the particle's velocity vector on body B using complex number notation, in both polar
and Cartesian forms.
Polar form: R
B
R e
j u
B

:= R
A
6.5 e
j
t
4

:=
V
B
R j e
B
e
j u
B

:= V
B
487.5 j e
j
75 t
180

:=
Cartesian form: V
B
R j e
B
cos u
B ( ) j sin u
B ( ) + ( ) :=
V
B
470.889 126.174j + ( )
in
sec
=
c. Write a vector equation for the velocity difference between the points on bodies B and A. Substitute the
complex number notation for the vectors in this equation and solve for the position difference numerically.
V
BA
V
B
V
A
:= V
BA
700.699 355.984j + ( )
in
sec
=
d. Check the result of part c with a graphical method. Solve the equation V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
using a velocity scale
of 250 in/sec per drawing unit.
Velocity scale:
2.803
V
1.424 V
V
A
v
O
B
BA
Y
500 in/sec
X
0
Velocity scale factor
k
v
250
in
sec
:=
Horizontal component
V
BAx
2.803 k
v
:=
V
BAx
700.7
in
sec
=
Vertical component
V
BAy
1.424 k
v
:= V
BAy
356.0
in
sec
=
On the layout above the X and Ycomponents of V
BA
are equal to the real and imaginary components calculated,
confirming that the calculation is correct.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-4a-1
PROBLEM 6-4a
Statement: For the fourbar defined in Table P6-1, line a, find the velocities of the pin joints A and B, and of the
instant centers I
1,3
and I
2,4
. Then calculate e
3
and e
4
and find the velocity of point P. Use a
graphical method.
Link 1 d 6 in := Link 2 a 2 in :=
Link 3 b 7 in := Link 4 c 9 in :=
Crank angle: u
2
30 deg := Crank velocity: e
2
1
:=
Coupler point data:
R
pa
6 in := o
3
30 deg :=
Solution: See Figure P6-1 and Mathcad file P0604a.
1. Draw the linkage to scale in the position given, find the instant centers, distances from the pin joints to the
instant centers and the angles that links 3 and 4 make with the x axis.
6. 8067
P
O
2
B
A
I
O I
1,3
2,4
4
88.8372
117. 2861
148. 2007
1. 7118 4. 2882
5.9966
SCALE
0 1 IN
3. 3384
From the layout above:
O2I24 1.7118 in := O4I24 4.2882 in :=
AI13 3.3384 in := BI13 5.9966 in := PI13 6.8067 in :=
u
4
117.2861 deg := u
3
88.8372 deg :=
2. Use equation 6.7 and inspection of the layout to determine the magnitude and direction of the velocity at point
A.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-4a-2
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
20.0
in
sec
=
u
VA
u
2
90 deg + := u
VA
120.0 deg =
3. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.9a.
e
3
V
A
AI13
:= e
3
5.991
sec
= CW
4. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B using equation 6.9b. Determine its direction by inspection.
V
B
BI13 e
3
:=
V
B
35.925
in
sec
=
u
VB
u
4
90 deg := u
VB
27.286 deg =
5. Use equation 6.9c to determine the angular velocity of link 4.
e
4
V
B
c
:= e
4
3.99
sec
= CW
6. Use equation 6.9d and inspection of the layout to determine the magnitude and direction of the velocity at point
P.
V
P
PI13 e
3
:= V
P
40.778
in
sec
=
u
VP
148.2007 deg 90 deg := u
VP
58.201 deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-5a-1
PROBLEM 6-5a
Statement: A general fourbar linkage configuration and its notation are shown in Figure P6-1. The link
lengths, coupler point location, and the values of u
2
and e
2
for the same fourbar linkages as used
for position analysis in Chapter 4 are redefined in Table P6-1, which is the same as Table P4-1. For
rowa, find the velocities of the pin joints A and B, and coupler point P. Calculate e
3
and e
4
. Draw
the linkage to scale and label it before setting up the equations.
Coupler point: R
pa
6 := o
3
30 deg :=
Link 2 position and velocity: u
2
30 deg := e
2
10 :=
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
4
B'
2
143.660
115.211
CROSSED
O
88.837
2
A
3
y
B
117.286
O
4
x
OPEN
2. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:=
K
1
3.0000 = K
2
0.6667 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
2.0000 =
A cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
B 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
A 0.7113 = B 1.0000 = C 3.5566 =
3. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the open and crossed circuits.
Open: u
41
2 atan2 2 A B B
2
4 A C ,
( ) ( )
:= u
41
477.286 deg =
u
41
u
41
360 deg := u
41
117.286 deg =
Crossed: u
42
2 atan2 2 A B B
2
4 A C + ,
( ) ( )
:= u
42
216.340 deg =
4. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-5a-2
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
0.8571 = K
5
0.2857 =
D cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := D 1.6774 =
E 2 sin u
2 ( ) := E 1.0000 =
F K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := F 2.5906 =
5. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open and crossed circuits.
Open: u
31
2 atan2 2 D E E
2
4 D F ,
( ) ( )
:= u
31
448.837 deg =
u
31
u
31
360 deg := u
31
88.837deg =
Crossed: u
32
2 atan2 2 D E E
2
4 D F + ,
( ) ( )
:= u
32
244.789 deg =
6. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the open circuit using equations 6.18.
e
31
a e
2

b
sin u
41
u
2
( )
sin u
31
u
41
( )
:= e
31
5.991 =
e
41
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
31
( )
sin u
41
u
31
( )
:= e
41
3.992 =
7. Determine the velocity of points A and B for the open circuit using equations 6.19.
V
A
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
A
10.000 17.321j + = V
A
20 = arg V
A ( ) 120 deg =
V
B
c e
41
sin u
41 ( ) j cos u
41 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
B
31.928 16.470j + = V
B
35.926 = arg V
B ( ) 27.286 deg =
8. Determine the velocity of the coupler point P for the open circuit using equations 6.36.
V
PA
R
pa
e
31
sin u
31
o
3
+ ( ) j cos u
31
o
3
+ ( ) + ( ) :=
V
PA
31.488 17.337j + =
V
P
V
A
V
PA
+ :=
V
P
21.488 34.658j + = V
P
40.779 = arg V
P ( ) 58.201deg =
9. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the crossed circuit using equations 6.18.
e
32
a e
2

b
sin u
42
u
2
( )
sin u
32
u
42
( )
:= e
32
0.662 =
e
42
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
32
( )
sin u
42
u
32
( )
:= e
42
2.662 =
10. Determine the velocity of point B for the crossed circuit using equations 6.19.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-5a-3
V
B
c e
42
sin u
42 ( ) j cos u
42 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
B
14.195 19.295j + = V
B
23.954 = arg V
B ( ) 126.340 deg =
11. Determine the velocity of the coupler point P for the crossed circuit using equations 6.36.
V
PA
R
pa
e
32
sin u
32
o
3
+ ( ) j cos u
32
o
3
+ ( ) + ( ) :=
V
PA
3.960 0.332j =
V
P
V
A
V
PA
+ :=
V
P
13.960 16.989j + = V
P
21.989 = arg V
P ( ) 129.411deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-6a-1
PROBLEM 6-6a
Statement: The general linkage configuration and terminology for an offset fourbar slider-crank linkage are
shown in Fig P6-2. The link lengths and the values of
2
and
2
are defined in Table P6-2. For row
a, find the velocities of the pin joints A and B and the velocity of slip at the sliding joint using a
graphical method.
Offset c 1 in

45 deg

1

Solution: See Figure P6-2 and Mathcad file P0606a.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and indicate the axes of slip and transmission as well as the directions of velocities of
interest.
Direction of VBA
Axis of slip and
Direction of VB
45.000
2
O2
Direction of VA
A
Y
179.856
1.000
X
Axis of transmission
3 B
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the velocity at point A.
V
A
a

V
A
14.000
in
sec

VA

90 deg
VA
135 deg
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B. The equation to be solved
graphically is
V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the
known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line with the
direction of V
BA
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, draw a construction line with
the direction of V
B
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
BA
from
the tip of V
A
to the intersection of the V
B
construction
line and drawing V
B
from the tail of V
A
to the
intersection of the V
BA
construction line.
1.975
V
B
BA
V
V
A
135.000
X
Y
0 5 units/sec
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-6a-2
Velocity scale factor: k
v
5 in sec
1

in

V
B
1.975 in k
v
V
B
9.875
in
sec

VB
180 deg
5. Since the slip axis and the direction of the velocity of point B are parallel, V
slip
= V
B
.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-7a-1
PROBLEM 6-7a
Statement: The general linkage configuration and terminology for an offset fourbar slider-crank linkage are
shown in Fig P6-2. The link lengths and the values of u
2
and e
2
are defined in Table P6-2. For row
a, find the velocities of the pin joints A and B and the velocity of slip at the sliding joint using the
analytic method. Draw the linkage to scale and label it before setting up the equations.
2
A) a 1.4 := Link 3 (AB) b 4 := Offset (y
B
) c 1 :=
Crank angle u
2
45 deg := Crank angular velocity e
2
10 :=
Solution: See Figure P6-2 and Mathcad file P0607a.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
4.990
d =
0.144
45.000
2
O2
3.010
3(CROSSED)
B'
2 d =
A
Y
179.856
1.000
X
3 (OPEN)
1
B
2. Determine u
3
and d using equations 4.16 and 4.17.
Crossed: u
32
asin
a sin u
2 ( ) c
b
|

\
|
|
.
:= u
32
0.144 deg =
d
2
a cos u
2 ( ) b cos u
32 ( ) := d
2
3.010 =
Open: u
31
asin
a sin u
2 ( ) c
b

\
|
|
.
t + := u
31
180.144 deg =
d
1
a cos u
2 ( ) b cos u
31 ( ) := d
1
4.990 =
3. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.22a:
Open e
31
a
b
cos u
2 ( )
cos u
31 ( )
e
2
:= e
31
2.475 =
Crossed e
32
a
b
cos u
2 ( )
cos u
32 ( )
e
2
:= e
32
2.475 =
4. Determine the velocity of pin A using equation 6.23a:
V
A
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
A
9.899 9.899i + = V
A
14.000 = arg V
A ( ) 135.000 deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-7a-2
5. Determine the velocity of pin B using equation 6.22b:
Open V
B1
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) b e
31
sin u
31 ( ) + := V
B1
9.875 =
Crossed V
B2
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) b e
32
sin u
32 ( ) + := V
B2
9.924 =
The angle of V
B
is 0 deg if V
B
is positive and 180 deg if V
B
negative.
6. The velocity of slip is the same as the velocity of pin B.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-8a-1
PROBLEM 6-8a
Statement: The general linkage configuration and terminology for an inverted fourbar slider-crank linkage are
shown in Fig P6-3. The link lengths and the values of u
2
and e
2
and are defined in Table P6-3.
For rowa, using a graphical method, find the velocities of the pin joints A and B and the velocity of
slip at the sliding joint. Draw the linkage to scale.
Link 1 d 6 in := Link 2 a 2 in :=
Link 4 c 4 in := 90 deg := u
2
30 deg := e
2
1
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-3 and Mathcad file P0608a.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and indicate the axes of slip and transmission as well as the directions of velocities of
interest.
127.333
Axis of slip and
Direction of VB
Axis of transmission and direction of VBA
b
1. 793
0
30.000
2
a
d
A
Direction of VA
90.0
y
B
142. 666
c
0
4
x
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the velocity at point A.
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
20.000
in
sec
= u
VA
u
2
90 deg + := u
VA
120 deg =
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B on link 3. The equation to be
solved graphically is
V
B3
= V
A3
+ V
BA3
0.771
1.846
V
B
V
A
Y
BA
V
52.667
X
10 in/sec 0
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the
known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line with the
direction of V
BA
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, draw a construction line with the
direction of V
B
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
BA
from the
tip of V
A
to the intersection of the V
B
construction line
and drawing V
B
from the tail of V
A
to the intersection of
the V
BA
construction line.
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor:
k
v
10 in sec
1

in
:=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-8a-2
V
B3
0.771 in k
v
:= V
B3
7.710
in
sec
= u
VB3
52.667 deg :=
V
BA3
1.846 in k
v
:= V
BA3
18.460
in
sec
=
5. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.7.
From the linkage layout above: b 1.793 in := and u
4
142.666 deg :=
e
3
V
BA3
b
:= e
3
10.296
sec
= CW
The way in which link 3 slides in link 4 requires that
e
4
e
3
:=
6. Determine the magnitude and sense of the vector V
B4
using equation 6.7.
V
B4
c e
4
:= V
B4
41.182
in
sec
=
u
VB4
u
4
90 deg := u
VB4
52.666 deg =
7. Note that V
B3
and V
B4
are in the same direction in this case. The velocity of slip is
V
slip
V
B3
V
B4
:= V
slip
33.472
in
sec
=
u
slip
u
VB4
180 deg + := u
slip
232.666deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-9a-1
PROBLEM 6-9a
Statement: The general linkage configuration and terminology for an inverted fourbar slider-crank linkage are
shown in Fig P6-3. The link lengths and the values of u
2
and e
2
and are defined in Table P6-3.
For rowa, using an analytic method, find the velocities of the pin joints A and B and the velocity of
slip at the sliding joint. Draw the linkage to scale and label it before setting up the equations.
Link 4 c 4 := 90 deg := u
2
30 deg := e
2
10 :=
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
127.333
b
0
79. 041
B'
30.000
2
A
a
d
90.0
y
B
169. 040
142. 666
c
0
4
x
2. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
P a sin u
2 ( ) sin ( ) a cos u
2 ( ) d ( ) cos ( ) + := P 1.000 =
Q a sin u
2 ( ) cos ( ) a cos u
2 ( ) d ( ) sin ( ) + := Q 4.268 =
R c sin ( ) := R 4.000 = T 2 P := T 2.000 =
S R Q := S 0.268 = U Q R + := U 8.268 =
3. Use equation 4.22c to find values of u
4
for the open and crossed circuits.
OPEN u
41
2 atan2 2 S T T
2
4 S U + ,
( )
:= u
41
142.667 deg =
CROSSED u
42
2 atan2 2 S T T
2
4 S U ,
( )
:= u
42
169.041 deg =
4. Use equation 4.18 to find values of u
3
for the open and crossed circuits.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-9a-2
OPEN u
31
u
41
+ := u
31
232.667 deg =
CROSSED u
32
u
42
:= u
32
259.041 deg =
5. Determine the magnitude of the instantaneous "length" of link 3 from equation 4.20a.
OPEN b
1
a sin u
2 ( ) c sin u
41 ( )
sin u
41
+ ( )
:= b
1
1.793 =
CROSSED b
2
a sin u
2 ( ) c sin u
42 ( )
sin u
42
+ ( )
:= b
2
1.793 =
6. Determine the angular velocity of link 4 using equation 6.30c:
OPEN e
41
a e
2
cos u
2
u
31
( )
b
1
c cos ( ) +
:= e
41
10.292 =
CROSSED e
42
a e
2
cos u
2
u
32
( )
b
2
c cos ( ) +
:= e
42
3.639 =
7. Determine the velocity of pin A using equation 6.23a:
V
A
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
A
10.000 17.321i + = V
A
20.000 = arg V
A ( )
120.000 deg =
8. Determine the velocity of point B on link 4 using equation 6.31:
OPEN V
B4x1
c e
41
sin u
41 ( ) := V
B4x1
24.966 =
V
B4y1
c e
41
cos u
41 ( ) := V
B4y1
32.734 =
V
B41
V
B4x1
2
V
B4y1
2
+ := V
B41
41.168 =
u
VB1
atan2 V
B4x1
V
B4y1
, ( ) := u
VB1
52.667 deg =
CROSSED V
B4x2
c e
42
sin u
42 ( ) := V
B4x2
2.767 =
V
B4y2
c e
42
cos u
42 ( ) := V
B4y2
14.289 =
V
B42
V
B4x2
2
V
B4y2
2
+ := V
B42
14.555 =
u
VB2
atan2 V
B4x2
V
B4y2
, ( ) := u
VB2
79.041 deg =
9. Determine the slip velocity using equation 6.30a:
OPEN V
slip1
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) e
41
b
1
sin u
31 ( ) c sin u
41 ( ) + ( ) +
cos u
31 ( )
:= V
slip1
33.461 =
CROSSED V
slip2
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) e
42
b
2
sin u
32 ( ) c sin u
42 ( ) + ( ) +
cos u
32 ( )
:= V
slip2
33.461 =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-10a-1
PROBLEM 6-10a
Statement: The link lengths, gear ratio (), phase angle (|), and the values of u
2
and e
2
for a geared fivebar
from row a of Table P6-4 are given below. Draw the linkage to scale and graphically find e
3
and e
4
,
using a graphical method.
Link 1 f 6 in := Link 3 b 7 in := Link 5 d 4 in :=
Link 2 a 1 in := Link 4 c 9 in :=
Gear ratio, phase angle, and crank angle:
2 := | 30 deg := u
2
60 deg := e
2
1
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-4 and Mathcad file P0610a.
1. Determine the angle of link 5 using the equation in Figure P6-4.
u
5
u
2
| + := u
5
150 deg =
2. Choose the pitch radii of the gears. Since the gear ratio is positive, an idler must be used between gear 2 and
gear 5. Let the idler be the same diameter as gear 5, and let all three gears be in line.
f r
2
3 r
5
+ :=
r
2
r
5
:=
r
5
f
3 +
:= r
5
1.200in =
r
2
r
5
:= r
2
2.400in =
3. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
B
O
2
O5
2
Direction of VBA
Direction of VBC
Direction of VC
Direction of VA
4
3
C
A
5
4. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the velocity at points A and C.
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
10.00
in
sec
= u
A
60 deg 90 deg + :=
e
5
e
2
:= e
5
20.000
sec
=
V
C
d e
5
:= V
C
80.00
in
sec
= u
A
150 deg 90 deg + :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-10a-2
5. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitudes of the relative velocity vectors V
BA
and V
BC
. The
equation to be solved graphically is the last of the following three.
V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
V
B
= V
C
+ V
BC
V
A
+ V
BA
= V
C
+ V
BC
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
BA
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, layout the known vector V
C
.
d. From the tip of V
C
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
BC
, magnitude unknown.
e. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
BA
from the tip of V
A
to the intersection of the V
BC
construction
line and drawing V
BC
from the tip of V
C
to the intersection of the V
BA
construction line.
0 50 in/sec
V
BA
V
BC
3.051
4.562
C
V
V
A
Y
X
6. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
50 in sec
1

in
:=
V
BA
4.562 in k
v
:= V
BA
228.100
in
sec
=
V
BC
3.051 in k
v
:= V
BC
152.550
in
sec
=
7. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4
using equation 6.7.
e
3
V
BA
b
:= e
3
32.586
sec
=
e
3
V
BC
c
:= e
3
16.950
sec
=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-11a-1
PROBLEM 6-11a
Statement: The general linkage configuration and terminology for a geared fivebar linkage are shown in Figure
P6-4. The link lengths, gear ratio (), phase angle (|), and the values of u
2
and e
2
are defined in
Table P6-4. For row a, find e
3
and e
4
, using an analytic method. Draw the linkage to scale and
label it before setting up the equations.
Link 4 c 9 := Link 5 f 6 := Input angle u
2
60 deg :=
Gear ratio 2.0 := Phase angle | 30 deg := e
2
10 :=
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-4 and Mathcad file P0611a.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
5
B`
3
4
173.6421
115.4074
B
4
3
O2
2
y
5
177.7152
124.0501
C 150. 0000
x
O
2. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
and u
4
from equations 4.24h and 4.24i.
A 2 c d cos u
2
| + ( ) a cos u
2 ( ) f + ( ) := A 36.646 =
B 2 c d sin u
2
| + ( ) a sin u
2 ( ) ( ) := B 20.412 =
C a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+ f
2
+ ( ) 2 a f cos u
2 ( )
2 d a cos u
2
( ) f ( ) cos u
2
| + ( )

+
...
2 a d sin u
2
( ) sin u
2
| + ( ) +
...
:=
C 37.431 =
D C A := D 0.785 =
E 2 B := E 40.823 =
F A C + := F 74.077 =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-11a-2
G 2 b d cos u
2
| + ( ) ( ) a cos u
2 ( ) + f

:= G 28.503 =
H 2 b d sin u
2
| + ( ) ( ) a sin u
2 ( ) +

:= H 15.876 =
K a
2
b
2
+ c
2
d
2
+ f
2
+ ( ) 2 a f cos u
2 ( )
2 d a cos u
2
( ) f ( ) cos u
2
| + ( )

+
...
2 a d sin u
2
( ) sin u
2
| + ( ) +
...
:=
K 26.569 =
L K G := L 1.933 =
M 2 H := M 31.751 =
N G K + := N 55.072 =
3. Use equations 4.24h and 4.24i to find values of u
3
and u
4
for the open and crossed circuits.
OPEN u
31
2 atan2 2 L M M
2
4 L N + ,
( ) ( )
:= u
31
173.642 deg =
u
41
2 atan2 2 D E E
2
4 D F ,
( ) ( )
:= u
41
177.715 deg =
CROSSED u
32
2 atan2 2 L M M
2
4 L N ,
( ) ( )
:= u
32
115.407 deg =
u
42
2 atan2 2 D E E
2
4 D F + ,
( ) ( )
:= u
42
124.050 deg =
4. Determine the position and angular velocity of gear 5 from equations 4.23c and 6.32c
u
5
u
2
| + := u
5
150.000 deg =
e
5
e
2
:= e
5
20.000 = CCW
Angular velocity of links 3 and 4 from equations 6.33
OPEN e
31
2 sin u
41 ( ) a e
2
sin u
2
u
41
( ) d e
5
sin u
41
u
5
( ) + ( )
b cos u
31
2 u
41
( ) cos u
31 ( ) ( )
:=
e
31
32.585 = CCW
e
41
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) b e
31
sin u
31 ( ) + d e
5
sin u
5 ( )
c sin u
41 ( )
:=
e
41
16.948 = CCW
CROSSED e
32
2 sin u
42 ( ) a e
2
sin u
2
u
42
( ) d e
5
sin u
42
u
5
( ) + ( )
b cos u
32
2 u
42
( ) cos u
32 ( ) ( )
:=
e
32
75.191 = CW
e
42
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) b e
32
sin u
32 ( ) + d e
5
sin u
5 ( )
c sin u
42 ( )
:=
e
42
59.554 = CW
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-12-1
PROBLEM 6-12
Statement: Find all of the instant centers of the linkages shown in Figure P6-5.
Solution: See Figure P6-5 and Mathcad file P0612.
a. This is a fourbar slider-crank with n 4 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 6
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection.
A
Y
2,3
1,2
X
O
2
2
3,4
1,4 at infinity
3
4
B
C
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 2 ICs, I
1,3
and I
2,4
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
A
1,2
1,4 at infinity
O
2
2
2,3
2,4
1,4 at infinity
3,4
B
3
4
C
1,3
1
2
3
4
b. This is a fourbar with planetary motion (roller 3), n 4 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
1,2 and 2,4 and 1,4
2,3 at contact point (behind link 4)
2
O
2
4
1
1,3
A
3
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 6
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that
can be found by inspection, which in this case, is all of
them.
c. This is a fourbar with n 4 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this
mechanism using equation 6.8a.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-12-2
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 6
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection.
4
1,2 1,4
2,3
O2
2
A
3
C
3,4
O4
B
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 2 ICs, I
1,3
and I
2,4
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
4
1,2 1,4
1,3 at infinity 1,3 at infinity
1
2
3
2,4 at infinity
2,4 at infinity
2,3
O2
2
A
1,3 at infinity
3
C
3,4
O4
B
2,4 at infinity
2,4 at infinity
1,3 at infinity
4
d. This is a fourbar with n 4 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 6
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection.
2
1,2
2,3
2 O
1,4 at infinity
3,4
A
3
4
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 2 ICs, I
1,3
and I
2,4
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-12-3
1,4 at infinity
1
2
3
4
2,4
1,4 at infinity
2
1,2
2,3
2 O
1,3
3,4
A
3
4
e. This is a threebar with n 3 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 3
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection.
O
1,2
2
2
O
3
1,3
3
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining IC, I
2,3
I
2,3
: I
1,2
-I
1,3
2,3
Common normal
O
1,2
2
2
O
3
1,3
3
1
3 2
f. This is a fourbar with n 4 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 6
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-12-4
1,2 at infinity
3
V
A
1,4 at infinity
B
3,4
4
2,3
2 A
C
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 2
ICs, I
1,3
and I
2,4
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
1,2 at infinity
V
A
1,4 at infinity
2,4 at infinity
3,4
B
4
3
1,3 2
2,3
2 A
3
C
4
1
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-13-1
PROBLEM 6-13
Statement: Find all of the instant centers of the linkages shown in Figure P6-6.
Solution: See Figure P6-6 and Mathcad file P0613.
a. This is a fourbar inverted slider-crank with n 4 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 6
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection.
1
1,4
1,2
2,3
1
3
4
2
3,4 at infinity
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 2 ICs, I
1,3
and I
2,4
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
1
1,4
1,3
1,2
2,4
2,3
1
3
4
2
3,4 at infinity
3,4 at infinity
3
4
1
2
b. This is a sixbar with slider, n 6 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 15
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection.
1
1
2
3
1,2
2,3
1,6 at infinity
4
5
1
3,4; 3,5; 4,5
1,4
6
5,6 3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining
7 ICs.
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
1,5
: I
1,6
-I
5,6
and I
1,4
-I
4,5
I
2,5
: I
1,2
-I
1,5
and I
2,4
-I
4,5
I
3,6
: I
1,6
-I
1,3
and I
3,4
-I
4,6
I
4,6
: I
1,6
-I
1,4
and I
4,5
-I
5,6
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
I
2,6
: I
1,2
-I
1,6
and I
2,5
-I
5,6
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-13-2
1
1,6 at infinity
4,6
2,6
1,6 at infinity
to 2,4
to 2,4 1,5
2,5
1
2
1,2
3
2,3
1,3
1,6 at infinity
4
5
1
1,4
3,4; 3,5; and 4,5
6
5,6
1,6 at infinity
3,6
6 2
3
4
5
1
c. This is a sixbar with slider and roller with n 6 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 15
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection.
3
4
1
1,4 at infinity
1,6
3,4
1
2
5
6
1
5,6
2,5
1,2
2,3
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the
remaining 8 ICs.
I
2,6
: I
1,2
-I
1,6
and I
2,5
-I
5,6
I
1,5
: I
1,6
-I
5,6
and I
1,2
-I
2,5
I
4,5
: I
1,4
-I
1,5
and I
2,4
-I
2,5
I
3,6
: I
3,6
-I
5,6
and I
2,3
-I
2,6
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
3,5
: I
3,4
-I
4,5
and I
2,5
-I
2,3
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,5
-I
2,4
I
4,6
: I
4,5
-I
5,6
and I
3,4
-I
3,6
3
4
1
1,4 at infinity
1,6
3,4
4
1,3
4,6
3,6
3,5
5,6
2,6
1,4 at infinity
1
1
2
5
2,5
1,5
6
4,5
1,2
2,3
2,4
1,4 at infinity
6 2
3 5
1
d. This is a sixbar with slider and roller with n 6 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 15
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-13-3
1,6 at infinity
1,2
1,4
1
2
3
5
2,3; 2,5; and 3,5
1
4
3,4
6
1
5,6
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 7 ICs.
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
3,6
: I
1,6
-I
1,3
and I
3,5
-I
5,6
I
2,6
: I
1,2
-I
1,6
and I
2,5
-I
5,6
I
1,5
: I
1,6
-I
5,6
and I
1,2
-I
2,5
I4
,5
: I
1,4
-I
1,5
and I
3,5
-I
3,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
I
4,6
: I
1,6
-I
1,4
and I
4,5
-I
5,6
1,6 at infinity
1,3
1,6 at infinity
1,2
1,4
1,6 at infinity
2,6
1
2
3
5
2,3; 2,5; and 3,5
1
4
3,4
4,5
2,4
4,6
6
1
5,6
1,5
6 2
3 5
4
3,6
1
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-14-1
PROBLEM 6-14
Statement: Find all of the instant centers of the linkages shown in Figure P6-7.
Solution: See Figure P6-7 and Mathcad file P0614.
a. This is a pin-jointed fourbar with n 4 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 6
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection.
1,2
3,4
2
3
4
1
1,4
2,3
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 2 ICs, I
1,3
and
I
2,4
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
1,2
3,4
2
3
4
1
2,3
1,4
1,3
2
3
4
2,4
1
b. This is a fourbar inverted slider-crank, n 4 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 6
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection, which in this case, is all of
them.
1,4
3,4 at infinity
1
2
3
4
2,3
1,2
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 2 ICs, I
1,3
and I
2,4
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
1,2
2,3
1,4
1,3
3,4 at infinity
1
2
4
3
1
3,4 at infinity
2,4
4
3
2
1,2 at infinity
3,4
1
2
3
2,3
4
1,4 at infinity
c. This is a fourbar double slider with n 4 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 6
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-14-2
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 2 ICs, I
1,3
and I
2,4
1,2 at infinity
3,4
2,4 at infinity
1
2
3
2,3
4
1,4 at infinity
1,3
3
4 2
1
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
d. This is a pin-jointed fourbar with n 4 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 6
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection.
3,4
2,3
1
2
3
4
1,2
1,4
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 2 ICs,
I
1,3
and I
2,4
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
3,4
2,3
2,4
1
2
3
4
1,2
1,3
4 2
1,4 3
1
e. This is a fourbar effective slider-crank with n 4 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 6
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection.
2,3
1,4 at infinity
3
4
1
3,4
1,2
2
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 2 ICs,
I
1,3
and I
2,4
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
2,3
1,4 at infinity
1,4 at infinity
3
4
1
3,4
1,3
1,2
2
3
4 2
2,4
1
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-14-3
f. This is a fourbar cam-follower with n 4 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 6
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection.
1,2 at infinity
3
4
1
1,4
3,4
2,3
2
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 2 ICs, I
1,3
and I
2,4
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
1,2 at infinity
1,2 at infinity
3
4
1
1,4
3,4
2,4
2,3
2
4
3
2
1,3
1
g. This is a fourbar slider-crank with n 4 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 6
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection.
3
1,2
1
2
2,3
4
3,4
1,4 at infinity
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 2
ICs, I
1,3
and I
2,4
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
3
1,2
1
2,4 2
2,3
1,4 at infinity
4
3,4
1,4 at infinity
3
1,3
4 2
1
1,4
3,4 at infinity
1
3
4
2,3 1,2
1
2
h. This is a fourbar inverted slider-crank with n 4 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 6
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-14-4
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 2 ICs, I
1,3
and I
2,4
1,3
1,4
3,4 at infinity
1
4
3
2,3 1,2
1
2
3,4 at infinity
2,4
3,4 at infinity
4
3
2
1
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
i. This is a fourbar slider-crank (hand pump) with n 4 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 6
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection.
1
1,4
4
3,4
1,2 at infinity 2
3
2,3
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 2 ICs, I
1,3
and I
2,4
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
1
2,4 1,2 at infinity
1,4
4
3,4
1,2 at infinity
1,2 at infinity
1,3
2
2,3
3
3
1
4 2
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-15-1
PROBLEM 6-15
Statement: Find all of the instant centers of the linkages shown in Figure P6-8.
Solution: See Figure P6-8 and Mathcad file P0615.
a. This is a pin-jointed fourbar with n 4 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 6
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection.
4
1,2 O
2
3,4
B
2,3
2
3
B
1,4
4
O
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find
the remaining 2 ICs, I
1,3
and I
2,4
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
4
1,4
1,3
3,4 and 2,4
1,2
2,3
2
3
2 4
3
1
b. This is a pin-jointed fourbar with n 4 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
4
1,2
1,4
O4
2,3
2
A
O2
3
3,4
B
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 6
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that
can be found by inspection, which in this case, is all
of them.
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the
remaining 2 ICs, I
1,3
and I
2,4
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-15-2
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
2,3
3,4
1,2
2,4
O2
2
A
1,4
O4
4
3
B
3
2 4
1
1,3
c. This is an eightbar (three slider-cranks with a common crank) with n 8 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
1,2
5
2,3; 2,4; 2,5;
3,4; 3,5; and 4,5
1,7 at infinity
1,6 at infinity
3,6
6
1
3
4,7
4 7
2
5,8
8
1,8 at infinity
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 28
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can
be found by inspection.
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the
remaining 15 ICs.
I
1,5
: I
1,2
-I
2,5
and I
1,8
-I
5,8
I
2,6
: I
1,2
-I
1,6
and I
2,3
-I
3,6
I
2,7
: I
1,2
-I
1,7
and I
2,4
-I
4,7
I
3,7
: I
1,3
-I
1,7
and I
3,4
-I
4,7
I
6,8
: I
2,7
-I
2,8
and I
3,7
-I
3,8
I
3,8
: I
1,3
-I
3,8
and I
3,5
-I
5,8
I
4,6
: I
1,6
-I
1,4
and I
3,4
-I
3,6
I
2,8
: I
1,2
-I
1,8
and I
2,5
-I
5,8
I
4,8
: I
3,8
-I
3,4
and I
4,5
-I
5,8
I
5,6
: I
2,5
-I
2,6
and I
3,5
-I
3,6
I
1,4
: I
1,7
-I
4,7
and I
1,2
-I
2,4
I
5,7
: I
2,5
-I
2,7
and I
3,5
-I
3,7
I
6,7
: I
2,6
-I
2,7
and I
3,6
-I
3,7
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,6
-I
3,6
I
6,8
: I
4,6
-I
4,8
and I
3,6
-I
3,8
1,2
5
2,6
3,8
2,3; 2,4; 2,5; 3,4; 3,5; and 4,5
1,7 at infinity
2,7
1,6 at infinity
3,6
1
6
3
2,8
4,7
1,4
4,6
4 7
2
To 1,5
1,3
To 1,5
3,7
1,8 at infinity
5,8
8
Note that, for clarity, not all ICs are shown.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-15-3
d. This is a pin-jointed fourbar with n 4 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
1,2
1,4
2
2,3
3
1
E
3,4
4
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 6
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs
that can be found by inspection.
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find
the remaining 2 ICs, I
1,3
and I
2,4
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
1,2
1,4
2
2,3
2,4 at infinity
3
1
E
3
1
1,3 at infinity
3,4
4
4 2
e. This is an eightbar with n 8 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
1,2
2
2,5
2,3
4,6
5
3
1,8
8
6,8 7,8
6
7
4,7
4
1,4
4,5
3,4
C 6 C
n n 1 ( )
2

## 2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that

can be found by inspection.
3. The remaining 17 ICs are at infinity.
1,2
3,4
1,4 at infinity
1
4
2,3
2
3
f. This is an offset crank-slider with
n 4 .
1. Determine the number of instant
centers for this mechanism using
equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2

