You are on page 1of 16

HOLLOW CORE FLOORS

SPEED AND STRENGTH


CONTENTS

2 INTRODUCTION

3 PRECAST CONCRETE FLOORS


T H E A D VA N TA G E S

4 BISON HOLLOW CORE FLOORS

5 BEARINGS

7 FALSE CEILINGS AND SOFFIT


FIXINGS

8 BISON HOLLOW COMPOSITE


FLOORS

9 BISON SOLID COMPOSITE


FLOORS

10 BISON SOLID COMPOSITE


FLOORS C O N S T R U C T I O N D E TA I L S

12 SOUND INSULATION
W ITH B ISON H OLLOW C ORE S LABS

13 BISON PRECAST FLOORING


SPECIFICATION

14 QUALITY ASSURANCE
INTRODUCTION

Bison is the largest producer of precast concrete


floors in the United Kingdom.

The company has been a leader in the design and


manufacture of structural products since 1919.
There are five Bison factories throughout the
United Kingdom strategically situated to provide
a comprehensive service to our customers.

This brochure describes the extensive range of


precast flooring available to the specifier.

Other products pioneered by Bison and for which


they hold a market leading position include house
floors for use both at ground floor and intermediate
levels and precast prestressed staircases produced by
a patented method which provides a product of
excellent quality at moderate cost.

In the field of structures too, Bison is a market


leader producing precast concrete, steel and
composite structures for use in retail, industrial,
commercial buildings and car parks as well as in
housing, educational and government projects.

Brochures on other Bison products and services for


the construction industry are listed on the back
cover of this brochure.

2
PRECAST CONCRETE FLOORS
T H E A D VA N T A G E S

Speed of Erection Preformed Site Services


Time consuming activities such as propping, Precast floors can be provided with factory formed
shuttering and concrete pouring are virtually service holes thus avoiding laborious setting out
eliminated. and shuttering on site.

Diaphragm Action Extra Long Spans


Precast floor slabs are structurally grouted to provide Factory made prestressed units offer the maximum
a floor with full diaphragm action as required in design advantages of achieving long span units for
most multi–storey frameworks. given depths. This avoids the need for intermediate
supports and provides an economically light solution
Shelf Angle Bearing throughout the entire structure. The Bison long span
Slab ends can be notched during manufacture to 450 mm deep unit can span in excess of 16 metres.
facilitate a bearing within the depth of a main
supporting steel. This minimises storey height, with Finished Soffits
substantial cost benefits arising from reduced Precast floors are manufactured on high quality
cladding costs, lower internal fitting costs etc. steel beds and are suitable in appropriate cases for
direct decoration.
No Propping
Propping is generally not required with hollow core Flexibility of Design Approach
floors.Compare this with the large amount of Precast floors are available with a variety of
propping required with insitu and semi-insitu floor factory formed notches, slots and reinforcement
systems. arrangements which offer various design approaches.

Fire Resistance Elimination of Edge Shuttering


Standard precast floors can be supplied with a fire Edge shuttering to any building is inevitably a
resistance of up to 2 hours.Periods in excess of this difficult and often dangerous operation. This can be
can be provided with modified sections if required. totally avoided by using a precast floor.

Minimum Insitu Concrete Structural Efficiency


Using a precast floor, a large volume of work is A hollow core slab offers the ideal structural section
carried out off site and saves what can be complex by reducing the deadweight whilst providing the
and time consuming site operation subject to the maximum structural efficiency within the slab depth.
vagaries of the climate.
Factory Produced to Rigorous Quality Standards
Immediate Unpropped Working Platform Because precast floors are factory produced, they
Once a precast floor is erected, it is immediately are manufactured in an environment which is more
available as a working platform. readily controlled than a building site.
Steel deck systems by comparison can present Quality control systems are properly implemented
problems in achieving level surfaces whilst concrete and are independently examined on a regular basis
is poured and in providing access whilst in the under the British Standards Institution Quality
propped condition. Assurance Scheme.

