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An Introduction

world wide web


P Abbreviated as
P commonly known as the eb
P is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the
nternet
P The Web is an application that can operate on global computer
networks
P An indispensable technology
O n virtually every aspect of modern living
P A transformative technology
O Changes the way we do things
O Changes the way we acquire and disseminate information
world wide web Properties
P &nbound in space/time: nformation provided on the nternet
is available every day, around the clock, and around the
world (pending network operation).
P Bound in use context: Web-based hypertext fosters
associations among works through links, giving rise to
networks of meaning and association among many
information sources that may be scattered across the globe
and written by many authors
P Distributed, non-hierarchical: The Web's technical
organization as an application using the nternet for a
client/server model influences the disintegration of user
focus on a single outlet for experiencing content.
efinitions
P P Web Web System System an an infrastructure infrastructure or or system system enabling enabling the the
operation operation of of a a Web Web application application
P P Web Web Application Application a a distributed distributed application application that that
accomplishes accomplishes a a certain certain business business need need based based on on the the
technologies technologies of of WWW WWW and and that that consists consists of of a a set set of of Web Web- -
specific specific resources resources
web-Baseo Svsrems
P n the early days of the Web, we built systems using
informality, urgency, intuition, and art
O Informality leads to an easy work environmentone in
which you can do your own thing.
O &rgency leads to action and rapid decision making.
O Intuition is an intangible quality that enables you to "feel
your way through complex situations.
O rt leads to aesthetic form and functionto something
that pleases those who encounter it.
P Problem isthis approach can and often does lead to
problems
#,nee of Complexitv #,nee of Complexitv
Static
Site
Data
Collector Site
Dynamic Data
Access
Web Application
Service-Based
Web Application
and Federations
Dynamically
Created
Site
Service
Application Centered Document Centered
C
o
m
p
l
e
x
S
i
m
p
l
e
:t whv?
P As WebApps become larger and more complex,
O nformality remains, but some degree of requirements gathering,
planning and design are necessary
O &rgency remains, but it must be tempered by a recognition that
decisions may have broad consequences
O ntuition remains, but it must be augmented by proven
management and technical patterns
O Art remains, but it must be complemented with solid design
web 3vstems: Problems web 3vstems: Problems
P P Problems Problems
O O nability to maintain nability to maintain
O O &nable to meet evolving needs and grow at the rate &nable to meet evolving needs and grow at the rate
needed needed scaleability scaleability
O O &nreliable &nreliable crashes crashes
P P Web Web- -dependent organizations cannot afford to have dependent organizations cannot afford to have
O O Faulty systems Faulty systems reliability, security issues reliability, security issues
O O Frequent downtime Frequent downtime dependability dependability
O O Wrong, inconsistent, or stale content/information Wrong, inconsistent, or stale content/information
P P Web systems problems are not easy to hide Web systems problems are not easy to hide
Consider,tion to 0:,litv? Consider,tion to 0:,litv?
P P ack of consideration ack of consideration
to: to:
O O Navigation Navigation
O O Accessibility Accessibility
O O Scalability Scalability
O O Reliability Reliability
O O Maintainability Maintainability
O O &sability &sability
O O Compatibility and Compatibility and
interoperability interoperability
O O Security Security
O O Readability Readability
web 3vstem evelopment web 3vstem evelopment
3:mm,rv (1/2) 3:mm,rv (1/2)
P P ess attention is given to development methodologies, ess attention is given to development methodologies,
testing and evaluation, quality assessment and control testing and evaluation, quality assessment and control
P P argely relies on individual's own development practices argely relies on individual's own development practices
P P ack of realization of its lifecycle ack of realization of its lifecycle
O O Analysis of needs, redesign, development (including coding), Analysis of needs, redesign, development (including coding),
management, metrics, maintenance management, metrics, maintenance
O O Calls for significant system Calls for significant system- -level and design decisions level and design decisions
P P t is an exercise t is an exercise not an event not an event
P P egitimate concern about the manner in which they are egitimate concern about the manner in which they are
created and their long created and their long- -term quality and integrity term quality and integrity
web 3vstem evelopment web 3vstem evelopment
3:mm,rv (2/2) 3:mm,rv (2/2)
P P n many cases, Web systems n many cases, Web systems
development is development is
O O Chaotic Chaotic
O O Failure Failure- -prone prone
O O &nsatisfactory &nsatisfactory
Why Oo You Think That Web
5ystems are the Tarqet
of Attack?