C 6
2. Draw the linkage to scale and
identify those ICs that can be
found by inspection.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-15-4
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 2 ICs, I
1,3
and I
2,4
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
1,2
3,4
1,4 at infinity
1,4 at infinity
1
4
2,3
2
2,4
3
1,3
3
2 4
1
1,4
2
2,5
1,4
4
5
3,4
3
5,6
6
1,6
2,3
g. This is a sixbar with n 6 .
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this
mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 15
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that
can be found by inspection.
3. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the
remaining 8 ICs.
I
1,3
: I
1,4
-I
4,3
and I
1,2
-I
3,2
2,4
2,6
2
1,2
3,6
1,4
4,5 and 1,3
4,6 at infinity
5
4
3,4
3
3,5 at infinity
2,3 and 1,5
5,6
6
1,6
3,5 at infinity
4,5
I
1,5
: I
1,6
-I
5,6
and I
1,2
-I
2,5
I
3,5
: I
1,3
-I
1,5
and I
3,2
-I
2,5
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
3,4
-I
2,3
I
2,6
: I
1,6
-I
1,2
and I
2,5
-I
5,6
I
4,6
: I
1,4
-I
1,6
and I
2,4
-I
2,6
I
4,5
: I
4,6
-I
5,6
and I
3,4
-I
3,5
I
3,6
: I
3,4
-I
4,6
and I
3,5
-I
5,6
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-16a-1
PROBLEM 6-16a
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-5a has the dimensions and crank angle given below. Find e
3
, V
A
, V
B
, and
V
C
for the position shown for e
2
= 15 rad/sec in the direction shown. Use the velocity difference
graphical method.
Given: Link lengths: Coupler point data:
2
to A) a 0.80 in := Distance fromA toC p 1.33 in :=
Link 3 (A to B) b 1.93 in := Angle BAC o 38.6 deg :=
Offset c 0.38 in := Crank angle: u
2
34.3 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CCW
Solution: See Figure P6-5a and Mathcad file P0616a.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
Direction of VBA
Direction of VA
A
O
X
Y
2
34.300
38.600
C
B
Direction of VB
154.502
Direction of VCA
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the velocity at point A.
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
12.00
in
sec
= u
A
34.3 deg 90 deg + :=
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B. The equation to be solved
graphically is
A
2.298
2.197
V
B
V
BA
V
124.300
X
Y
0 5 in/sec
V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and
layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line
with the direction of V
BA
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, draw a construction line
with the direction of V
B
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
BA
from the tip of V
A
to the intersection of the V
B
construction line and drawing V
B
from the tail of
V
A
to the intersection of the V
BA
construction
line.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-16a-2
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
5 in sec
1

in
:=
V
B
2.298 in k
v
:= V
B
11.490
in
sec
= u
B
180 deg :=
V
BA
2.197 in k
v
:= V
BA
10.985
in
sec
=
5. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.7.
e
3
V
BA

b
:= e
3
5.692
sec
=
6. Determine the magnitude and sense of the vector V
CA
using equation 6.7.
V
CA
p e
3
:= V
CA
7.570
in
sec
=
u
CA
154.502 180 38.6 + 90 ( ) deg := u
CA
76.898 deg =
7. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point C. The equation to be solved
graphically is
A
1.130
V
V
CA
V
153.280
C
X
0
Y
5 in/sec
V
C
= V
A
+ V
CA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout
the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, layout the (now) known
vector V
CA
.
c. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
C
from
the tail of V
A
to the tip of the V
CA
vector.
8. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
5 in sec
1

in
:=
V
C
1.130 in k
v
:= V
C
5.650
in
sec
= u
C
153.28 deg :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-16b-1
PROBLEM 6-16b
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-5a has the dimensions and crank angle given below. Find e
3
, V
A
, V
B
, and
V
C
for the position shown for e
2
= 15 rad/sec in the direction shown. Use the instant center
graphical method.
Given: Link lengths: Coupler point data:
2
to A) a 0.80 in := Distance fromA toC p 1.33 in :=
Link 3 (A to B) b 1.93 in := Angle BAC o 38.6 deg :=
Offset c 0.38 in := Crank angle: u
2
34.3 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CCW
Solution: See Figure P6-5a and Mathcad file P0616b.
1. Draw the linkage to scale in the position given, find the instant centers, distances from the pin joints to the
instant centers and the angles that links 3 and 4 make with the x axis.
2.109
1,2
1,4 at infinity
O
2
2
2,3
2,4
A
2.019
1,4 at infinity
3,4
B
3
4
0.993
116.732
C
1,3
From the layout:
AI13 2.109 in :=
BI13 2.019 in :=
CI13 0.993 in :=
u
C
360 116.732 ( ) deg :=
2. Use equation 6.7 and inspection of the
layout to determine the magnitude and
direction of the velocity at point A.
V
A
a e
2
:=
V
A
12.000
in
sec
=
u
VA
u
2
90 deg + := u
VA
124.3 deg =
3. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.9a.
e
3
V
A
AI13
:= e
3
5.690
sec
= CW
4. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B using equation 6.9b. Determine its direction by inspection.
V
B
BI13 e
3
:= V
B
11.488
in
sec
=
u
VC
180 deg :=
5. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point C using equation 6.9b. Determine its direction by inspection.
V
C
CI13 e
3
:= V
C
5.650
in
sec
=
u
VC
u
C
90 deg := u
VC
153.268 deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-16c-1
PROBLEM 6-16c
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-5a has the dimensions and crank angle given below. Find e
3
, V
A
, V
B
, and
V
C
for the position shown for e
2
= 15 rad/sec in the direction shown. Use an analytical method.
Given: Link lengths: Coupler point data:
2
to A) a 0.80 in := Distance fromA toC R
ca
1.33 in :=
Link 3 (A to B) b 1.93 in := Angle BAC o
3
38.6 deg :=
Offset c 0.38 in := Crank angle: u
2
34.3 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CCW
0.380"
A
O
X
Y
2
34.300
38.600
B
154.502
C
Solution: See Figure P6-5a and Mathcad file P0616c.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
2. Determine u
3
and d using equation 4.17.
u
31
asin
a sin u
2 ( ) c
b

\
|
|
.
t + :=
u
31
154.502 deg =
d
1
a cos u
2 ( ) b cos u
31 ( ) := d
1
2.403 in =
3. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.22a:
e
31
a
b
cos u
2 ( )
cos u
31 ( )
e
2
:= e
31
5.691
sec
=
4. Determine the velocity of pin A using equation 6.23a:
V
A
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
A
6.762 9.913j + ( )
in
sec
= V
A
12.000
in
sec
= arg V
A ( ) 124.300 deg =
5. Determine the velocity of pin B using equation 6.22b:
V
B
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) b e
31
sin u
31 ( ) + :=
V
B
11.490
in
sec
= V
B
11.490
in
sec
= arg V
B ( ) 180.000 deg =
6. Determine the velocity of the coupler point C for the open circuit using equations 6.36.
V
CA
R
ca
e
31
sin t u
31
+ o
3
+ ( ) j cos t u
31
+ o
3
+ ( ) + ( ) :=
V
CA
1.716 7.371j ( )
in
sec
=
V
C
V
A
V
CA
+ :=
V
C
5.047 2.542j + ( )
in
sec
= V
C
5.651
in
sec
= arg V
C ( ) 153.268 deg =
Note that u
3
is defined at point B for the slider-crank and at point A for the pin-jointed fourbar. Thus, to use
equation 6.36a for the slider-crank, 180 deg must be added to the calculated value of u
3
.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-17a-1
PROBLEM 6-17a
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-5c has the dimensions and effective crank angle given below. Find e
3
, e
4
,
V
A
, V
B
, and V
C
for the position shown for e
2
= 15 rad/sec in the direction shown. Use the velocity
difference graphical method.
Link 2 (point of contact to A) a 0.75 in := Distance A to C p 1.2 in :=
Link 3 (A to B) b 1.5 in := Angle BAC o 30 deg :=
Link 4 (point of contact to B) c 0.75 in :=
Link 1 (between contact points) d 1.5 in := Crank angle: u
2
77 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-5c and Mathcad file P0617a.
1. Although the mechanism shown in Figure P6-5c is not entirely pin-jointed, it can be analyzed for the position
shown by its effective pin-jointed fourbar, which is shown below. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale.
Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
77.000
Direction of VCA
Direction of VBA
30.000
Direction of VA
A
O
2
O
4
b
77.000
c a
d
2 4
C
Y
3
Direction of VB
B
X
0 0.5 1 in
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the velocity at point A.
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
11.250
in
sec
= u
A
77 deg 90 deg + :=
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B, the magnitude of the relative
velocity V
BA
, and the angular velocity of link 3. The equation to be solved graphically is
V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
BA
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
B
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
BA
from the tip of V
A
to the intersection of the V
B
construction
line and drawing V
B
from the tail of V
A
to the intersection of the V
BA
construction line.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-17a-2
0 5 in/sec
167.000
Direction of V
B
V
A
V
B
Direction of
X
Y
V
BA
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
V
B
V
A
:= V
B
11.250
in
sec
= u
B
167 deg :=
V
BA
0
in
sec
:=
5. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 using equation 6.7.
e
3
V
BA
b
:= e
3
0.000
sec
=
e
4
V
B
c
:= e
4
15.000
sec
=
6. Determine the magnitude of the vector V
CA
using equation 6.7.
V
CA
p e
3
:= V
CA
0.000
in
sec
=
7. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point C. The equation to be solved
graphically is
V
C
= V
A
+ V
CA
Normally, we would draw the velocity triangle represented by this equation. However, since V
CA
is zero,
V
C
V
A
:= V
C
11.250
in
sec
=
u
C
u
A
:= u
C
167.000deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-17b-1
PROBLEM 6-17b
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-5c has the dimensions and effective crank angle given below. Find e
3
, e
4
,
V
A
, V
B
, and V
C
for the position shown for e
2
= 15 rad/sec in the direction shown. Use the instant
center graphical method.
Link 2 (point of contact to A) a 0.75 in :=
Distance A to C p 1.2 in :=
Link 3 (A to B) b 1.5 in :=
Angle BAC o 30 deg :=
Link 4 (point of contact to B) c 0.75 in :=
Link 1 (between contact points) d 1.5 in := Crank angle: u
2
77 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CCW
Solution: See Figure P6-5c and Mathcad file P0617b.
1. Although the mechanism shown in Figure P6-5c is not entirely pin-jointed, it can be analyzed for the position
shown by its effective pin-jointed fourbar, which is shown below. Draw the linkage to scale in the position
given, find the instant centers, distances from the pin joints to the instant centers and the angles that links 3 and
4 make with the x axis.
4
1,3 at infinity
2,3
30.000
2,4 at infinity
2,4 at infinity
1,2
1,3 at infinity
O2
2
A
77.000
1,3 at infinity
3
C
3,4
1,4
O4
B
2,4 at infinity
2,4 at infinity
77.000
1,3 at infinity
Since I
1,3
is at infinity, link 3 is not rotating ( e
3
1
:= ). Thus, the velocity of every point on link 3 is
the same.
From the layout above:
u
4
77.000 deg := u
3
0.000 deg :=
2. Use equation 6.7 and inspection of the layout to determine the magnitude and direction of the velocity at point
A.
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
11.250
in
sec
=
u
VA
u
2
90 deg + := u
VA
167.0 deg =
3. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B knowing that it is the same as that of point A.
V
B
V
A
:= V
B
11.250
in
sec
=
u
VB
u
4
90 deg + := u
VB
167.000 deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-17b-2
4. Use equation 6.9c to determine the angular velocity of link 4.
e
4
V
B
c
:= e
4
15
sec
= CCW
5. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point C knowing that it is the same as that of point A.
V
C
V
A
:= V
C
11.250
in
sec
=
u
VC
u
VA
:= u
VC
167.000 deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-17c-1
PROBLEM 6-17c
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-5c has the dimensions and effective crank angle given below. Find e
3
, e
4
,
V
A
, V
B
, and V
C
for the position shown for e
2
= 15 rad/sec in the direction shown. Use an
analytical method.
Link 2 (point of contact to A) a 0.75 in := Distance A to C R
ca
1.2 in :=
Link 3 (A to B) b 1.5 in := Angle BAC o
3
30 deg :=
Link 4 (point of contact to B) c 0.75 in :=
Link 1 (between contact points) d 1.5 in := Crank angle: u
2
77 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:=
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-5c and Mathcad file P0617c.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
30.000
77.000
O
2
2
a
A
d
b
Y
3
C
77.000
O
4
X
4
c
B
0 0.5 1 in
2. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:= K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:=
K
1
2.0000 = K
2
2.0000 = K
3
1.0000 =
A cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
B 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
A 1.2250 = B 1.9487 = C 2.3251 =
3. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
41
2 atan2 2 A B B
2
4 A C ,
( ) ( )
:= u
41
437.000 deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-17c-2
u
41
u
41
360 deg := u
41
77.000deg =
4. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.0000 =
K
5
2.0000 =
D cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := D 3.5501 =
E 2 sin u
2 ( ) := E 1.9487 =
F K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := F 0.0000 =
5. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
u
31
2 atan2 2 D E E
2
4 D F ,
( ) ( )
:= u
31
360.000 deg =
u
31
u
31
360 deg := u
31
0.000deg =
6. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the open circuit using equations 6.18.
e
31
a e
2

b
sin u
41
u
2
( )
sin u
31
u
41
( )
:= e
31
0.000
sec
=
e
41
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
31
( )
sin u
41
u
31
( )
:= e
41
15.000
sec
=
7. Determine the velocity of points A and B for the open circuit using equations 6.19.
V
A
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
A
10.962 2.531j + ( )
in
sec
= V
A
11.250
in
sec
= arg V
A ( ) 167.000 deg =
V
B
c e
41
sin u
41 ( ) j cos u
41 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
B
10.962 2.531j + ( )
in
sec
= V
B
11.250
in
sec
= arg V
B ( ) 167.000 deg =
8. Determine the velocity of the coupler point C for the open circuit using equations 6.36.
V
CA
R
ca
e
31
sin u
31
o
3
+ ( ) j cos u
31
o
3
+ ( ) + ( ) :=
V
CA
0.000
in
sec
=
V
C
V
A
V
CA
+ :=
V
C
10.962 2.531j + ( )
in
sec
= V
C
11.250
in
sec
= arg V
C ( ) 167.000 deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-18a-1
PROBLEM 6-18a
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-5f has the dimensions and coupler angle given below. Find e
3
, V
A
, V
B
,
and V
C
for the position shown for V
A
= 10 in/sec in the direction shown. Use the velocity
difference graphical method.
Given: Link lengths and angles: Coupler point:
Link 3 (A to B) b 1.8 in := Distance A to C p 1.44 in :=
Coupler angle u
3
128 deg := Angle BAC o 49 deg :=
Slider 4 angle u
4
59 deg := Input slider velocity V
A
10 in sec
1
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-5f and Mathcad file P0618a.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
128.000
3
59.000
A 2
b
49.000
V
A
B
Y
4
Direction of VB
Direction of VBA
Direction of VCA
X
0 0.5 1 in
C
2. The magnitude and sense of the velocity at point A.
V
A
10.000
in
sec
= u
A
180 deg :=
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B, the magnitude of the relative
velocity V
BA
, and the angular velocity of link 3. The equation to be solved graphically is
3.436
59.000
4.784
A
V
38.000
0 5 in/sec
Y
X
V
B
V
BA
V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and
layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line
with the direction of V
BA
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, draw a construction line
with the direction of V
B
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawing
V
BA
from the tip of V
A
to the intersection of the
V
B
construction line and drawing V
B
from the
tail of V
A
to the intersection of the V
BA
construction line.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-18a-2
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
5 in sec
1

in
:=
u
B
59 deg :=
V
B
3.438 in k
v
:= V
B
17.190
in
sec
=
u
BA
38 deg :=
V
BA
4.784 in k
v
:= V
BA
23.920
in
sec
=
5. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.7.
e
3
V
BA

b
:= e
3
13.289
sec
=
6. Determine the magnitude and sense of the vector V
CA
using equation 6.7.
V
CA
p e
3
:= V
CA
19.136
in
sec
=
u
CA
128 49 90 ( ) deg := u
CA
11.000 deg =
7. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point C. The equation to be solved
graphically is
V
C
= V
A
+ V
CA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, layout the (now) known vector V
CA
.
c. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
C
from the tail of V
A
to the tip of the V
CA
vector.
3.827
1.902
Y
V
11.000
A
0 5 in/sec
22.572
V
CA
V
C
X
8. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
5 in sec
1

in
:=
u
C
22.572 deg :=
V
C
1.902 in k
v
:= V
C
9.510
in
sec
=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-18b-1
PROBLEM 6-18b
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-5f has the dimensions and coupler angle given below. Find e
3
, V
A
, V
B
,
and V
C
for the position shown for V
A
= 10 in/sec in the direction shown. Use the instant center
graphical method.
Given: Link lengths and angles: Coupler point:
Link 3 (A to B) b 1.8 in := Distance A to C p 1.44 in :=
Coupler angle u
3
128 deg := Angle BAC o 49 deg :=
Slider 4 angle u
4
59 deg := Input slider velocity V
A
10 in sec
1
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-5f and Mathcad file P0618b.
1. Draw the linkage to scale in the position given, find the instant centers, distances from the pin joints to the
instant centers and the angles that links 3 and 4 make with the x axis.
1,2 at infinity
A
1.293
0.716
1,3
V
A
3
1,4 at infinity
2,4 at infinity
3,4
B
4
67.428
2,3
2
0.753
C
From the layout:
AI13 0.753 in := BI13 1.293 in :=
CI13 0.716 in := u
C
67.428 deg :=
2. Determine the angular velocity of link 3
using equation 6.9a.
e
3
V
A
AI13
:= e
3
13.280
sec
= CW
3. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B using
equation 6.9b. Determine its direction by inspection.
V
B
BI13 e
3
:= V
B
17.17
in
sec
=
u
VB
u
4
:= u
VB
59.000 deg =
4. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point C using equation 6.9b. Determine its direction by inspection.
V
C
CI13 e
3
:= V
C
9.509
in
sec
=
u
VC
u
C
90 deg := u
VC
22.572 deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-18c-1
PROBLEM 6-18c
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-5f has the dimensions and coupler angle given below. Find e
3
, V
A
, V
B
,
and V
C
for the position shown for V
A
= 10 in/sec in the direction shown. Use an analytical method.
Given: Link lengths and angles: Coupler point:
Link 3 (A to B) b 1.8 in := Distance A to C R
ca
1.44 in :=
Coupler angle u
3
128 deg := Angle BAC o
3
49 deg :=
Slider 4 angle u
4
59 deg := Input slider velocity V
A
10 in sec
1
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-5f and Mathcad file P0618c.
1. Draw the mechanism to scale and define a vector loop using the fourbar slider-crank derivation in Section 6.7 as
a model.
49.000
59.000
V
A
R
2
b
R
4
Y
3
4
R
3
B
128.000
A 2
X
0 0.5 1 in
C
2. Write the vector loop equation, differentiate it, expand the result and separate into real and imaginary parts to
solve for e
3
and V
B
.
R
2
R
3
+ R
4
:=
a e
j u
2

b e
j u
3

+ c e
j u
4

:=
where a is the distance from the origin to point A, a variable; b is the distance from A to B, a constant; and c is
the distance from the origin to point B, a variable. Angle u
2
is zero, u
3
is the angle that AB makes with the x axis,
and u
4
is the constant angle that slider 4 makes with the x axis. Differentiating,
t
a
d
d
j b e
3
e
j u
3

+
t
c
d
d
|

\
|
|
.
e
j u
4

:=
Substituting the Euler equivalents,
t
a
d
d
b e
3
sin u
3 ( ) j cos u
3 ( ) + ( ) +
t
c
d
d
|

\
|
|
.
cos u
4 ( ) j sin u
4 ( ) + ( ) :=
Separating into real and imaginary components and solving for e
3
and V
B
. Note that dc/dt = V
B
and da/dt = V
A
e
3
V
A
tan u
4 ( )
b sin u
3 ( ) tan u
4 ( ) cos u
3 ( ) + ( )
:= e
3
13.288
sec
=
V
B
V
A
b e
3
sin u
3 ( )
cos u
4 ( )
:= V
B
17.180
in
sec
=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-18c-2
V
B
V
B
cos u
4 ( ) j sin u
4 ( ) + ( ) := arg V
B ( ) 59.000 deg =
3. Determine the velocity of the coupler point C using equations 6.36.
V
CA
R
ca
e
3
sin u
3
o
3
+ ( ) j cos u
3
o
3
+ ( ) + ( ) :=
V
CA
18.783 3.651j ( )
in
sec
=
V
A
V
A
:=
V
C
V
A
V
CA
+ :=
V
C
8.783 3.651j ( )
in
sec
= V
C
9.512
in
sec
= arg V
C ( ) 22.572 deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-19-1
PROBLEM 6-19
Statement: The cam-follower in Figure P6-5d has O
2
A = 0.853 in. Find V
4
, V
trans
, and V
slip
for the position
shown with
2
= 20 rad/sec in the direction (CCW) shown.
Given:

1
O
2
A a 0.853 in
Assumptions: Rolling contact (no sliding)
Solution: See Figure P6-5d and Mathcad file P0619.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and indicate the axes of slip and transmission as well as the directions of velocities of
interest.
Direction of VA
0.853
Axis of transmission
2
2 O
A
Axis of slip
3
4
B
Direction of V4
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the velocity at point A.
V
A
a

V
A
17.060
in
sec

3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity components at point A. The equation
to be solved graphically is
V
A
= V
trans
+ V
slip
0.870
1.523
0.768
trans
V
slip
V
A
V
Y
X
V
4
0 10 in/sec
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the
known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line with the
direction of V
slip
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, draw a construction line with the
direction of V
trans
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
slip
from
the tip of V
trans
to the tip of V
A
and drawing V
trans
from
the tail of V
A
to the intersection of the V
slip
construction
line.
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
10 in sec
1

in
V
trans
0.768 in k
v
V
trans
7.680
in
sec

V
slip
1.523 in k
v
V
slip
15.230
in
sec
V
4
0.870 in k
v
V
4
8.700
in
sec

## DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-20-1

PROBLEM 6-20
Statement: The cam-follower in Figure P6-5e has O2A = 0.980 in and O3A = 1.344 in. Find
3
, V
trans
, and V
slip
for the position shown with
2
= 10 rad/sec in the direction (CW) shown.
Given:

1
Distance from O
2
to A: a 0.980 in
Distance from O
3
to A: b 1.344 in
Assumptions: Roll-slide contact
Solution: See Figure P6-5e and Mathcad file P0620.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and indicate the axes of slip and transmission as well as the directions of velocities of
interest.
Axis of transmission
1.344
Direction of VA3
Direction of VA2
O
0.980
2 A
2
O
3
3
Axis of slip
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the
velocity at point A.
V
A
a

V
A
9.800
in
sec

## 3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the

magnitude of the velocity components at point A.
The equation to be solved graphically is
V
A2
= V
trans
+ V
A2slip
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
slip
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
trans
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
slip
from the tip of V
trans
to the tip of V
A
and drawing V
trans
from
the tail of V
A
to the intersection of the V
slip
construction line.
1.599
1.134
2.048
A2slip
2.598
V
V
V
A3
A3slip
V
A2
Y
trans
V
X
0 5 in/sec
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
5 in sec
1

in

V
A2slip
1.134 in k
v
V
A2slip
5.670
in
sec

V
trans
1.599 in k
v
V
trans
7.995
in
sec

V
A3slip
2.048 in k
v
V
A3slip
10.240
in
sec

V
A3
2.598 in k
v
V
A3
12.990
in
sec

## 5. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.7.

V
A3
b

9.665
sec
CCW
6. The relative slip velocity is V
slip
V
A3slip
V
A2slip
V
slip
4.570
in
sec

## DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-21a-1

PROBLEM 6-21a
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-6b has L1 = 61.9, L
2
= 15, L
3
= 45.8, L
4
= 18.1, L
5
= 23.1 mm. u
2
is 68.3 deg
in the xy coordinate system, which is at -23.3 deg in the XY coordinate system. The X component
of O
2
C is 59.2 mm. Find, for the position shown, the velocity ratio V
I5,6
/V
I2,3
and the mechanical
Link 1 d 61.9 mm := Link 2 a 15.0 mm :=
Link 3 b 45.8 mm := Link 4 c 18.1 mm :=
Link 5 e 23.1 mm := Offset f 59.2 mm := from O
2
Crank angle: u
2
45 deg := Global XY system
Coordinate rotation angle o 23.3 deg := Global XY system to local xy system
Solution: See Figure P6-6b and Mathcad file P0621a.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
Direction of VB
23.3
1
Direction of VA
3
O
2
2
45.0
A
2,3
y
Y
B
Direction of VBA
4
1
O
4
x
Direction of VCB
Direction of VC
5,6
5
1
6
C
X
2. Choose an arbitrary value for the magnitude of
the velocity at I
2,3
(point A). Let link 2 rotate
CCW.
V
A
10
mm
sec
:=
u
VC
45 deg 90 deg + :=
u
VC
135.000 deg =
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the
magnitude of the velocity at point B, the magnitude
of the relative velocity V
BA
, and the angular velocity
of link 3. The equation to be solved graphically is
V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
BA
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
B
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
BA
from the tip of V
A
to the intersection of the V
B
construction
line and drawing V
B
from the tail of V
A
to the intersection of the V
BA
construction line.
2.248
2.053
V
B
V
BA
V
A
167.553
X
Y
0 5 mm/sec
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor:
k
v
5 mm sec
1

in
:=
V
B
2.248 in k
v
:=
V
B
11.2
mm
sec
=
u
VB
360 167.558 ( ) deg :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-21a-2
5. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point C. The equation to be solved
graphically is
V
C
= V
B
+ V
CB
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the (now) known vector V
B
.
b. From the tip of V
B
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
CB
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
B
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
C
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
CB
from the tip of V
B
to the intersection of the V
C
construction
line and drawing V
C
from the tail of V
B
to the intersection of the V
CB
construction line.
V
B
V
BA
V
A
1.128
V
V
CB
C
X
Y
0 5 mm/sec
6. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
5 mm sec
1

in
:=
V
C
1.128 in k
v
:= V
C
5.6
mm
sec
= u
VC
270 deg :=
7. The ratio V
I5,6
/V
I2,3
is
V
C
V
A
0.564 =
8. Use equations 6.12 and 6.13 to derive an expression for the mechanical advantage for this linkage where the
input is a rotating crank and the output is a slider.
F
in
T
in
r
in
=
P
in
r
in
e
in

=
P
in
V
A
=
F
out
P
out
V
out
=
P
out
V
C
=
m
A
F
out
F
in
=
P
out
V
C
V
A
P
in
= m
A
V
A
V
C
:= m
A
1.773 =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-21b-1
PROBLEM 6-21b
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-6b has L1 = 61.9, L
2
= 15, L
3
= 45.8, L
4
= 18.1, L
5
= 23.1 mm. u
2
is 68.3 deg
in the xy coordinate system, which is at -23.3 deg in the XY coordinate system. The X component
of O
2
C is 59.2 mm. Find, for the position shown, the velocity ratio V
I5,6
/V
I2,3
and the mechanical
Link 1 d 61.9 mm := Link 2 a 15.0 mm :=
Link 3 b 45.8 mm := Link 4 c 18.1 mm :=
Link 5 e 23.1 mm := Offset f 59.2 mm := from O
2
Crank angle: u
2
45 deg := Global XY system
Coordinate rotation angle o 23.3 deg := Global XY system to local xy system
Solution: See Figure P6-6b and Mathcad file P0621b.
1. Draw the linkage to scale in the position given, find the instant centers, distances from the pin joints to the
instant centers and the angles that links 3 and 4 make with the x axis.
50.121
44.594
1
3
O
2
2
A
2,3
Y
B
22.683
4
1
O
4
5,6
11.377
5
1
6
C
X
1,5
1,3
From the layout:
AI13 44.594 mm := BI13 50.121 mm :=
BI15 22.683 mm := CI15 11.377 mm :=
2. Choose an arbitrary value for the magnitude of the
velocity at I
2,3
(point A). Let link 2 rotate CCW.
V
A
10
mm
sec
:=
u
VC
u
2
90 deg + :=
u
VC
135.000 deg =
3. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation
6.9a.
e
3
V
A
AI13
:= e
3
0.224
sec
= CW
4. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B using equation 6.9b. Determine its direction by inspection.
V
B
BI13 e
3
:= V
B
11.239
mm
sec
=
5. Determine the angular velocity of link 5 using equation 6.9a.
e
5
V
B
BI15
:= e
5
0.495
sec
= CW
6. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point C using equation 6.9b. Determine its direction by inspection.
V
C
CI15 e
5
:= V
C
5.637
mm
sec
= downward
7. The ratio V
I5,6
/V
I2,3
is
V
C
V
A
0.56 =
8. Use equations 6.12 and 6.13 to derive an expression for the mechanical advantage for this linkage where the
input is a rotating crank and the output is a slider.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-21b-2
F
in
T
in
r
in
=
P
in
r
in
e
in

=
P
in
V
A
=
F
out
P
out
V
out
=
P
out
V
C
=
m
A
F
out
F
in
=
P
out
V
C
V
A
P
in
= m
A
V
A
V
C
:= m
A
1.77 =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-22a-1
PROBLEM 6-22a
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-6d has L
2
= 15, L
3
= 40.9, L
5
= 44.7 mm.
2
is 24.2 deg in the XY coordinate
system. Find, for the position shown, the velocity ratio V
I5,6
/V
I2,3
from link 2 to link 6. Use the velocity difference graphical method.
Link 5 c 44.7 mm Offset f 0 mm from O
2
Crank angle:

24.2 deg
Solution: See Figure P6-6d and Mathcad file P0622a.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
5
Direction of VB
O
Direction of VA
2,3
2
1
A
2
3
1
4
C
Direction of VBA
5,6
1
6
B
2. Choose an arbitrary value for the magnitude of the velocity at I
2,3
(point A). Let link 2 rotate CCW.
V
A
10
mm
sec

VC

90 deg
VC
114.200 deg
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B, the magnitude of the relative
velocity V
BA
, and the angular velocity of link 3. The equation to be solved graphically is
V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
BA
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
B
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
BA
from the tip of V
A
to the intersection of the V
B
construction
line and drawing V
B
from the tail of V
A
to the intersection of the V
BA
construction line.
5 mm/sec
1.073
V
BA
V
B
X
V
A
Y
0
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-22a-2
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
5 mm sec
1

in

V
B
1.073 in k
v
V
B
5.4
mm
sec

VB
180 deg
5. The ratio V
I5,6
/V
I2,3
is
V
B
V
A
0.54
6. Use equations 6.12 and 6.13 to derive an expression for the mechanical advantage for this linkage where the
input is a rotating crank and the output is a slider.
F
in
T
in
r
in
=
P
in
r
in

in

=
P
in
V
A
=
F
out
P
out
V
out
=
P
out
V
B
=
m
A
F
out
F
in
=
P
out
V
B
V
A
P
in
= m
A
V
A
V
B
m
A
1.86
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-22b-1
PROBLEM 6-22b
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-6d has L
2
= 15, L
3
= 40.9, L
5
= 44.7 mm.
2
is 24.2 deg in the XY coordinate
system. Find, for the position shown, the velocity ratio V
I5,6
/V
I2,3
from link 2 to link 6. Use the instant center graphical method.
Link 5 c 44.7 mm Offset f 0 mm from O
2
Crank angle:

24.2 deg
Solution: See Figure P6-6d and Mathcad file P0622b.
1. Draw the linkage to scale in the position given, find the instant centers, distances from the pin joints to the
instant centers and the angles that links 3 and 4 make with the x axis.
5
48.561
O
2,3
2
1
A
2
3
1
4
C
26.075
5,6
1
6
B
1,5
From the layout:
AI15 48.561 mm BI15 26.075 mm
2. Choose an arbitrary value for the magnitude of the velocity at I
2,3
(point A). Let link 2 rotate CCW.
V
A
10
mm
sec

VC

90 deg
VC
114.200 deg
3. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.9a.