3
BISON HOLLOW CORE FLOORS

Widely used in masonry, steel and concrete structures for domestic, commercial and industrial buildings.
The most economic flooring solution for the widest variety of situations, providing the maximum benefits
of speed of construction.
LOAD / SPAN TABLE
Spans indicated below allow for characteristic service load (live load)
Overall plus self weight plus 1.5 kN / m2 for finishes
structural Available Self Wt Characteristic service loads kN / m2
depth mm fire period kN / m2 0.75 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 15.0
Effective span in metres

100 1 Hour or 2* Hour 2.40 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.6 4.0 3.6 3.1
150 1 Hour or 2* Hour 2.40 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.2 6.7 6.3 5.6 5.0 4.3
200 2 Hour 2.85 10.0 10.0 10.0 9.4 9.3 8.8 8.3 7.3 6.6 5.6
250 2 Hour 3.30 12.4 11.7 11.3 10.8 10.5 10.1 9.6 8.5 7.7 6.6
300 2 Hour 3.95 15.0 14.7 14.2 13.8 13.3 12.6 12.0 10.8 9.9 8.6
350 2 Hour 4.45 16.9 16.2 15.7 15.2 14.8 14.0 13.4 12.0 11.0 9.6
400 2 Hour 4.85 18.0 17.3 16.8 16.3 15.8 15.1 14.4 13.0 12.0 10.5
450 2 Hour 5.35 19.4 18.6 18.1 17.5 17.1 16.3 15.6 14.2 13.1 11.5
The table is given as a guide only. When using maximum spans, consideration must be given to the effect of camber
and deflection on partitions or finishes. Further advice is available on request. * 35mm screed required.
UNIT PROFILES

100 mm Thick

1200 mm Nominal width

150 mm Thick
200 mm
250 mm

1200 mm Nominal width

300 mm Thick
350 mm
400 mm
450 mm

1200 mm Nominal width

4
BEARINGS

BEARINGS ON SHELF ANGLES


Finishes Structural concrete infill

Nominal bearing 75 Projection of angle


Minimum bearing 50 beyond extremity of
flange 50 mm.
Greater where U.C.
sections are used

25 mm clearance is required to allow unit to be dropped into 25 mm


position past the flange of the supporting U.B. clearance

BEARINGS ON MASONRY SIDE BEARING


Where required by Building Regulations for sound insulation.

Finishes Finishes

Nominal bearing
t / 2 - 10 mm
Continuous wet mortar by builder to
Wall thickness take up camber
t > 190
t

5
BEARINGS

NARROW WALL BEARING NARROW BEARING ON STEELWORK


( NB. In order to satisfy the tolerances in this situation, this
detail is only recommended where a full bearing is available
at the other end of the slab)

Finishes Structural concrete infill Finishes Structural concrete infill

Nominal bearing
t / 2 - 10 mm Tie reinforcement at Nominal bearing Tie reinforcement at
(Min. 65 mm) 400 c/c in joints and t / 2 - 10 mm 400 c/c in joints and
troughs provided in troughs provided in
Wall thickness 1200 wide units Flange width 1200 wide units
t < 190 (Min. 140 mm) t < 150 (Min.140 mm)
t t

END SLOTS IN UNITS TRIMMING OPENINGS


Slots may be provided in slab ends for the purpose of tying M.S.Trimmer.
into the structure for nominal continuity Fire protection, where necessary by General Contractor

The recommendations for bearings of precast units are set out in Clause 5.2.3 of B.S. 8110:1997. These vary according to the type
of floor construction and the type of support material and building tolerances. In general nominal bearings of 100 mm on masonry
or 75 mm on steelwork are recommended but may be reduced dependent upon circumstances and subject to the above clause.

6
FA L S E C E I L I N G S A N D S O F F I T F I X I N G S

A wide variety of methods to suspend ceilings and services are available.