#isks to web #isks to web--,sed :siness ,sed :siness
P P ong system delivery time ong system delivery time
P P ow responsiveness to business ow responsiveness to business
changes changes
P P High project development and ongoing High project development and ongoing
support costs support costs
P P Questionable system quality Questionable system quality
esires of web esires of web--,sed :sinesses ,sed :sinesses
P P Project delivery time Project delivery time 8orter 8orter
P P System quality System quality improved improved
P P Technology investment Technology investment - - optimized optimized
eed for Prooess eed for Prooess
P P Domination of the different requirements calls for a Domination of the different requirements calls for a
systematic approach systematic approach
P P Producing high Producing high- -quality applications in a cost quality applications in a cost- -effective effective
way way
P P Goal Goal application should be application should be
O O Maintainable and evolvable Maintainable and evolvable
O O Reliable Reliable
O O Efficient Efficient
O O Appropriate for & Appropriate for &
O O Delivered on time at predictable cost Delivered on time at predictable cost
r 3implv 3oftw,re Lneineerine? r 3implv 3oftw,re Lneineerine?
undamenta| differences [between hypermedia and other
discip|ines] however, make a pure transposition of
techniques both difficu|t and inadequate. An important
part of hypertext desiqn concerns aesthetic and coqnitive
aspects that software enqineerinq environments do
not support."
--Nanard 8 Nanard
web evelopment vs. 3oftw,re web evelopment vs. 3oftw,re
evelopment evelopment
P P They are different due to the nature and They are different due to the nature and
distinct requirements of Web distinct requirements of Web- -based based
systems systems
P P Even though Web Even though Web- -based systems often based systems often
require programming and specialty require programming and specialty
software, the development of that software, the development of that
software is often unique software is often unique
web web--,sed 3vstems vs. 3oftw,re ,sed 3vstems vs. 3oftw,re
(1/3) (1/3)
P P Web Web- -based systems: based systems:
O O Are often document Are often document- -oriented containing static or oriented containing static or
dynamic content dynamic content
O O More emphasis on "look and feel More emphasis on "look and feel
O O Are "content Are "content- -driven driven process is driven by the process is driven by the
availability of content availability of content
O O Need to cater to users with diverse skills and Need to cater to users with diverse skills and
capabilities capabilities
O O Are typically constrained to a short development Are typically constrained to a short development
time making it difficult to apply the same levels time making it difficult to apply the same levels
of formal planning and testing used in software of formal planning and testing used in software
development development
web web--,sed 3vstems vs. 3oftw,re ,sed 3vstems vs. 3oftw,re
(2/3) (2/3)
P P Web Web- -based systems: based systems:
O O Differ by means of their access and delivery Differ by means of their access and delivery
medium medium
O O Have different life spans Have different life spans
O O Have differing development requirements Have differing development requirements
Developers are vastly varied in terms of their Developers are vastly varied in terms of their
background, skills, knowledge, and system background, skills, knowledge, and system
understanding understanding
Developers differ in their perception of Web Developers differ in their perception of Web
systems systems
web web--,sed 3vstems vs. 3oftw,re ,sed 3vstems vs. 3oftw,re
(3/3) (3/3)
P P Web Web- -based systems: based systems:
O O Should be scalable Should be scalable
O O Have varying performance requirements Have varying performance requirements
must be able to cope with uncertain, random must be able to cope with uncertain, random
heavy demands on services heavy demands on services
O O Must be secure Must be secure
O O Are subject to assorted legal, social, and Are subject to assorted legal, social, and
ethical scrutiny ethical scrutiny
C,teeories of web C,teeories of web--,sed 3vstems ,sed 3vstems
ateqory Examp|es
lnformuLlonul Onllne newspupers, munuuls
lnLerucLlve ReglsLruLlon forms
1runsucLlonul LlecLronlc shopplng
Workflow-orlenLed SLuLus monlLorlng
ColluboruLlve work LlsLrlbuLed uuLhorlng
Onllne communlLles Llscusslon groups
Web porLuls Shopplng mulls
Web servlces LnLerprlse uppllcuLlons
Lneineerine Lneineerine
Discussing the term in the context of Discussing the term in the context of
(software) engineering: (software) engineering:
"Engineering is about the systematic "Engineering is about the systematic
application of scientific knowledge in application of scientific knowledge in
creating and building cost creating and building cost- -effective effective
solutions to practical problems, solutions to practical problems,
Berry [Report No. CM&/SE Berry [Report No. CM&/SE- -92 92- -TR TR- -34] 34]
whv Lneineerine? whv Lneineerine?
P P Engineering is associated with "scale Engineering is associated with "scale- -
up up
P P New issues arise when scaling by 2+ New issues arise when scaling by 2+
orders of magnitude orders of magnitude
P P Skills of architects and all kinds of Skills of architects and all kinds of
engineers are different from those engineers are different from those
needed for designing and building needed for designing and building
simple structures and simple systems simple structures and simple systems
wh,t is web Lneineerine? wh,t is web Lneineerine?