V
A
AI15

0.206
sec
CW
4. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B using equation 6.9b. Determine its direction by inspection.
V
B
BI15

V
B
5.370
mm
sec
to the left
5. The ratio V
I5,6
/V
I2,3
is
V
B
V
A
0.54
6. Use equations 6.12 and 6.13 to derive an expression for the mechanical advantage for this linkage where the
input is a rotating crank and the output is a slider.
F
in
T
in
r
in
=
P
in
r
in

in

=
P
in
V
A
= F
out
P
out
V
out
=
P
out
V
C
=
m
A
F
out
F
in
=
P
out
V
C
V
A
P
in
= m
A
V
A
V
B
m
A
1.86
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-23-1
PROBLEM 6-23
Statement: Generate and draw the fixed and moving centrodes of links 1 and 3 for the linkage in Figure P6-7a.
Solution: See Figure P6-7a and Mathcad file P0623.
1. Draw the linkage to scale, find the instant center I
1,3
, and repeat for several positions of the linkage. The locus
of points I
1,3
is the fixed centrode.
FIXED CENTRODE
2. Invert the linkage, grounding link 3. Draw the linkage to scale, find the instant center I
1,3
, and repeat for several
positions of the linkage. The locus of points I
1,3
is the moving centrode. (See next page.)
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-23-2
MOVING CENTRODE
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-24-1
PROBLEM 6-24
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-8a has the dimensions and crank angle given below. Find e
f
, V
A
, and V
B
for the position shown for e
2
= 15 rad/sec clockwise (CW). Use the velocity difference graphical
method.
2
to A) a 116 mm := u
2
37 deg := Global XY system
Link 3 (A to B) b 108 mm := Input crank angular velocity
4
) c 110 mm :=
e
2
1
:=
2
to O
4
) d 174 mm :=
Coordinate rotation angle o 25 deg := Global XY system to local xy system
Solution: See Figure P6-8a and Mathcad file P0624.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
22.319
Direction of VA
70.133
3
Direction of VB
e
d
O
2
B
4
2
Y
A
37.000
Direction of VBA
O
4
X
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the velocity at point A.
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
1740.0
mm
sec
= u
A
37 deg 90 deg :=
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B, the magnitude of the relative
velocity V
BA
, and the angular velocity of link 3. The equation to be solved graphically is
V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
BA
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
B
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
BA
from the tip of V
A
to the intersection of the V
B
construction
line and drawing V
B
from the tail of V
A
to the intersection of the V
BA
construction line.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-24-2
Y
0.952
1.498
112.319
V
BA
1000 mm/sec 0
V
B
V
A
53.000
X
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
1000 mm sec
1

in
:=
V
B
0.952 in k
v
:= V
B
952.0
mm
sec
= u
B
112.319 deg :=
V
BA
1.498 in k
v
:= V
BA
1498.0
mm
sec
=
5. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.7.
e
3
V
BA

b
:= e
3
13.87
sec
=
6. Determine the angular velocity of link 4 using equation 6.7.
e
4
V
B
c
:= e
4
8.655
sec
=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-25-1
PROBLEM 6-25
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-8a has the dimensions and crank angle given below. Find e
f
, V
A
, and V
B
for the position shown for e
2
= 15 rad/sec clockwise (CW). Use the instant center graphical
method.
2
to A) a 116 mm := u
2
37 deg := Global XY system
Link 3 (A to B) b 108 mm := Input crank angular velocity
4
) c 110 mm :=
e
2
1
:=
2
to O
4
) d 174 mm :=
Coordinate rotation angle o 25 deg := Global XY system to local xy system
Solution: See Figure P6-8a and Mathcad file P0625.
1. Draw the linkage to scale in the position given, find the instant centers, distances from the pin joints to the
instant centers and the angles that links 3 and 4 make with the x axis.
2,3
157.681
125.463
3
O2
1,3
1,2
68.638
3,4
B
4
2,4
2
Y
A
1,4
O4
X
From the layout:
AI13 125.463 mm :=
BI13 68.638 mm :=
u
4
157.681 deg :=
2. Use equation 6.7 and inspection of the
layout to determine the magnitude and
direction of the velocity at point A.
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
1740.0
mm
sec
=
u
VA
u
2
90 deg := u
VA
53.0 deg =
3. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.9a.
e
3
V
A
AI13
:= e
3
13.869
sec
= CW
4. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B using equation 6.9b. Determine its direction by inspection.
V
B
BI13 e
3
:= V
B
951.915
mm
sec
=
u
VB
u
4
90 deg + := u
VB
247.681 deg =
5. Use equation 6.9c to determine the angular velocity of link 4.
e
4
V
B
c
:= e
4
8.654
sec
= CCW
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-26-1
PROBLEM 6-26
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-8a has the dimensions and crank angle given below. Find e
4
, V
A
, and V
B
for the position shown for e
2
= 15 rad/sec clockwise (CW). Use an analytical method.
2
to A) a 116 mm := u
2
62 deg := Global XY system
Link 3 (A to B) b 108 mm := Input crank angular velocity
4
) c 110 mm := e
2
1
:= CW
2
to O
4
) d 174 mm :=
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-8a and Mathcad file P0626.
3
62.000
e2
O2
B
4
2
y
A
x
O
4
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
2. Determine the values of the constants needed for
finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
1
1.5000 =
K
2
d
c
:= K
2
1.5818 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
1.7307 =
A cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
B 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
A 0.0424 = B 1.7659 = C 2.0186 =
3. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the crossed circuit.
u
42
2 atan2 2 A B B
2
4 A C + ,
( ) ( )
:= u
42
182.681 deg =
4. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.6111 = K
5
1.7280 =
D cos u
2
( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2
( ) + K
5
+ := D 2.0021 =
E 2 sin u
2
( ) := E 1.7659 =
F K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2
( ) + K
5
+ := F 0.0589 =
5. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the crossed circuit.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-26-2
u
32
2 atan2 2 D E E
2
4 D F + ,
( ) ( )
:= u
32
275.133 deg =
6. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the crossed circuit using equations 6.18.
e
32
a e
2

b
sin u
42
u
2
( )
sin u
32
u
42
( )
:= e
32
13.869
sec
=
e
42
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
32
( )
sin u
42
u
32
( )
:= e
42
8.654
sec
=
7. Determine the velocity of points A and B for the crossed circuit using equations 6.19.
V
A
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
A
1536.329 816.881j ( )
mm
sec
= V
A
1740.000
mm
sec
= arg V
A ( ) 28.000 deg =
V
B
c e
42
sin u
42 ( ) j cos u
42 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
B
44.524 950.875j ( )
mm
sec
= V
B
951.917
mm
sec
= arg V
B ( ) 87.319 deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-27-1
PROBLEM 6-27
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-8a has the dimensions given below. Find and plot e
4
, V
A
, and V
B
in the
local coordinate system for the maximum range of motion that this linkage allows if e
2
clockwise (CW).
2
to A) a 116 mm := Link 3 (A to B) b 108 mm :=
4
) c 110 mm := Link 1 (O
2
to O
4
) d 174 mm :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CW
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-8a and Mathcad file P0627.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
3
62.000
e2
O2
B
4
2
y
A
x
O
4
2. Determine the range of motion for this non-Grashof
triple rocker using equations 4.33.
arg
1
a
2
d
2
+ b
2
c
2

2 a d
b c
a d
+ :=
arg
2
a
2
d
2
+ b
2
c
2

2 a d
b c
a d
:=
arg
1
1.083 = arg
2
0.094 =
u
2toggle
acos arg
2 ( ) := u
2toggle
95.4deg =
The other toggle angle is the negative of this. Thus,
u
2
u
2toggle
u
2toggle
1 deg + , u
2toggle
.. :=
3. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:=
K
1
1.5000 = K
2
1.5818 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
1.7307 =
A u
2
( ) cos u
2
( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2
( ) K
3
+ :=
B u
2
( ) 2 sin u
2
( ) :=
C u
2
( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2
( ) K
3
+ :=
4. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the crossed circuit.
u
42
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( )
2
4 A u
2 ( ) C u
2 ( ) + ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-27-2
5. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.6111 = K
5
1.7280 =
D u
2
( ) cos u
2
( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2
( ) + K
5
+ :=
E u
2
( ) 2 sin u
2
( ) :=
F u
2
( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2
( ) + K
5
+ :=
6. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the crossed circuit.
u
32
u
2
( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2
( ) E u
2
( ) E u
2
( )
2
4 D u
2
( ) F u
2
( ) + ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
7. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the crossed circuit using equations 6.18.
e
32
u
2
( )
a e
2

b
sin u
42
u
2
( ) u
2
( )
sin u
32
u
2
( ) u
42
u
2
( ) ( )
:=
e
42
u
2
( )
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
32
u
2
( ) ( )
sin u
42
u
2
( ) u
32
u
2
( ) ( )
:=
8. Determine the velocity of points A and B for the crossed circuit using equations 6.19.
V
A
u
2 ( ) a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
Ax
u
2 ( ) Re V
A
u
2 ( ) ( ) := V
Ay
u
2 ( ) Im V
A
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
V
B
u
2 ( ) c e
42
u
2 ( ) sin u
42
u
2 ( ) ( ) j cos u
42
u
2 ( ) ( ) + ( ) :=
V
Bx
u
2 ( ) Re V
B
u
2 ( ) ( ) := V
By
u
2 ( ) Im V
B
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
9. Plot the angular velocity of the output link, e
4
, and the x and y components of the velocities at points A and B.
100 75 50 25 0 25 50 75 100
100
80
60
40
20
0
20
40
60
A
n
g
u
l
a
r
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
r
a
d
/
s
e
c
e
42
u
2 ( )
sec

u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-27-3
100 75 50 25 0 25 50 75 100
2000
1000
0
1000
2000
VELOCITY COMPONENTS, POINT A
J
o
i
n
t
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
m
m
/
s
e
c
V
Ax
u
2 ( )
sec
mm

V
Ay
u
2 ( )
sec
mm

u
2
deg
100 75 50 25 0 25 50 75 100
3000
2000
1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
VELOCITY COMPONENTS, POINT B
J
o
i
n
t
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
m
m
/
s
e
c
V
Bx
u
2 ( )
sec
mm

V
By
u
2 ( )
sec
mm

u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-28-1
PROBLEM 6-28
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-8b has the dimensions and crank angle given below. Find e
4
, V
A
, and V
B
for the position shown for e
2
= 20 rad/sec counterclockwise (CCW). Use the velocity difference
graphical method.
2
to A) a 40 mm := u
2
57 deg := Global XY system
Link 3 (A to B) b 96 mm := Input crank angular velocity
4
) c 122 mm :=
e
2
1
:=
2
to O
4
) d 162 mm :=
Coordinate rotation angle o 36 deg := Global XY system to local xy system
Solution: See Figure P6-8b and Mathcad file P0628.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
O4
O2
Direction of VA
2
e
X
2
Y
A
y
3
x
4
Direction of VBA
Direction of VB
B
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude
of the velocity at point A.
V
A
a e
2
:=
V
A
800.000
mm
sec
=
u
A
u
2
90 deg + :=
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine
the magnitude of the velocity at point B,
the magnitude of the relative velocity V
BA
,
and the angular velocity of link 3. The
equation to be solved graphically is V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
BA
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
B
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
BA
from the tip of V
A
to the intersection of the V
B
construction
line and drawing V
B
from the tail of V
A
to the intersection of the V
BA
construction line.
147.000
1.790"
1.293"
V
B
85.486
0
A
V
V
BA
400 mm/sec
X
6.406
Y
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor:
k
v
400 mm sec
1

in
:=
V
B
1.790 in k
v
:= V
B
716.0
mm
sec
=
u
B
186.406 deg :=
V
BA
1.293 in k
v
:= V
BA
517.2
mm
sec
=
5. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.7.
e
3
V
BA
b
:= e
3
5.388
sec
=
6. Determine the angular velocity of link 4 using equation 6.7. e
4
V
B
c
:= e
4
5.869
sec
=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-29-1
PROBLEM 6-29
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-8b has the dimensions and crank angle given below. Find e
4
, V
A
, and V
B
for the position shown for e
2
= 20 rad/sec counterclockwise (CCW). Use the instant center
graphical method.
a 40 mm := u
2
57 deg := Global XY system
2
to A)
b 96 mm := Input crank angular velocity
c 122 mm := e
2
1
:=
4
)
d 162 mm :=
2
to O
4
)
Coordinate rotation angle o 36 deg := Global XY system to local xy system
Solution: See Figure P6-8b and Mathcad file P0629.
1. Draw the linkage to scale in the position given, find the instant centers, distances from the pin joints to the
instant centers and the angles that links 3 and 4 make with the x axis.
O2
2
e
X
2
Y
A
y
3
B
1,3
148.700
133.192
96.406
O4
x
4
From the layout:
AI13 148.700 mm := BI13 133.192 mm :=
u
4
96.406 deg :=
2. Use equation 6.7 and inspection of the layout to determine
the magnitude and direction of the velocity at point A.
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
800.0
mm
sec
=
u
VA
u
2
90 deg + := u
VA
147.0 deg =
3. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.9a.
e
3
V
A
AI13
:= e
3
5.380
sec
= CW
4. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B using equation 6.9b. Determine its direction by inspection.
V
B
BI13 e
3
:= V
B
716.6
mm
sec
=
u
VB
u
4
90 deg + := u
VB
186.406 deg =
5. Use equation 6.9c to determine the angular velocity of link 4.
e
4
V
B
c
:= e
4
5.874
sec
= CCW
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-30-1
PROBLEM 6-30
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-8b has the dimensions and crank angle given below. Find e
4
, V
A
, and V
B
for the position shown for e
2
= 20 rad/sec counterclockwise (CCW). Use an analytical method.
2
to A) a 40 mm := u
21
57 deg := Global XY system
Link 3 (A to B) b 96 mm := Input crank angular velocity
4
) c 122 mm :=
e
2
1
:=
2
to O
4
) d 162 mm :=
Coordinate rotation angle o 36 deg := Global XY system to local xy system
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-8b and Mathcad file P0630.
O2
2
e
X
2
Y
A
y
3
93.000
x
O4
4
B
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
2. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:=
K
1
4.0500 = K
2
1.3279 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
3.4336 = u
2
u
21
o :=
A cos u
2
( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2
( ) K
3
+ := B 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
A 0.5992 = B 1.9973 = C 7.6054 =
3. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
4
2 atan2 2 A B B
2
4 A C ,
( ) ( )
2 t := u
4
132.386 deg =
4. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.6875 = K
5
2.8875 =
D cos u
2
( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2
( ) + K
5
+ := D 7.0782 =
E 2 sin u
2
( ) := E 1.9973 =
F K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2
( ) + K
5
+ := F 1.1265 =
5. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
u
3
2 atan2 2 D E E
2
4 D F ,
( ) ( )
2 t := u
3
31.504 deg =
6. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the crossed circuit using equations 6.18.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-30-2
e
3
a e
2

b
sin u
4
u
2
( )
sin u
3
u
4
( )
:= e
3
5.385
sec
=
e
4
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
3
( )
sin u
4
u
3
( )
:= e
4
5.868
sec
=
7. Determine the velocity of points A and B for the open circuit using equations 6.19.
V
A
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
A
798.904 41.869j ( )
mm
sec
= V
A
800.000
mm
sec
= arg V
A ( ) 177.000 deg =
V
B
c e
4
sin u
4 ( ) j cos u
4 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
B
528.774 482.608j ( )
mm
sec
= V
B
715.900
mm
sec
= arg V
B ( ) 137.614 deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-31-1
PROBLEM 6-31
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-8b has the dimensions and crank angle given below. Find and plot e
4
, V
A
,
and V
B
in the local coordinate system for the maximum range of motion that this linkage allows if e
2
2
to A) a 40 mm := Link 3 (A to B) b 96 mm :=
4
) c 122 mm := Link 1 (O
2
to O
4
) d 162 mm :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CCW
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-8b and Mathcad file P0631.
X
93.000
O2
x
O4
4
2
e
2
Y
A
y
3
B
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
2. Determine Grashof condition.
Condition S L , P , Q , ( ) SL S L +
PQ P Q +
"Grashof" return SL PQ < if
"Special Grashof" return SL PQ = if
"non-Grashof" return otherwise
:=
Condition a d , b , c , ( ) "Grashof" = Crank-rocker
u
2
0 deg 1 deg , 360 deg .. :=
3. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:= K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:=
K
1
4.0500 = K
2
1.3279 = K
3
3.4336 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ := B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
4. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
4
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( )
2
4 A u
2 ( ) C u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
5. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.6875 = K
5
2.8875 =
D u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-31-2
E u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
F u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
6. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
u
3
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( )
2
4 D u
2 ( ) F u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
7. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the crossed circuit using equations 6.18.
e
3
u
2 ( )
a e
2

b
sin u
4
u
2 ( ) u
2
( )
sin u
3
u
2 ( ) u
4
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
e
4
u
2 ( )
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
3
u
2 ( ) ( )
sin u
4
u
2 ( ) u
3
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
8. Determine the velocity of points B and C for the open circuit using equations 6.19.
V
A
u
2 ( ) a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
Ax
u
2 ( ) Re V
A
u
2 ( ) ( ) := V
Ay
u
2 ( ) Im V
A
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
V
B
u
2 ( ) c e
4
u
2 ( ) sin u
4
u
2 ( ) ( ) j cos u
4
u
2 ( ) ( ) + ( ) :=
V
Bx
u
2 ( ) Re V
B
u
2 ( ) ( ) := V
By
u
2 ( ) Im V
B
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
9. Plot the angular velocity of the output link, e
4
, and the magnitudes of the velocities at points B and C.
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
10
5
0
5
10
A
n
g
u
l
a
r
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
r
a
d
/
s
e
c
e
4
u
2 ( )
sec

u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-31-3
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
1000
500
0
500
1000
VELOCITY COMPONENTS, POINT A
J
o
i
n
t
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
m
m
/
s
e
c
V
Ax
u
2 ( )
sec
mm

V
Ay
u
2 ( )
sec
mm

u
2
deg
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
1000
600
200
200
600
1000
VELOCITY COMPONENTS, POINT B
J
o
i
n
t
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
m
m
/
s
e
c
V
Bx
u
2 ( )
sec
mm

V
By
u
2 ( )
sec
mm

u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-32-1
PROBLEM 6-32
Statement: The offset slider-crank linkage in Figure P6-8f has the dimensions and crank angle given below.
Find V
A
, and V
B
for the position shown if
2
= 25 rad/sec CW. Use the velocity difference
graphical method.
Link 2 a 63 mm Crank angle:

51 deg
Link 3 b 130 mm Input crank angular velocity
Offset c 52 mm

1
CW
Solution: See Figure P6-8f and Mathcad file P0632.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
51.000
Direction of VB
Direction of VBA
O
2
2
B
1
3
4
A
Direction of VA
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the
velocity at point A.
V
A
a

V
A
1575.0
mm
sec

A
51 deg 90 deg
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the
magnitude of the velocity at point B. The
equation to be solved graphically is
V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
BA
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
B
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
BA
from the tip of V
A
to the intersection of the V
B
construction
line and drawing V
B
from the tail of V
A
to the intersection of the V
BA
construction line.
BA
2.208
V
V
B
0 1000 mm/sec
Y
X
V
A
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
1000 mm sec
1

in

V
B
2.208 in k
v
V
B
2208
mm
sec

VB
270 deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-33-1
PROBLEM 6-33
Statement: The offset slider-crank linkage in Figure P6-8f has the dimensions and crank angle given below.
Find V
A
, and V
B
for the position shown for
2
= 25 rad/sec CW. Use the instant center graphical
method.
Link 2 a 63 mm Crank angle:

51 deg
Link 3 b 130 mm Offset c 52 mm
Input crank angular velocity

1
CW
Solution: See Figure P6-8f and Mathcad file P0633.
1. Draw the linkage to scale in the position given, find the instant centers, distances from the pin joints to the
instant centers and the angles that links 3 and 4 make with the x axis.
166.309
118.639
2
O2
1
3
4
B
A
1,3
From the layout above:
AI13 118.639 mm BI13 166.309 mm
2. Use equation 6.7 and inspection of the layout to determine the magnitude and direction of the velocity at point
A.
V
A
a

V
A
1575.0
mm
sec

VA

90 deg
VA
39.0 deg
3. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.9a.

V
A
AI13

13.276
sec
CCW
4. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B using equation 6.9b. Determine its direction by inspection.
V
B
BI13

V
B
2207.8
mm
sec

VB
270 deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-34-1
PROBLEM 6-34
Statement: The offset slider-crank linkage in Figure P6-8f has the dimensions and crank angle given below.
Find V
A
, and V
B
for the position shown for e
2
= 25 rad/sec CW. Use an analytical method.
Link 2 a 63 mm := Crank angle: u
2
141 deg :=
Link 3 b 130 mm := Local xy coordinate system
Offset c 52 mm := Input crank angular velocity
e
2
1
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-8f and Mathcad file P0634.
141.000
52.000
x
2
O2
1
3
4
Y
B
A
X, y
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale.
2. Determine u
3
and d using equations 4.16 for the crossed circuit.
u
3
asin
a sin u
2 ( ) c
b
|

\
|
|
.
:= u
3
44.828 deg =
d a cos u
2 ( ) b cos u
3 ( ) := d 141.160 mm =
3. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.22a:
e
3
a
b
cos u
2 ( )
cos u
3 ( )
e
2
:= e
3
13.276
sec
=
4. Determine the velocity of pin A using equation 6.23a:
V
A
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
A
991.180 1224.005i + ( )
mm
sec
= V
A
1575.000
mm
sec
= arg V
A ( ) 51.000 deg =
In the global coordinate system, u
VA
arg V
A ( ) 90 deg := u
VA
39.000 deg =
5. Determine the velocity of pin B using equation 6.22b:
V
B
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) b e
3
sin u
3 ( ) + := V
B
2207.849
mm
sec
=
V
B
V
B
:=
In the global coordinate system, u
VB
arg V
B ( ) 90 deg := u
VB
90.000 deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-35-1
PROBLEM 6-35
Statement: The offset slider-crank linkage in Figure P6-8f has the dimensions and crank angle given below.
Find and plot V
A
, and V
B
in the global coordinate system for the maximum range of motion
that this linkage allows if e
2
Link 2 a 63 mm := Offset c 52 mm :=
Link 3 b 130 mm :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-8f and Mathcad file P0635.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. The coordinate rotation angle is o 90 deg :=
u
52.000
x
2
O
2
1
3
4
Y
B
A
X, y
2
2. Determine the range of motion for this slider-crank linkage.
u
2
0 deg 2 deg , 360 deg .. :=
3. Determine u
3
using equations 4.16 for the crossed circuit.
u
3
u
2 ( ) asin
a sin u
2 ( ) c
b
|

\
|
|
.
:=
4. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.22a:
e
3
u
2 ( )
a
b
cos u
2 ( )
cos u
3
u
2 ( ) ( )
e
2
:=
5. Determine the x and y components of the velocity of pin A using equation 6.23a:
V
A
u
2 ( ) a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
Ax
u
2 ( ) Re V
A
u
2 ( ) ( ) := V
Ay
u
2 ( ) Im V
A
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
In the global coordinate system,
V
AX
u
2 ( ) V
Ay
u
2 ( ) := V
AY
u
2 ( ) V
Ax
u
2 ( ) :=
6. Determine the velocity of pin B using equation 6.22b:
V
Bx
u
2 ( ) a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) b e
3
u
2 ( ) sin u
3
u
2 ( ) ( ) + :=
In the global coordinate system,
V
BY
u
2 ( ) V
Bx
u
2 ( ) :=
7. Plot the x and y components of the velocity of A. (See next page.)
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-35-2
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
2000
1000
0
1000
2000
VELOCITY OF POINT A
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
m
m
/
s
e
c
V
AX
u
2 ( )
sec
mm

V
AY
u
2 ( )
sec
mm

u
2
deg
7. Plot the velocity of point B.
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
3000
2000
1000
0
1000
2000
VELOCITY OF POINT B
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
m
m
/
s
e
c
V
BY
u
2 ( )
sec
mm

u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-36-1
PROBLEM 6-36
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-8d has the dimensions and crank angle given below. Find V
A
, V
B
, and
V
box
for the position shown for e
2
= 30 rad/sec clockwise (CW). Use the velocity difference
graphical method.
Link 2 a 30 mm := Link 3 b 150 mm :=
Link 4 c 30 mm := Link 1 d 150 mm :=
Crank angle: u
2
58 deg := Global XY system
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CW
Solution: See Figure P6-8d and Mathcad file P0636.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of
the velocity at point A.
Direction of VA
3
A
O
2
2
1
B
Direction of VB
O
4 4
Direction of VBA
V
box V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
900.000
mm
sec
=
u
A
58 deg 90 deg :=
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the
magnitude of the velocity at point B, the
magnitude of the relative velocity V
BA
, and the
angular velocity of link 3. The equation to be
solved graphically is
V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
BA
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
B
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
BA
from the tip of V
A
to the intersection of the V
B
construction
line and drawing V
B
from the tail of V
A
to the intersection of the V
BA
construction line.
B
V
Y
32.000
Direction of VBA
V
A
X
0 500 mm/sec
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
V
B
V
A
:=
V
B
900.000
mm
sec
=
u
B
32 deg := V
BA
0
in
sec
:=
5. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 using equation 6.7.
e
3
V
BA
b
:= e
3
0.000
sec
= e
4
V
B

c
:= e
4
30.000
sec
=
6. Determine the magnitude of the vector V
box
. This is a special case Grashof mechanism in the parallelogram
configuration. Link 3 does not rotate, therefore all points on link 3 have the same velocity. The velocity V
box
is
the horizontal component of V
A
.
V
box
V
A
cos u
A ( ) := V
box
763.243
mm
sec
=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-37-1
PROBLEM 6-37
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-8d has the dimensions and effective crank angle given below. Find V
A
,
V
B
, and V
box
in the global coordinate system for the position shown for e
2
an analytical method.
Link 2 a 30 mm := Link 3 b 150 mm :=
Link 4 c 30 mm := Link 1 d 150 mm :=
Crank angle: u
2
58 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:=
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
3
A
O
2
2
1
B
O
4
4
V
box
Solution: See Figure P6-8d and Mathcad file P0637.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
2. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:=
K
1
5.0000 = K
2
5.0000 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
1.0000 =
A cos u
2
( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2
( ) K
3
+ := B 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2
( ) K
3
+ :=
A 6.1197 = B 1.6961 = C 2.8205 =
3. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
41
2 atan2 2 A B B
2
4 A C ,
( ) ( )
:= u
41
418.000 deg =
u
41
u
41
360 deg := u
41
58.000deg =
4. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.0000 = K
5
5.0000 =
D cos u
2
( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2
( ) + K
5
+ := D 8.9402 =
E 2 sin u
2
( ) := E 1.6961 =
F K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2
( ) + K
5
+ := F 0.0000 =
5. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-37-2
u
31
2 atan2 2 D E E
2
4 D F ,
( ) ( )
:= u
31
360.000 deg =
u
31
u
31
360 deg := u
31
0.000deg =
6. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the open circuit using equations 6.18.
e
31
a e
2

b
sin u
41
u
2
( )
sin u
31
u
41
( )
:= e
31
0.000
sec
=
e
41
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
31
( )
sin u
41
u
31
( )
:= e
41
30.000
sec
=
7. Determine the velocity of points A and B for the open circuit using equations 6.19.
V
A
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
A
763.243 476.927j ( )
mm
sec
= V
A
900.000
mm
sec
= arg V
A ( ) 32.000 deg =
V
B
c e
41
sin u
41 ( ) j cos u
41 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
B
763.243 476.927j ( )
mm
sec
= V
B
900.000
mm
sec
= arg V
B ( ) 32.000 deg =
8. Determine the velocity V
box
. Since link 3 does not rotate (this is a special case Grashof linkage in the
parallelogram mode), all points on it have the same velocity. Therefore,
V
box
V
A
:= V
box
900.000
mm
sec
=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-38-1
PROBLEM 6-38
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-8d has the dimensions and effective crank angle given below. Find and
plot V
A
, V
B
, and V
box
in the global coordinate system for the maximum range of motion that this
2
Link 2 a 30 mm := Link 3 b 150 mm :=
Link 4 c 30 mm := Link 1 d 150 mm :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:=
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-8d and Mathcad file P0638.
3
A
O
2
2
1
B
O
4
4
V
box
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
2. Determine the range of motion for this special-case Grashof
double crank.
u
2
0 deg 2 deg , 360 deg .. :=
3. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from
equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:=
K
1
5.0000 = K
2
5.0000 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
1.0000 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ := B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C u
2
( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2
( ) K
3
+ :=
4. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
41
u
2
( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2
( ) B u
2
( ) B u
2
( )
2
4 A u
2
( ) C u
2
( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
5. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.0000 = K
5
5.0000 =
D u
2
( ) cos u
2
( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2
( ) + K
5
+ :=
E u
2
( ) 2 sin u
2
( ) :=
F u
2
( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2
( ) + K
5
+ :=
6. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
u
31
u
2
( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2
( ) E u
2
( ) E u
2
( )
2
4 D u
2
( ) F u
2
( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-38-2
7. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the open circuit using equations 6.18.
e
31
u
2
( )
a e
2

b
sin u
41
u
2
( ) u
2
( )
sin u
31
u
2
( ) u
41
u
2
( ) ( )
:=
e
41
u
2
( )
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
31
u
2
( ) ( )
sin u
41
u
2
( ) u
31
u
2
( ) ( )
:=
8. Determine the velocity of points A and B for the open circuit using equations 6.19.
V
A
u
2 ( ) a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
A
u
2 ( ) V
A
u
2 ( ) :=
V
B
u
2 ( ) c e
41
u
2 ( ) sin u
41
u
2 ( ) ( ) j cos u
41
u
2 ( ) ( ) + ( ) :=
V
B
u
2 ( ) V
B
u
2 ( ) :=
9. Plot the angular velocity of the output link, e
4
, and the magnitudes of the velocities at points A and B.
Since this is a special-case Grashof linkage in the parallelogram configuration, e
3
= 0 and e
4
= e
2
for all values of
u
2
. Similarly, V
A
, V
B
, and V
box
all have the same constant magnitude through all values of u
2
.
e
41
5 deg ( ) 30.000
sec
= e
41
135 deg ( ) 30.000
sec
=
V
A
5 deg ( ) 900.000
mm
sec
= V
A
135 deg ( ) 900.000
mm
sec
=
V
B
5 deg ( ) 900.000
mm
sec
= V
B
135 deg ( ) 900.000
mm
sec
=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-39-1
PROBLEM 6-39
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-8g has the dimensions and crank angle given below. Find e
4
, V
A
, and V
B
for the position shown for e
2
= 15 rad/sec clockwise (CW). Use the velocity difference graphical
method.
2
to A) a 49 mm := Link 2 (O
2
to C) a' 49 mm :=
Link 3 (A to B) b 100 mm := Link 5 (C to D) b' 100 mm :=
4
) c 153 mm := Link 6 (D to O
6
) c' 153 mm :=
2
to O
4
) d 87 mm := Link 1 (O
2
to O
6
) d' 87 mm :=
Crank angle: u
2
29 deg := Global XY system
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CW
Coordinate rotation angle o 119 deg := Global XY system to local xy system
Solution: See Figure P6-8g and Mathcad file P0639.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
2
O
Direction of VBA
O
4
C
5
O
4
Direction of VB
B
3
Y
29.000
X
Direction of VA
D
6
2
A
6
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the velocity at point B.
V
B
a e
2
:= V
B
735.0
mm
sec
= u
B
29 deg 90 deg :=
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point A, the magnitude of the relative
velocity V
AB
, and the angular velocity of link 3. The equation to be solved graphically is
V
A
= V
B
+ V
AB
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
B
.
b. From the tip of V
B
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
AB
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
B
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
A
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
AB
from the tip of V
B
to the intersection of the V
A
construction
line and drawing V
A
from the tail of V
B
to the intersection of the V
AB
construction line.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-39-2
1.517
BA
A
V
V
0
Y
V
B
500 mm/sec
0. 124
X
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
500 mm sec
1

in
:=
V
A
1.517 in k
v
:= V
A
758.5
mm
sec
= u
A
0.124 deg :=
5. Determine the angular velocity of link 4 using equation 6.7.
e
4
V
A

c
:= e
4
4.958
sec
=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-40-1
PROBLEM 6-40
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-8g has the dimensions and crank angle given below. Find e
4
, V
A
, and V
B
for the position shown for e
2
= 15 rad/sec clockwise (CW). Use the instant center graphical
method.
2
to A) a 49 mm := Link 2 (O
2
to C) a' 49 mm :=
Link 3 (A to B) b 100 mm := Link 5 (C to D) b' 100 mm :=
4
) c 153 mm := Link 6 (D to O
6
) c' 153 mm :=
2
to O
4
) d 87 mm := Link 1 (O
2
to O
6
) d' 87 mm :=
Crank angle: u
2
29 deg := Global XY system
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CW
Coordinate rotation angle o 119 deg := Global XY system to local xy system
2
97.094
O
O
4
100.224
1,3
89.876
O4
5
C
B
3
Y
X
6
D
2
A
6
Solution: See Figure P6-8g and Mathcad file P0640.
1. Draw the linkage to scale in the position given, find the
instant centers, distances from the pin joints to the instant
centers and the angles that links 3 and 4 make with the x
axis.
From the layout:
AI13 97.094 mm := BI13 100.224 mm :=
u
4
89.876 deg :=
2. Use equation 6.7 and inspection of the layout to
determine the magnitude and direction of the velocity
at point A.
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
735.0
mm
sec
=
u
VA
u
2
90 deg := u
VA
61.0 deg =
3. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.9a.
e
3
V
A
AI13
:= e
3
7.570
sec
= CW
4. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B using equation 6.9b. Determine its direction by inspection.
V
B
BI13 e
3
:=
V
B
758.694
mm
sec
=
u
VB
u
4
90 deg :=
u
VB
0.124 deg =
5. Use equation 6.9c to determine the angular velocity of link 4.
e
4
V
B
c
:= e
4
4.959
sec
= CW
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-41-1
PROBLEM 6-41
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-8g has the dimensions and crank angle given below. Find e
4
, V
A
, and V
B
for the position shown for e
2
= 15 rad/sec clockwise (CW). Use an analytical method.
2
to A) a 49 mm := Link 2 (O
2
to C) a' 49 mm :=
Link 3 (A to B) b 100 mm := Link 5 (C to D) b' 100 mm :=
4
) c 153 mm := Link 6 (D to O
6
) c' 153 mm :=
2
to O
4
) d 87 mm := Link 1 (O
2
to O
6
) d' 87 mm :=
Crank angle: u
2
148 deg := Local xy system
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:=
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-8g and Mathcad file P0641.
2
148.000
O
2
4
x
O
4
5
C
O
B
3
Y
X
6
y
D
A
6
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
2. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:=
K
1
1.7755 = K
2
0.5686 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
1.5592 =
A cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
B 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
A 0.5821 = B 1.0598 = C 4.6650 =
3. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the crossed circuit.
u
42
2 atan2 2 A B B
2
4 A C + ,
( ) ( )
:= u
42
208.876 deg =
4. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
0.8700 = K
5
0.3509 =
D cos u
2
( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2
( ) + K
5
+ := D 3.0104 =
E 2 sin u
2 ( ) := E 1.0598 =
F K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := F 2.2367 =
5. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the crossed circuit.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-41-2
u
32
2 atan2 2 D E E
2
4 D F + ,
( ) ( )
:= u
32
266.892 deg =
6. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the crossed circuit using equations 6.18.
e
32
a e
2

b
sin u
42
u
2
( )
sin u
32
u
42
( )
:= e
32
7.570
sec
=
e
42
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
32
( )
sin u
42
u
32
( )
:= e
42
4.959
sec
=
7. Determine the velocity of points B and A for the crossed circuit using equations 6.19.
V
A
a e
2
sin u
2
( ) j cos u
2
( ) + ( ) :=
V
A
389.491 623.315j + ( )
mm
sec
= V
A
735.000
mm
sec
= arg V
A
( ) 58.000 deg =
V
B
c e
42
sin u
42
( ) j cos u
42
( ) + ( ) :=
V
B
366.389 664.362j + ( )
mm
sec
= V
B
758.694
mm
sec
= arg V
B
( ) 118.876 deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-42-1
PROBLEM 6-42
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-8g has the dimensions and crank angle given below. Find and plot e
4
, V
A
,
and V
B
in the local coordinate system for the maximum range of motion that this linkage allows if e
2
2
to A) a 49 mm := Link 2 (O
2
to C) a' 49 mm :=
Link 3 (A to B) b 100 mm := Link 5 (C to D) b' 100 mm :=
4
) c 153 mm := Link 6 (D to O
6
) c' 153 mm :=
2
to O
4
) d 87 mm := Link 1 (O
2
to O
6
) d' 87 mm :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:=
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-8g and Mathcad file P0642.
2
O
2
u
4
x
O
4
5
C
O
B
3
Y
X
6
y
D
2
A
6
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
2. Determine the range of motion for this non-Grashof triple
rocker using equations 4.33.
arg
1
a
2
d
2
+ b
2
c
2

2 a d
b c
a d
+ := arg
1
0.840 =
arg
2
a
2
d
2
+ b
2
c
2

2 a d
b c
a d
:= arg
2
6.338 =
u
2toggle
acos arg
1 ( ) := u
2toggle
32.9deg =
The other toggle angle is the negative of this. Thus,
u
2
u
2toggle
u
2toggle
1 deg + , 360 deg u
2toggle
.. :=
3. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:= K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:=
K
1
1.7755 = K
2
0.5686 = K
3
1.5592 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ := B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C u
2
( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2
( ) K
3
+ :=
4. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the crossed circuit.
u
42
u
2
( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2
( ) B u
2
( ) B u
2
( )
2
4 A u
2
( ) C u
2
( ) + ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
5. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-42-2
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
0.8700 = K
5
0.3509 =
D u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := E u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
F u
2
( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2
( ) + K
5
+ :=
6. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the crossed circuit.
u
32
u
2
( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2
( ) E u
2
( ) E u
2
( )
2
4 D u
2
( ) F u
2
( ) + ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
7. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the crossed circuit using equations 6.18.
e
32
u
2
( )
a e
2

b
sin u
42
u
2
( ) u
2
( )
sin u
32
u
2
( ) u
42
u
2
( ) ( )
:=
e
42
u
2
( )
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
32
u
2
( ) ( )
sin u
42
u
2
( ) u
32
u
2
( ) ( )
:=
8. Determine the velocity of points A and B for the crossed circuit using equations 6.19.
V
B
u
2 ( ) a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
Bx
u
2 ( ) Re V
B
u
2 ( ) ( ) := V
By
u
2 ( ) Im V
B
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
V
A
u
2 ( ) c e
42
u
2 ( ) sin u
42
u
2 ( ) ( ) j cos u
42
u
2 ( ) ( ) + ( ) :=
V
Ax
u
2 ( ) Re V
A
u
2 ( ) ( ) := V
Ay
u
2 ( ) Im V
A
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
9. Plot the angular velocity of the output link, e
4
, and the x and y components of the velocities at points B and A.
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
100
80
60
40
20
0
20
40
60
A
n
g
u
l
a
r
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
r
a
d
/
s
e
c
e
42
u
2 ( )
sec

u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-42-3
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
1000
500
0
500
1000
VELOCITY COMPONENTS, POINT B
J
o
i
n
t
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
m
m
/
s
e
c
V
Bx
u
2 ( )
sec
mm

V
By
u
2 ( )
sec
mm

u
2
deg
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
3000
2000
1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
VELOCITY COMPONENTS, POINT A
J
o
i
n
t
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
m
m
/
s
e
c
V
Ax
u
2 ( )
sec
mm

V
Ay
u
2 ( )
sec
mm

u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-43-1
PROBLEM 6-43
Statement: The 3-cylinder radial compressor in Figure P6-8c has the dimensions and crank angle given below.
Find piston velocities V
6
, V
7
, and V
8
for the position shown for
2
Use the velocity difference graphical method.
Link 2 a 19 mm Offset c 0 mm
Links 3, 4, and 5 b 70 mm
Crank angle:

## 53 deg Global XY system

Input crank angular velocity

1
CW
Cylinder angular spacing 120 deg
Direction of V7
Direction of V62
Direction of V6
7
1
4
Y
6
2
3
Direction of V72
Direction of V8
Direction of V82
8
X
5
Solution: See Figure P6-8c and Mathcad file P0643.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. Indicate the
directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the
velocity at rod pin on link 2.
V
2
a

