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# REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN

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UNIT 9
DESIGN OF SHEAR REINFORCEMENT

OBJECTIVES

GENERAL OBJECTIVE To know how to design shear reinforcement in accordance with BS8110. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

At the end of this unit you will be able to; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. explain the purpose of providing shear reinforcement. identify the types of shear reinforcement. calculate the ultimate shear stress of a beam section. calculate the area of shear reinforcement. provide shear reinforcement according to Table 3.8 of BS8110. specify spacing of shear reinforcement. check whether the spacing is within the allowable limits.

## REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN

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INPUT 1

9.1

Shear

The unit shear stress on a section is calculated from equation 3 of BS 8110, i.e. where V is the shear force due to ultimate loads, b is the width of a section and d is the effective depth. v! V Equation 3 bv d

Shear failures occur under combined shear forces and bending moments, which causes diagonal tension in concrete. A typical failure mode is shown diagrammatically in Figure 9.1 below: Load

Support
Figure 9.1: Typical failure mode

## REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN

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Shear in a reinforced concrete beam without shear reinforcement is resisted by three main components as follows: a) a) concrete in the compression zone dowel actions in the bars where the concrete between the cracks transmits shear force to the bars. b) aggregate interlocks along the cracks.

The plane of failure occurs near the support. This is where the maximum shear occurs. When the diagonal tension exceeds the ultimate strength of concrete, shear reinforcement must be provided. Shear reinforcement can be provided in the following forms: a) b) c) links bent-up bars bent-up bars which are used together with links.

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ACTIVITY 9a

9.1

## 9.2 9.3 9.4

Shear failures are caused by shear force and ______________ moments. _________________ tension occurs near the beam supports. Shear reinforcement must be provided when ___________________ tension exceeds concretes ultimate strength.

9.5

The forms of shear reinforcement that can be provided are links, bent-up bars or ____________________.

9.6

Shear is resisted by the combined action of concrete in the compression zone, dowel actions and _________________________.

9.7

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FEEDBACK 9a

## 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7

Clause 3.4.5 Bending Diagonal Diagonal combination of links and bent-up bars aggregate interlocks
Y! V bd

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INPUT 2

9.8

Shear Reinforcement Concrete is weak in tension. Shear failure is caused by a failure in diagonal tension with cracks running at 45r to the beam axis. Shear reinforcement is provided by bars, which cross the cracks and either vertical links or inclined bars are used. The following equation is used to calculate the size and spacing of links;

Asv b (v  v c ) ! sv 0.87 f yv

J2 Where, Asv = total cross section of links (this is taken as 2T ) 4 sv = spacing of the links b = breadth of section v = design shear stress at a cross-section vc = design concrete shear stress fyv = characteristic strength of the links

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This equation is given in Table 3.5 in the code while vc can be obtained from Table 3.9. It depends on the grade of concrete used and percentage of tension reinforcement provided. Note that an increase in the amount of tension reinforcement increases the capacity of the concrete in shear. As is the area of tension reinforcement, which continues for a distance and that, is equal to the effective depth beyond the section where the shear is checked.

If v is less than vc or located for the region 0.5vc < v < (vc + 0.4), a minimum shear reinforcement in the form of links must be provided. This is calculated using the following equation;

## REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN

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ACTIVITY 9b

Rewrite the two important equations that are used to design shear links as follows; 9.8 Provide design links when (vc+ 0.4) < v < 0.8 f cu , equation to be used ____________________________

9.9

Provide nominal links when v < 0.5vc , and 0.5vc < v < (vc + 0.4) Equation to be used ____________________________

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FEEDBACK 9b

## The answers are given below:

9.8

9.9

sv

sv

b (v  v c ) 0.87 f yv

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INPUT 3

9.10

Size and spacing of links When a bar type and diameter of the link is chosen, the spacing sv can be determined. Values of Asv for various link bar size and spacing can be obtained sv