There is still no common answer There is still no common answer
"Web Engineering is concerned with establishment and use "Web Engineering is concerned with establishment and use
of sound scientific, engineering and management principles of sound scientific, engineering and management principles
and disciplined and systematic approaches to the successful and disciplined and systematic approaches to the successful
development, deployment and maintenance of high quality development, deployment and maintenance of high quality
Web Web- -based systems and applications, SGWEB Newsletter based systems and applications, SGWEB Newsletter
"Web Engineering is a discipline among disciplines, cutting "Web Engineering is a discipline among disciplines, cutting
across computer science, information systems, and software across computer science, information systems, and software
engineering, as well as benefiting from several non engineering, as well as benefiting from several non- -T T
specializations, EEE Multimedia specializations, EEE Multimedia
" "While Web Engineering adopts and encompasses many While Web Engineering adopts and encompasses many
software engineering principles, it incorporates many new software engineering principles, it incorporates many new
approaches, methodologies, tools, techniques, and approaches, methodologies, tools, techniques, and
guidelines to meet the unique requirements of Web guidelines to meet the unique requirements of Web- -based based
systems. Developing Web systems. Developing Web- -based systems is significantly based systems is significantly
different from traditional software development and poses different from traditional software development and poses
many additional challenges many additional challenges , EEE MultiMedia , EEE MultiMedia
web Lneineerine web Lneineerine
1he uppllcuLlon of svsLemuLlc, dlsclpllned, und ouunLlfluble
upprouches Lo Lhe deslgn, producLlon, deplovmenL,
operuLlon, mulnLenunce und evoluLlon of Web-bused
sofLwure producLs.
---Cuedke, z
web Lneineerine (1/2) web Lneineerine (1/2)
P P A holistic and proactive approach to Web systems A holistic and proactive approach to Web systems
development development
P P Offers systematic approaches and disciplined Offers systematic approaches and disciplined
processes for development processes for development
P P Deals with the management of complexity and diversity Deals with the management of complexity and diversity
of Web development of Web development
P P Brings to Web Brings to Web- -based system development based system development
O O Control Control
O O Risk minimization Risk minimization
O O Enhanced maintainability and quality Enhanced maintainability and quality
web Lneineerine (2/2) web Lneineerine (2/2)
P P Other factors Other factors
O O Document orientation Document orientation
O O Navigational design Navigational design
O O Changing technology Changing technology
O O Budget and time constraints Budget and time constraints
O O People and internal politics People and internal politics
O O Division between theory and practice Division between theory and practice
O O ack of understanding. ack of understanding.
o,ls of web Lneineerine o,ls of web Lneineerine
P P Develop high quality Web applications Develop high quality Web applications
O O Effective Effective
O O Efficient Efficient
O O Achieve desired application Achieve desired application
P P Maintain and evolve Maintain and evolve
O O Plan for change Plan for change solution may change the solution may change the
problem problem
P P Encourage the use of systematic, Encourage the use of systematic,
disciplined and quantifiable approaches disciplined and quantifiable approaches
and process models and process models
WPhysical ayer
Wnternet ayer
WTransport ayer
WPerformance
WProcess
WDesign
Wmplementation
WTest
WOperation
WMaintenance
WDesign & Structure
nformation Space
WNavigation
W'isualization
W&sability
WCollaboration
WData Design, ER,...
WRDBMS
WQuery anguages
WStrg.Devices: FS,...
ev nowledee Are,s ev nowledee Are,s
Web
Engineering
Network
Engineering
Software
Engineering
Hypermedia
nformation
Systems
thers...
web Lneineerine Aotivities (1/3) web Lneineerine Aotivities (1/3)
P P Requirements specification and analysis Requirements specification and analysis
P P Web Web- -based system analysis and design based system analysis and design
P P Web development methodologies and techniques Web development methodologies and techniques
P P Migration of legacy systems to Web environments Migration of legacy systems to Web environments
P P Web Web- -based real based real- -time applications development time applications development
P P Web Web- -based multimedia application development based multimedia application development
P P Testing, verification and validation techniques and tools Testing, verification and validation techniques and tools
P P Quality assessment, control and assurance Quality assessment, control and assurance
web Lneineerine Aotivities (2/3) web Lneineerine Aotivities (2/3)
P P Management of access to applications and privileges Management of access to applications and privileges
P P Configuration and project management Configuration and project management
P P "Web metrics "Web metrics metrics for estimation of development effort metrics for estimation of development effort
P P Performance specification and evaluation Performance specification and evaluation
P P &pdate and maintenance &pdate and maintenance
P P Development models, teams, and staffing Development models, teams, and staffing
P P Human and cultural aspects Human and cultural aspects
P P &ser &ser- -centric development centric development
web Lneineerine Aotivities (3/3) web Lneineerine Aotivities (3/3)
P P Graphics, animation, and streaming Graphics, animation, and streaming
P P Copyright, legal and social aspects Copyright, legal and social aspects