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CURSOS LIVRES DE 3º GRAU

CÁLCULO III

INTEGRAIS DE LINHA – EXERCÍCIOS RESOLVIDOS

1. Calcule a integral de linha ∫ ( x + 2y ) ds, onde C é uma semicircunferência centrada na origem de raio igual a 3
C

e orientada no sentido positivo.

Solução:

A parametrização dessa semicircunferência será dada por:

r r r
( −3sent ) + ( 3cos t ) dt ⇔ ds = 9 dt = 3dt . Substituindo:
2 2
r(t) = 3cos ti + 3sent j, 0 ≤ t ≤ π ⇒ ds =

∫ ( 3 cos t + 6sent ) 3dt = 3 ( 3sent − 6cos t ) = 3 × ( 12 ) = 36


π
0
0

2. Calcular a integral ∫ ( x² + y² − z ) ds,


C
onde C é a hélice circular dada por :

r r r r
r(t) = cos ti + sent j + tk de P(1,0,0) a Q(1,0,2 π)

Solução:

( −sent ) + ( cos t ) ² + 1dt = 2 dt. Assim, podemos escrever:


2
ds =

2π 2π 2π
 t² 
∫ ( cos ²t + sen²t − t )
0
2 dt = 2 ∫ ( 1 − t )dt = 2  t − 
0  2 0

 4 π² 
2 ∫ ( 1 − t ) dt = 2  2π − = 2π 2 ( 1 − π )
0  2 

3. Calcule ∫ ( 2x − y + z ) ds , onde C é o segmento de reta que liga A(1, 2, 3) a B(2, 0, 1).


C

Solução:

Parametrização do segmento de reta AB:

 x(t) = 2 + t
uuur r r r suur 
AB = (1, −2, −2) = i − 2j − 2k; B(2,0,1) ⇔ AB :  y(t) = −2t
z(t) = 1 − 2t

y = 2 ⇒ t = −1; y = 0 ⇒ t = 0 ∴ −1 ≤ t ≤ 0

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r r
r(t) = x ( t ) ˆi + y ( t ) ˆj + z ( t ) kˆ ⇔ r(t) = ( 2 + t ) ˆi − 2tjˆ + ( 1 − 2t ) kˆ
Assim :
ur r r r r
r '(t) = i − 2j − 2k ⇒ r(t) = 1 + 4 + 4 = 9 = 3 ∴ ds = 3dt (1)

f ( x,y,z ) = 2x − y + z ⇔ f ( t ) = 2(2 + t) − ( −2t) + 1 − 2t = 4 + 2t + 2t + 1 − 2t = 5 + 2t ∴ f ( t ) = 5 + 2t (2)

Substituindo (1) e (2) na integral dada:

0 0

∫ ( 2x − y + z ) ds = ∫ ( 5 + 2t ) 3dt = 3∫ (5 + 2t) dt = 3(5t + t²) | −1


0

C −1 −1

∫ ( 2x − y + z ) ds = 0 − 3( −5 + 1) = (−3)(−4) = 12
C

Resp.: 12

4. Calcule ∫ xz ds , onde C é a interseção da esfera x² + y² + z² = 4 com o plano x = y.


C

Solução:

Vamos parametrizar a curva dada:

x = y = t ⇒ t² + t² + z² = 4 ⇒ z² = 4 − 2t² ∴ z = 4 − 2t²
4 − 2t² ≥ 0 ⇔ 2t² − 4 ≤ 0 ⇒ − 2 ≤ t ≤ 2
r r r r r
r(t) = x ( t ) ˆi + y ( t ) ˆj + z ( t) kˆ ⇔ r(t) = ti + t j + ( )
4 − 2t² k
r 2t
r ' ( t ) = ˆi + ˆj − kˆ
4 − 2t 2
2
ur  2t  4t2 8 − 4t2 + 4t 2 8 8
r '(t) = 12 + 12 +  −  = 2+ = = = ( 1)
 4 − 2t 2  4 − 2t 2 4 − 2t 2 4 − 2t 2
4 − 2t 2
e
f ( x, y,z ) = xz ⇔ f ( t ) = t 4 − 2t² (2)