## from the following table;

J Sv 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 8 1.00 0.81 0.67 0.58 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.34 0.33 10 1.57 1.26 1.05 0.90 0.79 0.70 0.63 0.57 0.52 12 2.26 1.81 1.51 1.29 1.13 1.00 0.90 0.82 0.75 16 4.02 3.22 2.68 2.30 2.01 1.79 1.61 1.46 1.34

## Table 9.1: Link bar size and spacing, Sv

The spacing sv is limited to 0.75d in the direction of the span as stated in Clause 3.4.5.5 of the code. This limitation is to ensure that every potential crack is crossed by at least one link. Links must be at least one-quarter of the size of the largest bar at spacing not greater than 12 times the size of the smallest bar. Every corner and alternate bar is to be supported by a link passing around the corner.

## REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN

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ACTIVITY 9c

9.10 a) b) c) d) e)

If

## Asv ! 0.50 , determine the following; sv

size of link link spacing maximum allowable distance of the link if d = 450mm If R8 is used, calculate the area of the links, Asv? Calculate sv for the link in Question 4 if Asv ! 0.72 sv

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FEEDBACK 9c

9.10

a) b) c) d)

R8 200 centres 0.75 x 450 = 338 mm centres (taken as 325 mm centres) T (8) 2 Asv ! 2 v = 101 mm2 4 sv =
101 = 139.6 mm (taken as 125 mm centres) 0.72

e)

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INPUT 4

9.4

Design example Figure 9.2 show reinforced concrete beams, which have been designed to carry bending moments. Design the shear reinforcements for the beams using fyv =250 N/mm2 and fcu = 30 N/mm2. 35 kN/m

6m

105 kN

105 kN
Figure 9.2: Shear Force Diagram

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d = 300mm

## 3T25 (1470 mm2) Section

Figure 9.3: Cross-section of beam

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Since Y
100 bd

## 0.8 f cu , section the dimensions are satisfactory

100 v 1470 200 v 300

1

1 3 1 4

= 0.97 N/mm2

## Y c  0.4 ! 0.97  0.4

= 1.37 N/mm2 Since Y c  0.4 Y 0.8 f cu , design shear links are required.

= 0.72 mm

= 2.45

= 1.33

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## Refer to Table 9.1

Provide R10 at 200 centre to centre (c/c). 0.75d = 0.75 x 300 = 225 mm

## Therefore 200mm c/c is suitable. Use R10-200 c/c.

AsY 0.4b ! sY 0.87 f yY ! 0 .4 v 200 0.87 v 250

= 0.37 mm

## 0.75d = 225 mm @250 mm distance is not o.k.

A Use R8-200 sY ! 0.50 s Y

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0.50 =

## v vc = 0.54 v = 0.54 + 0.97 = 1.51 N/mm2

Shear force capacity, V = vbd = 1.51 x 200 x 300 = 90.8 kN Arrangement of links; 105 kN 90.8 kN

x 3m 90.8 kN

105 kN

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The distance from support, x where V = 90.8kN is calculated as follows (using the theorem of equilateral triangle)
3 x 3 ! 90.8 105 3 x ! 3 v 90.8 105

3  x ! 2.59

x = 0.40 m

## The details of the reinforcement are shown below;

R8-200

R8-200

R10-200
0.4 m
Figure 9.6: Details of the reinforcement supported beam

0.4 m

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SUMMARY

V bd

1

## 0.79 100 As 3 400 4 f cu 3 the following equation; Y c ! 1.25 bd d 25

4.

If v < vc, shear reinforcement is not required but in all beams of structural importance, minimum links are to be provided. This is calculated using the following equation;

5.

If 0.5vc < v < (vc + 0.4), minimum links are provided. This is calculated using the same equation in step 4, i.e. ;
Asv 0.4bv ! sv 0.87 f yv

6.

If (vc + 0.4) < v < 0.8 f cu , design shear links are provided. This is calculated using the following equation; Check that sv < 0.75d

7.

sv

sv

0.4bv 0.87 f yv

sv

sv

b (v  v c ) 0.87 f yv

## REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL DESIGN

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SELF-ASSESSMENT

Circle the correct answer. Award 1 mark for every correct answer. SECTION A (10 marks)

1.