V
2
285.0
mm
sec

2
53 deg 90 deg
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the
magnitude of the velocity at pistons 6, 7, and 8.. The
equations to be solved graphically are
V
7
= V
2
+ V
72
V
6
= V
2
+ V
62
V
8
= V
2
+ V
82
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
2
.
b. From the tip of V
2
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
72
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
2
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
7
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
72
from the tip of V
2
to the intersection of the V
7
construction line
and drawing V
7
from the tail of V
2
to the intersection of the V
72
construction line.
e. Repeat for V
6
and V
8
.
Y
0.417
1.463
V
V
V
V
8
2
82
72
0
V V
6 62
200 mm/sec
1.046
V
7
X
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
200 mm sec
1

in

V
7
1.046 in k
v
V
7
209.2
mm
sec

V7
270 deg
V
6
0.417 in k
v
V
6
83.4
mm
sec

V6
150 deg
V
8
1.463 in k
v
V
8
292.6
mm
sec

V8
210 deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-44-1
PROBLEM 6-44
Statement: The 3-cylinder radial compressor in Figure P6-8c has the dimensions and crank angle given below.
Find V
6
, V
7
, and V
8
for the position shown for e
2
= 15 rad/sec clockwise (CW). Use an analytical
method.
Link 2 a 19 mm := Offset c 0 mm :=
Links 3, 4, and 5 b 70 mm := Crank angle: u
2
37 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CW Local x'y' system
Cylinder angular spacing o 120 deg :=
37.000
x'
1
y''
4
7
x''
6
y'''
3
Y
2
x'''
X, y'
8
5
Solution: See Figure P6-8c and Mathcad file P0644.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
2. Determine u
4
and d' using equation 4.17.
u
4
asin
a sin u
2 ( ) c
b

\
|
|
.
t + :=
u
4
170.599 deg = (x'y' system)
d' a cos u
2 ( ) b cos u
4 ( ) := d' 3.316in =
3. Determine the angular velocity of link 4 using equation 6.22a:
e
4
a
b
cos u
2 ( )
cos u
4 ( )
e
2
:= e
4
3.296
sec
=
4. Determine the velocity of the rod pin on link 2 using equation 6.23a:
V
2
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
2
171.517 227.611i ( )
mm
sec
= V
2
285.000
mm
sec
= arg V
2 ( ) 53.000 deg =
In the global coordinate system, u
V2
arg V
2 ( ) 90 deg := u
V2
143.000 deg =
5. Determine the velocity of piston 7using equation 6.22b:
V
7
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) b e
4
sin u
4 ( ) + :=
V
7
209.204
mm
sec
= V
7
209.204
mm
sec
= arg V
7 ( ) 0.000deg =
In the global coordinate system, u
V7
arg V
7 ( ) 90 deg := u
V7
90.000 deg =
6. Determine u
3
and d'' using equation 4.17.
u
2
u
2
120 deg + := u
2
157.000 deg = (x''y'' system)
u
3
asin
a sin u
2 ( ) c
b

\
|
|
.
t + := u
3
173.912 deg =
d'' a cos u
2 ( ) b cos u
3 ( ) := d'' 2.052 in =
7. Determine the angular velocity of link 5 using equation 6.22a:
e
3
a
b
cos u
2 ( )
cos u
3 ( )
e
2
:= e
3
3.769
sec
=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-44-2
8. Determine the velocity of the rod pin on link 2using equation 6.23a:
V
2
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
2
111.358 262.344i + ( )
mm
sec
= V
2
285.000
mm
sec
= arg V
2 ( ) 67.000deg =
In the global coordinate system, u
V2
arg V
2 ( ) 150 deg + := u
V2
217.000deg =
9. Determine the velocity of piston 6using equation 6.22b:
V
6
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) b e
3
sin u
3 ( ) + :=
V
6
83.378
mm
sec
= V
6
83.378
mm
sec
= arg V
6 ( ) 0.000deg =
In the global coordinate system, u
V6
arg V
6 ( ) 150 deg + := u
V6
150.000deg =
10. Determine u
5
and d''' using equation 4.17.
u
2
u
2
120 deg + := u
2
277.000 deg = (x'''y''' system)
u
5
asin
a sin u
2 ( ) c
b

\
|
|
.
t + := u
5
195.629 deg =
d''' a cos u
2 ( ) b cos u
5 ( ) := d''' 2.745in =
11. Determine the angular velocity of link 5 using equation 6.22a:
e
5
a
b
cos u
2 ( )
cos u
5 ( )
e
2
:= e
5
0.515
sec
=
12. Determine the velocity of the rod pin on link 2using equation 6.23a:
V
2
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
2
282.876 34.733i ( )
mm
sec
= V
2
285.000
mm
sec
= arg V
2 ( ) 173.000 deg =
In the global coordinate system, u
V2
arg V
2 ( ) 30 deg + := u
V2
143.000 deg =
13. Determine the velocity of piston 8using equation 6.22b:
V
8
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) b e
5
sin u
5 ( ) + :=
V
8
292.592
mm
sec
= V
8
292.592
mm
sec
= arg V
8 ( ) 180.000 deg =
In the global coordinate system, u
V8
arg V
8 ( ) 30 deg + := u
V8
210.000deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-45-1
PROBLEM 6-45
Statement: The 3-cylinder radial compressor in Figure P6-8c has the dimensions and crank angle given below.
Find and plot V
6
, V
7
, and V
8
for one revolution of the crank if e
2
Link 2 a 19 mm := Offset c 0 mm :=
Links 3, 4, and 5 b 70 mm :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CW
Cylinder angular spacing o 120 deg :=
2
1
y''
7
x'
4
y'''
6
x''
3
5
Y
8
X, y'
x'''
Solution: See Figure P6-8c and Mathcad file P0645.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it. Note that
there are three local coordinate systems.
2. Determine the range of motion for this slider-crank
linkage. This will be the same in each coordinate
frame.
u
2
0 deg 2 deg , 360 deg .. :=
3. Determine u
4
using equation 4.17.
u
4
u
2 ( ) asin
a sin u
2 ( ) c
b

\
|
|
.
t + := (x'y' system)
4. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.22a:
e
4
u
2 ( )
a
b
cos u
2 ( )
cos u
4
u
2 ( ) ( )
e
2
:=
5. Determine the velocity of piston 7using equation 6.22b:
V
7
u
2 ( ) a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) b e
4
u
2 ( ) sin u
4
u
2 ( ) ( ) + :=
6. Determine u
3
using equation 4.17.
u
3
u
2 ( ) asin
a sin u
2
o + ( ) c
b

\
|
|
.
t + := (x''y'' system)
7. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.22a:
e
3
u
2 ( )
a
b
cos u
2
o + ( )
cos u
3
u
2 ( ) ( )
e
2
:=
8. Determine the velocity of piston 6using equation 6.22b:
V
6
u
2 ( ) a e
2
sin u
2
o + ( ) b e
3
u
2 ( ) sin u
3
u
2 ( ) ( ) + :=
9. Determine u
5
and d''' using equation 4.17.
u
5
u
2 ( ) asin
a sin u
2
2 o + ( ) c
b

\
|
|
.
t + := (x'''y''' system)
10. Determine the angular velocity of link 5 using equation 6.22a:
e
5
u
2 ( )
a
b
cos u
2
2 o + ( )
cos u
5
u
2 ( ) ( )
e
2
:=
11. Determine the velocity of piston 8using equation 6.22b:
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-45-2
V
8
u
2 ( ) a e
2
sin u
2
2 o + ( ) b e
5
u
2 ( ) sin u
5
u
2 ( ) ( ) + :=
12. Plot the velocities of pistons 6, 7, and 8.
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
400
200
0
200
400
VELOCITY OF PISTONS 6, 7, AND 8
Crank Angle, deg
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
m
m
/
s
e
c
V
6
u
2
( )
sec
mm

V
7
u
2 ( )
sec
mm

V
8
u
2 ( )
sec
mm

u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-46-1
PROBLEM 6-46
Statement: Figure P6-9 shows a linkage in one position. Find the instantaneous velocities of points A, B, and
2
A is rotating CW at 40 rad/sec.
Link 2 a 5.00 in := Link 3 b 4.40 in :=
Link 4 c 5.00 in := Link 1 d 9.50 in :=
Coupler point: R
pa
8.90 in := o
3
56 deg :=
Crank angle and speed: u
2
50 deg := e
2
1
:=
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-9 and Mathcad file P0646.
B
3
2
50.000
O
2
A
14.000
O
4
1
4
y
P
Y
x
X
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it. All calculated
angles are in the local xy system.
2. Determine the values of the constants needed for
finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:=
K
1
1.9000 = K
2
1.9000 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
2.4178 =
A cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
B 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
A 0.0607 = B 1.5321 = C 2.4537 =
3. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
41
2 atan2 2 A B B
2
4 A C ,
( ) ( )
:= u
41
473.008 deg =
u
41
u
41
360 deg := u
41
113.008 deg =
4. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
2.1591 = K
5
2.4911 =
D cos u
2
( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2
( ) + K
5
+ := D 2.3605 =
E 2 sin u
2
( ) := E 1.5321 =
F K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2
( ) + K
5
+ := F 0.1539 =
5. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
u
31
2 atan2 2 D E E
2
4 D F ,
( ) ( )
:= u
31
370.105 deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-46-2
u
31
u
31
360 deg := u
31
10.105deg =
6. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the open circuit using equations 6.18.
e
31
a e
2

b
sin u
41
u
2
( )
sin u
31
u
41
( )
:= e
31
41.552
sec
=
e
41
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
31
( )
sin u
41
u
31
( )
:= e
41
26.320
sec
=
7. Determine the velocity of points A and B for the open circuit using equations 6.19.
V
A
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
A
153.209 128.558j ( )
in
sec
= V
A
200.000
in
sec
= arg V
A ( ) 40.000 deg =
V
B
c e
41
sin u
41 ( ) j cos u
41 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
B
121.130 51.437j + ( )
in
sec
= V
B
131.598
in
sec
= arg V
B ( ) 23.008 deg =
8. Determine the velocity of the coupler point P for the open circuit using equations 6.36.
V
PA
R
pa
e
31
sin u
31
o
3
+ ( ) j cos u
31
o
3
+ ( ) + ( ) :=
V
PA
338.121 149.797j + ( )
in
sec
=
V
P
V
A
V
PA
+ :=
V
P
184.912 21.239j + ( )
in
sec
= V
P
186.128
in
sec
= arg V
P ( ) 173.448deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-47-1
PROBLEM 6-47
Statement: Write a computer program or use an equation solver such as Mathcad, Matlab, or TKSolver to
calculate and plot the magnitude and direction of the velocity of point P in Figure 3-37a as a
function of u
2
for a constant e
2
= 1 rad/sec CCW. Also calculate and plot the velocity of point P
versus point A.
2
to A) a 1.00 := Link 3 (A to B) b 2.06 :=
4
) c 2.33 := Link 1 (O
2
to O
4
) d 2.22 :=
Coupler point: R
pa
3.06 := o
3
31 deg :=
Crank speed: e
2
1
:=
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-10 and Mathcad file P0647.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
u2
u
c
O
2
1
d
O
4
x
2 a
A
y
3
b
4
4
p
B
P
2. Determine the range of motion for this Grashof crank rocker.
u
2
0 deg 2 deg , 360 deg .. :=
3. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:=
K
1
2.2200 = K
2
0.9528 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
1.5265 =
A u
2
( ) cos u
2
( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2
( ) K
3
+ := B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C u
2
( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2
( ) K
3
+ :=
4. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
41
u
2
( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2
( ) B u
2
( ) B u
2
( )
2
4 A u
2
( ) C u
2
( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
5. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.0777 = K
5
1.1512 =
D u
2
( ) cos u
2
( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2
( ) + K
5
+ := E u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
F u
2
( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2
( ) + K
5
+ :=
6. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
u
31
u
2
( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2
( ) E u
2
( ) E u
2
( )
2
4 D u
2
( ) F u
2
( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-47-2
7. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the open circuit using equations 6.18.
e
31
u
2
( )
a e
2

b
sin u
41
u
2
( ) u
2
( )
sin u
31
u
2
( ) u
41
u
2
( ) ( )
:=
e
41
u
2
( )
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
31
u
2
( ) ( )
sin u
41
u
2
( ) u
31
u
2
( ) ( )
:=
8. Determine the velocity of point A using equations 6.19.
V
A
u
2 ( ) a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) := V
A
u
2 ( ) V
A
u
2 ( ) :=
9. Determine the velocity of the coupler point P using equations 6.36.
V
PA
u
2 ( ) R
pa
e
31
u
2 ( ) sin u
31
u
2 ( ) o
3
+ ( ) j cos u
31
u
2 ( ) o
3
+ ( ) + ( ) :=
V
P
u
2 ( ) V
A
u
2 ( ) V
PA
u
2 ( ) + :=
10. Plot the magnitude and direction of the velocity at coupler point P.
Magnitude: V
P
u
2 ( ) V
P
u
2 ( ) := Direction: u
VP1
u
2 ( ) arg V
P
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
u
VP
u
2 ( ) if u
VP1
u
2 ( ) 0 < u
VP1
u
2 ( ) 2 t + , u
VP1
u
2 ( ) , ( ) :=
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
0
1
2
3
MAGNITUDE
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
m
m
/
s
e
c
V
P
u
2 ( )
u
2
deg
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
0
100
200
300
DIRECTION
V
e
c
t
o
r
A
n
g
l
e
,
d
e
g
u
VP
u
2
( )
deg
u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-48-1
PROBLEM 6-48
Statement: Figure P6-11 shows a linkage that operates at 500 crank rpm. Write a computer program or use an
equation solver to calculate and plot the magnitude and direction of the velocity of point B at 2-deg
increments of crank angle. Check your result with program FOURBAR.
Units: rpm 2 t rad min
1
:=
2
to A) a 2.000 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 8.375 in :=
4
) c 7.187 in := Link 1 (O
2
to O
4
) d 9.625 in :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
500 rpm := e
2
1
=
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-11 and Mathcad file P0648.
1
O
4
4
3
A
u
2
O
2
2
B
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
2. Determine the range of motion for this Grashof crank rocker.
u
2
0 deg 1 deg , 360 deg .. :=
3. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from
equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:=
K
1
4.8125 = K
2
1.3392 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
2.7186 =
A u
2
( ) cos u
2
( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2
( ) K
3
+ := B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C u
2
( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2
( ) K
3
+ :=
4. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
41
u
2
( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2
( ) B u
2
( ) B u
2
( )
2
4 A u
2
( ) C u
2
( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
5. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.1493 = K
5
3.4367 =
D u
2
( ) cos u
2
( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2
( ) + K
5
+ := E u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
F u
2
( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2
( ) + K
5
+ :=
6. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
u
31
u
2
( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2
( ) E u
2
( ) E u
2
( )
2
4 D u
2
( ) F u
2
( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-48-2
7. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the open circuit using equations 6.18.
e
31
u
2
( )
a e
2

b
sin u
41
u
2
( ) u
2
( )
sin u
31
u
2
( ) u
41
u
2
( ) ( )
:=
e
41
u
2
( )
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
31
u
2
( ) ( )
sin u
41
u
2
( ) u
31
u
2
( ) ( )
:=
8. Determine the velocity of point B using equations 6.19.
V
B
u
2
( ) c e
41
u
2
( ) sin u
41
u
2
( ) ( ) j cos u
41
u
2
( ) ( ) + ( ) :=
V
B
u
2
( ) V
B
u
2
( ) := u
VB1
u
2
( ) arg V
B
u
2
( ) ( ) :=
9. Plot the magnitude and angle of the velocityat point B.
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
0
50
100
150
MAGNITUDE OF VELOCITY AT B
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
i
n
/
s
e
c
V
B
u
2 ( )
sec
in

u
2
deg
u
VB
u
2 ( ) if u
VB1
u
2 ( ) 0 < u
VB1
u
2 ( ) t + , u
VB1
u
2 ( ) , ( ) :=
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
DIRECTION OF VELOCITY AT B
A
n
g
l
e
,
d
e
g
u
VB
u
2
( )
deg
u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-49-1
PROBLEM 6-49
Statement: Figure P6-12 shows a linkage and its coupler curve. Write a computer program or use an equation
solver to calculate and plot the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the coupler point P at
2-deg increments of crank angle over the maximum range of motion possible. Check your results
with program FOURBAR.
Units: rpm 2 t rad min
1
:=
2
to A) a 0.785 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 0.356 in :=
4
) c 0.950 in := Link 1 (O
2
to O
4
) d 0.544 in :=
Coupler point: R
pa
1.09 in := o
3
0 deg :=
Crank speed: e
2
20 rpm :=
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-12 and Mathcad file P0649.
3
2
4
A
O
2
O
4
x
u
2
3
B
P
y
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
2. Using the geometry defined in Figure 3-1a in the text, determine
the input crank angles (relative to the line O
2
O
4
and 3, and 3 and 4 are in toggle.
u
20
acos
a
2
d
2
+ b c + ( )
2

2 a d

(
(

:=
u
20
158.286 deg =
u
2
u
20
u
20
2 deg + , u
20
.. :=
3. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:=
K
1
0.6930 = K
2
0.5726 = K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
1.1317 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ := B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C u
2
( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2
( ) K
3
+ :=
4. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
41
u
2
( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2
( ) B u
2
( ) B u
2
( )
2
4 A u
2
( ) C u
2
( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
5. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.5281 = K
5
0.2440 =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-49-2
D u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := E u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
F u
2
( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2
( ) + K
5
+ :=
6. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
u
31
u
2
( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2
( ) E u
2
( ) E u
2
( )
2
4 D u
2
( ) F u
2
( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
7. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the open circuit using equations 6.18.
e
31
u
2
( )
a e
2

b
sin u
41
u
2
( ) u
2
( )
sin u
31
u
2
( ) u
41
u
2
( ) ( )
:=
e
41
u
2
( )
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
31
u
2
( ) ( )
sin u
41
u
2
( ) u
31
u
2
( ) ( )
:=
8. Determine the velocity of point A using equations 6.19.
V
A
u
2 ( ) a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
9. Determine the velocity of the coupler point P using equations 6.36.
V
PA
u
2 ( ) R
pa
e
31
u
2 ( ) sin u
31
u
2 ( ) o
3
+ ( ) j cos u
31
u
2 ( ) o
3
+ ( ) + ( ) :=
V
P
u
2 ( ) V
A
u
2 ( ) V
PA
u
2 ( ) + :=
10. Plot the magnitude and direction of the coupler point P.
Magnitude: V
P
u
2 ( ) V
P
u
2 ( ) := Direction: u
VP
u
2 ( ) arg V
P
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
200 150 100 50 0 50 100 150 200
0
50
MAGNITUDE
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
m
m
/
s
e
c
V
P
u
2 ( )
sec
in

u
2
deg
200 150 100 50 0 50 100 150 200
200
0
200
DIRECTION
V
e
c
t
o
r
A
n
g
l
e
,
d
e
g
u
VP
u
2
( )
deg
u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-50-1
PROBLEM 6-50
Statement: Figure P6-13 shows a linkage and its coupler curve. Write a computer program or use an equation
solver to calculate and plot the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the coupler point P at
2-deg increments of crank angle over the maximum range of motion possible. Check your results
with program FOURBAR.
Units: rpm 2 t rad min
1
:=
2
to A) a 0.86 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 1.85 in :=
4
) c 0.86 in := Link 1 (O
2
to O
4
) d 2.22 in :=
Coupler point: R
pa
1.33 in := o
3
0 deg :=
Crank speed: e
2
80 rpm :=
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-13 and Mathcad file P0650.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
A
2
3
P
O
2
y
x
3
4
B
O4
2. Determine the range of motion for this non-Grashof triple rocker using equations 4.33.
arg
1
a
2
d
2
+ b
2
c
2

2 a d
b c
a d
+ := arg
1
1.228 =
arg
2
a
2
d
2
+ b
2
c
2

2 a d
b c
a d
:= arg
2
0.439 =
u
2toggle
acos arg
2 ( ) := u
2toggle
116.0deg =
The other toggle angle is the negative of this. Thus,
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-50-2
u
2
u
2toggle
u
2toggle
1 deg + , u
2toggle
.. :=
3. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:= K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:=
K
1
2.5814 = K
2
2.5814 = K
3
2.0181 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ := B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
4. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
41
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( )
2
4 A u
2 ( ) C u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
5. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.2000 = K
5
2.6244 =
D u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := E u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
F u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
6. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
u
31
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( )
2
4 D u
2 ( ) F u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
7. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the open circuit using equations 6.18.
e
31
u
2 ( )
a e
2

b
sin u
41
u
2 ( ) u
2
( )
sin u
31
u
2 ( ) u
41
u
2 ( ) ( )
:= e
41
u
2 ( )
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
31
u
2 ( ) ( )
sin u
41
u
2 ( ) u
31
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
8. Determine the velocity of point A using equations 6.19.
V
A
u
2 ( ) a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
9. Determine the velocity of the coupler point P using equations 6.36.
V
PA
u
2 ( ) R
pa
e
31
u
2 ( ) sin u
31
u
2 ( ) o
3
+ ( ) j cos u
31
u
2 ( ) o
3
+ ( ) + ( ) :=
V
P
u
2 ( ) V
A
u
2 ( ) V
PA
u
2 ( ) + :=
10. Plot the magnitude and direction of the coupler point P.
Magnitude: V
P
u
2 ( ) V
P
u
2 ( ) := Direction: u
VP
u
2 ( ) arg V
P
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
(See next page)
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-50-3
150 100 50 0 50 100 150
0
5
10
15
20
MAGNITUDE
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
m
m
/
s
e
c
V
P
u
2 ( )
sec
in

u
2
deg
150 100 50 0 50 100 150
200
100
0
100
200
DIRECTION
V
e
c
t
o
r
A
n
g
l
e
,
d
e
g
u
VP
u
2
( )
deg
u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-51-1
PROBLEM 6-51
Statement: Figure P6-14 shows a linkage and its coupler curve. Write a computer program or use an equation
solver to calculate and plot the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the coupler point P at
2-deg increments of crank angle over the maximum range of motion possible. Check your results
with program FOURBAR.
Units: rpm 2 t rad min
1
:=
2
to A) a 0.72 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 0.68 in :=
4
) c 0.85 in := Link 1 (O
2
to O
4
) d 1.82 in :=
Coupler point: R
pa
0.97 in := o
3
54 deg :=
Crank speed: e
2
80 rpm :=
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-14 and Mathcad file P0651.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
A
B
O
2
3
2
4
y
P
x
O
4
2. Determine the range of motion for this non-Grashof triple rocker using equations 4.33.
arg
1
a
2
d
2
+ b
2
c
2

2 a d
b c
a d
+ := arg
1
1.451 =
arg
2
a
2
d
2
+ b
2
c
2

2 a d
b c
a d
:= arg
2
0.568 =
u
2toggle
acos arg
2 ( ) := u
2toggle
55.4deg =
The other toggle angle is the negative of this. Thus,
u
2
u
2toggle
u
2toggle
1 deg + , u
2toggle
.. :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-51-2
3. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:=
K
1
2.5278 = K
2
2.1412 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
3.3422 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
4. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
41
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( )
2
4 A u
2 ( ) C u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
5. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
2.6765 =
K
5
3.6465 =
D u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
E u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
F u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
6. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
u
31
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( )
2
4 D u
2 ( ) F u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
7. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the open circuit using equations 6.18.
e
31
u
2 ( )
a e
2

b
sin u
41
u
2 ( ) u
2
( )
sin u
31
u
2 ( ) u
41
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
e
41
u
2 ( )
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
31
u
2 ( ) ( )
sin u
41
u
2 ( ) u
31
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
8. Determine the velocity of point A using equations 6.19.
V
A
u
2 ( ) a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
9. Determine the velocity of the coupler point P using equations 6.36.
V
PA
u
2 ( ) R
pa
e
31
u
2 ( ) sin u
31
u
2 ( ) o
3
+ ( ) j cos u
31
u
2 ( ) o
3
+ ( ) + ( ) :=
V
P
u
2 ( ) V
A
u
2 ( ) V
PA
u
2 ( ) + :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-51-3
10. Plot the magnitude and direction of the coupler point P.
Magnitude: V
P
u
2 ( ) V
P
u
2 ( ) :=
Direction: u
VP
u
2 ( ) arg V
P
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
60 40 20 0 20 40 60
0
5
10
15
20
MAGNITUDE
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
i
n
/
s
e
c
V
P
u
2 ( )
sec
in

u
2
deg
60 40 20 0 20 40 60
100
50
0
50
100
150
200
DIRECTION
Crank Angle, deg
V
e
c
t
o
r
A
n
g
l
e
,
d
e
g
u
VP
u
2
( )
deg
u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-52-1
PROBLEM 6-52
Statement: Figure P6-15 shows a power hacksaw that is an offset slider-crank mechanism that has the
dimensions given below. Draw an equivalent linkage diagram; then calculate and plot the velocity
of the saw blade with respect to the piece being cut over one revolution of the crank, which rotates
at 50 rpm.
Units: rpm 2 t rad min
1
:=
Link 2 a 75 mm := Offset c 45 mm :=
Link 3 b 170 mm :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
50 rpm :=
Solution: See Figure P6-15 and Mathcad file P0652.
1. Draw the equivalent linkage to a convenient scale and label it.
c
4
B
3
O
2
2
b
a
u
x
2
A
y
2. Determine the range of motion for this slider-crank linkage.
u
2
0 deg 2 deg , 360 deg .. :=
3. Determine u
3
using equations 4.16 for the crossed circuit.
u
3
u
2 ( ) asin
a sin u
2 ( ) c
b
|

\
|
|
.
:=
4. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.22a:
e
3
u
2 ( )
a
b
cos u
2 ( )
cos u
3
u
2 ( ) ( )
e
2
:=
5. Determine the velocity of pin B using equation 6.22b:
V
B
u
2 ( ) a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) b e
3
u
2 ( ) sin u
3
u
2 ( ) ( ) + :=
7. Plot the magnitude of the velocity of B. (See next page.)
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-52-2
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
400
200
0
200
400
600
VELOCITY OF POINT B
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
m
m
/
s
e
c
V
B
u
2 ( )
sec
mm

u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-53-1
PROBLEM 6-53
Statement: Figure P6-16 shows a walking-beam indexing and pick-and-place mechanism that can be analyzed
as two fourbar linkages driven by a common crank. Calculate and plot the absolute velocities of
points E and P and the relative velocity between points E and P for one revolution of gear 2.
Units: rpm 2 t rad min
1
:=
2
to A) a' 40 mm := Link 3 (A to D) b' 108 mm :=
4
to D) c' 40 mm := Link 1 (O
2
to O
4
) d' 108 mm :=
5
to B) a 13 mm := Link 7 (B to C) b 193 mm :=
6
) c 92 mm := Link 1 (O
5
to O
6
) d 128 mm :=
Rocker point E: u 164 mm := Crank speed: e
2
10 rpm :=
Gears 4 & 5 phase angle | 143 deg :=
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-16 and Mathcad file P0653.
1. Draw the walking-beam linkage to scale and label it.
D
80
58 mm
x'
c'
d'
O
4
30 mm
P
b'
A
y'
a'
O
2
X
Y
2. Determine the range of motion for this mechanism.
u
2
0 deg 2 deg , 360 deg .. := (local x'y' coordinate system)
3. This part of the mechanism is a special-case Grashof in the parallelogram configuration. As such, the coupler
does not rotate, but has curvilinear motion with ever point on it having the same velocity. Therefore, it is only
necessary to calculate the X-component of the velocity at point A in order to determine the velocity of the
cylinder center, P.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-53-2
V
A
u
2 ( ) a' e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
Ax
u
2 ( ) Re V
A
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
In the global X-Y coordinate frame,
V
P
u
2 ( ) V
Ax
u
2 ( ) :=
4. Draw the pick and place linkage to scale and label it.
6
C
O
6
5
B
O
5
a
7
1
b
c
d
E
5. Establish the relationship between u
5
and u
2
. Note that gear 5 is driven by gear 4 and that their ratio is -1 (i.e.,
they rotate in opposite directions with the same speed). Also, because the walking beam fourbar is special
Grashof, u
4
= u
2
. Thus,
u
5
u
2 ( ) u
2
| + := and e
5
e
2
:=
6. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
6
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
1
9.8462 = K
2
d
c
:= K
2
1.3913 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
5.1137 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
5
u
2 ( ) ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
5
u
2 ( ) ( ) K
3
+ :=
B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
5
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
C u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
5
u
2 ( ) ( ) K
3
+ :=
7. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
6
for the crossed circuit.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-53-3
u
6
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( )
2
4 A u
2 ( ) C u
2 ( ) + ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
8. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
7
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
0.6632 = K
5
9.0351 =
D u
2 ( ) cos u
5
u
2 ( ) ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
5
u
2 ( ) ( ) + K
5
+ :=
E u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
5
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
F u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
5
u
2 ( ) ( ) + K
5
+ :=
9. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
7
for the crossed circuit.
u
7
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( )
2
4 D u
2 ( ) F u
2 ( ) + ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
10. Determine the angular velocity of links 6 and 7 using equations 6.18.
e
7
u
2 ( )
a e
5

b
sin u
6
u
2 ( ) u
5
u
2 ( ) ( )

sin u
7
u
2 ( ) u
6
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
e
6
u
2 ( )
a e
5

c
sin u
5
u
2 ( ) u
7
u
2 ( ) ( )
sin u
6
u
2 ( ) u
7
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
10. Determine the velocity of the rocker point E using equations 6.34.
V
E
u
2 ( ) u e
6
u
2 ( ) sin u
6
u
2 ( ) ( ) j cos u
6
u
2 ( ) ( ) + ( ) :=
11. Transform this into the global XY system.
V
Ex
u
2 ( ) Re V
E
u
2 ( ) ( ) := V
Ey
u
2 ( ) Im V
E
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
V
EX
u
2 ( ) V
Ex
u
2 ( ) := V
EY
u
2 ( ) V
Ex
u
2 ( ) :=
V
EXY
u
2 ( ) V
EX
u
2 ( ) j V
EY
u
2 ( ) + :=
12. Calculate and plot the velocity of E relative to P.
V
EP
u
2 ( ) V
EXY
u
2 ( ) V
P
u
2 ( ) :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-53-4
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360
0
20
40
60
80
100
RELATIVE VELOCITY
Crank Angle, deg
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
m
m
/
s
e
c
V
EP
u
2 ( )
sec
mm

u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-54-1
PROBLEM 6-54
Statement: Figure P6-17 shows a paper roll off-loading mechanism driven by an air cylinder. In the position
shown, it has the dimensions given below. The V-links are rigidly attached to O
4
A. The air
cylinder is retracted at a constant velocity of 0.2 m/sec. Draw a kinematic diagram of the
mechanism, write the necessary equations, and calculate and plot the angular velocity of the paper
roll and the linear velocity of its center as it rotates through 90 deg CCW from the position shown.
Given: Link lengths and angles: Paper roll location from O
4
:
4
to A) c 300 mm := u 707.1 mm :=
2
to O
4
) d 930 mm := o
4
181 deg :=
40
62.8 deg := with respect to local x axis
Input cylinder velocity adot 200 mm sec
1
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-17 and Mathcad file P0654.
1. Draw the mechanism to scale and define a vector loop using the fourbar derivation in Section 6.7 as a model.
3
2
1
a
b
d
A
O
f
y
2
O
2
O
4
R 1
R R
R
2
3
4
A
u
u
2
4
Roll Center
x
45.000
707.107
4
46.000
4
c O
2. Write the vector loop equation, differentiate it, expand the result and separate into real and imaginary parts to
solve for f, u
2
, and e
4
.
R
1
R
4
+ R
2
R
3
+ := (a)
d e
j u
1

c e
j u
4

+ a e
j u
2

b e
j u
2

+ := (b)
where a is the distance from the origin to the cylinder piston, a variable; b is the distance from the cylinder
piston to A, a constant; and c is the distance from u
4
to point A, a constant. Angle u
1
is zero, u
3
= u
2
, and u
4
is
the variable angle that the rocker arm makes with the x axis. Solving the position equations:
Let f a b + := then, making this substitution and substituting the Euler equivalents,
d c cos u
4 ( ) j sin u
4 ( ) + ( ) + f cos u
2 ( ) j sin u
2 ( ) + ( ) := (c)
Separating into real and imaginary components and solving for u
2
and f,
u
2
u
4 ( ) atan2 d c cos u
4 ( ) + c sin u
4 ( ) , ( ) := (d)
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-54-2
f u
4 ( )
c sin u
4 ( )
sin u
2
u
4 ( ) ( )
:= (e)
Differentiate equation b.
j c e
4
e
j u
4

t
f
d
d
|

\
|
|
.
e
j u
2

j f e
2
e
j u
2

+ := (f)
Substituting the Euler equivalents,
c e
4
sin u
4 ( ) j cos u
4 ( ) + ( )
t
f
d
d
|

\
|
|
.
cos u
2 ( ) j sin u
2 ( ) + ( ) f e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) + := (g)
Separating into real and imaginary components and solving for e
4
. Note that df/dt = adot.
e
4
u
4 ( )
c sin u
2
u
4 ( ) u
4
( )
:= (h)
3. Plot e
4
over a range of u
4
of
u
4
u
40
u
40
1 deg + , u
40
90 deg + .. :=
60 80 100 120 140 160
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
A
n
g
u
l
a
r
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
r
a
d
/
s
e
c
e
4
u
4 ( )
sec

u
4
deg
4. Determine the velocity of the center of the paper roll using equation 6.35. The direction is in the local xy
coordinate system.
V
U
u
4 ( ) u e
4
u
4 ( ) sin u
4
o
4
+ ( ) j cos u
4
o
4
+ ( ) + ( ) :=
V
U
u
4 ( ) V
U
u
4 ( ) := u
VU
u
4 ( ) arg V
U
u
4 ( ) ( ) :=
5. Plot the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the paper roll center. (See next page.)
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-54-3
60 80 100 120 140 160
0
200
400
600
800
MAGNITUDE OF PAPER CENTER VELOCITY
Rocker Arm Position, deg
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
m
m
/
s
e
c
V
U
u
4 ( )
sec
mm

u
4
deg
60 80 100 120 140 160
40
20
0
20
40
60
80
DIRECTION OF PAPER CENTER VELOCITY
Rocker Arm Position, deg
V
e
c
t
o
r
A
n
g
l
e
,
d
e
g
u
VU
u
4
( )
deg
u
4
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-55a-1
PROBLEM 6-55a
Statement: Figure P6-18 shows a powder compaction mechanism. Calculate its mechanical advantage for the
position shown.
Link 2 (A to B) a 105 mm := Offset c 27 mm :=
Link 3 (B to D) b 172 mm :=
Distance to force application:
in
301 mm :=
2
44 deg := Let e
2
1
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-18 and Mathcad file P0655a.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
A
2
3
4
B
C
D
44.000
X
Y
2. Determine u
3
using equation 4.17.
u
3
asin
a sin u
2 ( ) c
b

\
|
|
.
t + :=
u
3
164.509 deg =
3. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.22a:
e
3
a
b
cos u
2 ( )
cos u
3 ( )
e
2
:=
4. Determine the velocity of pin D using equation 6.22b:
V
D
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) b e
3
sin u
3 ( ) + := Positive upward
5. Calculate the velocity of point C using equation 6.23a:
V
C
r
in
e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
C
V
C
:=
6. Calculate the mechanical advantage using equation 6.13.
m
A
V
C
V
D
:= m
A
3.206 =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-55b-1
PROBLEM 6-55b
Statement: Figure P6-18 shows a powder compaction mechanism. Calculate and plot its mechanical advantage
as a function of the angle of link AC as it rotates from 15 to 60 deg.
Link 2 (A to B) a 105 mm := Offset c 27 mm :=
Link 3 (B to D) b 172 mm :=
Distance to force application:
in
301 mm :=
Initial and final positions of link 2: u
20
15 deg := u
21
60 deg := Let e
2
1
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-18 and Mathcad file P0655b.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
A
2
3
4
B
C
D
X
Y
u
2
2. Determine the range of motion for this slider-crank linkage.
u
2
u
20
u
20
1 deg + , u
21
.. :=
3. Determine u
3
using equation 4.17.
u
3
u
2 ( ) asin
a sin u
2 ( ) c
b

