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REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN

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UNIT 15
DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS OBJECTIVES

GENERAL OBJECTIVES To establish the basic principles underlying the design of isolated spread foundations.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

At the end of this unit, you will be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. calculate the area of base required in the design of foundations. determine whether punching shears is a criterion. check sections for bending and local bond stresses. check for transverse shears. check for cracks. calculate the area of starter bar required. sketch the reinforcements.

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INPUT 1

8.2

Introduction. The function of foundation is to transfer the load from a vertical member to a horizontal slab. The thickness and area will facilitate the load to a lower concentration level at the underside of the slab. However, this depends on the capacity of the ground on which the foundation rests.

To avoid the failure of the foundation, a suitable size and thickness should be used to ensure that the stress encountered does not exceed the permissible stress. Failure of the foundation can cause a severe effect on the structure as a whole. Failure of the foundation may also cause instability to the whole structure or it even collapse.

In the design of foundation, the soil characteristics are important as it may vary. For example from soft clay to solid rocks. There is always an element of the unknown in work below ground. Therefore, it is imperative to carry site investigation prior to erecting the foundation so that the safe bearing capacity of the soil can be determined.

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The design of foundation or bases is covered in section 3.11, BS 8110. The pressure of the supporting soil is assumed to be uniformly distributed throughout the area of the base (Clause 3.11.2.1). This assumption is based on the fact that soil act as an elastic material and that the base possesses a significant degree of stiffness. When there is moment, the distribution of the underside of the foundation will be variable in a straight line. This is shown in Figure 15.1a and Figure 15.1b

Figure 15.1a: Uniform soil pressure

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M N

Figure 15.1b: Soil pressure varies in a straight line.

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ACTIVITY 15a

Complete the following statements. 15.1 The function of foundation or base is to ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

15.2

The commonest type of foundation is ____________________________.

15.3

A suitable thickness and _________________________________ should be used.

15.4

Site investigation is carried out to determine_______________________.

15.5

For foundation to be safe, the stress due to imposed load must not exceed the ___________________________________ of the supporting soil.

15.6

When there is only axial load, the pressure distribution underneath the base is ________________________________________________.

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`FEEDBACK

15a

Check your answers. Are you happy with your answers? 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 transfer load from column or wall to the ground. isolated spread foundation (pad foundation) area soil bearing capacity bearing capacity uniform

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INPUT 2

15.2

Considerations affecting design details Since concrete foundation is exposed to a severe environment, a higher grade of concrete is used. A greater nominal cover should also be provided. With reference to Table 3.2 and Table 3.4, BS 8110, the lowest grade of concrete to be used is C35 and the corresponding nominal cover is not less than 40 mm as stated in 3.3.1.4.

A thickness nominal cover to reinforcement than those given in Table 3.4, BS 8110 is provided when fresh concrete is poured onto an uneven surface. This is to ensure that minimum thickness is provided.

If fresh concrete is poured directly onto the ground, it is recommended that a nominal cover of less than 75 mm is provided. A nominal cover of less than 40 mm is not recommended even though concrete blinding is provided. Concrete blinding is used to protect the soil after excavation and to provide an even surface for the foundation. In order to protect steel and concrete from the soil during construction a blinding layer of concrete, 50 to 100 mm thick is usually laid at the bottom of the excavation.

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ACTIVITY 15b

Fill in all the boxes provided with the corresponding values. Exposure condition Lowest concrete grade

Nominal cover

Foundation Maximum free water/ cement ratio

Blinding Layer

Minimum cement content

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`FEEDBACK

15b

Here are the correct answers. Exposure condition SEVERE Lowest concrete grade C40

Nominal cover 40 mm

Foundation

Maximum free water/ cement ratio 0.55

Blinding Layer 50 to 100 mm thick

Minimum cement content 325 kg/m3

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INPUT 3

15.3

Design of pad foundation Pad or slab foundation is most commonly used in framed buildings. This is a square or rectangular slab of concrete carrying a single column. Reinforcement is placed at the bottom in both directions to resist the bending stresses set up by the double-cantilever action of the slab on the column base. Shear reinforcement is normally not provided. The thickness of the slab may be reduced towards the edges to economise concrete either by stepping or tapering the top face. Figure 15.2 below shows a typical pad foundation.