Some alternative methods are shown below.

COUNTER BATTENS FIXED DIRECT TO SLAB SOFFIT

Shot firing is not recommended. Various site-drilled anchors are available and, used in accordance
with the manufacturers instructions, are a simple and economic fixing method.

CLIPS OR HANGERS FIXED IN SLAB JOINTS

Type ‘A’ hangers

TYPICAL CEILING HANGERS


20g M.S. Galvanised TYPE ‘ A ’ TYPE ‘ B ’ TYPE ‘ C ’
or Sheradized

DETAIL OF CEILING HANGER TYPE ‘WL’ WIRE CEILING CLIP


IN SLAB JOINT IN SLAB JOINT
Joint to be grouted Bend over shank
of hanger

Type ‘B’ hanger


Wire loops bent under batten
and nailed upwards

7
BISON HOLLOW COMPOSITE FLOORS

A combination of the Bison Hollow Core Slab with a structural concrete topping. This type of floor gives
the benefit of an increased structural performance with an enhanced lateral load distribution where
necessary for heavy point loads. The floor may be designed in the unpropped or partially propped condition
to suit particular requirements. This floor is particularly suitable for industrial buildings, high buildings, car
parks or other structures where additional longitudinal and transverse tying is required.
LOAD / SPAN TABLE
Spans indicated below allow for characteristic service load (live load)
Overall plus self weight plus 1.5 kN / m2 for finishes
structural Unit Available Self Wt Characteristic service loads kN / m2
depth mm depth fire period kN / m2 0.75 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 10.0 15.0
Effective span in metres

200 150 1 Hour or 2 Hour 3.60 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.0 7.6 7.3 6.0 5.2
250 200 1 Hour or 2 Hour 4.00 10.7 10.3 10.0 9.7 9.5 9.0 8.7 7.2 6.2
300 250 2 Hour 4.45 12.1 11.6 11.2 11.0 10.7 10.2 9.8 8.1 7.0
375 300 2 Hour 5.75 14.3 13.8 13.5 13.2 13.0 12.5 12.1 10.4 9.3
425 350 2 Hour 6.20 15.7 15.2 14.9 14.6 14.3 13.8 13.3 11.6 10.3
475 400 2 Hour 6.60 16.8 16.2 15.9 15.6 15.3 14.7 14.2 12.4 11.1
525 450 2 Hour 7.10 18.0 17.5 17.1 16.8 16.5 15.9 15.4 13.4 12.1
The above data is based upon 50 or 75 mm structural topping of C30 concrete which should be regarded as a minimum.
Other topping depths may be recommended in some circumstances. Design data for alternative combinations are
available from Bison Design Offices. Topping reinforcement, daywork and movement joints should be considered in
relation to the overall structural concept of the building.
COMPOSITE PROFILES

Composite depth 50 or 75 mm
200 mm 150 mm Thick
250 mm 200 mm
300 mm 250 mm

1200 mm Nominal width

Composite depth
75 mm
375 mm
425 mm
475 mm
525 mm 300 mm Thick
*Minimum structural 350 mm
depth 50mm at centre 400 mm
of span. Overall 450 mm
thickness at bearing
must take account of
the camber of the slab.

1200 mm Nominal width

8
BISON SOLID COMPOSITE FLOORS

Combines the advantages of a precast, prestressed element acting compositely with an insitu concrete
structural topping to form a solid slab. The prestressed element, whilst eliminating the need for conventional
shuttering, provides a structural performance far superior to normally reinforced concrete. This provides the
engineer with the scope to incorporate all of the details normally associated with insitu design, such as the
tying in of balconies, trimming of openings, maximum load distribution and minimum structural depth.
LOAD / SPAN TABLE
Spans indicated below allow for characteristic service load (live load)
Unit Overall Propped plus self weight plus 1.5 kN / m2 for finishes
* depth structural Self Wt or Characteristic service loads kN / m2
mm depth mm kN / m2 Unpropped 0.75 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 10.0 15.0
Effective span in metres