\
|
|
.
t + :=
4. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.22a:
e
3
u
2 ( )
a
b
cos u
2 ( )
cos u
3
u
2 ( ) ( )
e
2
:=
5. Determine the velocity of pin D using equation 6.22b:
V
D
u
2 ( ) a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) b e
3
u
2 ( ) sin u
3
u
2 ( ) ( ) + := Positive upward
6. Calculate the velocity of point C using equation 6.23a:
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-55b-2
V
C
u
2 ( ) r
in
e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
C
u
2 ( ) V
C
u
2 ( ) :=
7. Calculate the mechanical advantage using equation 6.13.
m
A
u
2 ( )
V
C
u
2 ( )
V
D
u
2 ( )
:=
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Crank Angle, deg
M
e
c
h
a
n
i
c
a
l
A
d
v
a
n
t
a
g
e
m
A
u
2 ( )
u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-56-1
PROBLEM 6-56
Statement: Figure P6-19 shows a walking beam mechanism. Calculate and plot the velocity V
out
for one
revolution of the input crank 2 rotating at 100 rpm.
Units: rpm 2 t rad min
1
:=
2
to A) a 1.00 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 2.06 in :=
4
) c 2.33 in := Link 1 (O
2
to O
4
) d 2.22 in :=
Coupler point: R
pa
3.06 in := o
3
31 deg :=
Crank speed: e
2
100 rpm :=
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-19 and Mathcad file P0656.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
2
O
3
A
2
1
4
26.00
y
Y
O
4
x
B
P
X
2. Determine the range of motion for this Grashof crank rocker.
u
2
0 deg 2 deg , 360 deg .. :=
3. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:=
K
1
2.2200 = K
2
0.9528 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
1.5265 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-56-2
B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
4. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
41
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( )
2
4 A u
2 ( ) C u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
5. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.0777 =
K
5
1.1512 =
D u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
E u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
F u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
6. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
u
31
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( )
2
4 D u
2 ( ) F u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
7. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the open circuit using equations 6.18.
e
31
u
2 ( )
a e
2

b
sin u
41
u
2 ( ) u
2
( )
sin u
31
u
2 ( ) u
41
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
e
41
u
2 ( )
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
31
u
2 ( ) ( )
sin u
41
u
2 ( ) u
31
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
8. Determine the velocity of point A using equations 6.19.
V
A
u
2 ( ) a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
9. Determine the velocity of the coupler point P using equations 6.36.
V
PA
u
2 ( ) R
pa
e
31
u
2 ( ) sin u
31
u
2 ( ) o
3
+ ( ) j cos u
31
u
2 ( ) o
3
+ ( ) + ( ) :=
V
P
u
2 ( ) V
A
u
2 ( ) V
PA
u
2 ( ) + :=
10. Plot the X-component (global coordinate system) of the velocity of the coupler point P.
Coordinate rotation angle: o 26 deg :=
V
out
u
2 ( ) Re V
P
u
2 ( ) ( ) cos o ( ) Im V
P
u
2 ( ) ( ) sin o ( ) :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-56-3
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
10
5
0
5
10
15
Vout
Crank Angle, deg
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
i
n
/
s
e
c
V
out
u
2 ( )
sec
in

u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-57a-1
PROBLEM 6-57a
Statement: Figure P6-20 shows a crimping tool. For the dimensions given below, calculate its mechanical
Link 2 (AB) a 0.80 in := Link 3 (BC) b 1.23 in :=
Distance to force application:
in
4.26 in := Link 4 (CD) r
out
1.00 in :=
Initial position of link 2: u
2
49 deg :=
Solution: See Figure P6-20 and Mathcad file P0657a.
1. Draw the mechanism to scale and label it.
1 F
in
49.000
F
out
4
D
2 2
A B
3
C
2. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:=
K
1
3.0000 = K
2
1.5484 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
2.9394 =
A cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
B 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
A 0.4204 = B 1.5094 = C 4.2675 =
3. Use equation 4.10b to find value of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
4
2 atan2 2 A B B
2
4 A C ,
( ) ( )
:= u
4
236.482 deg =
4. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.9512 = K
5
2.8000 =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-57a-2
D cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := D 3.8638 =
E 2 sin u
2 ( ) := E 1.5094 =
F K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := F 0.8241 =
5. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
u
3
2 atan2 2 D E E
2
4 D F ,
( ) ( )
:= u
3
325.961 deg =
6. Referring to Figure 6-10, calculate the values of the angles v and .
v u
2
u
3
:= v 374.961 deg =
If v > 360 deg, subtract 360 deg from it.
v if v 360 deg > v 360 deg , v , ( ) := v 14.961 deg =
u
4
u
3
:= 89.479 deg =
If > 90 deg, subtract it from 180 deg.
if 90 deg > 180 deg , , ( ) := 89.479 deg =
7. Using equation 6.13e, calculate the mechanical advantage of the linkage in the position shown.
m
A
c sin ( )
a sin v ( )
r
in
r
out
:= m
A
31.969 =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-57b-1
PROBLEM 6-57b
Statement: Figure P6-20 shows a crimping tool. For the dimensions given below, calculate and plot its
mechanical advantage as a function of the angle of link AB as it rotates from 60 to 45 deg.
Link 2 (AB) a 0.80 in := Link 3 (BC) b 1.23 in :=
Distance to force application:
in
4.26 in := Link 4 (CD) r
out
1.00 in :=
Range of positions of link 2: u
20
60 deg := u
21
45 deg :=
Solution: See Figure P6-20 and Mathcad file P0657b.
1. Draw the mechanism to scale and label it.
1 F
in
F
out
4
D
u2
2 2
A B
3
C
2. Calculate the range of u
2
in the local coordinate system (required to calculate u
3
and u
4
).
u
2
u
20
u
20
1 deg , u
21
.. :=
3. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:=
K
1
3.0000 = K
2
1.5484 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
2.9394 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
4. Use equation 4.10b to find value of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
4
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( )
2
4 A u
2 ( ) C u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
5. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-57b-2
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.9512 =
K
5
2.8000 =
D u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
E u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
F u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
6. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
u
3
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( )
2
4 D u
2 ( ) F u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
7. Referring to Figure 6-10, calculate the values of the angles v and .
v u
2 ( ) u
2
u
3
u
2 ( ) :=
u
2 ( ) u
4
u
2 ( ) u
3
u
2 ( ) :=
8. Using equation 6.13e, calculate and plot the mechanical advantage of the linkage over the given range.
m
A
u
2 ( )
c sin u
2 ( ) ( )
a sin v u
2 ( ) ( )
r
in
r
out
:=
45 48 51 54 57 60
10
20
30
40
50
60
Handle Angle, deg
M
e
c
h
a
n
i
c
a
l
A
d
v
a
n
t
a
g
e
m
A
u
2 ( )
u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-58-1
PROBLEM 6-58
Statement: Figure P6-21 shows a locking pliers. Calculate its mechanical advantage for the position shown.
Scale any dimensions needed from the diagram.
Solution: See Figure P6-21 and Mathcad file P0658.
1. Draw the linkage to scale in the position given and find the instant centers.
F
1,2
F
O
2
3
2,3
A
O
2
4
1,4
B
4
P
3,4 and 1,3
1
P
2. Note that the linkage is in a toggle position (links 2 and 3 are in line) and the angle between links 2 and 3 is 0 deg.
From the discussion below equation 6.13e in the text, we see that the mechanical advantage for this linkage in
this position is theoretically infinite.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-59a-1
PROBLEM 6-59a
Statement: Figure P6-22 shows a fourbar toggle clamp used to hold a workpiece in place by clamping it at D.
The linkage will toggle when link 2 reaches 90 deg. For the dimensions given below, calculate its
mechanical advantage for the position shown.
2
A) a 70 mm := Link 3 (AB) b 35 mm :=
4
B) c 34 mm := Link 1 (O
2
O
4
) d 48 mm :=
Distance to force application:
2
C) r
in
138 mm := Link 4 (O
4
D) r
out
82 mm :=
Initial position of link 2: u
20
104 deg := Global XY system
Solution: See Figure P6-22 and Mathcad file P0659a.
1. Draw the mechanism to scale and label it. To establish the position of O
4
with respect to O
2
(in the global
coordinate frame), draw the linkage in the toggle position withu
2
= 90 deg. The fixed pivot O
4
is then 48 mm from
O
2
and 34 mm from B' (see layout).
y
135.069
x 2
O
4
A
3
O
2
B 4
B'
X
D
D'
A'
C
Y
C'
2. Calculate the value of u
2
in the local coordinate system (required to calculate u
3
and u
4
).
Rotation angle of local xy system to global XY system: o 135.069 deg :=
u
2
u
20
o := u
2
31.069 deg =
3. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
1
0.6857 = K
2
d
c
:= K
2
1.4118 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
1.4989 =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-59a-2
A cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
B 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
A 0.4605 = B 1.0321 = C 0.1189 =
4. Use equation 4.10b to find value of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
4
2 atan2 2 A B B
2
4 A C ,
( ) ( )
:= u
4
129.480 deg =
5. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.3714 =
K
5
1.4843 =
D cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := D 0.1388 =
E 2 sin u
2 ( ) := E 1.0321 =
F K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := F 0.4804 =
6. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
u
3
2 atan2 2 D E E
2
4 D F ,
( ) ( )
:= u
3
196.400 deg =
7. Referring to Figure 6-10, calculate the values of the angles v and .
v u
2
u
3
:= v 165.331 deg =
If v > 90 deg, subtract it from 180 deg.
v if v 90 deg > 180 deg v , v , ( ) := v 14.669 deg =
u
4
u
3
:= 66.920 deg =
If > 90 deg, subtract it from 180 deg.
if 90 deg > 180 deg , , ( ) := 66.920 deg =
8. Using equation 6.13e, calculate the mechanical advantage of the linkage in the position shown.
m
A
c sin ( )
a sin v ( )
r
in
r
out
:= m
A
2.970 =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-59b-1
PROBLEM 6-59b
Statement: Figure P6-22 shows a fourbar toggle clamp used to hold a workpiece in place by clamping it at D.
The linkage will toggle when link 2 reaches 90 deg. For the dimensions given below, calculate and
plot its mechanical advantage as a function of the angle of link AB as link 2 rotates from 120 to 90
deg (in the global coordinate system).
2
A) a 70 mm := Link 3 (AB) b 35 mm :=
4
B) c 34 mm := Link 1 (O
2
O
4
) d 48 mm :=
Distance to force application:
2
C) r
in
138 mm := Link 4 (O
4
D) r
out
82 mm :=
Range of positions of link 2: u
20
120 deg := u
21
90.1 deg := Global XY system
Solution: See Figure P6-22 and Mathcad file P0659b.
1. Draw the mechanism to scale and label it. To establish the position of O
4
with respect to O
2
(in the global
coordinate frame), draw the linkage in the toggle position withu
2
= 90 deg. The fixed pivot O
4
is then 48 mm from
O
2
and 34 mm from B' (see layout).
y
135.069
x
O
4
2
C
3
A
B
O
2
B'
X
D'
A'
4
D
Y
C'
2. Calculate the range of u
2
in the local coordinate system (required to calculate u
3
and u
4
).
Rotation angle of local xy system to global XY system: o 135.069 deg :=
u
2
u
20
o u
20
o 1 deg , u
21
o .. :=
3. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
1
0.6857 = K
2
d
c
:= K
2
1.4118 =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-59b-2
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
1.4989 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
4. Use equation 4.10b to find value of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
4
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( )
2
4 A u
2 ( ) C u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
5. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.3714 =
K
5
1.4843 =
D u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
E u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
F u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
6. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
u
3
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( )
2
4 D u
2 ( ) F u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
7. Referring to Figure 6-10, calculate the values of the angles v and .
v u
2 ( ) u
2
u
3
u
2 ( ) :=
u
2 ( ) u
4
u
2 ( ) u
3
u
2 ( ) :=
8. Using equation 6.13e, calculate and plot the mechanical advantage of the linkage over the given range.
m
A
u
2 ( )
c sin u
2 ( ) ( )
a sin v u
2 ( ) ( )
r
in
r
out
:=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-59b-3
90 95 100 105 110 115 120
0
10
20
30
40
50
m
A
u
2
( )
u
2
o +
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-60-1
PROBLEM 6-60
Statement: Figure P6-23 shows a surface grinder. The workpiece is oscillated under the spinning grinding
wheel by the slider-crank linkage that has the dimensions given below. Calculate and plot the
velocity of the grinding wheel contact point relative to the workpiece over one revolution of the
crank.
Units: rpm 2 t rad min
1
:=
2
to A) a 22 mm := Offset c 40 mm :=
Link 3 (A to B) b 157 mm :=
Grinding wheel diameter d 90 mm :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
120 rpm := CCW
Grinding wheel angular velocity e
5
3450 rpm := CCW
Solution: See Figure P6-23 and Mathcad file P0660.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
2
c
2
A
u
O
2
3
4
B
5
2. Determine the range of motion for this slider-crank linkage.
u
2
0 deg 2 deg , 360 deg .. :=
3. Determine u
3
using equation 4.17.
u
3
u
2 ( ) asin
a sin u
2 ( ) c
b

\
|
|
.
t + :=
4. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.22a:
e
3
u
2 ( )
a
b
cos u
2 ( )
cos u
3
u
2 ( ) ( )
e
2
:=
5. Determine the velocity of pin B using equation 6.22b:
V
B
u
2 ( ) a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) b e
3
u
2 ( ) sin u
3
u
2 ( ) ( ) + := Positive to the right
6. Calculate the velocity of the grinding wheel contact point using equation 6.7:
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-60-2
V
G
d
2
e
5
:= V
G
16.258
m
sec
= Directed to the right
7. The velocity of the grinding wheel contact point relative to the workpiece, which has velocityV
B
, is
V
GB
u
2 ( ) V
G
V
B
u
2 ( ) :=
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
15.9
16
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
16.5
16.6
RELATIVE VELOCITY AT CONTACT POINT
Crank Angle, deg
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
m
/
s
e
c
V
GB
u
2 ( )
sec
m

u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-61-1
PROBLEM 6-61
Statement: Figure P6-24 shows an inverted slider-crank mechanism. Given the dimensions below, find
2
,
3
,

4
, V
A4
, V
trans
, and V
slip
for the position shown with V
A2
= 20 in/sec in the direction shown.
2
A) a 2.5 in Link 4 (O
4
A) c 4.1 in Link 1 (O
2
O
4
) d 3.9 in
Measured angles:

75.5 deg
trans
26.5 deg
slip
116.5 deg
Velocity of point A on links 2 and 3: V
A2
20 in sec
1
V
A3
V
A2

## Solution: See Figure P6-24 and Mathcad file P0661.

1. Draw the linkage to scale and indicate the axes of slip and transmission as well as the directions of velocities of
interest.
3
O4
O
A
11.500
Direction of VA2
4
1
2
Y
2
Axis of transmission
Direction of VA4
Axis of slip
X
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the angular velocity of link 2.

V
A2
a

8.000
sec
CW
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity components at point A on links 2 and
3.. The equation to be solved graphically is
V
A3
= V
trans
+ V
A3slip
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A3
.
b. From the tip of V
A3
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
A3slip
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A3
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
trans
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
A3slip
from the tip of V
trans
to the tip of V
A3
and drawing V
trans
from the tail of V
A3
to the intersection of the V
A3slip
construction line.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-61-2
1.509 V
A3
V
A4
1.686
Axis of transmission
2.064
A4slip
V
A3slip
V
trans
V
Y 0
X
Axis of slip
10 in/sec
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
10 in sec
1

in

V
A4
1.686 in k
v
V
A4
16.9
in
sec

V
slip
2.064 in k
v
V
slip
20.6
in
sec

V
trans
1.509 in k
v
V
trans
15.1
in
sec

## 5. Determine the angular velocity of link 4 using equation 6.7.

V
A4
c

4.1
sec
CW
3
=
4
.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-62-1
PROBLEM 6-62
Statement: Figure P6-25 shows a drag-link mechanism with dimensions. Write the necessary equations and
solve them to calculate and plot the angular velocity of link 4 for an input of e
2
Comment on the uses for this mechanism.
2
) a 1.38 in := Link 3 (L
3
) b 1.22 in :=
4
) c 1.62 in := Link 1 (L
1
) d 0.68 in :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CW
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-25 and Mathcad file P0662.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
2
4
u
2
O O
2 4
y
3
A
x
B
2. Determine the range of motion for this Grashof double crank.
u
2
0 deg 2 deg , 360 deg .. :=
3. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:=
K
1
0.4928 = K
2
0.4198 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
0.7834 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-62-2
4. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
41
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( )
2
4 A u
2 ( ) C u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
5. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
0.5574 =
K
5
0.3655 =
D u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
E u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
F u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
6. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
u
31
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( )
2
4 D u
2 ( ) F u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
7. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the open circuit using equations 6.18.
e
31
u
2 ( )
a e
2

b
sin u
41
u
2 ( ) u
2
( )
sin u
31
u
2 ( ) u
41
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
e
41
u
2 ( )
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
31
u
2 ( ) ( )
sin u
41
u
2 ( ) u
31
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
9. Plot the angular velocity of link 4.
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
Crank Angle, deg
A
n
g
u
l
a
r
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
r
a
d
/
s
e
c
e
41
u
2 ( )
sec

u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-63-1
PROBLEM 6-63
Statement: Figure P6-25 shows a drag-link mechanism with dimensions. Write the necessary equations and
solve them to calculate and plot the centrodes of instant center I
2,4
.
2
) L
2
1.38 in := Link 3 (L
3
) L
3
1.22 in :=
4
) L
4
1.62 in := Link 1 (L
1
) L
1
0.68 in :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:=
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-25 and Mathcad file P0663.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it. Instant center I
2,4
is at the intersection of line AB with line O
2
O
4
. To get
the first centrode, ground link 2 and let link 3 be the input. Then we have
a L
3
:= b L
4
:= c L
1
:= d L
2
:=
u
2
4
x
2
u
4
O O
2 4
3
A
y
B
2. Determine the range of motion for this Grashof double rocker. From Figure 3-1a on page 80, one toggle angle is
u
20
acos
a
2
d
2
+ b c + ( )
2

2 a d

(
(

:= u
20
124.294 deg =
The other toggle angle is the negative of this. The range of motion is
u
2
u
20
u
20
1 deg + , u
20
.. :=
3. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:=
K
1
1.1311 = K
2
2.0294 =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-63-2
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
0.7418 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
4. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
41
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( )
2
4 A u
2 ( ) C u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
5. Calculate the coordinates of the intersection of line BCwith line AD. This will be the instant center I
2,4
.
Line BC: y x tan u
2 ( ) :=
Line AD: y 0 x d ( ) tan u
4 ( ) :=
Eliminating y and solving for the x- and y-coordinates of the intersection,
x
24
u
2 ( )
d tan u
41
u
2 ( ) ( )
tan u
41
u
2 ( ) ( ) tan u
2 ( )
:= y
24
u
2 ( ) x
24
u
2 ( ) tan u
2 ( ) :=
6. Plot the fixed centrode.
10 5 0 5 10
10
5
0
5
10
FIXED CENTRODE
x-Coordinate, in
y
-
C
o
o
r
d
i
n
a
t
e
,
i
n
y
24
u
2
( )
in
x
24
u
2 ( )
in
7. Invert the linkage, making C and D the fixed pivots. Then,
a L
1
:= b L
2
:= c L
3
:= d L
4
:=
8. Determine the range of motion for this Grashof crank rocker.
u
2
0 deg 0.5 deg , 360 deg .. :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-63-3
u
4
O
2
2
O
4
2
y
A
u
3
B
x
4
9. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:=
K
1
2.3824 = K
2
1.3279 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
1.6097 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
10. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
42
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( )
2
4 A u
2 ( ) C u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
11. Calculate the coordinates of the intersection of line BCwith line AD. This will be the instant center I
2,4
.
Line AD: y x tan u
2 ( ) :=
Line BC: y 0 x d ( ) tan u
4 ( ) :=
Eliminating y and solving for the x- and y-coordinates of the intersection,
x
24
u
2 ( )
d tan u
42
u
2 ( ) ( )
tan u
42
u
2 ( ) ( ) tan u
2 ( )
:= y
24
u
2 ( ) x
24
u
2 ( ) tan u
2 ( ) :=
6. Plot the moving centrode. (See next page.)
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-63-4
10 5 0 5 10
10
5
0
5
10
MOVING CENTRODE
x-Coordinate, in
y
-
C
o
o
r
d
i
n
a
t
e
,
i
n
y
24
u
2
( )
in
x
24
u
2 ( )
in
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-64-1
PROBLEM 6-64
Statement: Figure P6-26 shows a mechanism with dimensions. Use a graphical method to calculate the
velocities of points A, B, and C and the velocity of slip for the position shown.
2
O
4
) d 1.22 in := Angle O
2
O
4
makes with X axis u
1
56.5 deg :=
2
A) a 1.35 in := Angle u
2
makes with X axis u
2
14 deg :=
4
B) e 1.36 in :=
Link 5 (BC) f 2.69 in :=
6
C) g 1.80 in := Angle O
6
C makes with X axis u
6
88 deg :=
Angular velocity of link 2 e
2
1
:= CW
Solution: See Figure P6-26 and Mathcad file P0664.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and indicate the axes of slip and transmission as well as the directions of velocities of
interest.
132.661
Axis of transmission
Axis of slip
0.939
Direction of VA3
O
2
2
3
A
Y
O4
B
4
X
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the velocity at point A on links 2 and 3.
V
A3
a e
2
:= V
A3
27.000
in
sec
= u
VA3
u
2
90 deg := u
VA3
76.0 deg =
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity components at point A on link 3. The
equation to be solved graphically is
V
A3
= V
trans
+ V
slip
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A3
.
b. From the tip of V
A3
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
slip
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A3
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
trans
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
slip
from the tip of V
trans
to the tip of V
A3
and drawing V
trans
from
the tail of V
A3
to the intersection of the V
slip
construction line.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-64-2
V
1.295
2.369
V
slip
trans
V
Y
A3
X
0 10 in/sec
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
10 in sec
1

in
:=
V
slip
2.369 in k
v
:= V
slip
23.690
in
sec
=
V
trans
1.295 in k
v
:= V
trans
12.950
in
sec
=
5. The true velocity of point A on link 4 is V
trans
,
V
A4
V
trans
:= V
A4
12.95
in
sec
=
6. Determine the angular velocity of link 4 using equation 6.7.
From the linkage layout above: c 0.939 in := and u
4
132.661 deg :=
e
4
V
A4
c
:= e
4
13.791
sec
= CW
7. Determine the magnitude and sense of the vector V
B
using equation 6.7.
V
B
e e
4
:= V
B
18.756
in
sec
=
u
VA4
u
4
90 deg := u
VA4
42.661 deg =
8. Draw links 1, 4, 5, and 6 to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest. (See
next page.)
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-64-3
C
O
6
Direction of VC
Direction of VCB
O2
2
3
A
X
B
Direction of VB
4
Y
O
4
9. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point C. The equation to be solved
graphically is
V
C
= V
B
+ V
CB
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
B
.
b. From the tip of V
B
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
CB
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
B
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
C
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
CB
from the tip of V
B
to the intersection of the V
C
construction
line and drawing V
C
from the tail of V
B
to the intersection of the V
CB
construction line.
V
2.088
Y
V
B
C
X
V
CB
0 10 in/sec
10. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
10 in sec
1

in
:= u
VC
u
6
90 deg :=
V
C
2.088 in k
v
:= V
C
20.9
in
sec
= u
VC
2.0 deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-65-1
PROBLEM 6-65
Statement: Figure P6-27 shows a cam and follower. Distances are given below. Find the velocities of points A
and B, the velocity of transmission, velocity of slip, and
3
if
2
= 50 rad/sec (CW). Use a
graphical method.
Given:

1

Distance fromO
2
to A: a 1.890 in
Distance fromO
3
to B: b 1.645 in
Assumptions: Roll-slide contact
Solution: See Figure P6-27 and Mathcad file P0665.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and indicate the axes of slip and transmission as well as the directions of velocities of
interest.
Direction of VA
1. 645
1. 890
Axis of slip
B
O
2
2
A
3
O
3
Direction of VB
Axis of transmission
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the velocity at point A.
V
A
a

V
A
94.500
in
sec

3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity components at point A. The equation
to be solved graphically is
V
A
= V
trans
+ V
Aslip
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
slip
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
trans
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
slip
from the tip of V
trans
to the tip of V
A
and drawing V
trans
from
the tail of V
A
to the intersection of the V
slip
construction line.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-65-2
1.890
2.304
1.317
Y
3.256
V
A
trans
V
A2slip
V
X
V
V
B
Bslip
0 50 in/sec
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
50 in sec
1

in

V
A
1.890 in k
v
V
A
94.5
in
sec

V
B
2.304 in k
v
V
B
115.2
in
sec

V
slip
3.256 in k
v
V
slip
162.8
in
sec

V
trans
1.317 in k
v
V
trans
65.8
in
sec

## 5. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.7.

V
B
b

70.0
sec
CW
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-66-1
PROBLEM 6-66
Statement: Figure P6-28 shows a quick-return mechanism with dimensions. Use a graphical method to calculate
the velocities of points A, B, and C and the velocity of slip for the position shown.
2
O
4
) d 1.69 in := Angle O
2
O
4
makes with X axis u
1
15.5 deg :=
2
) a 1.00 in := Angle link 2 makes with X axis u
2
99 deg :=
4
) e 4.76 in :=
5
) f 4.55 in :=
Offset (O
2
C) g 2.86 in :=
Angular velocity of link 2 e
2
1
:= CCW
Solution: See Figure P6-28 and Mathcad file P0666.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and indicate the axes of slip and transmission as well as the directions of velocities of
interest.
2.068
Direction of VA3
44.228
O4
2
O2
3
A
X
Axis of transmission
Y
B
Axis of slip
4
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the velocity at point A on links 2 and 3.
V
A2
a e
2
:= V
A2
10.000
in
sec
= u
VA2
u
2
90 deg + := u
VA2
189.0deg =
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity components at point A on link 3. The
equation to be solved graphically is
V
A3
= V
trans
+ V
slip
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-66-2
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A3
.
b. From the tip of V
A3
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
slip
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A3
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
trans
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
slip
from the tip of V
trans
to the tip of V
A3
and drawing V
trans
from
the tail of V
A3
to the intersection of the V
slip
construction line.
1.154
1.634 V
slip
V
trans
V
A3
Y
X
0 5 in/sec
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
5 in sec
1

in
:=
V
slip
1.634 in k
v
:= V
slip
8.170
in
sec
=
V
trans
1.154 in k
v
:= V
trans
5.770
in
sec
=
5. The true velocity of point A on link 4 is V
trans
,
V
A4
V
trans
:= V
A4
5.77
in
sec
=
6. Determine the angular velocity of link 4 using equation 6.7.
From the linkage layout above: c 2.068 in := and u
4
44.228 deg :=
e
4
V
A4
c
:= e
4
2.790
sec
= CCW
7. Determine the magnitude and sense of the vector V
B
using equation 6.7.
V
B
e e
4
:= V
B
13.281
in
sec
=
u
VB
u
4
90 deg + := u
VB
134.228 deg =
8. Draw links 1, 4, 5, and 6 to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest. (See
next page.)
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-66-3
Direction of VCB
Direction of VC
6
C
44.228
O4
2
O2
3
A
X
Direction of VB
5.805
Y
5
4
B
9. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point C. The equation to be solved
graphically is
V
C
= V
B
+ V
CB
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
B
.
b. From the tip of V
B
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
CB
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
B
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
C
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
CB
from the tip of V
B
to the intersection of the V
C
construction
line and drawing V
C
from the tail of V
B
to the intersection of the V
CB
construction line.
10. From the velocity triangle we have:
Y
1.659
V
V
CB
C
V
B
0
X
5 in/sec
Velocity scale factor: k
v
5 in sec
1

in
:=
V
C
1.659 in k
v
:= V
C
8.30
in
sec
=
u
VC
180 deg :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-67-1
PROBLEM 6-67
Statement: Figure P6-29 shows a drum pedal mechanism . For the dimensions given below, find and plot the
mechanical advantage and the velocity ratio of the linkage over its range of motion. If the input
velocity V
in
is a constant and F
in
is constant, find the output velocity, output force, and power in
over the range of motion.
2
A) a 100 mm := Link 3 (AB) b 28 mm :=
4
B) c 64 mm := Link 1 (O
2
O
4
) d 56 mm :=
Distance to force application:
in
48 mm := Link 3 (AP) r
out
124 mm :=
Input force and velocity: F
in
50 N := V
in
3 m sec
1
:=
Range of positions of link 2: u
20
162 deg := u
21
171 deg :=
Solution: See Figure P6-29 and Mathcad file P0667.
1. Draw the mechanism to scale and label it.
y
B
u
x
2
3
4
A
2
1
O
4
F
in
in
V
3
O
2
P
2. Calculate the range of u
2
in the local coordinate system (required to calculate u
3
and u
4
).
Rotation angle of local xy system to global XY system: o 180 deg :=
u
2
u
20
o u
20
o ( ) 1 deg + , u
21
o .. :=
3. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:=
K
1
0.5600 = K
2
0.8750 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
1.2850 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-67-2
B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
4. Use equation 4.10b to find value of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
4
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( )
2
4 A u
2 ( ) C u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
5. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
2.0000 =
K
5
1.7543 =
D u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
E u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
F u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
6. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
u
3
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( )
2
4 D u
2 ( ) F u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
7. Using equations 6.13d and 6.18a, where e
out
is e
3
over the given range.
m
A
u
2 ( )
b sin u
3
u
2 ( ) u
4
u
2 ( ) ( )
a sin u
4
u
2 ( ) u
2
( )
r
in
r
out
:=
162 164 166 168 170 172
0.1
0.11
0.12
0.13
Pedal Angle, deg
M
e
c
h
a
n
i
c
a
l
A
d
v
a
n
t
a
g
e
m
A
u
2 ( )
u
2
o +
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-67-3
8. Calculate and plot the velocity ratio using equation 6.13d,
m
V
u
2 ( )
1
m
A
u
2 ( )
:=
162 164 166 168 170 172
0
2
4
6
8
10
VELOCITY RATIO
Pedal Angle, deg
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
R
a
t
i
o
m
V
u
2 ( )
u
2
o +
deg
9. Calculate and plot the output velocity using equation 6.13a.
V
out
u
2 ( ) V
in
m
V
u
2 ( ) :=
162 164 166 168 170 172
0
10
20
30
OUTPUT VELOCITY
Pedal Angle, deg
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
m
/
s
e
c
V
out
u
2 ( )
sec
m

u
2
o +
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-67-4
10. Calculate and plot the output force using equation 6.13a.
F
out
u
2 ( ) F
in
m
A
u
2 ( ) :=
162 164 166 168 170 172
0
2
4
6
8
OUTPUT FORCE
Pedal Angle, deg
F
o
r
c
e
,
N
F
out
u
2
( )
N
u
2
o +
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-68-1
PROBLEM 6-68
Statement: Figure 3-33 shows a sixbar slider crank linkage. Find all of its instant centers in the position shown:
Given: Number of links n 6
Solution: See Figure 3-33 and Mathcad file P0668.
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 15
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection (8).
1,6 at infinity
O
1,4
2
O
2
1,2
4
X
4
5,6
5
6
2,3
Y
3
3,4; 3,5; 4,5
1,5
1,6 at infinity
2,5
3,4; 3,5; 4,5; 2,4
3,6
O
1,4
2
O
2
1,2
1,3
4
X
4
5,6
5
6
2,6
2,3
4,6
Y
3
4
5 3
1
6
2
2. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear
graph to find the remaining 7 ICs:
I
1,3;
I
1,5;
I
2,4;
I
2,5;
I
2,6;
I
3,6; and
I
4,6
I
1,5
: I
1,6
-I
5,6
and I
1,4
-I
4,5
I
2,5
: I
1,2
-I
1,5
and I
2,3
-I
3,5
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,5
-I
3,5
I
3,6
: I
1,6
-I
1,3
and I
3,5
-I
5,6
I
2,4
: I
2,3
-I
3,4
and I
2,5
-I
4,5
I
2,6
: I
1,2
-I
1,6
and I
2,5
-I
5,6
I
4,6
: I
1,4
-I
1,6
and I
4,5
-I
5,6
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-69-1
PROBLEM 6-69
Statement: Calculate and plot the centrodes of instant center I
24
of the linkage in Figure 3-33 so that a pair of
Input crank (L
2
) L
2
2.170 := Fourbar coupler (L
3
) L
3
2.067 :=
Output crank (L
4
) L
4
2.310 := Fourbar ground link (L
1
) L
1
1.000 :=
Two argument inverse tangent: atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure 3-33 and Mathcad file P0669.
1. Invert the linkage, grounding link 2 such that the input link is 3, the coupler is 4, and the output link is 1.
a L
3
:= b L
4
:= c L
1
:= d L
2
:=
2. Define the input crank motion for this inversion: u
2
47 deg 47.5 deg , 102.5 deg .. :=
3. Use equations 4.8a and 4.10 to calculate u
4
as a function of u
2
(for the open circuit).
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:= K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:=
K
1
1.0498 = K
2
2.1700 = K
3
1.1237 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) := C u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
u
41
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( )
2
4 A u
2 ( ) C u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
u
4
u
2 ( ) if u
41
u
2 ( ) 2 t > u
41
u
2 ( ) 2 t , u
41
u
2 ( ) , ( ) :=
5. Calculate the coordinates of the intersection of links 1 and 3 in the xy coordinate system.
x
242
u
2 ( )
d tan u
4
u
2 ( ) ( )
tan u
2 ( ) tan u
4
u
2 ( ) ( )
:= y
242
u
2 ( ) x
242
u
2 ( ) tan u
2 ( ) :=
6. Invert the linkage, grounding link 4 such that the input link is 1, the coupler is 2, and the output link is 3.
a L
1
:= b L
2
:= c L
3
:= d L
4
:=
8. Use equations 4.8a and 4.10 to calculate u
4
as a function of u
2
(for the open circuit).
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:= K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:=
K
1
2.3100 = K
2
1.1176 = K
3
1.4271 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-69-2
B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) := C u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
u
41
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( )
2
4 A u
2 ( ) C u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
u
4
u
2 ( ) if u
41
u
2 ( ) 2 t > u
41
u
2 ( ) 2 t , u
41
u
2 ( ) , ( ) :=
5. Calculate the coordinates of the intersection of links 1 and 3 in the xy coordinate system.
x
244
u
2 ( )
d tan u
4
u
2 ( ) ( )
tan u
2 ( ) tan u
4
u
2 ( ) ( )
:= y
244
u
2 ( ) x
244
u
2 ( ) tan u
2 ( ) :=
4 3 2 1 0 1
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
y
242
u
2 ( )
x
242
u
2 ( )
7. Define the input crank motion for this inversion: u
2
41 deg 42 deg , 241 deg .. :=
10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10
10
8
6
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
y
244
u
2 ( )
x
244
u
2 ( )
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-70a-1
PROBLEM 6-70a
Statement: Find the velocity of the slider in Figure 3-33 for
2
= 110 deg with respect to the global X axis
assuming
2
= 1 rad/sec CW. Use a graphical method.
2
to A) a 2.170 in Link 3 (A to B) b 2.067 in
4
to B) c 2.310 in Link 1 (O
2
to O
4
) d 1.000 in
Link 5 (B to C) e 5.400
Coordinate angle 102 deg Crank angle:
2
110 deg
Input crank angular velocity

1
CW
Solution: See Figure P6-33 and Mathcad file P0670a.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
B
147.635
Direction of VB
Direction of VC
Direction of VCB
O
4
2 O
2
58.950
4
X
C
158.818
5
6
Direction of VA
Direction of VBA
A
Y
3
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the velocity at point A.
V
A
a