Column reinforcement

Figure 15.2: Cross-Section of a Typical Pad Foundation

Slab reinforcement

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15.4

Service Load The bearing capacity for a soil in the design of pad foundation is in terms of service units, while the loads are in ultimate units. The sizing of the foundation is based on service loads and the design of section (ultimate load). This is shown in the following example.

15.4.1 Example (Isolated Pad Foundation Carrying Axial Load Only) A reinforced concrete column of 400mm x 400mm in section and supports an ultimate load of 2200 kN. Of this total load 1400 kN is dead load and 800 kN is imposed load. The maximum permissible increase of ground pressure against service loads is 150 kN/m2 with fcu = 40N/mm2 and fy = 460 N/mm2. Design an isolated square foundation to meet the design criteria given. Solution: Service Load Dead Load = 1400 = 1000 kN 1.4 = 800 = 500 kN 1.6 = 1500 kN

Imposed Load

Total service load

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15.5

Area of base Self-weight must be allowed for in advance of any consideration of the support of the load. If soil is removed and replaced with concrete, then the self-weight of base is the difference in density between soil and concrete. This is shown below. Density of concrete Density of soil Net difference This is equivalent to 9 kN/m3 Assuming that the base thickness is 650 mm, The net self-weight per unit area = 0.65 x 9 = 5.8 kN/m2, (say 6.0 kN/m2.) The net allowable bearing pressure becomes 150 6 = 144 kN/m2 The area of base required for this load is 1500 = 10.4 m2 144 If the base is made 3.25m x 3.25 m, The total area provided = 10.6 m2. = 2400 kg/m3 = 1500 kg/m3 = 900 kg/m3

15.6

Ground Pressure Reverting to ultimate loads, the net ultimate pressure on the underside of the base is, 2200 = 207.5 kN/m2 10.6

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15.7

Punching shear

The critical section for punching shear is shown in figure 15.3. The shaded areas represent the load to be considered.

c 1.5d 1.5d

N c

1.5d 1.5d 1.5d

1.5d

3d+c

Figure 15.3: The critical section for punching shear

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The critical perimeter for punching shear is 1.5d around the column. For punching shear to be under control, the nominal design shear stress (R) should not exceed the allowable value. R is calculated using equation 28, BS 8110 as follows: R = N equation 28 ud Where u = 4(3d+c) and the allowable design shear stress is given by equation 21, BS 8110 as follows: R = V ..equation 21 bd If 1.5d exceeds the outer areas of the base, punching shear will not occur and hence it need not be checked. For the given example, the value of d, is established first. This is calculated as follows: With a base thickness of 650 mm and allowing for two layers of reinforcement on each direction, the average effective depth is d = 650 40 20 (assume T20 is used) = 590 mm Then, the perimeter the punching shear is U = 4 (3d + c) = 4 (3 x 590 + 400) mm = 8680 mm

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The nominal design is, R=V bd = 207.5 x 3.25 x 3.25 x 103 N 3250 x 590 mm2 = 1.14 N/mm2

Therefore, the nominal design shear does not exceed the allowable value; thus punching shear value is under control.

15.8

Bending

According to Clause 3.11.2.2, BS 8110, the critical section for moment is at the column face. This is calculated as follows: Given: column size 400mm x 400mm Gk =1400 kN Qk = 800 kN Allowable bearing pressure = 207.5 kN/m2 fcu = 40 N/mm2 fy = 460 N/mm2 Cover = 40 mm h = 650 mm d = 590 mm

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N= 1.425m

3.25 m

Figure 15.4:Critical sections for bending

M !

wL2 2

207.5 v (1.425)2 ! kNm 2 = 210.7 kNm

k!

