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TREE TYPES

and
INSTALLATION METHODS
James Pappas Devon
Jamie Patrick-Maxwell FMC
Ray Guillory FMC
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Deepwater Subsea Completion Systems
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Contents
• Trends
• Technology
• Design Variables
• Subsea Configurations
• Drivers
• Tree Types
• Current & Future Technology
• Installation Methods
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Subsea Equipment Trends


2000’s

1990’s ‹ 15,000 psi


‹ 20,000 psi
‹ High Temperature
1960-
1990
‹ 10,000 psi

‹ 1,000 to 5,000 psi


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Deepwater Installations Trends

1980
1980 1983
Bonito
Bonito Piraúna 1985
RJS-39 RJS-232
RJS-39 Marimbá
189m
189m 293m RJS-284 1988
FMC Kvaerner 383m Marimbá
RJS-376D 1988
619 ft 961 ft FMC 492m Placid
1,256 ft Green 1992
FMC Canyon 31 Marlim
1,613 ft 684m MRL-9 1994
781m Marlim
VG MRL-4 1997
2,244 ft FMC 1027m Marlim Sul
1997
2,561 ft MLS-3
FMC Shell Mensa
1709m
1618m
3,368 ft 1999
FMC Roncador
5,308 ft VG RJS-436 2000
1853m Petrobras
5,605 ft 2002
Roncador Marathon 2004
1877m Camden Shell
FMC Hills Coulomb
6,080 ft 2197m 2307m
VG
6,157 ft Cameron
7,209 ft FMC
7,570 ft
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Installation Vessels
Semi- submersible
Drill Ship

Jack-up

Water Depth (Feet) Surface Vessel Type of Mooring

< 400 Jack-up Spud Can or Mudmat

400-4000 Semi-Submersible Mooring (Anchors)

Dynamically
> 4000 Semi-Submersible
Positioned (Thrusters)
Dynamically
> 2000 Drill Ship
Positioned (Thrusters)
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Host Facilities Geographic Trends


Existing Popularity
Gulf of North West
Mexico Brazil Atlantic Africa
TLP/Spar High Med Med Med

Subsea to Platform High Low Med Low

Subsea to FPSO Med High High High


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Subsea Tree & Control Module Trends


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Early Trees …

Texaco Tartan Stacked Valve Tree

Shell Dry Chamber Tree

Archives from Various Operating Companies and Entities


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My Career Early Trees …

Main Pass 261 #1 FMC CM-1 Mudline Tree


VK 739 #2 (Pecten) Dril-Quip Vertical Tree

GC 157 (Shell
Manatee) #1 Vertical
VK 739 #3 Kvaerner Side Valve Tree Tree
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Deep Water Tree Technology

1992 1994 1996-1998 2000


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Tree Interfaces that Govern Design
Well
– Tubing Size, Pressure,
Temperature, Material Class
The Well

• Controls
– Direct, Piloted, Electro/Hydraulic Controls

• Flowlines
– Pipeline Size, Pressure, Connection
Type Flowline
Connection Wellhead

• Wellhead
– Mudline, Clamp Hub, Mandrel,
Different Vendors

Optimum Subsea Tree Configuration Driven by Reservoir Requirements


Fundamental Subsea Configurations
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VXT
(TH in Tubing Head)
• The type of
completion defines
where the tubing
VXT
hanger resides (TH in the wellhead) HXT and EHXT

• Anything above the


tubing hanger can
be removed
without disturbing
the well
Tubing
Tubing Head
Hanger Subsea
Wellhead
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Typical Tree Decision Drivers


Horizontal Tree Vertical Tree

• Financial driver is “installed • Financial driver is “life-of-field


CAPEX” OPEX”
• Lower well count projects that • Large well count projects (or
cannot justify expense of open portfolios of projects) that can
water completion riser justify and benefit from
• High drive wells or multilaterals investment in open water
(have need for large bore ≥ 7”) completion riser system
• Complex reservoirs or frequent • Lower drive wells (smaller bore)
workovers requiring tubing • Simple reservoirs or low
retrieval frequency of tubing retrieval
• ESP technology workovers
• Batch drilling/completion and/or • High pressure - difficult well
requirement for drill thru control issues
systems
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Subsea Trees by Water Depth