V
A
2.170
in
sec

VA

2
90 deg
VA
20.000 deg
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B, the magnitude of the relative
velocity V
BA
, and the angular velocity of link 3. The equation to be solved graphically is
V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
BA
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
B
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
BA
from the tip of V
A
to the intersection of the V
B
construction
line and drawing V
B
from the tail of V
A
to the intersection of the V
BA
construction line.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-70a-2
1.325
1 in/sec 0
Y
X
V
B
V
BA
V
A
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
1 in sec
1

in

V
B
1.325 in k
v
V
B
1.325
in
sec

VB
31.050 deg
5. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point C, the magnitude of the
relative velocity V
CB
, and the angular velocity of link 3. The equation to be solved graphically is
V
C
= V
B
+ V
CB
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
B
.
b. From the tip of V
B
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
CB
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
B
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
C
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
CB
from the tip of V
B
to the intersection of the V
C
construction
line and drawing V
C
from the tail of V
B
to the intersection of the V
CB
construction line.
V
1.400
1 in/sec 0
Y
X
V
B
CB
V
C
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
1 in sec
1

in

V
C
1.400 in k
v
V
C
1.400
in
sec

VC
0.0 deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-70b-1
PROBLEM 6-70b
Statement: Find the velocity of the slider in Figure 3-33 for u
2
= 110 deg with respect to the global X axis
assuming e
2
= 1 rad/sec CW. Use the method of instant centers.
2
to A) a 2.170 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 2.067 in :=
4
to B) c 2.310 in := Link 1 (O
2
to O
4
) d 1.000 in :=
Link 5 (B to C) e 5.400 :=
Coordinate angle o 102 deg := Crank angle: u
2
110 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CW
Solution: See Figure 3-33 and Mathcad file P0670b.
1. Draw the linkage to scale in the position given, find instant centers I
1,3
and I
1,5
, and the distances from the pin
joints to the instant centers. See Problem 6-68 for the determination of IC locations.
2
B
1,3
O
4
2
O
X
4
Y
A
3
C
5
6
1,5
From the layout above:
AI13 2.609 in := BI13 1.641 in := BI15 9.406 in := CI15 9.896 in :=
2. Use equation 6.7 and inspection of the layout to determine the magnitude and direction of the velocity at point
A.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-70b-2
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
2.170
in
sec
=
u
VA
u
2
90 deg := u
VA
20.0 deg =
3. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.9a.
e
3
V
A
AI13
:= e
3
0.832
sec
= CW
4. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B using equation 6.9b. The direction of V
B
is down and to the
right
V
B
BI13 e
3
:= V
B
1.365
in
sec
=
5. Use equation 6.9c to determine the angular velocity of link 5.
e
5
V
B
BI15
:= e
5
0.145
sec
= CCW
6. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point C using equation 6.9b.
V
C
CI15 e
5
:= V
C
1.436
in
sec
= to the right
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-70c-1
PROBLEM 6-70c
Statement: Find the velocity of the slider in Figure 3-33 for u
2
= 110 deg with respect to the global X axis
assuming e
2
= 1 rad/sec CW. Use an analytical method.
2
to A) a 2.170 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 2.067 in :=
4
to B) c 2.310 in := Link 1 (O
2
to O
4
) d 1.000 in :=
Link 5 (B to C) e 5.400 in :=
Coordinate angle o 102 deg := Crank angle: u
2XY
110 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CW
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-33 and Mathcad file P0670c.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
B
102
O
4
x
2
O
2
X
y
4
C
5
6
A
Y
3
2. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
Transform crank angle to the local xy coordinate system:
u
2
u
2XY
o :=
u
2
212.000 deg =
K
1
d
a
:= K
1
0.4608 = K
2
d
c
:= K
2
0.4329 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
0.6755 =
A cos u
2
( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2
( ) K
3
+ :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-70c-2
B 2 sin u
2
( ) :=
C K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
A 0.2662 = B 1.0598 = C 2.3515 =
3. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
4xy
2 atan2 2 A B B
2
4 A C ,
( ) ( )
2 t := u
4xy
159.635 deg =
4. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
0.4838 =
K
5
0.5178 =
D cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := D 2.2370 =
E 2 sin u
2 ( ) := E 1.0598 =
F K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := F 0.3808 =
5. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
u
3xy
2 atan2 2 D E E
2
4 D F ,
( ) ( )
2 t := u
3xy
70.950deg =
6. Determine the angular velocity of link 4 for the open circuit using equations 6.18.
e
4
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
3xy
( )
sin u
4xy
u
3xy
( )
:= e
4
0.591
sec
=
7. Transformu
4
back to the global XY system.
u
4
u
4xy
o + := u
4
57.635 deg =
5. Determine u
5
and d, with respect to O
4
, using equation 4.17.
Offset: cc 0 in :=
u
5
asin
c sin u
4 ( ) cc
e

\
|
|
.
t + := u
5
158.818 deg =
dd c cos u
4 ( ) e cos u
5 ( ) := dd 6.272in =
6. Determine the angular velocity of link 5 using equation 6.22a:
e
5
c
e
cos u
4 ( )
cos u
5 ( )
e
4
:= e
5
0.145
sec
=
7. Determine the velocity of pin C using equation 6.22b:
V
C
c e
4
sin u
4 ( ) e e
5
sin u
5 ( ) + :=
V
C
1.436
in
sec
= V
C
1.436
in
sec
= arg V
C ( )
0.000deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-71-1
PROBLEM 6-71
Statement: Write a computer program or use an equation solver such as Mathcad, Matlab, or TKSolver to
calculate and plot the angular velocity of link 4 and the linear velocity of slider 6 in the sixbar
slider-crank linkage of Figure 3-33 as a function of the angle of input link 2 for a constant e
2
= 1
c
both as a function of u
2
and separately as a function of slider position as
shown in the figure. What is the percent deviation from constant velocity over 240 deg < u
2
< 270
deg and over 190 < u
2
< 315 deg?
Input crank (L
2
) a 2.170 := Fourbar coupler (L
3
) b 2.067 :=
Output crank (L
4
) c 2.310 := Sllider coupler (L
5
) e 5.40 :=
1
) d 1.000 :=
Two argument inverse tangent: atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Crank velocity: e
2
1
sec
:=
Solution: See Figure 3-33 and Mathcad file P0671.
1. This sixbar drag-link mechanism can be analyzed as a fourbar Grashof double crank in series with a slider-crank
mechanism using the output of the fourbar, link 4, as the input to the slider-crank.
2. Define one revolution of the input crank: u
2
0 deg 1 deg , 360 deg .. :=
3. Use equations 4.8a and 4.10 to calculate u
4
as a function of u
2
(for the open circuit) in the global XY coordinate
system.
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:=
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:=
K
1
0.4608 = K
2
0.4329 = K
3
0.6755 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) := C u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
u
41
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( )
2
4 A u
2 ( ) C u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
102 deg :=
4. If the calculated value of u
4
is greater than 2t, subtract 2t from it and if it is negative, make it positive.
u
42
u
2 ( ) if u
41
u
2 ( ) 2 t > u
41
u
2 ( ) 2 t , u
41
u
2 ( ) , ( ) :=
u
4
u
2 ( ) if u
42
u
2 ( ) 0 < u
42
u
2 ( ) 2 t + , u
42
u
2 ( ) , ( ) :=
5. Determine the slider-crank motion using equations 4.16 and 4.17 with u
4
as the input angle.
u
5
u
2 ( ) asin
c sin u
4
u
2 ( ) ( )
e
|

\
|
|
.
t + :=
f u
2 ( ) c cos u
4
u
2 ( ) ( ) e cos u
5
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-71-2
5. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
0.4838 =
K
5
0.5178 =
D u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
E u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
F u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
6. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
u
3
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( )
2
4 D u
2 ( ) F u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
7. Determine the angular velocity of link 4 for the open circuit using equations 6.18.
e
4
u
2 ( )
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
3
u
2 ( ) ( )
sin u
4
u
2 ( ) 102 deg + u
3
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
2
1.75
1.5
1.25
1
0.75
0.5
e
4
u
2
( )
u
2
deg
8. Determine the angular velocity of link 5 using equation 6.22a:
e
5
u
2 ( )
c
e
cos u
4
u
2 ( ) ( )
cos u
5
u
2 ( ) ( )
e
4
u
2 ( ) :=
9. Determine the velocity of pin C using equation 6.22b:
V
C
u
2 ( ) c e
4
u
2 ( ) sin u
4
u
2 ( ) ( ) e e
5
u
2 ( ) sin u
5
u
2 ( ) ( ) + :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-71-3
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
V
C
u
2
( )
u
2
deg
3 4 5 6 7 8
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
V
C
u
2
( )
f u
2
( )
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-72-1
PROBLEM 6-72
Statement: Figure 3-34 shows a Stephenson's sixbar mechanism. Find all of its instant centers in the position
shown:
Given: Number of links n 6
Solution: See Figure 3-34 and Mathcad file P0672.
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 15
a. In part (a) of the figure. ___________________________________________________________________
1. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection (7).
5,6
4,5
5
3
O
2
2
2,3
1,2
5
3,5
4
O
4
O
6
1,4
6
1,6
5,6
4,5
4,6
5
4
3
5
3
6
1,2; 2,5; 2,4; 2,6
1
2
O2
2
2,3
3,5; 1,3; 3,4; 3,6
5
4
O
4
1,4
1,5 6
1,6
O6
2. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 8 ICs:
I
1,3;
I
1,5;
I
2,4;
I
2,5;
I
2,6;
I
3,4;
I
3,6; and
I
4,6
I
1,5
: I
1,6
-I
5,6
and I
1,4
-I
4,5
I
2,5
: I
1,2
-I
1,5
and I
2,3
-I
3,5
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,5
-I
3,5
I
3,4
: I
1,4
-I
1,3
and I
4,5
-I
3,5
I
2,8
: I
2,3
-I
3,4
and I
2,5
-I
4,5
I
2,6
: I
1,2
-I
1,6
and I
2,5
-I
5,6
I
3,6
: I
1,3
-I
1,6
and I
3,5
-I
5,6
I
4,6
: I
1,4
-I
1,6
and I
4,5
-I
5,6
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-72-2
b. In part (b) of the figure. ___________________________________________________________________
1. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection (7).
4,5
3
2,3
2
O
2
1,2
3,5
4
5
4
O
O6
1,4
6
5
1,6
5,6
2. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 8 ICs: I
1,3;
I
1,5;
I
2,4;
I
2,5;
I
2,6;
I
3,4;
I
3,6; and
I
4,6
4,5
2,5; 2,4; 2,8
5
4
3
To 1,3
6
3
2,3
2
O
2
1,2
3,6
2
1
3,5; 3,4
4
5
4
O
O6
1,4; 1,5
2,6
6
5
1,6
5,6; 4,6
I
1,5
: I
1,6
-I
5,6
and I
1,4
-I
4,5
I
2,5
: I
1,2
-I
1,5
and I
2,3
-I
3,5
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,5
-I
3,5
I
3,4
: I
1,4
-I
1,3
and I
4,5
-I
3,5
I
2,4
: I
2,3
-I
3,4
and I
2,5
-I
4,5
I
2,6
: I
1,2
-I
1,6
and I
2,5
-I
5,6
I
3,6
: I
1,3
-I
1,6
and I
3,5
-I
5,6
I
4,6
: I
1,4
-I
1,6
and I
4,5
-I
5,6
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-72-3
c. In part (c) of the figure. ___________________________________________________________________
1. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection (7).
3,5
2,3
1,2
3
O
2
2
6
4
O4
O6
1,4
1,6
4,5
5
5
5,6
2. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 8 ICs: I
1,3;
I
1,5;
I
2,4;
I
2,5;
I
2,6;
I
3,4;
I
3,6; and
I
4,6
I
1,5
: I
1,6
-I
5,6
and I
1,4
-I
4,5
I
2,4
: I
2,3
-I
3,4
and I
2,5
-I
4,5
I
2,5
: I
1,2
-I
1,5
and I
2,3
-I
3,5
I
2,6
: I
1,2
-I
1,6
and I
2,5
-I
5,6
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,5
-I
3,5
I
3,6
: I
1,3
-I
1,6
and I
3,5
-I
5,6
I
3,4
: I
1,4
-I
1,3
and I
4,5
-I
3,5
I
4,6
: I
1,4
-I
1,6
and I
4,5
-I
5,6
1,5
1,2; 2,5; 2,4: 2,6
4
3,5; 1,3; 3,4; 3,6
5 3
6
1
2
2,3
3
O
2
2
6
4
O4
O
6
1,4
1,6
4,6
4,5
5
5
5,6
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-73a-1
PROBLEM 6-73a
Statement: Find the angular velocity of link 6 in Figure 3-34b for u
6
= 90 deg with respect to the global X axis
assuming e
2
= 10 rad/sec CW. Use a graphical method.
2
to A) g 1.556 in := Link 3 (A to B) f 4.248 in :=
4
to C) c 2.125 in := Link 5 (C to D) b 2.158 in :=
6
to D) a 1.542 in := Link 5 (B to D) p 3.274 in :=
X
3.259 in := Link 1Y-offset d
Y
2.905 in :=
Angle CDB o
5
36.0 deg :=
Output rocker angle: u
6
90 deg := Global XY system
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CW
Solution: See Figure 3-34b and Mathcad file P0673a.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
Direction of VC
Direction of VA
Direction of VAB
Direction of VCD
Direction of VD
Direction of VBD
3 4
B
5
2
A
O
2
C
5
O4
D
O
6
6
X
Y
2. Since this linkage is a Stephenson's II sixbar, we will have to start at link 6 and work back to link 2. We will
assume a value for e
6
and eventually find a value for e
2
. We will then multiply the magnitudes of all velocities
by the ratio of the actual e
2
to the found e
2
. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the velocity at point
D.
Assume: e
6
1
:= CW
V
D
a e
6
:= V
D
1.542
in
sec
= u
VD
0 deg :=
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point C, the magnitude of the
relative velocity V
CD
, and the angular velocity of link 5. The equation to be solved graphically is
V
C
= V
D
+ V
CD
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
D
.
b. From the tip of V
D
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
CD
, magnitude unknown.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-73a-2
c. From the tail of V
D
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
C
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
CD
from the tip of V
D
to the intersection of the V
C
construction
line and drawing V
C
from the tail of V
D
to the intersection of the V
CD
construction line.
1.289
0
1.309
127.003
V V
C
V
D
CD
54.195
1 in/sec
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
1 in sec
1

in
:=
V
C
1.289 in k
v
:= V
C
1.289
in
sec
= u
VC
54.195 deg :=
V
CD
1.309 in k
v
:= V
CD
1.309
in
sec
= u
VCD
127.003 deg :=
5. Determine the angular velocity of links 5 and 4 using equation 6.7.
e
5
V
CD

b
:= e
5
0.607
sec
=
e
4
V
C

c
:= e
4
0.607
sec
=
6. Determine the magnitude and sense of the vector V
BD
using equation 6.7.
V
BD
p e
5
:= V
BD
1.986
in
sec
=
u
VBD
u
VCD
o
5
+ := u
VBD
163.003deg =
7. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B. The equation to be solved
graphically is
V
B
= V
D
+ V
BD
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
D
.
b. From the tip of V
D
, layout the (now) known vector V
BD
.
c. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
B
from the tail of V
D
to the tip of the V
BD
vector.
0.682
V
D
121.607
V
B
V
BD
0 1 in/sec
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-73a-3
8. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
1 in sec
1

in
:=
V
B
0.682 in k
v
:= V
B
0.682
in
sec
= u
VB
121.607 deg :=
9. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point A, the magnitude of the relative
velocity V
AB
, and the angular velocity of link 2. The equation to be solved graphically is
V
A
= V
B
+ V
AB
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
B
.
b. From the tip of V
B
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
AB
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
B
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
A
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
AB
from the tip of V
B
to the intersection of the V
A
construction
line and drawing V
A
from the tail of V
B
to the intersection of the V
AB
construction line.
0.645
AB
V
0
VB
131.690
V
A
1 in/sec
10. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
1 in sec
1

in
:=
V
A
0.645 in k
v
:= V
A
0.645
in
sec
= u
VA
131.690 deg :=
11. Determine the angular velocity of link 2 with respect to the assumed value of e
6
using equation 6.7.
e
26
V
A
g
:= e
26
0.415
sec
= CW
12. Calculate the actual value of the angular velocity of link 6.
e
6
e
2
e
26
sec
:= e
6
24.124
sec
=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-73b-1
PROBLEM 6-73b
Statement: Find the angular velocity of link 6 in Figure 3-34b for u
6
= 90 deg with respect to the global X axis
assuming e
2
= 10 rad/sec CW. Use the method of instant centers.
2
to A) g 1.556 in := Link 3 (A to B) f 4.248 in :=
4
to C) c 2.125 in := Link 5 (C to D) b 2.158 in :=
6
to D) a 1.542 in := Link 5 (B to D) p 3.274 in :=
X
3.259 in := Link 1Y-offset d
Y
2.905 in :=
Angle CDB o
5
36.0 deg :=
Output rocker angle: u
6
90 deg := Global XY system
Input crank angular velocity e
21
1
:= CW
Solution: See Figure 3-34b and Mathcad file P0673b.
1. Draw the linkage to scale in the position given, find instant centers I
1,3
and I
1,5
, and the distances from the pin
joints to the instant centers. See Problem 6-72b for determination of IC locations.
To 1,3
3
2 O2
A
O
O
1,5
B
4
5
4
6
D
6
5
C
From the layout above:
AI13 22.334 in := BI13 23.650 in := BI15 1.124 in := DI15 2.542 in :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-73b-2
2. Start from point D with an assumed value for e
6
and work to find e
2
. Then, use the ratio of the actual vale of e
2
to the found value to calculate the actual value of e
6
. Use equation 6.7 and inspection of the layout to determine
the magnitude and direction of the velocity at point D.
e
6
1
sec
:=
V
D
a e
6
:= V
D
1.542
in
sec
=
u
VD
u
6
90 deg := u
VD
0.0 deg =
3. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.9a.
e
5
V
D
DI15
:= e
5
0.607
sec
= CW
4. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B using equation 6.9b.
V
B
BI15 e
5
:= V
B
0.682
in
sec
=
5. Use equation 6.9c to determine the angular velocity of link 3.
e
3
V
B
BI13
:= e
3
0.029
sec
= CCW
6. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point A using equation 6.9b.
V
A
AI13 e
3
:= V
A
0.644
in
sec
= to the left
7. Use equation 6.9c to determine the angular velocity of link 2 based on the assumed value of e
6
.
e
22
V
A
g
:= e
22
0.414
sec
= CW
8. Multiply the assumed vaue of e
6
by the ratio of e
21
over e
22
to get the value of e
6
for e
2
e
6
e
21
e
22
sec
:= e
6
24.166
sec
= CW
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-73c-1
PROBLEM 6-73c
Statement: Find the angular velocity of link 6 in Figure 3-34b for u
6
= 90 deg with respect to the global X axis
assuming e
2
= 10 rad/sec CW. Use an analytic method.
2
to A) g 1.556 in := Link 3 (A to B) f 4.248 in :=
4
to C) c 2.125 in := Link 5 (C to D) b 2.158 in :=
6
to D) a 1.542 in := Link 5 (B to D) p 3.274 in :=
X
3.259 in := Link 1Y-offset d
Y
2.905 in :=
Angle CDB o
5
36.0 deg := Link 1 (O
4
to O
6
) d 1.000 in :=
Output rocker angle: u
6XY
90 deg := Global XY system
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CW
Coordinate rotationm angle o 90 deg :=
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure 3-34b and Mathcad file P0673c.
1. Transform the crank angle to the local coordinate system. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
u
6
u
6XY
o := u
6
180.000 deg =
C
3
A
2
O
2
Y
y
x
B
4
5
4
O
O
6
6
5
D
X
2. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:= K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:=
K
1
0.6485 = K
2
0.4706 = K
3
0.4938 =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-73c-2
A cos u
6 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
6 ( ) K
3
+ := A 0.6841 =
B 2 sin u
6 ( ) := B 0.0000 =
C K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
6 ( ) K
3
+ := C 2.6129 =
3. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the crossed circuit.
u
4
2 atan2 2 A B B
2
4 A C + ,
( ) ( )
:= u
4
234.195 deg =
4. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
0.4634 =
K
5
0.5288 =
D cos u
6 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
6 ( ) + K
5
+ := D 2.6407 =
E 2 sin u
6 ( ) := E 0.0000 =
F K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
6 ( ) + K
5
+ := F 0.6563 =
5. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
5
for the crossed circuit.
u
51
2 atan2 2 D E E
2
4 D F + ,
( ) ( )
:= u
51
307.003 deg =
6. Determine the angular velocity of links 4 and 5 for the open circuit using equations 6.18. Initially assume e
6
= 1
rad/sec. then by trial and error, change it to make e
2
e
6
1
:=
e
5
a e
6

b
sin u
4
u
6
( )
sin u
51
u
4
( )
:= e
5
0.607
sec
=
e
4
a e
6

c
sin u
6
u
51
( )
sin u
4
u
51
( )
:= e
4
0.607
sec
=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-74-1
PROBLEM 6-74
Statement: Write a computer program or use an equation solver such as Mathcad, Matlab, or TKSolver to
calculate and plot the angular velocity of link 6 in the sixbar linkage of Figure 3-34 as a function of

2
for a constant
2
2
to A) g 1.556 in Link 3 (A to B) f 4.248 in
4
to C) c 2.125 in Link 5 (C to D) b 2.158 in
6
to D) a 1.542 in Link 5 (B to D) p 3.274 in
X
Y
2.905 in
Angle CDB
5
4
to O
6
) d 1.000 in
Output rocker angle:
6XY
90 deg Global XY system
Input crank angular velocity

1
CW
Coordinate rotationm angle 90 deg
Solution: See Figure P6-34 and Mathcad file P0674.
1. This problem is long and may be more appropriate for a project assignment. The solution involves defining
vector loops and solving the resulting equations using a method such as Newton-Raphson.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-75-1
PROBLEM 6-75
Statement: Figure 3-35 shows a Stephenson's sixbar mechanism. Find all of its instant centers in the position
shown:
Given: Number of links n 6
Solution: See Figure 3-35 and Mathcad file P0675.
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 15
a. In part (a) of the figure. ___________________________________________________________________
1. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection (7).
1,2
O
2
2,3
2
1,6
3
O
4
3,4
O
6
5
1,4
4,5
4
6
5,6
2. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 8 ICs: I
1,3
; I
1,5
; I
2,4
; I
2,5
; I
2,6
; I
3,5
; I
3,6
; and I
4,6
2,3
1,2; 2,5; 2,4; 2,6
O
2
3
2
1,6
4,6
1,3; 3,5; 3,6
1,5
5
O
4
3,4
6
O
6
4
3
2
1
6
5
4
1,4
4,5
5,6
I
1,5
: I
1,6
-I
5,6
and I
1,4
-I
4,5
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
3,5
: I
1,5
-I
1,3
and I
3,4
-I
4,5
I
2,5
: I
1,2
-I
1,5
and I
2,3
-I
3,5
I
2,4
: I
2,3
-I
3,4
and I
2,5
-I
4,5
I
2,6
: I
1,2
-I
1,6
and I
2,5
-I
5,6
I
3,6
: I
1,3
-I
1,6
and I
3,5
-I
5,6
I
4,6
: I
1,4
-I
1,6
and I
4,5
-I
5,6
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-75-2
b. In part (b) of the figure. ___________________________________________________________________
1. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection (7).
2
O
2,3
2
3
1,2
1,6
5,6
1,4
O
4
3,4
4
5
6
4,5
2. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 8 ICs: I
1,3;
I
1,5;
I
2,4;
I
2,5;
I
2,6;
I
3,5;
I
3,6; and
I
4,6
I
1,5
: I
1,6
-I
5,6
and I
1,4
-I
4,5
I
2,4
: I
2,3
-I
3,4
and I
2,5
-I
4,5
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,6
: I
1,2
-I
1,6
and I
2,5
-I
5,6
I
3,5
: I
1,5
-I
1,3
and I
3,4
-I
4,5
I
3,6
: I
1,3
-I
1,6
and I
3,5
-I
5,6
I
2,5
: I
1,2
-I
1,5
and I
2,3
-I
3,5
I
4,6
: I
1,4
-I
1,6
and I
4,5
-I
5,6
5
6
3
4
2
1
2
O
1,2; 2,5; 2,4; 2,6
2,3
2
3
1,2
3,4; 1,3; 3,5; 3,6
4,6
1,5
5,6
1,4
O
4
4
5 1,6
6
4,5
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-76a-1
PROBLEM 6-76a
Statement: Use a compass and straightedge to draw the linkage in Figure 3-35 with link 2 at 90 deg and find the
angular velocity of link 6 assuming e
2
= 10 rad/sec CCW. Use a graphical method.
2
to A) a 1.000 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 3.800 in :=
4
to B) c 1.286 in := Link 1 (O
2
to O
4
) d 3.857 in :=
4
to D) e 1.429 in := Link 5 (D to E) f 1.286 :=
6
to E) g 0.771 in := Crank angle: u
2
90 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CCW
Solution: See Figure 3-35 and Mathcad file P0676a.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
Direction of VBA
Direction of VB
Direction of VA
33.359
O
2
A
2
3
Y
X
122.085
100.938
Direction of VED
Direction of VE
B
O
4
4
O
6
6
35.228
E
Direction of VD
D
5
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the velocity at point A.
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
10.000
in
sec
=
u
VA
u
2
90 deg + := u
VA
180.000 deg =
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B, the magnitude of the relative
velocity V
BA
, and the angular velocity of link 3. The equation to be solved graphically is
V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
BA
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
B
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
BA
from the tip of V
A
to the intersection of the V
B
construction
line and drawing V
B
from the tail of V
A
to the intersection of the V
BA
construction line.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-76a-2
1.063
V
BA
5 in/sec 0
V
A
1.671
X
Y
V
B
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
5 in sec
1

in
:=
V
B
1.671 in k
v
:= V
B
8.355
in
sec
= u
VB
147.915 deg :=
V
BA
1.063 in k
v
:= V
BA
5.315
in
sec
= u
VBA
56.641 deg :=
e4
V
B
c
:= e4 6.497
sec
= CW
5. Calculate the magnitude and direction of V
D
.
V
D
e e4 := V
D
9.284
in
sec
= u
VD
55.085 deg :=
6. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point E, the magnitude of the relative
velocity V
ED
, and the angular velocity of link 3. The equation to be solved graphically is
V
E
= V
D
+ V
ED
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
D
.
b. From the tip of V
D
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
ED
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
D
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
E
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
ED
from the tip of V
D
to the intersection of the V
E
construction
line and drawing V
E
from the tail of V
D
to the intersection of the V
ED
construction line.
V
2.450
X
V
DE
E
V
D
5 in/sec
Y
0
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
5 in sec
1

in
:=
V
E
2.450 in k
v
:= V
E
12.250
in
sec
=
e6
V
E
g
:=
e6 15.888
sec
= CW
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-76b-1
PROBLEM 6-76b
Statement: Use a compass and straightedge to draw the linkage in Figure 3-35 with link 2 at 90 deg and find the
angular velocity of link 6 assuming e
2
= 10 rad/sec CCW. Use the method of instant centers.
2
to A) a 1.000 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 3.800 in :=
4
to B) c 1.286 in := Link 1 (O
2
to O
4
) d 3.857 in :=
4
to D) e 1.429 in := Link 5 (D to E) f 1.286 :=
6
to E) g 0.771 in := Crank angle: u
2
90 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CCW
Solution: See Figure 3-35 and Mathcad file P0676a.
1. Draw the linkage to scale in the position given, find instant centers I
1,3
and I
1,5
, and the distances from the pin
joints to the instant centers. See Problem 6-68 for the determination of IC locations.
1,3
O
2
A
2
3
B
O
4
4
O
6
6
E
D
1,5
5
From the layout above:
AI13 7.152 in := BI13 5.975 in := BI15 1.740 in := DI15 0.947 in := EI15 1.249 in :=
2. Use equation 6.7 and inspection of the layout to determine the magnitude and direction of the velocity at point
A.
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
10.000
in
sec
=
u
VA
u
2
90 deg + := u
VA
180.0 deg =
3. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.9a.
e
3
V
A
AI13
:= e
3
1.398
sec
= CCW
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-76b-2
4. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B using equation 6.9b.
V
B
BI13 e
3
:= V
B
8.354
in
sec
=
5. Use equation 6.9c to determine the angular velocity of link 4.
e
4
V
B
c
:= e
4
6.496
sec
= CW
6. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point D using equation 6.9b.
V
D
e e
4
:= V
D
9.283
in
sec
=
7. Use equation 6.9c to determine the angular velocity of link 5.
e
5
V
D
DI15
:= e
5
9.803
sec
= CW
8. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point E using equation 6.9b.
V
E
EI15 e
5
:= V
E
12.244
in
sec
=
9. Use equation 6.9c to determine the angular velocity of link 6.
e
6
V
E
g
:= e
6
15.88
sec
= CW
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-76c-1
PROBLEM 6-76c
Statement: Use a compass and straightedge to draw the linkage in Figure 3-35 with link 2 at 90 deg and find the
angular velocity of link 6 assuming e
2
= 10 rad/sec CCW. Use an analytical method.
2
to A) a 1.000 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 3.800 in :=
4
to B) c 1.286 in := Link 1 (O
2
to O
4
) d 3.857 in :=
4
to D) e 1.429 in := Link 5 (D to E) f 1.286 in :=
6
to E) g 0.771 in := Link 1 (O
4
to O
6
) h 0.786 in :=
Crank angle: u
2
90 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CCW
Solution: See Figure 3-35 and Mathcad file P0676c.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
33.359
O
2
A
2
3
Y
X
122.085
100.938
B
O
4
4
O
6
6
35.228
E
D
5
2. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:= K
1
3.8570 = K
2
2.9992 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
1.2015 =
A cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
B 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
A 2.6555 = B 2.0000 = C 5.0585 =
3. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the crossed circuit.
u
41
2 atan2 2 A B B
2
4 A C + ,
( ) ( )
:= u
41
237.915 deg =
4. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.0150 = K
5
3.7714 =
D cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := D 7.6284 =
( )
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-76c-2
E 2 sin u
2 ( ) := E 2.0000 =
F K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := F 0.0856 =
5. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the crossed circuit.
u
3
2 atan2 2 D E E
2
4 D F + ,
( ) ( )
:= u
3
326.641 deg =
6. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the crossed circuit using equations 6.18.
e
3
a e
2

b
sin u
41
u
2
( )
sin u
3
u
41
( )
:= e
3
1.398
sec
=
e
4
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
3
( )
sin u
41
u
3
( )
:= e
4
6.496
sec
=
7. Link 4 will be the input to the second fourbar (links 4, 5, 6, and 1). Let the angle that link 4 makes in the second
fourbar be
u
42
u
41
157 deg + 360 deg := u
42
34.915deg =
8. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
6
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
h
e
:= K
2
h
g
:= K
1
0.5500 = K
2
1.0195 =
K
3
e
2
f
2
g
2
+ h
2
+
2 e g
:= K
3
0.7263 =
A cos u
42 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
42 ( ) K
3
+ :=
B 2 sin u
42 ( ) :=
C K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
42 ( ) K
3
+ :=
A 0.1603 = B 1.1447 = C 0.3796 =
9. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
6
for the open circuit.
u
6
2 atan2 2 A B B
2
4 A C ,
( ) ( )
:= u
6
35.228 deg =
10. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
5
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
h
f
:= K
5
g
2
h
2
e
2
f
2

2 e f
:= K
4
0.6112 = K
5
1.0119 =
D cos u
42 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
42 ( ) + K
5
+ := D 0.2408 =
E 2 sin u
42 ( ) := E 1.1447 =
F K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
42 ( ) + K
5
+ := F 0.7807 =
11. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
5
for the open circuit.
u
5
2 atan2 2 D E E
2
4 D F ,
( ) ( )
:= u
5
280.938 deg =
12. Determine the angular velocity of link6 for the open circuit using equations 6.18.
e
6
e e
4

g
|

\
|
|
.
sin u
42
u
5
( )
sin u
6
u
5
( )
:= e
6
15.885
sec
=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-77-1
PROBLEM 6-77
Statement: Write a computer program or use an equation solver such as Mathcad, Matlab, or TKSolver to
calculate and plot the angular velocity of link 6 in the sixbar linkage of Figure 3-35 as a function of
u
2
for a constant e
2
2
to A) a 1.000 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 3.800 in :=
4
to B) c 1.286 in := Link 1 (O
2
to O
4
) d 3.857 in :=
4
to D) e 1.429 in := Link 5 (D to E) f 1.286 in :=
6
to E) g 0.771 in := Link 1 (O
4
to O
6
) h 0.786 in :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CCW
Solution: See Figure 3-35 and Mathcad file P0677.
1. Define the range of the input angle: u
2
0 deg 1 deg , 360 deg .. :=
2. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:= K
1
3.8570 = K
2
2.9992 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
1.2015 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ := B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
3. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the crossed circuit.
u
4
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( )
2
4 A u
2 ( ) C u
2 ( ) + ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
4. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.0150 = K
5
3.7714 =
D u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := E u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
F u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
5. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the crossed circuit.
u
3
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( )
2
4 D u
2 ( ) F u
2 ( ) + ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
6. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the crossed circuit using equations 6.18.
e
3
u
2 ( )
a e
2

b
sin u
4
u
2 ( ) u
2
( )
sin u
3
u
2 ( ) u
4
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
e
4
u
2 ( )
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
3
u
2 ( ) ( )
sin u
4
u
2 ( ) u
3
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
7. Link 4 will be the input to the second fourbar (links 4, 5, 6, and 1). Let the angle that link 4 makes in the second
fourbar be
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-77-2
u
42
u
2 ( ) u
4
u
2 ( ) 157 deg + 360 deg :=
8. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
6
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
h
e
:= K
2
h
g
:= K
1
0.5500 = K
2
1.0195 =
K
3
e
2
f
2
g
2
+ h
2
+
2 e g
:= K
3
0.7263 =
A' u
2 ( ) cos u
42
u
2 ( ) ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
42
u
2 ( ) ( ) K
3
+ := B' u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
42
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
C' u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
42
u
2 ( ) ( ) K
3
+ :=
9. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
6
for the open circuit.
u
6
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 A' u
2 ( ) B' u
2 ( ) B' u
2 ( )
2
4 A' u
2 ( ) C' u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
10. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
5
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
h
f
:= K
5
g
2
h
2
e
2
f
2

2 e f
:= K
4
0.6112 = K
5
1.0119 =
D' u
2 ( ) cos u
42
u
2 ( ) ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
42
u
2 ( ) ( ) + K
5
+ := E' u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
42
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
F' u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
42
u
2 ( ) ( ) + K
5
+ :=
11. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
5
for the open circuit.
u
5
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 D' u
2 ( ) E' u
2 ( ) E' u
2 ( )
2
4 D' u
2 ( ) F' u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
12. Determine the angular velocity of link6 for the open circuit using equations 6.18.
e
6
u
2 ( )
e e
4
u
2 ( )
g
|