M 210 .7 v 10 6 ! f cu bd 2 40 v 3250 v (590 ) 2

= 0.005 < 0.156

0.005 Z ! d 0.5  0.25  0.9

= 0.995d > 0.95d Use Z = 0.95d = 0.95 x 590 =560.5 mm

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As !

M 0.87 f y Z

210.7 v 106 0.87 v 460 v 560.5

= 939 mm2

Asmin=

0.13 v 3250 v 650 mm 2 100

= 2746 mm2 Provide 6T25 (As=2946 mm2) for both directions. 15.9 Bar anchorage (Bond) Now check the requirement for anchorage bond lengths, which is given in Table 3.29, BS 8110. This is shown as follows: Anchorage bond length (extending beyond the face of column) = 34 x bar diameter = 34 x 25 mm = 850 mm Available space = 1425 mm 400 mm = 1385 mm > 850 mm Therefore the anchorage length provided is satisfactory and the bar need not be bent upwards.

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15.10 Bar distribution of reinforcement

It is good practice to concentrate more of the transverse reinforcement immediately under the column than elsewhere because the outer limits of the base will be principally concerned with longitudinal bending. In accordance with Clause 3.11.3.2, BS 8110, it states that, where N exceeds ( c
3c 9 d  ), two thirds of the required reinforcement 4 4

should be concentrated within a zone from the centre line of the column to a distance 1.5d from the face of the column; otherwise the reinforcement should be uniformly distributed over N. c
N is half the spacing between column centre and c is the column width. c

For this particular example,

c=400

N ! 1.625 m c
Figure 15.5: Clearification of

lc

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Therefore,
N! c 3250 ! 1.625 m 2

3c 9d 3 400 9  !  4 v 590 4 4 4 = 1627.5 mm = 1.6 m

Since

N exceeds ( c

3c 9 d 2  ), of As will be banded in the centre and the 4 4 3

remaining will be uniformly distributed in the other region.

Amount of reinforcement in the central band is =


2 x 2746 mm2 3

= 1831 mm2 (Use 4T25)

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The remaining amount is 915 mm2 (This is 2T25)

C L

1.5d=1.5 x 590=885mm

Figure 15.6a: Reinforcement Banding

This is shown below:-

C L
Figure 15.6b: Reinforcement Banding

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15.11 Transverse shear (Vertical shear)

The next item to be checked is transverse shear and the shear stress to be considered is related to that load in the critical section. The critical section is shown in the Figure 15.8 below, which is 1.5d from the column face.

1.5d

Figure 15.7: The critical section of traverse shear

* The shaded areas show the load to be considered for transverse shear.

For this particular example, 1.5d = 1.5 x 590 mm = 885 mm

Remaining distance = 1425 885 = 540 mm

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Load causing transverse shear = 207.5 x 0.54 x 3.25 = 364 kN Now calculate the shear stress using equation 21, BS 8110 as follows: Y! V bd

364 v 103 ! 3250 v 590 ! 0.19 N / mm 2 Check whether transverse shear is satisfactory if Y does not exceed Y c (from Table 3.9) Yc 0.79 100 As 1.25 bd
0.33

400 d
1

0.25

f cu 3 25
1 1

= (0.632)(0.5389)(0.8969)(1.1678) = 0.36 N/mm2 Therefore Y is not greater than Y c . Transverse shear is under controlled.

0.79 100 2946 3 400 4 40 3 1.25 3250 590 590 25

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15.12 Maximum Shear at column face The next item to be checked is the maximum shear around the column face. The critical section is shown below: -

15.9: The critica section a colum fa l t n ce.

The maximum shear should not exceed the lesser of 0.8 f cu or 5N/mm2. The maximum shear Y max is calculated as follows: -

max

N ud

N = design axial load u = perimeter d = effective depth where, u is the column perimeter.