Substituindo (1) e (2) na integral dada:

2 2
8
∫ xz ds = ∫ t 4 − 2t² ⋅ dt = 8 ∫ t dt
C − 2 4 − 2t 2 − 2

2
t2 8 
( 2) − ( − 2)  = 8 × 2−2 =0
2 2

∫ xz ds = 8 × = × ( )
C
2 − 3
2   2

Resp.: 0

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Outra Solução:

C : x 2 + y 2 + z2 = 4 x=y
Assim :
y 2 z2
y 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4 ⇔ 2y 2 + z2 = 4 ∴ + =1
2 4
Parametrizando:
x ( t ) = 2 cos t y ( t ) = 2 cos t z( t) = 2sent
Assim :
r
( r
)
r ( t ) = 2 cos t, 2 cos t, 2sent ⇒ r '( t) = − 2sent, − 2sent, 2cos t( )
e
r
(− ) +( − ) r
2 2
r '( t) = 2sent 2sent + ( 2cos t) ⇔ r '( t) = 2sen2 t + 2sen2 t + 4 cos2 t
r r r r
r ' ( t ) = 4sen2 t + 4cos2 t ⇔ r '( t) = 4( sen2 t + cos2 t) ⇔ r '( t) = 4 ∴ r '( t) = 2
Substituindo :
2π 2π b

∫ xzds =
C

0
2 cos t × 2sent × 2dt = 4 2 ∫ sent cos tdt = 4 2∫ udu
0 a

Onde :
u = sent ⇒ du = cos tdt
Assim:
b b
u2 2 2π
∫ xzds = 4 2 ∫ udu = 4 2 × = 2 2 ( sent) = 2 2  sen2 ( 2π) − sen2 ( 0)  = 0
C a 2 a
0

Resp: 0

x² y²
5. Calcule ∫ xyds , onde C é a elipse + = 1.
C a² b²
Solução:

A parametrização da elipse é dada por:

x(t) = a cos t e y(t) = bsen t t ∈ [ 0, 2π ]


r r r
r(t) = acos ti + bsen t j, 0 ≤ t ≤ 2 π
e
r
r ' ( t ) = −asentiˆ + bcos tjˆ
ur
r '(t) = a²sen²t + b² cos ²t, mas sen²t = 1 − cos ²t
ur ur ur
r '(t) = a² ( 1 − cos2 t ) + b² cos2 t ⇔ r '(t) = a² − a 2 cos2 t + b² cos 2 t ∴ r '(t ) = (b² − a²)cos ²t + a²

r
ds = r '(t) dt ∴ ds = (b² − a²)cos ²t + a² dt

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Substituindo na integral dada:

∫ xyds =
C
∫ a cos t ⋅ bsent ⋅
0
(b² − a²)cos ²t + a² dt

∫ xyds = ab ∫ cos t ⋅ sent ⋅


C 0
(b² − a²)cos ²t + a² dt

u = (b² − a²)cos ²t + a² ⇒ du = 2(b² − a²)cos t ⋅ ( −sent) = −2(b² − a²) ⋅ cos t ⋅ sent


du
du = 2(a² − b²) ⋅ cos t ⋅ sent ⋅ dt ∴ dt =
2(a² − b²) ⋅ cos t ⋅ sent
du
∫C xyds = ab∫ cos t ⋅ sent ⋅ u ⋅ 2(a² − b²) ⋅ cos t ⋅ sent
[ (b² − a²)cos ²t + a²] |2π
3

ab ab
2

∫C xyds = 2(a² − b²) ∫ u2 du = 2(a² − b²)


1

0
3
2

{ }
3
ab 2 ab ( b2 − a2 ) cos2 ( 2π) + a2  − ( b2 − a2 ) cos2 ( 0) + a2 
∫ xyds = ⋅ ( b² − a² ) cos2 t + a2  2 =
C 2 (a² − b²) 3 0
3 ( a2 − b2 )    

ab ( b2 − a2 + a2 ) − ( b2 − a2 + a2 )  = 0 ∴ xyds = 0
∫ xyds = 3 ( a
C
2
− b2 )   ∫
C

Resp.:0

6. ∫ ( 3y −
C
)
z ds , onde C é o arco da parábola z = y² e x = 1 de A(1,0,0) a B(1,2,4).