\
|
|
.
sin u
42
u
2 ( ) u
5
u
2 ( ) ( )
sin u
6
u
2 ( ) u
5
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
2
1
0
1
2
3
e
6
u
2 ( )
u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-78-1
PROBLEM 6-78
Statement: Figure 3-36 shows an eightbar mechanism. Find all of its instant centers in the position shown in
part (a) of the figure:
Given: Number of links n 8
Solution: See Figure 3-36a and Mathcad file P0678.
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 28
1. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection (11).
7,8
5,7
1,4; 1,8; 4,8
O
2
O
6
O
4
1,2
3
4
6
8
2
2,3
3,4
4,5
1,6
5
7
5,6
2. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 17 ICs.
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
7,8
5,7
2,6; 2,8; 6,8; 2,7 at infinity
4,7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
4,5; 3,5
1,4; 1,8; 4,8; 5,8; 1,5
O
6
O
4
3
4
6
8
2
2,3
1,6
O
2
1,2; 2,4
2,5
1,7
3,4; 1,3
5
7
5,6; 4,6
6,7
3,6; 3,7; 3,8
I
4,6
: I
1,4
-I
1,6
and I
4,5
-I
5,6
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
I
2,8
: I
2,4
-I
4,8
and I
1,2
-I
1,8
I
2,6
: I
1,2
-I
1,6
and I
2,4
-I
4,6
I
6,8
: I
2,8
-I
2,6
and I
1,8
-I
1,6
I
6,7
: I
5,6
-I
5,7
and I
6,8
-I
7,8
I
2,5
: I
2,6
-I
5,6
and I
2,3
-I
4,5
I
2,7
: I
2,8
-I
7,8
and I
2,6
-I
6,7
I
3,5
: I
3,4
-I
4,5
and I
2,3
-I
2,5
I
3,6
: I
2,3
-I
2,6
and I
3,5
-I
5,6
I
3,7
: I
3,6
-I
6,7
and I
2,3
-I
2,7
I
5,8
: I
5,6
-I
6,8
and I
4,5
-I
4,8
I
3,8
: I
3,7
-I
7,8
and I
2,3
-I
2,8
I
1,5
: I
1,6
-I
5,6
and I
1,4
-I
4,5
I
4,7
: I
4,6
-I
6,7
and I
3,4
-I
3,7
I
1,7
: I
1,8
-I
7,8
and I
1,6
-I
6,7
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-79-1
PROBLEM 6-79
Statement: Write a computer program or use an equation solver such as Mathcad, Matlab, or TKSolver to
calculate and plot the angular velocity of link 8 in the linkage of Figure 3-36 as a function of u
2
for a
constant e
2
Input crank (L
2
) a 0.450 := First coupler (L
3
) b 0.990 :=
Common rocker (O
4
B) c 0.590 := First ground link (O
2
O
4
) d 1.000 :=
Common rocker (O
4
C) a' 0.590 := Second coupler (CD) b' 0.325 :=
Output rocker (L
6
) c' 0.325 := Second ground link (O
4
O
6
) d' 0.419 :=
7
) e 0.938 := Link 8 (L
8
) f 0.572 :=
Link 5 extension (DE) p 0.823 := Angle DCE o 7.0 deg :=
Angle BO
4
C o 128.6 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CCW
Solution: See Figure 3-36 and Mathcad file P0679.
1. See problem 4-43 for the position solution. The velocity solution will use the same vector loop equations for
links 5, 6, 7, and 8, differentiated with respect to time. This problem is suitable for a project assignment and is
probably too long for an overnight assignment.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-80-1
PROBLEM 6-80
Statement: Write a computer program or use an equation solver such as Mathcad, Matlab, or TKSolver to
calculate and plot the magnitude and direction of the velocity of point P in Figure 3-37a as a
function of u
2
for a constant e
2
= 1 rad/sec CCW. Also calculate and plot the velocity of point P
versus point A.
2
to A) a 0.136 := Link 3 (A to B) b 1.000 :=
4
) c 1.000 := Link 1 (O
2
to O
4
) d 1.414 :=
Coupler point: R
pa
2.000 := o
3
0 deg :=
Crank speed: e
2
1
:=
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure 3-37a and Mathcad file P0680.
1. Determine the range of motion for this Grashof crank rocker.
u
2
0 deg 2 deg , 360 deg .. :=
2. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:=
K
1
10.3971 = K
2
1.4140 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
7.4187 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
3. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
41
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( )
2
4 A u
2 ( ) C u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
4. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.4140 = K
5
7.4187 =
D u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
E u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
F u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
5. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-80-2
u
31
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( )
2
4 D u
2 ( ) F u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
6. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the open circuit using equations 6.18.
e
31
u
2 ( )
a e
2

b
sin u
41
u
2 ( ) u
2
( )
sin u
31
u
2 ( ) u
41
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
e
41
u
2 ( )
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
31
u
2 ( ) ( )
sin u
41
u
2 ( ) u
31
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
7. Determine the velocity of point A using equations 6.19.
V
A
u
2 ( ) a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) := V
A
u
2 ( ) V
A
u
2 ( ) :=
8. Determine the velocity of the coupler point P using equations 6.36.
V
PA
u
2 ( ) R
pa
e
31
u
2 ( ) sin u
31
u
2 ( ) o
3
+ ( ) j cos u
31
u
2 ( ) o
3
+ ( ) + ( ) :=
V
P
u
2 ( ) V
A
u
2 ( ) V
PA
u
2 ( ) + :=
9. Plot the magnitude and direction of the velocity at coupler point P.
Magnitude: V
P
u
2 ( ) V
P
u
2 ( ) :=
Direction: u
VP1
u
2 ( ) arg V
P
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
u
VP
u
2 ( ) if u
VP1
u
2 ( ) 0 < u
VP1
u
2 ( ) 2 t + , u
VP1
u
2 ( ) , ( ) :=
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
MAGNITUDE
Crank Angle, deg
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
m
m
/
s
e
c
V
P
u
2 ( )
V
A
u
2 ( )
u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-80-3
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
0
100
200
300
DIRECTION
Crank Angle, deg
V
e
c
t
o
r
A
n
g
l
e
,
d
e
g
u
VP
u
2
( )
deg
u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-81-1
PROBLEM 6-81
Statement: Calculate the percent error of the deviation from constant velocity magnitude of point P in Figure
3-37a.
2
to A) a 0.136 := Link 3 (A to B) b 1.000 :=
4
) c 1.000 := Link 1 (O
2
to O
4
) d 1.414 :=
Coupler point: R
pa
2.000 := o
3
0 deg :=
Crank speed: e
2
1
:=
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure 3-37a and Mathcad file P0681.
1. Determine the range of motion for this Grashof crank rocker.
u
2
0 deg 2 deg , 360 deg .. :=
2. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:=
K
1
10.3971 = K
2
1.4140 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
7.4187 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
3. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
41
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( )
2
4 A u
2 ( ) C u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
4. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.4140 = K
5
7.4187 =
D u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
E u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
F u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
5. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-81-2
u
31
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( )
2
4 D u
2 ( ) F u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
6. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the open circuit using equations 6.18.
e
31
u
2 ( )
a e
2

b
sin u
41
u
2 ( ) u
2
( )
sin u
31
u
2 ( ) u
41
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
e
41
u
2 ( )
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
31
u
2 ( ) ( )
sin u
41
u
2 ( ) u
31
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
7. Determine the velocity of point A using equations 6.19.
V
A
u
2 ( ) a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) := V
A
u
2 ( ) V
A
u
2 ( ) :=
8. Determine the velocity of the coupler point P using equations 6.36.
V
PA
u
2 ( ) R
pa
e
31
u
2 ( ) sin u
31
u
2 ( ) o
3
+ ( ) j cos u
31
u
2 ( ) o
3
+ ( ) + ( ) :=
V
P
u
2 ( ) V
A
u
2 ( ) V
PA
u
2 ( ) + :=
9. Calculate the magnitude of the velocity at coupler point P.
Magnitude: V
P
u
2 ( ) V
P
u
2 ( ) :=
Deviation from constant speed: err u
2 ( )
V
P
u
2 ( ) V
A
u
2 ( )
V
A
u
2 ( )
:=
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
20
10
0
10
20
30
DEVIATION FROM CONSTANT SPEED
Crank Angle, deg
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
E
r
r
o
r
err u
2
( )
%
u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-82-1
PROBLEM 6-82
Statement: Write a computer program or use an equation solver such as Mathcad, Matlab, or TKSolver to
calculate and plot the magnitude and the direction of the velocity of point P in Figure 3-37b as a
function of u
2
. Also calculate and plot the velocity of point P versus point A.
Input crank (L
2
) a 0.50 := First coupler (AB) b 1.00 :=
Rocker 4 (O
4
B) c 1.00 := Rocker 5 (L
5
) c' 1.00 :=
2
O
4
) d 0.75 := Second coupler 6 (CD) b' 1.00 :=
Coupler point (DP) p 1.00 := Distance to O
P
(O
2
O
P
) d' 1.50 :=
Two argument inverse tangent: atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Crank speed: e
2
1
sec
:=
Solution: See Figure 3-37b and Mathcad file P0682.
1. Links 4, 5, BC, and CD form a parallelogram whose opposite sides remain parallel throughout the motion of the
fourbar 1, 2, AB, 4. Define a position vector whose tail is at point D and whose tip is at point P and another
whose tail is at O
4
and whose tip is at point D. Then, since R
5
= R
AB
and R
DP
= -R
4
, the position vector fromO
2
toP is P = R
1
+ R
AB
- R
4
. Separating this vector equation into real and imaginary parts gives the equations for
the X and Ycoordinates of the coupler point P.
X
P
d b cos u
3 ( ) + c cos u
4 ( ) = Y
P
b sin u
3 ( ) c sin u
4 ( ) =
2. Define one revolution of the input crank: u
2
0 deg 0.5 deg , 360 deg .. :=
3. Use equations 4.8a and 4.10 to calculate u
4
as a function of u
2
(for the crossed circuit).
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:= K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:=
K
1
1.5000 = K
2
0.7500 = K
3
0.8125 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) := C u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
u
4
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( )
2
4 A u
2 ( ) C u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
2 t :=
4. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
0.7500 = K
5
0.8125 =
D u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := E u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
F u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
5. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the crossed circuit.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-82-2
u
3
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( )
2
4 D u
2 ( ) F u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
2 t :=
6. Define a local xy coordinate system with origin at O
P
and with the positive x axis to the right. The coordinates of
P are transformed to x
P
= X
P
- d', y
P
= Y
P
.
x
P
u
2 ( ) d b cos u
3
u
2 ( ) ( ) + c cos u
4
u
2 ( ) ( ) d' :=
y
P
u
2 ( ) b sin u
3
u
2 ( ) ( ) c sin u
4
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
7. Use equations 6.18 to calculate e
3
and e
4
.
e
3
u
2 ( )
a e
2

b
sin u
4
u
2 ( ) u
2
( )
sin u
3
u
2 ( ) u
4
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
e
4
u
2 ( )
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
3
u
2 ( ) ( )
sin u
4
u
2 ( ) u
3
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
8. Differentiate the position equations with respect to time to get the velocity components.
V
Px
u
2 ( ) b e
3
u
2 ( ) sin u
3
u
2 ( ) ( ) c e
4
u
2 ( ) sin u
4
u
2 ( ) ( ) + :=
V
Py
u
2 ( ) b e
3
u
2 ( ) cos u
3
u
2 ( ) ( ) c e
4
u
2 ( ) cos u
4
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
V
P
u
2 ( ) V
Px
u
2 ( )
2
V
Py
u
2 ( )
2
+ :=
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
MAGNITUDE
Crank Angle, deg
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
,
m
m
/
s
e
c
V
Px
u
2 ( )
V
Py
u
2 ( )
u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-83-1
PROBLEM 6-83
Statement: Find all instant centers of the linkage in Figure P6-30 in the position shown.
Given: Number of links n 4
Solution: See Figure P6-30 and Mathcad file P0683.
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 6
1. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection (4).
1,2
O
P
P
2
1
4
Y
4
1,4
3,4
O2
2
2,3
X
3
1,3
1,2
O
P
P
2
1
4
Y
4
1,4
3,4
O2
2,4
2
2,3
X
3
2. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 2 ICs.
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-84a-1
PROBLEM 6-84a
Statement: Find the angular velocities of links 3 and 4 and the linear velocity of points A, B and P
1
in the XY
coordinate system for the linkage in Figure P6-30 in the position shown. Assume that u
2
= 45 deg
in the XY coordinate system and e
2
= 10 rad/sec. The coordinates of the point P
1
(114.68, 33.19) with respect to the xy coordinate system. Use a graphical method.
2
to A) a 14.00 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 80.00 in :=
4
to B) c 51.26 in :=
X
47.5 in := Link 1Y-offset d
Y
76.00 in 12.00 in :=
Coupler point x-offset p
x
114.68 in := Coupler point y-offset p
y
33.19 in :=
Crank angle: u
2
45 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CCW
Solution: See Figure P6-30 and Mathcad file P0684a.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
B
Direction of VB
y
O
P
P
2
1
x
4
29.063
Y
4
45.000
Direction of VA
99.055
O2
2
A
X
Direction of VBA
3
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the velocity at point A.
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
140.000
in
sec
= u
VA
45 deg 90 deg + :=
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B, the magnitude of the relative
velocity V
BA
, and the angular velocity of link 3. The equation to be solved graphically is
V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
BA
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
B
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
BA
from the tip of V
A
to the intersection of the V
B
construction
line and drawing V
B
from the tail of V
A
to the intersection of the V
BA
construction line.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-84a-2
119.063
135.000
0.409"
1.206"
9.055
V
A
V
BA
0 100 in/sec
V
B
X
Y
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
100 in sec
1

in
:=
V
B
1.206 in k
v
:= V
B
120.600
in
sec
= u
VB
119.063 deg :=
V
BA
0.409 in k
v
:= V
BA
40.900
in
sec
=
5. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 using equation 6.7.
e
3
V
BA

b
:= e
3
0.511
sec
=
e
4
V
B
c
:= e
4
2.353
sec
=
6. Transform the xy coordinates of point P1 into the XY system using equations 4.0b.
Coordinate transformation angle o atan2 d
X
d
Y
, ( ) := o 126.582deg =
P
X
p
x
cos o ( ) p
y
sin o ( ) := P
X
94.998 in =
P
Y
p
x
sin o ( ) p
y
cos o ( ) + := P
Y
72.308 in =
7. Calculate the distance fromO
4
to P
1
and use equation 6.7 to calculate the velocity at P
1
.
Distance fromO
4
to P
1
: e P
X
d
X
+ ( )
2
P
Y
d
Y
( )
2
+ := e 48.219in =
V
P1
e e
4
:= V
P1
113.446
in
sec
=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-84b-1
PROBLEM 6-84b
Statement: Find the angular velocities of links 3 and 4 and the linear velocity of points A, B and P
1
in the XY
coordinate system for the linkage in Figure P6-30 in the position shown. Assume that u
2
= 45 deg
in the XY coordinate system and e
2
= 10 rad/sec. The coordinates of the point P
1
(114.68, 33.19) with respect to the xy coordinate system. Use the method of instant centers.
2
to A) a 14.00 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 80.00 in :=
4
to B) c 51.26 in :=
X
47.5 in := Link 1Y-offset d
Y
76.00 in 12.00 in :=
Coupler point x-offset p
x
114.68 in := Coupler point y-offset p
y
33.19 in :=
Crank angle: u
2
45 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CCW
Solution: See Figure P6-30 and Mathcad file P0684b.
1. Draw the linkage to scale in the position given, find
instant center I
1,3
and the distance from the pin joints
to the instant center.
1,3
O
P
P
2
1
4
Y
4
B
O2
2
A
X
3
From the layout above:
AI13 273.768 in := BI13 235.874 in :=
2. Use equation 6.7 and inspection of the layout to determine the magnitude and direction of the velocity at point
A.
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
140.000
in
sec
=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-84b-2
u
VA
u
2
90 deg + := u
VA
135.0 deg =
3. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.9a.
e
3
V
A
AI13
:= e
3
0.511
sec
= CW
4. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B using equation 6.9b.
V
B
BI13 e
3
:= V
B
120.622
in
sec
=
5. Use equation 6.9c to determine the angular velocity of link 4.
e
4
V
B
c
:= e
4
2.353
sec
= CCW
6. Transform the xy coordinates of point P1 into the XY system using equations 4.0b.
Coordinate transformation angle o atan2 d
X
d
Y
, ( ) := o 126.582deg =
P
X
p
x
cos o ( ) p
y
sin o ( ) := P
X
94.998 in =
P
Y
p
x
sin o ( ) p
y
cos o ( ) + := P
Y
72.308 in =
7. Calculate the distance fromO
4
to P
1
and use equation 6.7 to calculate the velocity at P
1
.
Distance fromO
4
to P
1
: e P
X
d
X
+ ( )
2
P
Y
d
Y
( )
2
+ := e 48.219in =
V
P1
e e
4
:= V
P1
113.467
in
sec
=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-84c-1
PROBLEM 6-84c
Statement: Find the angular velocities of links 3 and 4 and the linear velocity of points A, B and P
1
in the XY
coordinate system for the linkage in Figure P6-30 in the position shown. Assume that u
2
= 45 deg
in the XY coordinate system and e
2
= 10 rad/sec. The coordinates of the point P
1
(114.68, 33.19) with respect to the xy coordinate system. Use an analytical method.
2
to A) a 14.00 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 80.00 in :=
4
to B) c 51.26 in :=
X
47.5 in := Link 1Y-offset d
Y
76.00 in 12.00 in :=
Coupler point x-offset p
x
114.68 in := Coupler point y-offset p
y
33.19 in :=
Crank angle: u
2XY
45 deg := XY coord system
Coordinate transformation angle: o 126.582 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CCW
Solution: See Figure P6-30 and Mathcad file P0684c.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
B
81.582
126.582
y
O
97.519
P
P
2
1
x
4
4
Y
27.528
45.000
O2
2
A
X
3
Transform the crank angle from global to local coordinate system:
u
2
u
2XY
o := u
2
81.582 deg =
Distance O
2
O
4
: d d
X
2
d
Y
2
+ := d 79.701in =
2. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:= K
1
5.6929 = K
2
1.5548 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
1.9340 =
A cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ := B 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
A 3.8401 = B 1.9785 = C 7.2529 =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-84c-2
3. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the crossed circuit.
u
4
2 atan2 2 A B B
2
4 A C + ,
( ) ( )
:= u
4
262.482 deg =
4. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
0.9963 = K
5
4.6074 =
D cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := D 10.0081 =
E 2 sin u
2 ( ) := E 1.9785 =
F K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := F 1.0849 =
5. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the crossed circuit.
u
3
2 atan2 2 D E E
2
4 D F + ,
( ) ( )
:= u
3
332.475 deg =
6. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 for the crossed circuit using equations 6.18.
e
3
a e
2

b
sin u
4
u
2
( )
sin u
3
u
4
( )
:= e
3
0.511
sec
=
e
4
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
3
( )
sin u
4
u
3
( )
:= e
4
2.353
sec
=
7. Determine the velocity of points A and B for the crossed circuit using equations 6.19.
V
A
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
A
138.492 20.495j + ( )
in
sec
= V
A
140.000
in
sec
=
u
VAXY
arg V
A ( )
o + := u
VAXY
135.000 deg =
V
B
c e
4
sin u
4 ( ) j cos u
4 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
B
119.588 15.781j ( )
in
sec
= V
B
120.624
in
sec
=
u
VBXY
arg V
B ( )
o + := u
VBXY
119.064 deg =
8. Calculate the distance fromO
4
to P
1
and the angle BO
4
P
1
.
Distance fromO
4
to P
1
: e p
x
d ( )
2
p
y
2
+ := e 48.219in =
o
4
180 deg atan
p
y
p
x
d
|

\
|
|
.
:= o
4
136.503 deg =
9. Determine the velocity of point P
1
using equations 6.35.
V
P1
e e
4
sin u
4
o + ( ) j cos u
4
o + ( ) + ( ) :=
V
P1
55.122 99.181j + ( )
in
sec
= V
P1
113.469
in
sec
=
u
VPXY
arg V
P1 ( )
o + := u
VPXY
245.646 deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-85-1
PROBLEM 6-85
Statement: Write a computer program or use an equation solver such as Mathcad, Matlab, or TKSolver to
calculate and plot the absolute velocity of point P
1
in Figure P6-30 as a function of u
2
for e
2
= 10
rad/sec. The coordinates of the point P
1
on link 4 are (114.68, 33.19) with respect to the xy
coordinate system.
2
to A) a 14.00 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 80.00 in :=
4
to B) c 51.26 in :=
X
47.5 in := Link 1Y-offset d
Y
76.00 in 12.00 in :=
Coupler point x-offset p
x
114.68 in := Coupler point y-offset p
y
33.19 in :=
Crank angle: u
2XY
0 deg 1 deg , 360 deg .. := XY coord system
Coordinate transformation angle: o 126.582 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CCW
Solution: See Figure P6-30 and Mathcad file P0685.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
B
81.582
126.582
y
O
97.519
P
P
2
1
x
4
4
Y
27.528
45.000
O2
2
A
X
3
Transform the crank angle from global to local coordinate system:
u
2
u
2XY ( ) u
2XY
o :=
Distance O
2
O
4
: d d
X
2
d
Y
2
+ := d 79.701in =
2. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:= K
1
5.6929 = K
2
1.5548 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
1.9340 =
A u
2XY ( ) cos u
2
u
2XY ( ) ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2
u
2XY ( ) ( ) K
3
+ :=
B u
2XY ( ) 2 sin u
2
u
2XY ( ) ( ) :=
C u
2XY ( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2
u
2XY ( ) ( ) K
3
+ :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-85-2
3. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the crossed circuit.
u
4
u
2XY ( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2XY ( ) B u
2XY ( ) B u
2XY ( )
2
4 A u
2XY ( ) C u
2XY ( ) + ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
4. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
0.9963 = K
5
4.6074 =
D u
2XY ( ) cos u
2
u
2XY ( ) ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2
u
2XY ( ) ( ) + K
5
+ :=
E u
2XY ( ) 2 sin u
2
u
2XY ( ) ( ) :=
F u
2XY ( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2
u
2XY ( ) ( ) + K
5
+ :=
5. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the crossed circuit.
u
3
u
2XY ( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2XY ( ) E u
2XY ( ) E u
2XY ( )
2
4 D u
2XY ( ) F u
2XY ( ) + ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
6. Determine the angular velocity of link 4 for the crossed circuit using equations 6.18.
e
4
u
2XY ( )
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
2XY ( ) u
3
u
2XY ( ) ( )
sin u
4
u
2XY ( ) u
3
u
2XY ( ) ( )
:=
7. Calculate the distance fromO
4
to P
1
and the angle BO
4
P
1
.
Distance fromO
4
to P
1
: e p
x
d ( )
2
p
y
2
+ := e 48.219in =
o
4
180 deg atan
p
y
p
x
d
|

\
|
|
.
:= o
4
136.503deg =
8. Determine and plot the velocity of point P
1
using equations 6.35.
V
P1
u
2XY ( ) e e
4
u
2XY ( ) sin u
4
u
2XY ( ) o
4
+ ( ) j cos u
4
u
2XY ( ) o
4
+ ( ) + ( ) :=
V
P1
u
2XY ( ) V
P1
u
2XY ( ) := u
VPXY
u
2XY ( ) arg V
P1
u
2XY ( ) ( )
o + :=
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
0
50
100
150
200
P1 VELOCITY MAGNITUDE
Crank Angle - Global XY System
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
-
i
n
/
s
e
c
V
P1
u
2XY ( )
sec
in

u
2XY
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-85-3
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
P1 VELOCITY DIRECTION
Crank Angle - Global XY System
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
a
n
g
l
e
-
G
l
o
b
a
l
X
Y
S
y
s
t
e
m
u
VPXY
u
2XY
( )
deg
u
2XY
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-86-1
PROBLEM 6-86
Statement: Find all instant centers of the linkage in Figure P6-31 in the position shown.
Given: Number of links n 4
Solution: See Figure P6-31 and Mathcad file P0686.
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 6
1. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection (4).
4
X
2,3
Y
2
1
O
y
O
2
1,2
1,4
x
3
4
P
3,4
2. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 2 ICs.
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
4
X
1,3
2,4
2,3
Y
2
1
O
y
O
2
1,2
1,4
x
3
4
P
3,4
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-87a-1
PROBLEM 6-87a
Statement: Find the angular velocities of links 3 and 4 and the linear velocity of point P in the XY coordinate
system for the linkage in Figure P6-31 in the position shown. Assume that u
2
= -94.121 deg in the
XY coordinate system and e
2
= 1 rad/sec. The position of the coupler point P on link 3 with
respect to point A is: p = 15.00, o
3
= 0 deg. Use a graphical method.
2
to A) a 9.17 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 12.97 in :=
4
to B) c 9.57 in :=
X
2.79 in := Link 1Y-offset d
Y
6.95 in :=
Coupler point data: p 15.00 in := o
3
0 deg :=
Crank angle: u
2
94.121 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CW
Solution: See Figure P6-31 and Mathcad file P0687a.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
P
60. 472
x
Direction VBA
Direction VB
Direction VPA
y
26.000
Direction VA
A
2
1
O
2
Y
68.121
72. 224
3
4
4
O
B
X
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the velocity at point A.
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
9.170
in
sec
=
u
VA
u
2
90 deg := u
VA
184.121 deg =
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B, the magnitude of the relative
velocity V
BA
, and the angular velocity of link 3. The equation to be solved graphically is
V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
BA
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
B
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
BA
from the tip of V
A
to the intersection of the V
B
construction
line and drawing V
B
from the tail of V
A
to the intersection of the V
BA
construction line.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-87a-2
1.783"
Y
1.798"
V
V BA
B
25 in/sec 0
V
A
X
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
25 in sec
1

in
:=
V
B
1.783 in k
v
:= V
B
44.575
in
sec
= u
VB
262.352 deg :=
V
BA
1.798 in k
v
:= V
BA
44.950
in
sec
= u
VBA
274.103 deg :=
5. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 using equation 6.7.
e
3
V
BA

b
:= e
3
3.466
sec
=
e
4
V
B

c
:= e
4
4.658
sec
=
6. Determine the magnitude and sense of the vector V
PA
using equation 6.7.
V
PA
p e
3
:= V
PA
51.985
in
sec
=
u
VPA
u
VBA
:= u
VPA
274.103 deg =
7. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point P. The equation to be solved
graphically is
V
P
= V
A
+ V
PA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, layout the (now) known vector V
PA
.
c. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
P
from the tail of V
A
to the tip of the V
PA
vector.
P
96.051
2.059"
Y
V
PA
V
25 in/sec 0
V
A
X
8. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
25 in sec
1

in
:=
V
P
2.059 in k
v
:= V
P
51.475
in
sec
=
u
P
96.051 deg :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-87b-1
PROBLEM 6-87b
Statement: Find the angular velocities of links 3 and 4 and the linear velocity of point P in the XY coordinate
system for the linkage in Figure P6-31 in the position shown. Assume that u
2
= -94.121 deg in the
XY coordinate system and e
2
= 1 rad/sec. The position of the coupler point P on link 3 with
respect to point A is: p = 15.00, o
3
= 0 deg. Use the method of instant centers.
2
to A) a 9.174 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 12.971 in :=
4
to B) c 9.573 in :=
X
2.790 in := Link 1Y-offset d
Y
6.948 in :=
Coupler point data: p 15.00 in := o
3
0 deg :=
Crank angle: u
2
94.121 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CW
Solution: See Figure P6-31 and Mathcad file P0687b.
1. Draw the linkage to scale in the position given, find instant center I
1,3
and the distance from the pin joints to the
instant center.
P
y
1,3
A
2
1
O
2
Y
x
3
4
4
O
B
X
From the layout above:
AI13 2.647 in := BI13 12.862 in := PI13 14.825 in :=
2. Use equation 6.7 and inspection of the layout to determine the magnitude and direction of the velocity at point
A.
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
9.174
in
sec
=
u
VA
u
2
90 deg := u
VA
184.121 deg =
3. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.9a.
e
3
V
A
AI13
:= e
3
3.466
sec
= CW
4. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B using equation 6.9b.
V
B
BI13 e
3
:= V
B
44.577
in
sec
=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-87b-2
5. Use equation 6.9c to determine the angular velocity of link 4.
e
4
V
B
c
:= e
4
4.657
sec
= CW
6. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point P using equation 6.9b.
V
P
PI13 e
3
:= V
P
51.381
in
sec
=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-87c-1
PROBLEM 6-87c
Statement: Find the angular velocities of links 3 and 4 and the linear velocity of point P in the XY coordinate
system for the linkage in Figure P6-31 in the position shown. Assume that u
2
= -94.121 deg in the
XY coordinate system and e
2
= 1 rad/sec. The position of the coupler point P on link 3 with
respect to point A is: p = 15.00, o
3
= 0 deg. Use an analytical method.
2
to A) a 9.174 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 12.971 in :=
4
to B) c 9.573 in :=
X
2.790 in := Link 1Y-offset d
Y
6.948 in :=
Coupler point data: p 15.00 in := o
3
0 deg :=
Crank angle: u
2XY
94.121 deg := Global XY coord system
Coordinate transformation angle: o 68.121 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CW
Solution: See Figure P6-31 and Mathcad file P0687c.
P
60.472
x
y
26.000
A
2
1
O
2
Y
68.121
72.224
3
4
4
O
B
X
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
Transform crank angle into local xy coordinate system:
u
2
u
2XY
o := u
2
26.000 deg =
Calculate distance O
2
O
4
: d d
X
2
d
Y
2
+ := d 7.487in =
2. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:= K
1
0.8161 = K
2
0.7821 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
0.3622 =
A cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ := B 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
A 0.2581 = B 0.8767 = C 0.4234 =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-87c-2
3. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the crossed circuit.
u
4
2 atan2 2 A B B
2
4 A C + ,
( ) ( )
2 t + := u
4
60.488 deg =
4. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
0.5772 = K
5
0.9111 =
D cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := D 0.3096 =
E 2 sin u
2 ( ) := E 0.8767 =
F K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := F 0.4749 =
5. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the crossed circuit.
u
3
2 atan2 2 D E E
2
4 D F + ,
( ) ( )
2 t + := u
3
72.236 deg =
6. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 using equations 6.18.
e
3
a e
2

b
sin u
4
u
2
( )
sin u
3
u
4
( )
:= e
3
3.467
sec
=
e
4
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
3
( )
sin u
4
u
3
( )
:= e
4
4.658
sec
=
7. Determine the velocity of points A and B using equations 6.19.
V
A
a e
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
A
4.022 8.246i ( )
in
sec
= V
A
9.174
in
sec
=
u
VAXY
arg V
A ( )
o + := u
VAXY
184.121 deg =
V
B
c e
4
sin u
4 ( ) j cos u
4 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
B
38.807 21.967i ( )
in
sec
= V
B
44.593
in
sec
=
u
VBXY
arg V
B ( )
o + := u
VBXY
97.633 deg =
8. Determine the velocity of the coupler point P for the crossed circuit using equations 6.36.
V
PA
p e
3
sin u
3
o
3
+ ( ) j cos u
3
o
3
+ ( ) + ( ) :=
V
PA
4.127 1.322i ( )
ft
s
=
V
P
V
A
V
PA
+ := V
P
3.792 2.009i ( )
ft
s
= V
P
51.501
in
sec
=
u
VPXY
arg V
P ( )
o + := u
VPXY
96.039 deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-88-1
PROBLEM 6-88
Statement: Figure P6-32 shows a fourbar double slider known as an elliptical trammel. F ind all its instant
centers in the position shown.
Given: Number of links n 4
Solution: See Figure P6-32 and Mathcad file P0688.
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 6
1. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection (4).
1
3,4
2
To 1,2 at infinity
2,3
Y
3
4
X
To 1,4 at infinity
2. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 2 ICs.
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
1
3,4
2
To 2,4 at infinity
To 1,2 at infinity
2,3
Y
1,3
3
4
X
To 1,4 at infinity
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-89-1
PROBLEM 6-89
Statement: The elliptical trammel in Figure P6-32 must be driven by rotating link 3 in a full circle. Points on line
AB describe ellipses. Find and draw (mannually or with a computer) the fixed and moving
centrodes of instant center I
13
. (Hint: These are called the Cardan circles.)
Solution: See Figure P6-32 and Mathcad file P0689.
1. The instant center I
13
is shown as the point P in the diagram below. The length of link 3, c, is constant and it is a
diagonal of the rectangle OBPA. Therefore, the other diagonal, OP, has a constant length, c, regardless of the
current lengths a and b. Thus, the point P (I
13
) travels on a circle of radius c. This circle is the fixed centrode.
2
a
A
1
c
4
3
B
P
O
b
2. Now, invert the mechanism by holding link 3 fixed and allowing the slots to move, which can only be in a circle
about O. The locus of points P will then be a circle of radius 0.5c with center at O'. This is the moving centrode.
2
a
A
1
c
4
3
B
P
O
O'
b
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-90-1
PROBLEM 6-90
Statement: Derive analytical expressions for the velocities of points A and B in Figure P6-32 as a function of
u3, e3 and the length AB of link 3. Use a vector loop equation.
Solution: See Figure P6-32 and Mathcad file P0690.
1. Establish the global XY system such that the coordinates of the intersection of the slot centerlines is at (d
X
,d
Y
).
Then, define position vectors R
1X
, R
1Y
, R
2
, R
3
, and R
4
as shown below.
1
u
2 R
4
R
1X
R
1Y
A
Y
R
2
R
3
B
3
C
4
X
3
2. Write the vector loop equation: R
1Y
+ R
2
+ R
3
- R
1X
- R
4
= 0 then substitute the complex number notation for
each position vector. The equation then becomes:
d
Y
e
j
t
2
|

\
|
|
.
a e
j 0 ( )
+ c e
j u
3 ( )
+ d
X
e
j 0 ( )
b e
j
t
2
|

\
|
|
.
0 =
3. Differentiate this equation with respect to time.
t
a
d
d
j c e
3
e
j u
3 ( )
+
t
b e
j
t
2
|

\
|
|
.