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For this particular example N = 1.4Gk + 1.6 Qk = 2200 kN Ymax ! 2200 v 103 1600 v 590

= 2.33 N/mm2

0.8 f cu = 0.840 = 5.06 N/mm2 This shows that Y max < 0.8 f cu Therefore check is all right.

15.13 Check for cracks

This is done similar to the checking of slabs. This was already covered in Unit 11. With reference to Clause 3.12.11.2.7, BS 8110,
f y ! 460 N / mm 2 , h ! 650 mm " 200 mm

But

100 As 100 ( 2946 ) ! bd 3250 v 590

= 01.5 < 0.3

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The permissible clear distance of bars = 750 mm (because 3d > 750 mm) Actual clear distance between bars (6T25) =
3250 - 2(40) - 6(25) 5

= 604 mm < 750 mm Therefore, the solutions above are suitable to use.

15.14 Column Starter Bar

The remaining reinforcement to be calculated is the requirement for the requirement of starter bars and for this equation 39, BS 8110 is used. From Table 3.27, the maximum percentage of reinforcement required in the column is given by;
Asc ! ! 0.4bh 100 0.4 v 400 v 400 100

= 640 mm2 Use 4T16 bars, one is in each corner

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The arrangement of reinforcement is shown below: -

4T16

Figure 15.10: Starter Bars Arrangement

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ACTIVITY 15c

15.7

Answer the following questions a) Given that Gk = 1150 kN and Qk = 350 kN. What is the service load on the base? b) Given the dimensions of a base are 2.8 m x 2.8 m x 0.6 m, calculate the self-weight of the base in kN. c) If the service load of a base is 1500 kN and the permissible pressure is 200kN/mm2, what is the area of the base required? d) e) What is the dimension suitable for a square base in question c? For the same data in question 1, calculate the ultimate load from the column to the base. f) If the ultimate load, N=1960 kN and the area of base is 7.84 m2, what is the ground pressure? g) A square pad foundation is reinforced with T20 bars in both directions. A nominal cover of 40 mm is provided. If the starter bar used is T25 (deformed Type 2), what is the thickness of the base required? Take fcu = 35N/mm2. The starter bar is to bend 200 mm in length.

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15.8

Answer the following questions. Given the following data: i) ii) a) Base dimensions: 2.8 m x 2.8 m x 0.6 m Column dimension: 400 mm square

Calculate the critical perimeter, U for punching shear if d = 520 mm.

b)

If N = 1960 kN and d = 520 mm, calculate the shear stress, Y c at the column face.

c)

If the punching shear, Y = 1000 kN, calculate the punching shear stress, Y .

d)

Draw the base on plan then shade and calculate the dimension of the critical region for bending.

e)

If fy=460 mm and Z=494 mm, calculate the area of the reinforcement required. (Ground pressure = 250 kN/m2).

f)

Propose a suitable bar size and its numbers and distance. Use data from question e. The cover to be provided is 50mm.

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FEEDBACK 15c

Answers: 15.7 a) Service load = 1.0 Gk +1.0 Qk =1.0(1150) + 1.0(350) =1500 kN

b)

Self-weight = volume of base x concrete density =2.8 m x 2.8 m x 0.6 m x 24 kN/m3 = 113 kN

c)

Area of base =

service load permissible pressure 1500k k 200 2 m

= 7.5 m2

d)

Base width =

7.5

=2.74 m @Dimension of base is 2.74 m square.

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e)

Ultimate load = 1.4 Gk +1.6 Qk = 1.4(1150) + 1.6(350) = 2170 kN

f)

Ground pressure =

1960 kN/m2 7.84

= 250 kN/m2

g)

From Table 3.29, BS 8110; Anchorage length of starter bar = 27

= 27 x 25 = 675 mm d = anchorage length + 2(20) + cover = 675 + 40 + 40 = 755 mm

Starter Bar is bending 200 mm Therefore, thickness = h = 755 200 = 555 mm } 550 mm

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This is shown below:

675 mm

200
Starter Bars Arrangement

15.8

The answers are as below: a) Critical perimeter = (column perimeter) + (8 x 1.5d) = (4 x 4000) + (8 x 1.5 x 520) = 7840 mm

b)

Yc !