Solução:

Parametrizando C:

x ( t ) = 1

C = y ( t ) = t 0≤t≤2

 z ( t ) = t
2

Assim:

r r r
( )
r ( t ) = 1,t,t 2 ⇒ r ' ( t ) = ( 0,1,2t ) ∴ r ' ( t ) = 1 + 4t2

Assim:

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( )
2 2 2

∫ ( 3y − )
z ds = ∫ 3t − t 1 + 4t dt = ∫ ( 3t − t ) 1 + 4t dt = ∫ 2t 1 + 4t2 dt
2 2 2

C 0 0 0

Fazendo :
du du
u = 1 + 4t 2 ⇒ = 8t ∴ dt =
dt 8t
e
0 ≤ t ≤ 2 ⇔ 1 ≤ u ≤ 17
Substituindo :
2 17 17

∫( )
1
 du  2t
3y − z ds = ∫ 2t 1 + 4t 2 dt = ∫1 2t u  8t  8t ∫ du
= u 2

C 0   1
17
 3 

∫(
C
1  u2
)
3y − z ds = 
4 3
 1 2  32 32  1
 = × ×  17 − 1  =
 4 3   6
( 173 − 1)
 2 1

∫( ) ( )
1
3y − z ds = 17 17 − 1
C
6

Resp:
1
6
(
17 17 − 1 )

7. ∫ y ds , onde C é a curva dada por y = x³ de (-1,-1) a (1, 1).


C

Solução:

Sabemos que:

 y, se y ≥ 0 ⇔ −1 ≤ y ≤ 0
y =
− y, se y < 0 ⇔ 0 < y < 1

Parmetrizando C:

C: x ( t ) = t; y ( t ) = t 3

Assim:

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r r
r ( t ) = x ( t ) ˆi + y ( t ) ˆj ∴ r ( t ) = t,t 3 ( )
Assim :
r r r
( )
r ' ( t ) = 1,3t 2 ⇒ r ' ( t ) = 1 + 3t2 ( ) ∴ r ' ( t ) = 1 + 9t4
2

Assim :
0 1


C
y ds = ∫ -yds +
C1

C2
yds = ∫ −t 3 1 + 9t 4 dt + ∫ t3 1 + 9t4 dt
−1 0

Fazendo :
du du
u = 1 + 9t 4 ⇒ = 36t3 ∴ dt =
dt 36t 3
Se − 1 ≤ t ≤ 0 ⇔ 10 ≤ u ≤ 1e 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 ⇔ 1 ≤ u ≤ 10
Substituindo :
0 1 1 10
 du   du 
∫ y ds = ∫ −t 1 + 9t dt + ∫ t 1 + 9t dt = ∫ −t + ∫ t3 u 
3 4 3 4 3
u 3  3 
C −1 0 10  36t  1  36t 
11 1 10 1 10
1 110 10
1 1 1 1 1

C
y ds = −
36 10∫
u 2
du +
36 1∫
u 2
du =
36 1∫
u2
du +
36 1∫
u2
du = 2 ×
36 1∫
u2
du

3
1 2  32 32  1
( )
10

( )
1
1 1 u 2
1

C
y ds =
18 ∫1
u du = × =2
× ×  10 − 1  =
18 3 18 3   27
103 − 1 =
27
10 10 − 1

2
10 10 1 10 10 − 1

C
y ds =
27

27
=
27

10 10 − 1
Resp:
27

8. Calcule ∫ y(x − z)ds , onde C é a interseção das superfícies x² + y² + z² = 9 e x + z = 3.


C

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Solução:

Parametrizando C:

x2 + y 2 + z2 = 9 x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9
C: ⇔C:
x + z = 3 z = 3 − x
Assim :
x2 + y 2 + z2 = 9 ⇔ x 2 + y 2 + ( 3 − x ) = 9
2

x 2 + y 2 + 9 − 6x + x 2 = 9 ⇔ 2x 2 − 6x + y 2 = 0
Comple tando o quadrado :
2 2
 9 9  3 9  3
2  x 2 − 3x +  − + y 2 = 0 ⇔ 2  x −  + y 2 = ⇔ 4  x −  + 2y 2 = 9
 4 2  2 2  2
2 2
 3  3
4 x −  x − 2
 2 2y 2 
2
 + y =1
+ = 1⇔
9 9 9 9
4 2
Assim:
3 3 3
x= + cos t e y= sent
2 2 2
Mas :
3 3 3 3
z = x −3 ⇔ z = + cos t − 3 = − + cos t
2 2 2 2
Assim :
r 3 3 3 3 3 
r ( t ) =  + cos t, sent, − + cos t  0 ≤ t ≤ 2π
2 2 2 2 2 
e
r  3 3 3 
r ' ( t ) =  − sent, cos t, − sent 
 2 2 2 
Então :
2 2 2
r  3   3   3  r 9 9 9
r ' ( t ) =  − sent  +  cos t  +  − sent  ⇔ r ' ( t ) = sen 2t + cos 2 t + sen 2t
 2   2   2  4 2 4
r 9 9 9 9 3 r 3
( )
1
r '( t) = sen 2t + cos 2 t = sen 2t + cos 2 t = = ∴ r '( t) =
2 2 2 2 2 2

Assim:

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3 3 3 3 3  3
∫ y(x − z)ds = ∫
C 0 2
sent  + cos t −  + cos t − 3  
2 2 2 2  2
dt

3 3

3 3 3 3 
∫ y(x − z)ds =
C 2
×
2
∫ sent  2 + 2 cost - 2 − 2 cos t + 3  dt
0
2π 2π 2π
9 27 27 27 27
∫ y(x − z)ds = ∫ 3sentdt = ∫ sentdt = ( − cos t ) =− ( cos 2π − cos0 ) = − ( 1 − 1) = 0
C
20 2 0 2 0 2 2
Assim :

∫ y(x − z)ds = 0
C

Resp: 0

9. Calcule ∫ (x + y)ds , onde C é a interseção das superfícies z = x² + y² e z = 4.


C

Solução:

A curva C é a circunferência x² + y² = 4, cuja parametrização é dada por:

 x = 2cos t
C: 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π
 y = 2sent
Assim :
r r
r ( t ) = ( 2cos t, 2sent ) ⇒ r ' ( t ) = ( −2sent, 2cos t )
e
r r
( )
1
r ' ( t ) = 4sen2 t + 4 cos2 t = 4 sen2 t + cos2 t = 4 = 2∴ r '( t) = 2

Substituindo :
2π 2π

∫ ( 2cos t + 2sent ) 2dt = 4 ∫ ( cos t + sent ) dt = 4 ( sent − cos t ) 0



∫ (x + y)ds =
C 0 0

∫ (x + y)ds = 4 sen ( 2π ) − sen ( 0 ) − ( cos ( 2π ) − cos ( 0 ) )  = 4 ( 0 − 0 − 1 + 1) = 4 × 0 = 0


C

Logo :

∫ (x + y)ds = 0
C

10. Calcule ∫ (x + y + z)ds , onde C é o quadrado de vértices (1,0,1), (1,1,1),(0,1,1) e (0,0,1).


C

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Solução:

Parametrizando os segmentos de reta que formam os lados do quadrado, temos:

A(1,0,1), B(1,1,1), C(0,1,1) e D(0,0,1)


suur
Reta AB :
r
uAB = B − A = ( 0,1,0 )
Assim :
x = 1

C1 :  y = t
z = 1

r r r
r ( t ) = ( 1,t,1) ⇒ r ' ( t ) = ( 0,1,0 ) ∴ r ' ( t ) = 1 0 ≤ t ≤ 1
Assim :
1 1 1
t2 1 5
∫ ( x + y + z ) ds = ∫ ( 1 + t + 1) dt = ∫ ( 2 + t ) dt = 2t + = 2+ =
C1 0 0
2 0
2 2