Mudline Tree
Diverless Tree
Guidelineless (GLL)
(Guideposts/Guidelines)
Tree (Funnels)

Water Depth (Feet) Surface Vessel Type of Tree

< 400 Jack-up Mudline – Diver Assist

200-800 Floating Vessel Diver Assist


Diver Assist Tree
800-2500 Floating Vessel Diverless

¾2500 Floating Vessel Guidelineless


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Tree
Configurations

10K Vertical Deep Water Standard


10K Vertical Shallow Water Tree
15K Enhanced Vertical Tree 15K Standard EHXT 10K Standard EHXT
Comparison of Traditional and
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Enhanced Vertical Trees


ROV Tree Cap

Flowline
U-Loop

Tubing Hanger Tubing Head


With Annulus Slim OD
Installed in
Isolation Valve Tubing Hanger
Wellhead

Traditional VXT Enhanced VXT


Traditional Vertical Tree with Tubing
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Hanger Completion in Wellhead


• Eliminates Need for Tubing
Head
• 18-3/4” Dual Bore Tubing
Hanger Features Integral
Annulus Valve
• 14-1/2” TH and Adapter
Sleeve used on Competitor
Wellheads
• Trip Saving ROV Tree Cap
• Guideline or Guidelineless
Configurations
• BOP Setup Required for TH
Orientation
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4” x 2” 5K Dual Bore GL Tree


EG MAGY “C
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EVXTTM-SB EVXTTM-DB

Total Girassol


Shell Std

Enhanced Slim Bore Enhanced Dual Bore


Vertical Tree Vertical Tree
4” x 2” 10,000 psi 5” x 2” 5,000 psi
5” x 2” 15,000 psi 5” x 2” 10,000 psi
GLL 10K Enhanced Vertical Tree
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and Tubing Head Stack Section View

Tree Valves
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GLL 10K Enhanced Vertical Tree System

ROV Tree Cap

Tree Assembly Subsea Control Module

Tubing Hanger

Tubing Head
Assembly
Vertical Hub
for Well Jumper
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GLL 10K Enhanced Vertical Tree


ROV Tree Cap

Tree Cap Parking


Slot

Subsea Control
Module

Flowline Hydraulic Flying


Connector Lead Receptacles

Tree Connector
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10K EVXT Tubing Head

Hub for Tree


Flowline Connector

Vertical Hub for


Well Jumper

Flowline Hub
Latch/Release

Annulus Access
Valve
10K Concentric Slimbore
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Tubing Hanger
Running Tool Latch Profile
Locking Mandrel
Lock Ring

Dual Elastomer
Secondary Seals

Alignment Key
Tubing Suspension
Threads (4” to 5 1/2”)
National Hydraulic
Couplings

Tronic Wet-Mate
Electrical Connectors Plug Profile

Split Protective Sleeve


For Couplings
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10K ROV Tree Cap

• Run subsea with tree

• Weighs less than 100 lbs


in water
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10K Enhanced Vertical Tree


Stack Views
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15K Enhanced Vertical Tree System


SCM
Choke

Tree Assembly

Tubing Hanger

Tubing Head
Vertical Hub Assembly
for Well Jumper

Capable of handling BOP’s directly


15K Enhanced
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Vertical Tree
PRODUCTION WING VALVE
18 ¾ - H4
PRODUCTION RE-ENTRY
MASTER VALVE HUB

TREE CHEMICAL
INJECTION VALVE
TREE
CHEMICAL
PRODUCTION
INJECTION
SHUT IN VALVE
VALVE

TREE
CONNECTOR

PROD. MQC
PLATE

DOWNHOLE
FUNCTIONS
CHOKE
ROV PANEL
MANF / SLED
MQC PLATE EROSION DETECTOR BLOCK
15K Enhanced
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Vertical Tree
SUBSEA CONTROL
TREE CAP PARKING MODULE
RECEPTACLE