N column perimeter 1960 v 103 1600 v 520

vd

! 2.36 N / mm 2

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c)

Y!

V perimeter v d

1000 v 103 ! 7840 v 520 = 0.25 N/mm2

d)

1.2m

*critical section for bending 2.8 m

d)

As !

M 0.87 f y Z

250 v 2.8 v 1.2 1.2


! 2 0.87 v 460 v 494

504 v 106 1.98 v 105

= 2550 mm2

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e)

As,required = 2550 mm2 Use 9T20 (Asprov = 2830 mm2) Centre to centre distance = 2800 2(cover) bar diameter) z 8 = 2800 2(50) 20 z 8 = 335 mm c/c

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SUMMARY

The steps in the design of reinforced concrete isolated pad foundation are summarized as follows;

1.

Calculate the size of the base using allowable bearing pressure at serviceability limit state.

2. 3.

Calculate the ground pressure at ultimate limit state. Take a suitable value for the thickness of the base (h) and the effective depth (d). Check and ensure that the shear stress around the peripheral of the column does not exceed the lesser of 0.8 f cu or 5 N/mm2.

4.

Check the base thickness for punching shear stress. The ultimate concrete shear stress vc is obtained from Table 3.9 of BS 8110.

5. 6. 7. 8.

Determine the reinforcement to resist bending moment. When vc is determined accurately, do final check for punching shear. Check shear stress at the critical section. Determine the size and number of starter bars required.

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SELF-ASSESSMENT

Answer all the questions given by circling the alphabets corresponding to the correct answer of your choice. Award 1 point for every correct answer. You may start now when you are ready. GOOD LUCK!

SECTION A (10 MARKS)

1.

The base area of pad foundation is calculated using _____________. A. B. C. D. ultimate load z permissible pressure service load z permissible pressure ultimate load x permissible pressure service load x permissible pressure

2.

The main reinforcement in reinforced concrete pad foundation is placed .. A. B. C. D. parallel to the shorter side parallel to the longer side both ways at bottom section both ways at top section

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3.

The minimum percentage of mild steel reinforcement in reinforced concrete pad foundation is A. B. C. D. 0.13% 0.18% 0.24% 0.26%

4.

A higher concrete grade is required for pad foundation because it is exposed to _________________________ environment. A. B. C. D. mild moderate severe extreme

5.

The reinforcement is uniformly distributed over the pad foundation width when the distance of
1 x spacing between columns is.. 2

A.

less than

3c 9 d  4 4 3c 9 d  4 4 2c 2 d  3 3 2c 2 d  3 3

B.

exceeds

C.

exceeds

D.

less than

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6.

The anchorage length of starter bar is equal to A. B. C. D. 25

27 29 31

7.

The critical section for punching shear is at _____________ from the column face. A. B. C. D. 0.5d 1.0d 1.5d 2.0d

8.

The maximum horizontal clear spacing of nominal reinforcement in reinforced concrete pad foundation is A. B. C. D. 3d 24

450 mm or 5d 200mm or 3d

 

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9.

The minimum cover to the main reinforcement in R.C pad foundation when fresh concrete is poured directly on to the ground is A. B. C. D. 40 mm 55 mm 60 mm 75 mm

10.

Total service load in the design of R.C pad foundation is A. B. C. 1.4 Gk + 1.6 Qk 1.0Gk + 1.0Qk
Gk Qk  1. 4 1. 6

D.

1.4 Gk +

Qk 1. 6

SECTION B (30 marks) A column 400 mm x 400 mm carries a dead load of 800kN and an imposed load of 300kN. Assuming that the weight of the base is 60kN, safe bearing pressure on the ground is 200 kN/m2; design the base to resist the loads. The materials to be used are concrete of grade 30 and high yield steel reinforcement. Cover to reinforcement is to be taken as 40mm. (For preliminary trial, h = 420mm and T25 bars are used). Sketch details of the reinforcement.

