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Chapter 3
Answers to examination-style questions
Answers
1 (a) the minimum energy required to remove an electron from the surface of a metal (b) (i) Graph features: See EA 3.1.1 below • correct axis labels and units • suitable scales • at least 5 points plotted correctly • best fit line
Marks Examiner’s tips
1 4 ‘State what is meant by’ can usually be answered by giving a definition. These are standard expectations in graph questions. Make sure that you label the axes properly with quantities a

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Answers Marks Examiner’s tips

1 (a) the minimum energy required to remove an 1 ‘State what is meant by’ can usually be

electron from the surface of a metal answered by giving a definition.

(b) (i) Graph features: See EA 3.1.1 below 4 These are standard expectations in graph

• correct axis labels and units questions. Make sure that you label the

• suitable scales axes properly with quantities and units

• at least 5 points plotted correctly and that you mark the points clearly. A

• best fit line scale will be acceptable if your graph fills

more than half of the area of the graph

paper.

(ii) the graph is a straight line which does 1 Because the line is of the same form as a

not pass through the origin general straight line, direct comparison

EK = hf − φ is an equation of the same 1 with y = mx + c will satisfy what this part

form as that of the general straight requires.

line, y = mx + c

m = h, and c = −φ 1

(iii) h = gradient of graph 1 By comparison with m above.

3.7 × 10–19 (J) 1 Show fully how you have worked out the

= __________________

(10 – 4.3) × 1014 (Hz) gradient. It may help to include the units.

= 6.5 × 10−34 J s 1 The correct unit is an essential part of

this answer.

at the intercept f0 on the f-axis EK = 0, 1 f0 is the threshold frequency for

so work function φ = h f0 photoemission to occur.

intercept value, f0 = 4.3 × 1014 Hz 1 Just read off the graph!

and φ = 6.5 × 10−34 × 4.3 × 1014 1 This solution uses the value of h found

= 2.8 × 10−19 J earlier, but you could get away with

using the value from the Data Booklet

(6.63 × 10−34 J s).

(c) if the test does not provide supporting 1 This is the ‘experimental method’ of

evidence, the prediction is incorrect verifying a scientific theory.

so the theory is incorrect and must be 1 Some theories (such as parts of Einstein’s

changed work on gravity) are still impossible to

verify experimentally.

4.0

3.5

3.0 ×

2.5 ×

Ek max / 10–19 J

2.0 ×

1.5 ×

1.0

×

×

0.5

0

0 2 4 6 8 10

frequency f / 1014 Hz

Chapter 3

Answers to examination-style questions

Answers Marks Examiner’s tips

surface.

Definition: the minimum energy required to 1 Remember to include ‘minimum’ and

remove an electron from the surface of a ‘surface’ in the definition.

metal

(b) Relevant points include: 3 Incident photons all have the same

• incident photon has fixed energy energy because the light is

• photon loses all its energy in a single monochromatic. An incident photon then

interaction transfers all its energy to an electron in

• electron can lose various amounts of the metal. An electron below the surface

energy in reaching surface of metal will have to do work, losing energy, in

• electrons have a maximum kinetic energy order to reach the surface. On leaving the

= (photon energy) − work function surface the electron loses a further

quantity of energy, the work function. So

the maximum energy a photoelectron can

have is that given to it by the photon, less

the work function. Electrons coming

from deeper inside the metal will be

emitted with less energy than those

originally at the surface.

= (6.63 × 10−34 × 1.8 × 1015) − 4.2 × 10−19 1 from Data Booklet if you can’t remember

= 7.73 × 10−19 J 1 it. Keep 3 significant figures in the

7.73 × 10–19 working because you need the energy

(ii) f0 = __________

1

6.63 × 10–34 value from (i) when working out the

= 1.2 × 10 Hz

15

1 answer to (ii).

.

3 (a) minimum frequency for emission 1 The maximum wavelength corresponds

= 4.0 × 1014 Hz (from intercept on f-axis) to the minimum frequency for emission,

c 3.00 × 108 1 which can be read directly off the graph.

= _________

λ = __

f 4.0 × 1014 Use of c = f λ then leads to the answer.