\
|
|
.
d
d
0 =
4. Substituting the Euler identity into this equation gives:
V
a
jc e
3
cos u
3 ( ) j sin u
3 ( ) + ( ) + V
b
j 0 =
5. Separate this equation into its real (x component) and imaginary (y component) parts, setting each equal to zero.
V
a
c e
3
sin u
3 ( ) 0 = c e
3
cos u
3 ( ) V
b
0 =
6. Solve for the two unknowns V
a
and V
b
in terms of the independent variables u
3
and e
3
V
a
c e
3
sin u
3 ( ) = V
b
c e
3
cos u
3 ( ) =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-91-1
PROBLEM 6-91
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-33a has link 2 at 120 deg in the global XY coordinate system. Find e
6
and
V
D
in the global XY coordinate system for the position shown if e
2
= 10 rad/sec CCW. Use the
velocity difference graphical method.
2
to A) a 6.20 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 4.50 in :=
4
to B) c 3.00 in := Link 5 (C to D) e 5.60 in :=
Link 3 (A to C) p 2.25 in := Link 4 (O
4
to D) f 3.382 in :=
X
7.80 in := Link 1Y-offset d
Y
0.62 in :=
Angle ACB o
3
0.0 deg := Angle BO
4
D o
4
110.0 deg :=
Input rocker angle: u
2
120 deg := Global XY system
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CW
Solution: See Figure P6-33a and Mathcad file P0691.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
Direction of VBA
113. 057
11. 709
110
Direction of VDC
Direction of VB
4
4
O
B
87. 972
Axis of slip
Axis of transmission
D
Direction of VA
Direction of VCA
5
C
3
A
120
X
O
2
2
Y
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the velocity at point A.
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
62.000
in
sec
= u
VA
120 deg 90 deg + :=
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B, the magnitude of the relative
velocity V
BA
, and the angular velocity of link 5. The equation to be solved graphically is
V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
BA
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
B
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
BA
from the tip of V
A
to the intersection of the V
B
construction
line and drawing V
B
from the tail of V
A
to the intersection of the V
BA
construction line.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-91-2
V
BA
B
V
1.433
1.206
78.291
A
V
0 50 in/sec
Y
X
4. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
50 in sec
1

in
:=
V
B
1.206 in k
v
:= V
B
60.300
in
sec
= u
VB
78.291 deg :=
V
BA
1.433 in k
v
:= V
BA
71.650
in
sec
= u
VBA
23.057 deg :=
5. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 using equation 6.7.
e
3
V
BA
b
:= e
3
15.922
sec
= CCW
e
4
V
B

c
:= e
4
20.100
sec
= CW
6. Determine the magnitude and sense of the vector V
CA
using equation 6.7.
V
CA
p e
3
:= V
CA
35.825
in
sec
=
u
VCA
u
VBA
o
3
+ := u
VCA
23.057 deg =
7. Determine the magnitude and sense of the vector V
trans
using equation 6.7.
V
trans
f e
4
:= V
trans
67.978
in
sec
=
u
trans
u
VB
o
4
+ := u
trans
31.709 deg =
8. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point C. The equation to be solved
graphically is
V
C
= V
A
+ V
CA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, layout the (now) known vector V
CA
.
c. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
C
from the tail of V
A
to the tip of the V
CA
vector.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-91-3
V
CA
C
V
0.991
114.720
A
V
0 50 in/sec
Y
X
9. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
50 in sec
1

in
:=
V
C
0.991 in k
v
:= V
C
49.550
in
sec
= u
VC
114.720 deg :=
9. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point D, the magnitude of the
relative velocity V
DC
. The equations to be solved (simultaneously) graphically are
V
D
= V
C
+ V
DC
and V
D
= V
trans
+ V
slip
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
C
.
b. From the tip of V
C
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
DC
, magnitude unknown.
c. Repeat steps a and b with V
trans
and V
slip
.
c. From the tail of V
C
, draw a construction line to the intersection of the two construction lines.
d. Complete the vector polygon by drawing V
DC
from the tip of V
C
to the intersection of the V
D
construction
line and drawing V
D
from the tail of V
C
to the intersection of the V
DC
construction line.
95.189 3.045
C
V
0
DC
V V
slip
D
V
Y
50 in/sec
V
trans
X
10. From the velocity polygon we have:
Velocity scale factor:
k
v
50 in sec
1

in
:=
V
D
3.045 in k
v
:= V
D
152.250
in
sec
=
u
VD
95.189 deg :=
e
6
e
4
:= e
6
20.100
sec
=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-92-1
PROBLEM 6-92
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-33a has link 2 at 120 deg in the global XY coordinate system. Find e
6
and
V
D
in the global XY coordinate system for the position shown if e
2
= 10 rad/sec CCW. Use the
instant center graphical method.
2
to A) a 6.20 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 4.50 in :=
4
to B) c 3.00 in := Link 5 (C to D) e 5.60 in :=
Link 3 (A to C) p 2.25 in := Link 4 (O
4
to D) f 3.382 in :=
X
7.80 in := Link 1Y-offset d
Y
0.62 in :=
Angle ACB o
3
0.0 deg := Angle BO
4
D o
4
110.0 deg :=
Input rocker angle: u
2
120 deg := Global XY system
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CW
Solution: See Figure P6-33a and Mathcad file P0692.
1. Draw the linkage to scale in the position given, find instant centers I
1,3
and I
1,5
, and the distances from the pin
joints to the instant centers.
3,5
4
4
O
1,4
3,4
6
To 4,6 at infinity
D 5
5,6
B
C
3 1,5
2,3
X
O2
1,2
3,6
2
1,3
1,6
Y
A
From the layout above:
AI13 3.893 in := BI13 3.788 in := CI13 3.113 in := CI15 1.411 in := DI15 4.333 in := DI16 7.573 in :=
2. Use equation 6.7 and inspection of the layout to determine the magnitude and direction of the velocity at point
A.
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
62.000
in
sec
=
u
VA
u
2
90 deg + := u
VA
210.0 deg =
3. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.9a.
e
3
V
A
AI13
:= e
3
15.926
sec
= CCW
4. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B using equation 6.9b.
V
B
BI13 e
3
:= V
B
60.328
in
sec
=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-92-2
5. Use equation 6.9c to determine the angular velocity of links 4 and 6.
e
4
V
B
c
:= e
4
20.109
sec
= CW
w
6
e
4
:= w
6
20.109
sec
= CW
6. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point C using equation 6.9b.
V
C
CI13 e
3
:= V
C
49.578
in
sec
=
7. Determine the angular velocity of link 5 using equation 6.9a.
e
5
V
C
CI15
:= e
5
35.137
sec
= CW
8. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point D using equation 6.9b.
V
D
DI15 e
5
:= V
D
152.247
in
sec
= @ 95.185 deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-93-1
PROBLEM 6-93
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-33a has link 2 at 120 deg in the global XY coordinate system. Find e
6
and
V
D
in the global XY coordinate system for the position shown if e
2
= 10 rad/sec CCW. Use an
analytical method.
2
to A) a 6.20 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 4.50 in :=
4
to B) c 3.00 in := Link 5 (C to D) e 5.60 in :=
Link 3 (A to C) p 2.25 in := Link 4 (O
4
to D) f 3.382 in :=
X
7.80 in := Link 1Y-offset d
Y
0.62 in :=
Angle ACB o
3
0.0 deg := Angle BO
4
D o
4
110.0 deg :=
Input rocker angle: u
2XY
120 deg := Global XY system
Coordinate transformation angle: o 175.455 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CCW
Two argument inverse tangent atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-33a and Mathcad file P0691.
1. Draw the linkage to scale and label it.
120
175.455
O
2
y
4
110
O
x
D
4
5
6
55.455
B
16.254
C
3
2
A
71. 487 Y
X
Calculate the distance O
2
O
4
: d d
X
2
d
Y
2
+ := d 7.825in =
Transformu
2XY
into the local coordinate system: u
2
u
2XY
o := u
2
55.455 deg =
2. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:= K
1
1.2620 = K
2
2.6082 =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-93-2
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
2.3767 =
A cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ := B 2 sin u
2 ( ) :=
C K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
A 0.2028 = B 1.6474 = C 1.5927 =
3. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
41
2 atan2 2 A B B
2
4 A C ,
( ) ( )
:= u
41
163.746 deg =
4. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.7388 = K
5
1.9877 =
D cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := D 1.6967 =
E 2 sin u
2 ( ) := E 1.6474 =
F K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := F 0.3067 =
5. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
u
3
2 atan2 2 D E E
2
4 D F ,
( ) ( )
2 t := u
3
71.488 deg =
6. At this point write vector loop equations for links 3, 4, 5, and 6 to solve for the position and velocty of link 6.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-94-1
PROBLEM 6-94
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-33b has link 3 perpendicular to the X-axis and links 2 and 4 are parallel to
each other. Find e
3
, V
A
, V
B
, and V
P
if e
2
= 15 rad/sec CW. Use the velocity difference graphical
method.
2
to A) a 2.75 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 3.26 in :=
4
to B) c 2.75 in := Link 1 (O
4
to B) d 4.43 in :=
Coupler point data: p 1.63 in := o
3
0 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CW
Solution: See Figure P6-33b and Mathcad file P0694.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
36.351
A
Direction of VBA
Direction of VB
Direction of VA
O
2
B
O
4
u
2
36.352 deg :=
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the velocity at point A.
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
41.250
in
sec
=
u
VA
u
2
90 deg := u
VA
126.352 deg =
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B, the magnitude of the relative
velocity V
BA
, and the angular velocity of link 3. The equation to be solved graphically is
V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
BA
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
B
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
BA
from the tip of V
A
to the intersection of the V
B
construction
line and drawing V
B
from the tail of V
A
to the intersection of the V
BA
construction line.
4. Without actually drawing the vector polygon, we see that V
A
and V
B
have the same angle with respect to the X
axis. Therefore,
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-94-2
V
B
V
A
:= and V
BA
0
in
sec
:= u
VB
u
VA
:= u
VBA
0 deg :=
5. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 using equation 6.7.
e
3
V
BA

b
:= e
3
0.000
sec
=
e
4
V
B

c
:= e
4
15.000
sec
=
6. Determine the magnitude and sense of the vector V
PA
using equation 6.7.
V
PA
p e
3
:= V
PA
0.000
in
sec
=
u
VPA
u
VBA
:= u
VPA
0.000deg =
7. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point P. The equation to be solved
graphically is
V
P
= V
A
+ V
PA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, layout the (now) known vector V
PA
.
c. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
P
from the tail of V
A
to the tip of the V
PA
vector.
8. Again, without drawing the vector polygon we see that,
V
P
V
A
:=
At this instant, link 3 is in pure translation with every point on it having the same velocity.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-95-1
PROBLEM 6-95
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-33b has link 3 perpendicular to the X-axis and links 2 and 4 are parallel to
each other. Find e
3
, V
A
, V
B
, and V
P
if e
2
= 15 rad/sec CW. Use the instant center graphical
method.
2
to A) a 2.75 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 3.26 in :=
4
to B) c 2.75 in := Link 1 (O
4
to B) d 4.43 in :=
Coupler point data: p 1.63 in := o
3
0 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CW
Solution: See Figure P6-33b and Mathcad file P0695.
1. Draw the linkage to scale in the position given, find instant center I
1,3
and the distance from the pin joints to the
instant center.
36.351
2
A
2 3
Y
O
P
B
X
O
4
4
Since O
2
A and O
4
B are parallel, I
1,3
is at infinity and link 3 does not rotate for this instantaneous position of the
linkage. Thus, link 3 is in pure translation and all points on it will have the same velocity.
2. Use equation 6.7 and inspection of the layout to determine the magnitude and direction of the velocity at points
A, B, and P, which will be the same.
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
41.250
in
sec
=
u
2
36.351 deg :=
u
VA
u
2
90 deg := u
VA
126.351 deg =
The velocity vectors for points B and P are identical to V
A
.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-96-1
PROBLEM 6-96
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-33b has link 3 perpendicular to the X-axis and links 2 and 4 are parallel to
each other. Find e
3
, V
A
, V
B
, and V
P
if e
2
= 15 rad/sec CW. Use an analytical method.
2
to A) a 2.75 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 3.26 in :=
4
to B) c 2.75 in := Link 1 (O
4
to B) d 4.43 in :=
Coupler point data: p 1.63 in := o
3
0 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity w
2
1
:= CW
Solution: See Figure P6-33b and Mathcad file P0696.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale and label it.
36.351
A
2
O
P
O
4
B
u
2
36.351 deg :=
2. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
4
from equations 4.8a and 4.10a.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:= K
1
1.6109 = K
2
1.6109 =
K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:= K
3
1.5949 =
A cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ := A 0.5081 =
B 2 sin u
2 ( ) := B 1.1855 =
C K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ := C 1.1029 =
3. Use equation 4.10b to find values of u
4
for the open circuit.
u
4
2 atan2 2 A B B
2
4 A C ,
( ) ( )
2 t + := u
4
143.649 deg =
4. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:= K
4
1.3589 = K
5
1.6873 =
D cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := D 1.3983 =
E 2 sin u
2 ( ) := E 1.1855 =
F K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ := F 0.2127 =
5. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-96-2
u
3
2 atan2 2 D E E
2
4 D F ,
( ) ( )
2 t + := u
3
89.995 deg =
6. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 using equations 6.18.
e
3
a w
2

b
sin u
4
u
2
( )
sin u
3
u
4
( )
:= e
3
0.000
sec
=
e
4
a w
2

c
sin u
2
u
3
( )
sin u
4
u
3
( )
:= e
4
15.000
sec
=
7. Determine the velocity of points A and B using equations 6.19.
V
A
a w
2
sin u
2 ( ) j cos u
2 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
A
24.450 33.223i ( )
in
sec
= V
A
41.250
in
sec
=
u
VAXY
arg V
A ( )
:= u
VAXY
126.351 deg =
V
B
c e
4
sin u
4 ( ) j cos u
4 ( ) + ( ) :=
V
B
24.450 33.223i ( )
in
sec
= V
B
41.250
in
sec
=
u
VBXY
arg V
B ( )
:= u
VBXY
126.351 deg =
8. Determine the velocity of the coupler point P using equations 6.36.
V
PA
p e
3
sin u
3
o
3
+ ( ) j cos u
3
o
3
+ ( ) + ( ) :=
V
PA
1.936 10
4
1.676i 10
8
( )
in
sec
=
V
P
V
A
V
PA
+ := V
P
41.250
in
sec
=
u
VPXY
arg V
P ( )
:= u
VPXY
126.351 deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-97-1
PROBLEM 6-97
Statement: The crosshead linkage shown in Figure P6-33c has 2 DOF with inputs at crossheads 2 and 5. Find
instant centers I
1,3
and I
1,4
.
Given: Number of links n 5
Solution: See Figure P6-33c and Mathcad file P06976.
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 10
1. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection (4).
1
2
3
1,2 at infinity
2,3
2,5 at infinity
4,5
1,5 at infinity
3,4
4
5
2. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining ICs required to find I
1,3
and I
1,4
.
1
2
3
2,3; 2,4
1,2 at infinity
2,5 at infinity
4,5; 3,5
1,5 at infinity
3,4
4
5
1,3; 1,4
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
I
3,5
: I
2,3
-I
2,5
and I
4,5
-I
3,4
I
1,4
: I
1,2
-I
2,4
and I
1,5
-I
4,5
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-98-1
PROBLEM 6-98
Statement: The crosshead linkage shown in Figure P6-33c has 2 DOF with inputs at cross heads 2 and 5. Find
V
B
, V
P3
, and V
P4
if the crossheads are each moving toward the origin of the XY coordinate system
with a speed of 20 in/sec. Use a graphical method.
Link 3 (A to B) b 34.32 in Link 4 (B to C) c 50.4 in
Coupler point data: AP
3
31.5 in BP
3
22.2 in
BP
4
41.52 in CP
4
27.0 in
Input velocities: V
2Y
20 in sec
1
V
5X
20 in sec
1

Solution: See Figure P6-33c and Mathcad file P0698.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
2
3
Direction of VC
Direction of VA
A
Y
X
C
Direction of VP3A
Direction of VBC
Direction of VBA
Direction of VP4C
P
4
4
5
B
P
3
2. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B, the magnitude of the relative
velocities V
BA
, V
BC
and the angular velocities of links 3 and 4. The equations to be solved (simultaneously)
graphically are
V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
V
C
= V
B
+ V
CB
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vectors V
A
and V
C
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
BA
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tip of V
C
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
CB
, magnitude unknown.
d. From the origin, draw a construction line to the intersection of the two construction lines in steps b and c.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
BA
from the tip of V
A
to the intersection of the V
B
construction
line and drawing V
B
from the tail of V
A
to the intersection of the V
BA
construction line. And then do the same
with the V
CB
vector
(See next page)
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-98-2
6.004
5.932
4. 385
32.718
V
C
A
V
0 10 in/sec
Y
60.123
46. 990
X
BA
V
V
BC
V
B
3. From the velocity triangles we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
10 in sec
1

in

V
B
4.385 in k
v
V
B
43.850
in
sec

VB
46.990 deg
V
BA
6.004 in k
v
V
BA
60.040
in
sec

VBA
60.123 deg
V
BC
5.932 in k
v
V
BC
59.320
in
sec

VBC
32.718 deg
4. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4 using equation 6.7.

V
BA
b

1.749
sec
CCW

V
BC

1.177
sec
CW
6. Determine the magnitudes of the vectors V
P3A
and V
P4C
using equation 6.7.
V
P3A
AP
3

V
P3A
55.107
in
sec

## DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-98-3

V
P4C
CP
4

V
P4C
47.234
in
sec

7. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocities at points P
3
and P
4
. The equations to
be solved graphically are
V
P3
= V
A
+ V
P3A
V
P4
= V
C
+ V
P4C
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, layout the (now) known vector V
P3A
.
c. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
P3
from the tail of V
A
to the tip of the V
P3A
vector.
d. Repeat for V
P4
.
104.444
164.011
3.537
6.598
V
C
A
V
V
P4C
V
P4
0 10 in/sec
Y
V
P3A
V
P3
X
8. From the velocity triangles we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
10 in sec
1

in

V
P3
3.537 in k
v
V
P3
35.370
in
sec

P3
104.444 deg
V
P4
6.598 in k
v
V
P4
65.980
in
sec

P4
164.011 deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-99-1
PROBLEM 6-99
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-33d has the path of slider 6 perpendicular to the global X-axis and link 2
aligned with the global X-axis. Find V
A
in the position shown if the velocity of the slider is 20
in/sec downward. Use the velocity difference graphical method.
2
to A) a 12 in Link 3 (A to B) b 24 in
4
to B) c 18 in Link 5 (C to D) f 24 in
4
to C) e 18 in
X
Y
28 in
Angle BO
4
C
4
0.0 deg
Output crank angle:

## 0 deg Global XY system

Input slider velocity V
D
20 in sec
1

VD
90.0 deg
Solution: See Figure P6-33d and Mathcad file P0699.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
B
A
X
Y
4
2
6
D
O
2
C
Direction of VD
Direction of VCD
Direction of VC
Direction of VB
Direction of VA
Direction of VAB
114.410
19.963
O
4
116.161
5
3
2. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point C. The equation to be solved
graphically is
V
C
= V
D
+ V
CD
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
D
.
b. From the tip of V
D
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
CD
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
D
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
C
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
CD
from the tip of V
D
to the intersection of the V
C
construction
line and drawing V
C
from the tail of V
D
to the intersection of the V
CD
construction line.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-99-2
V
CD
70.037
1.806
V
0
V
D
10 in/sec
Y
C
X
3. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
10 in sec
1

in

V
C
1.806 in k
v
V
C
18.060
in
sec

VC
70.037 deg
4. Determine the magnitude and sense of the vector V
B
.
V
B
V
C
V
B
18.060
in
sec

VB

VC
180 deg
VB
109.963 deg
5. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point A. The equation to be solved
graphically is
V
A
= V
B
+ V
AB
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
B
.
b. From the tip of V
B
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
AB
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
B
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
A
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
AB
from the tip of V
B
to the intersection of the V
A
construction
line and drawing V
A
from the tail of V
B
to the intersection of the V
AB
construction line.
1.977
V
B
Y
V
V
A
AB
X
0 10 in/sec
6. From the velocity triangle we have:
Velocity scale factor:
k
v
10 in sec
1

in

V
A
1.977 in k
v

V
A
19.770
in
sec

VA
90.0 deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-100-1
PROBLEM 6-100
Statement: The linkage in Figure P6-33a has the path of slider 6 perpendicular to the global X-axis and link 2
aligned with the global X-axis. Find V
A
in the position shown if the velocity of the slider is 20
in/sec downward. Use the instant center graphical method.
2
to A) a 12 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 24 in :=
4
to B) c 18 in := Link 5 (C to D) f 24 in :=
Link 3 (A to C) p 2.25 in := Link 4 (O
4
to C) e 18 in :=
X
19 in := Link 1Y-offset d
Y
28 in :=
Angle BO
4
C o
4
0.0 deg :=
Output crank angle: u
2
0 deg := Global XY system
Input slider velocity V
D
20 in sec
1
:= u
VD
90.0 deg :=
Solution: See Figure P6-33d and Mathcad file P06100.
1. Draw the linkage to scale in the position given, find instant centers I
1,3
and I
1,5
, and the distances from the pin
joints to the instant centers.
C
B
A
O
4 4
2
5
6
O
2
1,3
D
1,5
3
From the layout above:
AI13 70.085 in := BI13 64.013 in := CI15 63.095 in := DI15 69.886 in :=
2. Use equation 6.9c to determine the angular velocity of link 5.
e
5
V
D
DI15
:= e
5
0.286
sec
= CW
3. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point C using equation 6.9b.
V
C
CI15 e
5
:= V
C
18.057
in
sec
=
4. Use equation 6.9c to determine the angular velocity of link 4.
e
4
V
C
e
:= e
4
1.003
sec
= CW
5. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B using equation 6.9b.
V
B
c e
4
:= V
B
18.057
in
sec
=
6. Determine the angular velocity of link 3 using equation 6.9a.
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-100-2
e
3
V
B
BI13
:= e
3
0.282
sec
= CCW
7. Determine the magnitude of the velocity at point A using equation 6.9b.
V
A
AI13 e
3
:= V
A
19.769
in
sec
= Upward
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-101-1
PROBLEM 6-101
Statement: For the linkage of Figure P6-33e, write a computer program or use an equation solver to find and
plot V
D
in the global coordinate system for one revolution of link 2 if e
2
Input crank (L
2
) a 5.00 := Fourbar coupler (L
3
) b 5.00 :=
Output crank (O
4
B) c 6.00 := Slider coupler (L
5
) e 15.00 :=
1
) d 2.500 := Angle BO
4
C o 83.621 deg :=
Two argument inverse tangent: atan2 x y , ( ) 0.5 t return x 0 = y 0 > . if
1.5 t return x 0 = y 0 < . if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
return x 0 > if
atan
y
x
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
t + otherwise
:=
Crank velocity: e
2
10
sec
:=
Solution: See Figure P6-33e and Mathcad file P06101.
1. This sixbar drag-link mechanism can be analyzed as a fourbar Grashof double crank in series with a slider-crank
mechanism using the output of the fourbar, link 4, as the input to the slider-crank.
2. Define one revolution of the input crank: u
2
0 deg 1 deg , 360 deg .. :=
3. Use equations 4.8a and 4.10 to calculate u
4
as a function of u
2
(for the open circuit) in the global XY coordinate
system.
K
1
d
a
:= K
2
d
c
:= K
3
a
2
b
2
c
2
+ d
2
+
2 a c
:=
K
1
0.5000 = K
2
0.4167 = K
3
0.7042 =
A u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
B u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) := C u
2 ( ) K
1
K
2
1 + ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
3
+ :=
u
41
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 A u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( ) B u
2 ( )
2
4 A u
2 ( ) C u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
4. If the calculated value of u
4
is greater than 2t, subtract 2t from it and if it is negative, make it positive.
u
42
u
2 ( ) if u
41
u
2 ( ) 2 t > u
41
u
2 ( ) 2 t , u
41
u
2 ( ) , ( ) :=
u
4
u
2 ( ) if u
42
u
2 ( ) 0 < u
42
u
2 ( ) 2 t + , u
42
u
2 ( ) , ( ) :=
5. Determine the slider-crank motion using equations 4.16 and 4.17 with u
4
as the input angle.
u
5
u
2 ( ) asin
c sin u
4
u
2 ( ) o ( )
e
|

\
|
|
.
t + :=
f u
2 ( ) c cos u
4
u
2 ( ) o ( ) e cos u
5
u
2 ( ) ( ) :=
5. Determine the values of the constants needed for finding u
3
from equations 4.11b and 4.12.
K
4
d
b
:= K
5
c
2
d
2
a
2
b
2

2 a b
:=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-101-2
K
4
0.5000 = K
5
0.4050 =
D u
2 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
E u
2 ( ) 2 sin u
2 ( ) := F u
2 ( ) K
1
K
4
1 ( ) cos u
2 ( ) + K
5
+ :=
6. Use equation 4.13 to find values of u
3
for the open circuit.
u
3
u
2 ( ) 2 atan2 2 D u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( ) E u
2 ( )
2
4 D u
2 ( ) F u
2 ( ) ,
|
\
|
.
|
\
|
.
:=
7. Determine the angular velocity of link 4 for the open circuit using equations 6.18.
e
4
u
2 ( )
a e
2

c
sin u
2
u
3
u
2 ( ) ( )
sin u
4
u
2 ( ) u
3
u
2 ( ) ( )
:=
8. Determine the angular velocity of link 5 using equation 6.22a:
e
5
u
2 ( )
c
e
cos u
4
u
2 ( ) o ( )
cos u
5
u
2 ( ) ( )
e
4
u
2 ( ) :=
9. Determine the velocity of pin D using equation 6.22b:
V
D
u
2 ( ) c e
4
u
2 ( ) sin u
4
u
2 ( ) o ( ) e e
5
u
2 ( ) sin u
5
u
2 ( ) ( ) + :=
0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360
100
75
50
25
0
25
50
V
D
u
2
( )
u
2
deg
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-102-1
PROBLEM 6-102
Statement: For the linkage of Figure P6-33f, locate and identify all instant centers.
Given: Number of links n 8
Solution: See Figure P6-33f and Mathcad file P06102.
6
7
8
7,8
5,6
To 1,8 at infinity
3,5
O4
1,4
4
3,4
5
3
5,7
O2
1,2
2,3
2
O6
1,6
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 28
1. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs
that can be found by inspection (10).
2. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find
the remaining 18 ICs.
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
1,5
: I
1,6
-I
5,6
and I
1,3
-I
3,5
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
I
4,5
: I
1,4
-I
1,5
and I
3,5
-I
3,4
I
2,5
: I
1,2
-I
1,5
and I
2,4
-I
4,5
I
2,6
: I
1,2
-I
1,6
and I
2,5
-I
5,6
I
3,6
: I
2,3
-I
2,6
and I
1,2
-I
1,6
6
7
8
7,8
5,6
To 1,8 at infinity
1,5
2,4
4,5
5,8
1,3; 3,8
6,7
4,6
4,7
1,7
3,5
4,8
O
4
1,4
4
3,4
5
3
5,7
2,8
To 2,6 and 3,6
O
2
1,2
6,8
2,7
3,7
2,5
2,3
2
O
6
1,6
I
5,8
: I
5,7
-I
7,8
and I
1,5
-I
1,8
I
4,8
: I
4,5
-I
5,8
and I
1,8
-I
1,4
I
2,8
: I
2,4
-I
4,8
and I
1,2
-I
1,8
I
3,8
: I
3,4
-I
4,8
and I
1,3
-I
1,8
I
6,8
: I
5,8
-I
5,6
and I
2,8
-I
2,6
I
2,7
: I
2,8
-I
7,8
and I
2,5
-I
5,7
I
6,7
: I
5,6
-I
5,7
and I
6,8
-I
7,8
I
3,7
: I
3,6
-I
6,7
and I
2,3
-I
2,7
I
4,6
: I
1,4
-I
1,6
and I
4,5
-I
5,6
I
4,7
: I
4,6
-I
6,7
and I
3,4
-I
3,7
I
1,7
: I
1,8
-I
7,8
and I
1,6
-I
6,7
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-103-1
PROBLEM 6-103
Statement: The linkage of Figure P6-33f has link 2 at 130 deg in the global XY coordinate system. Find VD in
the global coordinate system for the position shown if e
2
= 15 rad/sec CW. Use any graphical
method.
2
to A) a 5.0 in := Link 3 (A to B) b 8.4 in :=
4
to B) c 2.5 in := Link 1 (O
2
to O
4
) d
1
12.5 in :=
Link 5 (C to E) e 8.9 in := Link 5 (C to D) h 5.9 in :=
6
to E) f 3.2 in := Link 7 (D to F) k 6.4 in :=
2
to O
6
) d
2
10.5 in := Link 3 (A to C) g 2.4 in :=
Crank angle: u
2
130 deg :=
Slider axis offset and angle: s 11.7 in := o
7
150 deg :=
Input crank angular velocity e
2
1
:= CW
Solution: See Figure P6-33f and Mathcad file P06103.
1. Draw the linkage to a convenient scale. Indicate the directions of the velocity vectors of interest.
Y
F
8
A
7
E
6
Direction of VF
Direction of VFD
Direction of VE
Direction of VEC
Direction of VB
Direction VBA
B
O4
4
Direction of VDC
Direction of VCA
5
C
3
D
O2
X
Direction of VA
2
O6
Angles measured from layout:
u
VB
24.351 deg := u
VBA
79.348 deg := u
VCA
u
VBA
:=
u
VE
64.594 deg := u
VEC
162.461 deg := u
VDC
u
VEC
:=
u
VF
150.00 deg := u
VFD
198.690 deg :=
2. Use equation 6.7 to calculate the magnitude of the velocity at point A.
V
A
a e
2
:= V
A
75.000
in
sec
=
u
VA
u
2
90 deg := u
VA
40.000 deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-103-2
3. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point B, the magnitude of the relative
velocity V
BA
, and the angular velocity of link 3. The equations to be solved graphically are
V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
and V
C
= V
A
+ V
CA
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
A
.
b. From the tip of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
BA
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
A
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
B
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
BA
from the tip of V
A
to the intersection of the V
B
construction
line and drawing V
B
from the tail of V
A
to the intersection of the V
BA
construction line.
3. 192
2.668
0 25 in/sec
Y
3.302
22. 053
V
BA
V
B
X
0.943
V
C
V
A
V
CA
4. From the velocity polygon we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
25 in sec
1

in
:=
V
B
3.192 in k
v
:= V
B
79.800
in
sec
= u
VB
24.351 deg =
V
BA
3.302 in k
v
:= V
BA
82.550
in
sec
= u
VBA
79.348 deg =
e3
V
BA
b
:= e3 9.827
sec
= CCW
5. Calculate the magnitude and direction of V
CA
and determine the magnitude and velocity of V
C
from the velocity
polygon above.
V
CA
g e3 := V
CA
23.586
in
sec
= u
VCA
79.348 deg =
Length of V
CA
on velocity polygon: v
CA
V
CA
k
v
:= v
CA
0.943in =
V
C
2.668 in k
v
:= V
C
66.700
in
sec
= u
VC
22.053deg :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-103-3
6. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point E, the magnitude of the relative
velocity V
ED
, and the angular velocity of link 5. The equations to be solved graphically are
V
E
= V
C
+ V
EC
and V
D
= V
C
+ V
DC
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
C
.
b. From the tip of V
C
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
EC
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
C
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
E
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
EC
from the tip of V
C
to the intersection of the V
E
construction
line and drawing V
E
from the tail of V
C
to the intersection of the V
EC
construction line.
1.716
1.900
0 25 in/sec
V
Y
E
45.934
X
1. 821
1.207
V
DC
V
D
V
EC
V
C
7. From the velocity polygon we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
25 in sec
1

in
:=
V
E
1.716 in k
v
:= V
E
42.900
in
sec
= u
VE
64.594 deg =
V
EC
1.821 in k
v
:= V
EC
45.525
in
sec
= u
VEC
162.461deg =
e5
V
EC
e
:= e5 5.115
sec
= CCW
8. Calculate the magnitude and direction of V
DE
and determine the magnitude and velocity of V
D
from the velocity
polygon above.
V
DC
h e5 := V
DC
30.179
in
sec
= u
VDC
162.461 deg =
Length of V
DC
on velocity polygon: v
DC
V
DC
k
v
:= v
DC
1.207 in =
V
D
1.900 in k
v
:= V
D
47.500
in
sec
= u
VD
45.934deg :=
9. Use equation 6.5 to (graphically) determine the magnitude of the velocity at point F, the magnitude of the relative
velocity V
FD
, and the angular velocity of link 5. The equation to be solved graphically is
V
F
= V
D
+ V
FD
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-103-4
a. Choose a convenient velocity scale and layout the known vector V
D
.
b. From the tip of V
D
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
FD
, magnitude unknown.
c. From the tail of V
D
, draw a construction line with the direction of V
F
, magnitude unknown.
d. Complete the vector triangle by drawingV
FD
from the tip of V
D
to the intersection of the V
F
construction
line and drawing V
F
from the tail of V
D
to the intersection of the V
FD
construction line.
150.000
F
1.158
V
V
FD
Y
45.934
X
25 in/sec
V
D
0
10. From the velocity polygon we have:
Velocity scale factor: k
v
25 in sec
1

in
:=
V
F
1.158 in k
v
:= V
F
28.950
in
sec
= u
VF
150.000 deg =
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-104-1
PROBLEM 6-104
Statement: For the linkage of Figure P6-34, locate and identify all instant centers.
Given: Number of links n 6
Solution: See Figure P6-34 and Mathcad file P06104.
1. Determine the number of instant centers for this mechanism using equation 6.8a.
C
n n 1 ( )
2
C 15
2. Draw the linkage to scale and identify those ICs that can be found by inspection (7).
O
4 O
2
A B
D
C
E
2
3
4
5
6
1
3
1,4
1,2
2,3
3,4
4,5
5,6
3,6
2. Use Kennedy's Rule and a linear graph to find the remaining 8 ICs: I
1,3
; I
1,5
; I
1,6
; I
2,4
; I
2,5
; I
2,6
; I
3,5
; and I
4,6
I
2,4
: I
1,2
-I
1,4
and I
2,3
-I
3,4
I
3,5
: I
2,3
-I
2,5
and I
3,4
-I
4,5
5
6
4
3
2
1
I
4,6
: I
3,4
-I
3,6
and I
4,5
-I
5,6
I
1,3
: I
1,2
-I
2,3
and I
1,4
-I
3,4
I
2,6
: I
1,4
-I
4,6
and I
2,3
-I
3,6
I
1,5
: I
1,2
-I
2,5
and I
1,3
-I
3,5
I
2,5
: I
2,6
-I
5,6
and I
2,4
-I
4,5
I
1,6
: I
1,3
-I
3,6
and I
1,4
-I
4,6
O
4 O
2
A
B
D
C
E
2
3
4
5
6
1
3
1,4
1,2
2,3
3,4
4,5
5,6
3,6
2,4
4,6
2,6
2,5
3,5
1,3 1,5
1,6
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-105-1
PROBLEM 6-105
Statement: For the linkage of Figure P6-34, show that I
1,6
is stationary for all positions of link 2.
Input crank (L
2
) a 1.75 := First coupler (AB) b 1.00 :=
First rocker (O
4
B) c 1.75 := Ground link (O
2
O
4
) d 1.00 :=
Second input (BC) e 1.00 := Second coupler (L
5
) f 1.75 :=
Output rocker (L
6
) g 1.00 := Third coupler (BE) h 1.75 :=
Ternary link (AE) k 2.60 :=
Solution: See Figure P6-34 and Mathcad file P06105.
1. Because the linkage is symmetrical and composed of two parallelograms the analysis can be done with simple
trigonometry. We will show that the path of point E on link 6 is a circle and that the center of the circle is the
instant center I
1,6
.
O
4 O
2
A
B
D
C
E
2
3
4
5
6
1
3
25.396
R
E
R
P
R
2
x
y
a
b
e
c
f
g
k
h
d
o =
2. Calculate the fixed angle that line AB (b) makes with line AE (k) using the law of cosines. This is the angle that
the coupler point, E, makes with link 3 in the fourbar made up of links 1, 2, 3, and 4. Because links 1, 2, 3, and 4
are a parallelogram, link 4 will have the same angle as link 2 and AB will always be parallel to O
2
O
4
.
o acos
b
2
k
2
+ h
2

2 b k
|

\
|
|
.
:= o 25.396deg =
3. Define the vectors R
2
, R
P
, and R
E
as shown above. Then, R
E
= R
2
+ R
P
or,

u
2 ( ) a cos u
2 ( ) jsin u
2 ( ) + ( ) k cos o ( ) jsin o ( ) + ( ) + =
Separating into real and imaginary parts, the coordinates of point E for all positions of link 2 are:
x
E
u
2 ( ) a cos u
2 ( ) k cos o ( ) + :=
y
E
u
2 ( ) a sin u
2 ( ) k sin o ( ) + :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-105-2
This pair of equations represent the parametric equation of a circle with radius a and center at
x
EC
k cos o ( ) := x
EC
2.349 =
y
EC
k sin o ( ) := y
EC
1.115 =
4. Define one revolution of the input crank: u
2
0 deg 1 deg , 360 deg .. :=
5. Plot the position of point E as a function of the angle of input link 2.
0 1 2 3 4 5
1
0
1
2
3
4
PATH OF POINT E
1.115
y
E
u
2 ( )
2.349
x
E
u
2 ( )
6. From Problem 6-104, the instant center I
1,6
is located at the intersection of a line through O
4
that is parallel to BE
(angle o) with a line through E that is parallel to O
2
A (angle u
2
). (See figure on next page). The coordinates of the
intersection of these two lines for the position shown (u
2
64.036 deg := ) are:
Angle BAE: o t acos
b
2
h
2
+ k
2

2 b h
|

\
|
|
.
:= o 39.582 deg =
Coordinates of point E: x
E
a cos u
2
( ) k cos o
( )
+ := x
E
3.115 =
y
E
a sin u
2
( ) k sin o
( )
+ := y
E
0.458 =
Line through E with angle u
2
:
y x ( ) x x
E
( ) tan u
2
( ) y
E
+ :=
Coordinates of point O
4
: x
O4
d := y
O4
0 :=
DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 6-105-3
Line through O
4
with angle o:
y x ( ) x x
O4
( ) tan o
( )
:=
Solving for the intersection (point F, the instant center I
1,6
) of these two lines:
x
F
x
E
tan u
2
( ) y
E
d tan o
( )

tan u
2
( ) tan o
( )

:= x
F
2.349 =
y
F
x
F
d ( ) tan o
( )
:= y
F
1.115 =
These are the coordinates of the instant center I
1,6
and the center of the circle through which point E passes.
Thus, the instant center I
1,6
is stationary and is a hinge point that link 6 rotates about with respect to link 1.
O
4 O
2
A
B
D
C
E
2
3
4
5
6
1
3
1,4
1,2
2,3
3,4
4,5
5,6
3,6
2,4
4,6
2,6
2,5
3,5
1,3 1,5
1,6
39.582
64.036
1.115"
2.349"
F
1.750"