125 2.95 6.42 6.00 5.76 5.55 5.36 5.03 4.60 3.74 2.88
150 3.54 7.29 6.86 6.61 6.38 6.18 5.83 5.53 4.52 3.64
1 Hour Fire Resistance

P
175 4.12 7.50 7.50 7.42 7.18 6.97 6.60 6.28 5.18 4.18
200 4.71 7.50 7.50 7.50 7.50 7.50 7.34 6.98 5.74 4.84
75
125 2.95 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.44 3.07
150 3.54 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.63 3.32
U/P
175 4.12 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.69 3.44
200 4.71 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.66 3.47
150 3.54 7.34 6.90 6.65 6.43 6.23 5.87 5.57 4.52 3.60
200 4.71 8.88 8.44 8.18 7.94 7.72 7.33 7.00 5.82 4.84
1 Hour Fire Resistance

P
250 5.89 10.00 9.85 9.57 9.30 9.05 8.61 8.22 6.86 5.92
300 7.07 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 9.83 9.39 9.01 7.61 6.71
100
150 3.54 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 4.34 3.86
200 4.71 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 4.65 4.30
U/P
250 5.89 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 4.95 4.89 4.61 4.38
300 7.07 4.77 4.74 4.72 4.70 4.68 4.64 4.61 4.44 4.29
150 3.54 7.34 6.90 6.65 6.43 6.23 5.87 5.57 4.12 3.22
200 4.71 8.88 8.44 8.18 7.94 7.72 7.33 7.00 5.72 4.53
2 Hour Fire Resistance

P
250 5.89 10.00 9.77 9.48 9.21 8.96 8.52 8.14 6.79 5.73
300 7.07 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 9.81 9.38 8.99 7.60 6.70
100
150 3.54 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 4.91 4.73 4.06 3.62
200 4.71 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 4.99 4.88 4.78 4.36 4.03
U/P
250 5.89 4.83 4.78 4.75 4.72 4.69 4.63 4.58 4.32 4.11
300 7.07 4.46 4.44 4.42 4.40 4.38 4.35 4.32 4.16 4.02
*Enhancement of the stated fire period may be achieved by applied soffit finishes.

9
BISON SOLID COMPOSITE FLOORS
C O N S T R U C T I O N D E TA I L S

Solid composite construction utilises the advantages of a prestressed precast element acting compositely
with an insitu structural topping, combining the benefits of precast and insitu construction. These benefits are
reduced construction depths, speed of erection, elimination of shuttering, minimal propping, fire resistance,
and the flexibility of architectural and engineering design.

COMPOSITE PROFILE

O / A Depth

75 or 100 mm
Deep

SIMPLE BEARING ON TOP SLAB COMPOSITE WITH


FLANGE OF STEELWORK SUPPORTING BEAM

Nominal support reinforcement and/or daywork joints Flange reinforcement and shear studs as required
determined by general layout and site operation by steelwork design

40 mm 40 mm
Min. bearing Min. bearing

10
BISON SOLID COMPOSITE FLOORS
C O N S T R U C T I O N D E TA I L S

SHELF ANGLE BEARING CANTILEVER CONSTRUCTION

Minimum 25 mm cover to top of steel beam flange Insitu structural topping on precast element

Minimum 50 mm Nominal 50 mm Precast balcony Temporary propping


clearance bearing element during construction

INSITU CONSTRUCTION
Solid composite floors may be placed on insitu beam Beam depths and widths to suit specific requirements
downstands or supported on shutters before pouring site concrete

Nominal 50 mm Nominal 50 mm bearing


bearing for for precast elements
precast elements

11
S O U N D I N S U L AT I O N
WITH BISON HOLLOW CORE SLABS

The Building Regulations (Approved Document 1992 ) set out the sound insulation requirements both for
airborne and impact sound for a floor separating dwellings. When using precast concrete units, two alternative
types of construction meet the requirements. They are as follows:

FLOOR TYPE 1 CONCRETE BASE WITH SOFT COVERING


Soft covering of resilient material

Building Regulation requirement is: Floor Base comprising structural slab together
with any directly bonded screed plus ceiling
finish. Mass < 365 kg/m2

Examples of compliant construction using Bison profiles are as follows:


SCREED ( 35 mm Sand / Cement ) 65 kg/m2 SCREED ( 60 mm Sand / Cement ) 115 kg/m2 SCREED ( 30 mm Sand / Cement ) 60 kg/m2

200 mm Standard Bison slab 300 kg/m2 150 mm Standard Bison slab 250 kg/m2 150 mm Bison sound slab 307 kg/m2

FLOOR TYPE 2 CONCRETE BASE WITH FLOATING LAYER


Floating layer ( timber or screed )
Resilient layer
Building Regulation requirement is: Floor Base comprising structural slab together
with any directly bonded screed plus ceiling
finish. Mass < 300 kg/m2

Examples of floors complying with type 2 requirements are as follows:


Floating layer on resilient layer SCREED 50 kg/m2 Floating layer on resilient layer

200 mm Standard Bison slab 300 kg/m2 150 mm Standard Bison slab 250 kg/m2 150 mm Bison sound slab 307 kg/m2

THE BISON SOUND SLAB ( TYPE RS )


The Bison sound slab has been specially developed to provide an economic and structurally efficient means
of satisfying the requirements of sound insulation.

150 mm

1200 mm
Spans indicated below allow for characteristic service load (live load)
Overall plus self weight plus 1.5 kN / m2 for finishes
structural Available Self Wt Characteristic service loads kN / m2
depth mm fire period kN / m2 0.75 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 7.5 10.0 15.0
Effective span in metres
150 2 Hours 3.02 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.3 7.1 6.6 6.2 5.5 5.0 4.3

12
BISON PRECAST FLOORING
S P E C I F I C AT I O N

MANUFACTURE FINISHES
1.1 Bison Floors are manufactured by the long line 3.1 Concrete surface finish to soffit is Type A finish
prestressed method using slip form or extrusion as described in clause 6.2.7.3. of B.S.8110:1997.
techniques. The units are cast on heated steel
beds within an enclosed factory environment. The soffit is suitable for the direct application
of a textured paint finish where this is applied in
1.2 The materials used in the manufacture of Bison accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
Floors comply with the relevant British Standard
for that material. Where a plaster finish is intended it may be
necessary to use a bonding agent in accordance
1.3 An air entraining agent complying with with the instructions of the plaster manufacturer.
B.S. 5075 Pt.2:1982 is included in the concrete Plaster finishes are not recommended on longer
mix to improve workability. spans.

1.4 Reinforcement is generally 5mm diameter 3.2 Sides and top surfaces are ‘as extruded’ as
high tensile wire or 12.5mm diameter strand described in Table 5.5 of B.S.8110:1997.
complying with the requirements of B.S.5896:
1980. 3.3 Units may accumulate water within the cores
due to exposure during the construction
1.5 Bison units are sawn to length on the programme. The General Contractor should
manufacturing bed and are supplied as standard drill weep holes as necessary, or keep them
with plain sawn ends with open cores. clear where they are provided during manufacture.

DIMENSIONS DESIGN
2.1 Bison Units are manufactured in nominal sizes 4.1 The design of Bison units is in accordance with
as follows : the requirements and recommendations of
Standard nominal width of all units is 1200mm. B.S.8110:1997 “The Structural Use of Concrete.”