A(1,0,1), B(1,1,1), C(0,1,1) e D(0,0,1)


suur
Reta BC :
r
uBC = C − B = ( −1,0,0 )
Assim :
x = −t

C2 :  y = 1
z = 1

r r r
r ( t ) = ( -t,1,1) ⇒ r ' ( t ) = ( −1,0,0 ) ∴ r ' ( t ) = 1 − 1 ≤ t ≤ 0
Assim :
0 0 0
t2  1 5
∫ ( x + y + z ) ds = ∫ ( − t + 1 + 1) dt = ∫ ( 2 − t ) dt = 2t − = 0 −  −2 −  =
C2 −1 −1
2 −1  2 2

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A(1,0,1), B(1,1,1), C(0,1,1) e D(0,0,1)


suur
Reta CD :
r
uCD = D − C = ( 0, −1,0 )
Assim :
x = 0

C3 :  y = − t
z = 1

r r r
r ( t ) = ( 0,-t,1) ⇒ r ' ( t ) = ( 0, −1,0 ) ∴ r ' ( t ) = 1 − 1 ≤ t ≤ 0
Assim :
0 0 0
t2  1 3
∫ ( x + y + z ) ds = ∫ ( 0 − t + 1) dt = ∫ ( 1 − t ) dt = t − = 0 −  −1 −  =
C3 −1 −1
2 −1  2 2

A(1,0,1), B(1,1,1), C(0,1,1) e D(0,0,1)


suur
Reta DA :
r
uDA = A − D = ( 1,0,0 )
Assim :
x = 1 + t

C4 :  y = 0
z = 1

r r r
r ( t ) = ( 1+t,0,1) ⇒ r ' ( t ) = ( 1,0,0 ) ∴ r ' ( t ) = 1 − 1 ≤ t ≤ 0
Assim :
0 0 0
t2  1 3
∫ ( x + y + z ) ds = −∫1 ( 1 + t + 0 + 1) dt = −∫1 ( 2 + t ) dt = 2t + 2
C4
= 0 −  −2 +  =
 2 2
−1

Assim:

∫ (x + y + z)ds = ∫ (x + y + z)ds + ∫ (x + y + z)ds + ∫ (x + y + z)ds + ∫ (x + y + z)ds


C C1 C2 C3 C4

5 5 3 3 5 + 5 + 3 + 3 16
∫ (x + y + z)ds = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 =
C
2
=
2
= 8 ∴ ∫ (x + y + z)ds = 8
C

Resp: 8

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11. Calcular a integral ∫ xyds, onde C é a interseção das superfícies x² + y² = 4 e y + z = 8.


C

12. Calcular ∫ 3xyds , sendo C o triângulo de vértices A(0,0), B(1,0) e C(1,2), no sentido anti-horário.
C

13. Calcule ∫ y(x − z)ds , onde C é a interseção das superfícies x² + y² + z² = 9 e x + z = 3.


C

14. Calcule ∫ (x + y)ds , onde C é a interseção das superfícies z = x² + y² e z = 4.


C

15. Calcule ∫ ( x² + y² − z ) ds , onde C é a interseção das superfícies x² + y² + z² = 8z e z = 4.


c

 1 1 
16. Calcule ∫ xy²(1 − 2x²)ds , onde C é a parte da curva de Gauss y = e −x²
de A(0,1) a B − .
C  2 e

17. ∫ ds , onde C : rr ( t ) = ( t cos t, tsent )


−C
t ∈ 0,1 .