The direction of the shear force in a beam is ______________ of the beam. A. B. C. D. along the axis perpendicular to the axis on a normal plane to the axis vertically downwards

2.

The shear forces causes sheer stress on the____________ of the beam. A. B. C. D. transverse plane horizontal plane on the planes transverse and parallel to the axis on all the planes

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3.

The shear force is usually associated with _____________ A. B. C. D. bending moment. torsional moment. normal thrust. none of the above.

4.

The shear force on a beam is generated by ___________________ A. B. C. D. axial forces only. transverse forces only. bending moment on the beam too. none of the above.

5.

Shear stress is caused by __________________ A. B. C. D. pure shear force only. pure bending moment. torsional force only. transverse shear and torsional moment.

2.

The shear stress on a beam section is maximum ______________ A. B. C. D. at the centroid of the section. on the extreme free-surfaces fibres. at the neutral axis but not at the centroid. at the free edges.

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3.

The shear stress in a beam is zero ___________________ A. B. C. D. at the centroid of the section. on the extreme free surfaces fibres. at the neutral axis but not at the centroid. at the free edges.

4.

The shear stress caused by a transverse shear force (V) is given by the equation ___________________. A.
V bd d Vb b bV 1 Vbd

B.

C.

D. 5.

If V = 316 kN, b = 400 mm and d = 550 mm , the shear stress is __ A. B. C. D. 0.44 N/mm2 1.44 N/mm2 2.44 N/mm2 3.44 N/mm2

6.

The area , Asv of R12 links is_________________ . A. B. C. D. 26 mm2 126mm2 226mm2 326mm2

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SECTION B (27 marks) A reinforced concrete beam which is 300mm wide and 600mm deep is required to span 6.0m between the centres of supporting piers 300mm wide. The beam carries dead and imposed loads of 25 kN/m and 19 kN/m respectively. Design the shear reinforcement using the following information:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Mild exposure Ultimate design load = 428.7 kN Main Steel : 4T25 (As = 1960 mm2 ) Effective depth , d = 552 mm Materials characteristic strength : i) ii) fcu = 30 N/mm2 , fy = 460 N/mm2

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FEEDBACK ON SELF-ASSESSMENT

Section A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. C C A C D A B A B C

(1 mark x = 10 marks)

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Section B

RA

RB . 1

1 .

## Since the beam is symmetrically loaded, RA = RB =

428 .7 = 214.4kN.. 2

1 1

( 4 marks )

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V . bd

30 = 4.38 N/mm2

1 1

100 bd

1

1 1

= 1.18.

1 1

(5 marks)

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Diameter and spacing of links; Where v < (vc + 0.4) = 0.70 + 0.4 = 1.10 N/mm2, nominal links are required according to; 1

## 0.4 v 300 0.87 v 250

= 0.552 mm.

1 From Table 9.1, . Provide R10 at 275 mm centres where v < 1.10 N/mm2.. 1

3 v 1.10 1.29

= 2.558 mm.

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## Y ! 1 .29 N / mm 2 1.10 N/mm2

1.10 N/mm2

1.29 N/mm2

R10 275 links are provided 2.558 mm on either side of mid-span of the beam. . Where v > (vc + 0.4) = 1.1.0 N/mm2 ....... Design links are required according to;
Asv b (v  v c ) ! sv 0.87 f yv

## 300 (1.29  0.7 ) 0.87 v 250

= 0.81 mm.

Provide R10 at 175 mm centres where v > 1.10 N/mm2 at 0.442m from the supports. 1

(8 marks)

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Maximum spacing of links; 0.75d = 0.75 x 552 = 414 mm. Therefore, The spacing of R10 275 centres and R10 175 centres are O.K. . 1 1

## (2 marks) TOTAL = 27 marks

Yes, I did it. Actually its not difficult for you and me to understand. If we are smart and do practise frequently, we will soon get it. For the next unit, I try to do better.

END OF UNIT 9