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FEEDBACK ON SELF-ASSESSMENT
Now, check your answers with those answers given below. Calculate the percentage of your answer you have scored too.

SECTION A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. B A C C B B C A D C

(1 x 10 = 10 marks)

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SECTION B

Size of base 1 Working loads = 800 + 300 + 60 = 1160 kN Area =


1160 200

= 5.8 m2 ..

Try to use the base as 2.5 m x 2.5 m square base..

Moment steel 1 Ultimate load = (1.4 x 800) + (1.6 x 300) = 1600 kN.. Ultimate pressure =
1600 = 256 kN/m2 . 2. 5

Critical section is shown below;

1050

2500

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At column face, Shear, V yy ! 256 v 2.5 v 1.05 1 = 672 kN.

Moment, M yy ! 672 v 0.525 1 =352.8 kNm..

Base thickness

Try h = 420 mm and assuming T25 bars, the effective depth is calculated as follows;
d 420  40  25

Lever arm

K=

352.8 v 106 = 35 v 2500 v 3552 1 = 0.032..

= 355 mm.

M f cu bd 2

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0.032 z ! d 0.5  0.25  0.9 = 0.96d > 0.95d 1

Hence, z = 0.95d = 0.95 x 355 = 337.25 mm

As !

M 0.87 f y Z

352.8 v 106 0.87 v 460 v 337.25


2

= 2614 mm ..

Use 6T25 (As = 2946 mm2) Nominal steel =


0.13 v 2500 v 420 mm 2 100

= 1365 mm2 @ As, provided: o.k.

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Shear The critical section for shear is shown below; Y1 532.5

2500

Y1 1 Critical section Y1Y1 is at 1.5d = 1.5 x 355 = 532.5 mm .. (from the face of the column). 1 Shear, VY1Y1 = 0.533 x 2.5 x 256 = 342 kN v! 341 v 103 2500 v 355 1

= 0.384 N/mm2

The bars extend a distance (532.5 40 = 492.5 mm) more than d beyond the critical section for shear and so the tension reinforcement is effective in increasing the shear stress.

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0.79 100 Asprov 3 400 4 f cu 3 vc ! 1.25 bd d 25


100 v 2946 = 0.632 2500 v 355
0.33

400 355

0.25

35 25

0.33

= 0.51 N/mm2. Therefore, vertical shear stress is satisfactory

1 1

Punching shear 1 Overall depth = h = 420 mm Critical perimeter is the shaded area shown below;

1.5d =532.5 mm from the column

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Critical perimeter = column perimeter + (8 x 1.5d) = 4 x 400 + 12 x 355 = 5860 mm 1

Area within this perimeter = (400 + 3d)2 = (400 + 3 x 355)2 = 2.15 x 10 mm


6 2

Punching shear force, V = ground pressure (base area perimeter area) V = 256(2.52-2.15) = 1049.6 kN. Punching shear stress, Y! V perimeter v d 1049.6 v 103 5860 v 355 1 1

= 0.50 N/mm2 < Y c = 0.51 N/mm2.

The punching shear stress is safe. The bars have extended 478 mm beyond the critical section.

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Bond Anchorage length = 34

= 34 x 25 1 = 850 mm (from column face) .

Available space =

2500 400   40 2 2

= 1010 mm @ Anchorage length is satisfactory. 1

Cracking The bar spacing = 2500 2(40) 25 z5 = 479 mm centre to centre.. 1

Clear distance between bars

The clear distance between bars is not to exceed 3d = 3(355) 1 = 1065 mm or 750 mm


1

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Actual clear distance = 479 25 =454 mm < 750 mm 1

1 Therefore it complies with requirements for crack control..

Reinforcements details: 6T25-480

6T25-480

T25

T25

T25

T25

T25

T25

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