Solid : Depth 75mm 100mm 4.2 Load/Span capacity : The reinforcement


Hollow : Depth 150mm 200mm 250mm pattern within a Bison section will vary
300mm 350mm 400mm according to the design loading specified.
450mm
2.2 Cross-sectional tolerances are within the limits 4.3 Exposure Condition : The standard Bison
set out in clause 6.2.8.3. of B.S. 8110:1997. section is suitable for a moderate exposure
Length tolerances are + 20 mm. classification as defined in Table 3.2 of
B.S.8110:1997.
2.3 Bison units will have an upward camber due to
pre-stressing as described in clause 6.2.8.4. of 4.4 Fire Resistance : Fire resistance is based upon
B.S.8110:1997. the tabulated data contained within B.S. 8110
Part 2 Section 4. Sections are available for fire
2.4 Edges are shaped to form a grout joint giving periods of 1 hour or 2 hours, without the
a shear key to distribute load to adjacent units. addition of further finishes.These periods of
Where non-standard widths are provided the fire resistance may be further enhanced by the
edge will be rough cut from a standard unit. application of appropriate finishes.

13
BISON PRECAST FLOORING
S P E C I F I C AT I O N

QUALITY ASSURANCE
4.5 Serviceability : The standard Bison section is 5.1 All Bison manufacturing plants are members
designed to meet the criteria of Class 3 as set of the B.S.I. Registered Firms Scheme for
out in clause 4.1.3 of B.S.8110.1997 Designs Quality Assurance to B.S. EN ISO 9001:1994
to Class 1 and Class 2 are available if required. for the design and manufacture of precast
concrete products.
4.6 Sound Insulation : The requirements of The Membership of the scheme ensures that all
Building Regulations are that a floor construction procedures and disciplines relevant to the
incorporating the use of precast concrete units design and manufacturing processes are subject
should have a minimum mass which is to the independent approval and periodic
dependent upon whether the finishes to the top review by the British Standards Institution.
surface are directly applied or are on a separating
layer. The mass of Bison unit sections are All Bison U.K.
given in the technical data and are net weights factories have been
of standard hollow sections. Futher information assessed by the
is set out on page 12 of this brochure. British Standards
Institution (B.S.I.)
4.7 Horizontal & Vertical Ties : Ties necessary to and awarded
satisfy the requirements for accidental damage Certificates of
should be specified by the Engineer with Assessed Capability
responsibility for the design of the overall under the scheme
structure in accordance with the Code of Practice. covering Quality
Assurance for the
4.8 Bearings : Level and structurally adequate manufacture of
bearings for Bison precast units should be precast concrete
provided by other contractors. These should floors.
generally be 100 mm for masonry or 75 mm
for concrete or steelwork, but may be reduced As a customer, you can be sure that all aspects
in accordance with clause of our production, design detailing and quality
5.2.3 of B.S.8110:1997. control have been independently inspected and
have achieved the high level of competence
4.9 Holes : Small holes up to 60 mm diameter and quality required by the British Standards
may be drilled on site through the hollow Institution.
cores, care being taken to avoid damage to the The company maintains a policy of continuous
reinforced ribs. Larger holes may be cut subject development, and reserves the right to change
to the design capacity of the slab. specification and details without prior notice.

4.10 Grouting : Joints between units should be


grouted with a 20 N/mm2 concrete using a
6 mm nominal aggregate size.

4.11 Propping : Where the slab design requires site


propping, this should be carried out in strict
accordance with the Bison drawings. REGISTRATION No. FM 11

HCF/ 02 / 04 5985
Consortium Communications Ltd.
Tel: 01494 681600 email: info@consortcom.co.uk 14
PRECAST STAIRCASES

BEAM AND BLOCK FLOORS

STRUCTURES

CAR PARKS

BISON CONCRETE PRODUCTS LIMITED


Millennium Court
First Avenue, Centrum 100
Burton Upon Trent, DE14 2WR
FAX 01283 5 4 4 9 0 0
T E L 01283 4 9 5 0 0 0
E-MAIL concrete@bison.co.uk
WEB www.bison.co.uk