= 7.5 × 10 m 7

1

(b) (i) the line would be parallel to the 1 If you compare EK = hf –φ with the

original line, but the intercept on the straight line equation y = mx + c, it

f-axis would be at 8.0 × 1014 Hz should be clear that h is the gradient (m).

h is a constant, so the gradient is

(ii) • the gradient of the line is the Planck

1

unchanged. When EK = 0, we are at the

constant, h, so it is unchanged

threshold frequency, where h f = φ. When

• the intersection with the f-axis is 1

the work function φ is doubled, so is the

doubled because h f = φ when the

threshold frequency.

photoelectrons have zero kinetic

energy

Chapter 3

Answers to examination-style questions

Answers Marks Examiner’s tips

4 (a) there must be sufficient distance between 1 In crossing the tube, the electrons gain

collisions for the electrons to gain enough kinetic energy. The larger the distance

energy for the required excitations to occur they travel between collisions, the greater

or the energy they acquire. Collisions with

the vapour must not completely absorb the atoms can then give the atoms the

electrons necessary (relatively high) energy needed

for ultraviolet emission to occur on de-

excitation of the mercury atoms.

• the mercury vapour emits ultraviolet involved in the operation of the

radiation fluorescent tube. In (b) the processes

• the ultraviolet radiation excites the atoms involved are excitation of the coating by

of the coating incident short λ radiation and its de-

• the coating then emits electromagnetic excitation accompanied by the emission

radiation of longer wavelengths (or lower of longer λ radiation. Any of these 3

frequencies) points would gain full marks.

• some of which is in the visible region

5 (a) frequency f = ______

equation for the energy of an emitted

h

–0.26 × 10 – (–0.59 × 10–18)

–18

photon, E1 − E2 = h f.

= _________________________

6.63 × 10–34

= 5.0 × 10 Hz

14

1

frequency of the photon must be lower

and the energy difference producing it

must be smaller. On the diagram, only

n = 3 to n = 2 (0.29 × 10−18 J) will satisfy

this.

6 (a) electrons behave both as waves and as 1 Electrons are usually thought of as

particles particles, and the collisions they make

Wave behaviour: 1 with atoms produce effects similar to

they can be diffracted, or show interference those given by other colliding particles.

effects But the particle-like behaviour of waves

Particle behaviour: 1 (as shown by the photoelectric effect)

can be deflected in electric or magnetic raised the possibility of a similar dual

fields, or make collisions with atoms behaviour by electrons. The discovery of

electron diffraction showed that it did, in

fact, happen.

(b) (i) From λ = ___

mv , speed v = ___

mλ of the de Broglie wavelength equation.

6.63 × 10–34 Like the Planck constant h, the electron

= ____________________

9.11 × 10–31 × 1.3 × 10–10 rest mass m is given in the Data Booklet.

= 5.6 × 10 m s

6 –1

1

Chapter 3

Answers to examination-style questions

Answers Marks Examiner’s tips

h 6.63 × 10–34

(ii) m = ___

= __________________

1 A further rearrangement of the de Broglie

λv 8.6 × 10–14 × 5.6 × 106

equation gives this result.

= 1.4 × 10 kg −27

1

7 (a) electron diffraction (or interference) 1 Until electron diffraction had been

discovered, diffraction and interference

were only associated with waves.

mv = ____________________

(b) λ = ___

9.11 × 10–31 × 5.00 × 105 figures in this answer, as you may need

= 1.46 × 10−9 m 1 the value in (c).

(= 1.89 × 10−28 kg) Since λ is the same, the muons must have

h 6.63 × 10–34 1 the same momentum as the electrons:

= _____________________

speed v = ___

mλ 1.89 × 10–28 × 1.46 × 10–9 meve = mµ vµ

= 2.4 × 10 m s

3 −1

1 meve _________

5.00 × 105

So vµ = ____

mµ

= 207

(d) Relevant points include: 2 A more mathematical approach:

• both experience the same increase in Each will gain the same kinetic energy,

energy (or have same work done on so let mv2 =__constant (k).

__

them) k h h m

• wavelength is inversely proportional to Now v = __ √

m , leading to λ = ___

mv = __

m __

k√

,

momentum and as both h and k are constants, λ is

• gain in momentum is different for the proportional to m−

_1

2

Thus a particle with larger mass must

• the smaller mass has the largest

have a smaller de Broglie wavelength.

acceleration (or gain in speed)

(Actually λ is 1.0 × 10−10 m for the muons

in this example.)

Nelson Thornes is responsible for the solution(s) given and they may not constitute the only possible solution(s).

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