ANNULUS
CROSSOVER
VALVE

ANNULUS
WING VALVE

ANNULUS
SWAB
VALVE
PRODUCTION
ANNULUS SHUT DOWN
MASTER VALVE
VALVE CONNECTOR / FLOWLINE
SCSSV ROV PANEL CONNECTOR
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15K Tubing Hanger Assembly


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15K ROV Tree Cap
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Enhanced Horizontal Tree System

5” x 2” 10,000 psi
5” x 2” 15,000 psi
Comparison of Traditional and
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Enhanced Horizontal Trees

Tubing Hanger Internal Tree Cap

Both Crown Plugs


Installed in
Extended
Tubing Hanger

Traditional HXT Enhanced HXT


Enhanced Horizontal 35

Tree EHXT®

85,000 lbs
14.5’ x 14.5’
footprint x
12.5’ tall
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10K & 15K ROV Tree Cap


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EHXT Tubing Hanger Features

Crown
Plug
Tubing Hanger
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10K & 15K EHXT EH-5 Radial Penetrator

• Enables 9 downhole control lines


through 2 EH-5 Penetrators
– Hydraulic, chemical, electrical
Tree EH-5
Tubing
Spool Penetrator
Hanger
Body

Welded Tubing
Connections on Female Male
Ends of Radial Coupler Coupler
Penetrator Stems
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15K EHXT
Length
166”
(4.22m)

153”
(3.88m)

134”
(3.40m)
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5K HXT WireLineLess w/ ESP

Petrobras
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5K HXT with ESP Features

Tubing
Hanger
With
Dual Ball Valve

ROV
Tree
Cap
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5K EHXT with Retrievable Choke Module


Choke
Module

TREE
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5K EHXT Retrievable Choke Module

•MEG Flow Meter


•Wet Gas Meter
•Water Cut Meter
•Choke
•Tree Connector
•Manifold Connector
•Two Sand Detectors
•Suite of Dual PT/TT Sensors
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Electric Tree with Redundant Battery
System
Standard
Electric
Connectors

Battery
Pack
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Electric Choke Control Retrofit

• Reported production
gain of 1900 bbl/d
• Fully open to fully
closed 45 seconds.
Electric Flow
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Control Valves

• Electric Actuators position


control and fast operation
• Electric Actuators for subsea
processing systems
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Boosting and Processing

Tordis Subsea Separation System


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Installation Methods
and
Systems
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Vertical Tree on Drill Pipe


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Horizontal Tree On Drill Pipe


5” x 2” 5K GLL Dual Bore Tree,
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LMRP, EDP & Completion Riser


Heave Compensated Landing System (HCLS)
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Tree overboarding

Tree being moved off Laney deck

Tree lowering into water

HCLS buoy deployment


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HCLS Tree Installation Boat to Crane

Buoys
Tree
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HCLS Tree Installation Crane to Overboard


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HCLS Tree Installation Crane to Boat


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HCLS Tree Installation Buoys Overboard
HCLS Tree Installation Sling
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HCLS Tree Installation Landout


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Rig Winch Tree Installation Boat Offload


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Rig Winch Tree Installation Rig Deployment


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Rig Winch Tree Installation
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Rig Winch Tubing Head Spool Deployment
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Subsea Tree Installation

• Run on monobore riser

• Controlled by SCM
during installation
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Monobore Completion Riser Systems
• 5” 10K & 15K
monobore riser
systems

• Riser systems
can be used for
light well
intervention on
both vertical and
horizontal trees
15K
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Monobore EDP
Riser

LRP

Tree

Tubing
Head
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5” 15K Completion Riser System

Tapered
Stress
Lubricator Valve Joint

HPU

Surface
Tree
Riser
Control
Station

Lubricator
Valve Reel Unit

Tension To EDP
Joint / LRP

Intermediate Joints
Umbilical
Reel
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THANKS! Tree

QUESTIONS?

Me

One of my Earliest Trees – Happy Holidays, Y’all!


TREE TYPES
and
INSTALLATION METHODS
James Pappas Devon
Jamie Patrick-Maxwell FMC
Ray Guillory FMC