Solução:

t
r
∫ ds = ∫ ds = ∫ r ' ( t ) dt ( 1)
−C C t0

Assim :
r
r ' ( t ) = ( cos t − tsent,sent + t cos t )
r
r ' ( t ) = ( cos t − tsent ) + ( sent + t cos t )
2 2

r
r ' ( t ) = cos2 t − 2t cos tsent + t2sen2 t + sen2 t + 2tsent cos t + t2 cos2 t
r
(
r ' ( t ) = 1 + t2 sen2 t + cos2 t )
r
r ' ( t ) = 1 + t2
Substituindo em ( 1) :
t
r
∫ ds = ∫ ds = ∫ r ' ( t ) dt
−C C t0
1

∫ ds = ∫
−C 0
1 + t2 dt

Resolvendo
−C
∫ ds = ∫
0
1 + t2 dt :

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−C
ds = ∫
0
1 + t 2 dt

Mas :
t = tgθ ⇒ de = sec 2 θdθ
π
Se t = 0 ⇒ θ = 0 Se t = 1 ⇒ θ =
4
Assim :
π
1 4

∫ ds = ∫
−C 0
1 + t 2 dt = ∫
0
1 + tg 2θ sec 2 θdθ Mas :1 + tg 2θ = sec 2θ

Substituindo:

π
1 4

∫ ds = ∫
−C 0
1 + t2 dt = ∫
0
1 + tg2θ sec 2 θdθ

π
1 4

∫ ds = ∫ ∫
2
1 + t dt = sec 2 θ sec 2 θdθ
−C 0 0
π
1 4

∫ ds = ∫
−C 0
1 + t2 dt = ∫ sec θ ⋅ sec 2 θdθ
0
π
1 4


−C
ds = ∫
0
1 + t2 dt = ∫ sec 3 θ dθ
0

Utilizando :
1 n−2
∫ sec sec n− 2 u ⋅ tgu +
n−1 ∫
sec n− 2udu
n
udu =
n −1
Assim :
π
1 4

∫ ds = ∫ 1 + t dt = ∫ sec3 θ dθ
2

−C 0 0
π
1
1 14
∫ ds = ∫ 1 + t dt = sec θ ⋅ tgθ + ∫ sec θdθ Mas : ∫ sec ud = ln sec u + tgu + c
2

−C 0
2 2 0
Substituindo :
π
1
1 1 4

∫ ds = ∫
2
1 + t dt = sec θ ⋅ tgθ + ln sec θ + tgθ
−C 0
2 2 0
1
1 π π 1 π π 1 1
∫ ds = ∫ 1 + t2 dt = sec   ⋅ tg   + ln sec   + tg   − sec ( 0 ) ⋅ tg ( 0 ) + ln sec ( 0 ) + tg ( 0 )
−C 0
2 4
  4
  2 4
  4
  2 2
1 0 0
1 1 1 1
∫ ds = ∫ 1 + t2 dt = × 2 × 1 + ln 2 + 1 − sec ( 0 ) ⋅ tg ( 0 ) + ln 1 + 0
−C 0
2 2 2 2
Logo :
1
2 1

−C
ds = ∫
0
1 + t2 dt =
2
+ ln 2 + 1
2

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∫ x ds , onde C : x
2 2 2 2
18.
C
3
+ y 3 = a3 a>0 1º quadrante .

Solução:

2 2 2 r
Uma equação vetorial para a hipociclóide x 3 + y 3 = a3 é: r ( t ) = a cos3 tˆi + asen3 tj
ˆ

r
r ( t ) = a cos3 tˆi + asen3 tj
ˆ
Mas :
r
(
r ' ( t ) = −3acos2 t ⋅ sent,3asen2 t ⋅ cos t )
Assim :
r
( −3acos t ⋅ sent ) ( )
2 2
r ' ( t) = 2
+ 3asen2 t ⋅ cos t = 9a2 cos4 t ⋅ sen2 t + 9a2 sen4 t ⋅ cos2 t
r 1
r ' ( t ) = 9a2 cos2 t ⋅ sen2 t cos2 t + sen2 t ( ) = 9a2 cos2 t ⋅ sen2 t = 3acos t ⋅ sent
r
r ' ( t ) = 3a cos t ⋅ sent

Assim:

r
r ' ( t ) = 3a cos t ⋅ sent
π
t
r 2

∫ ( a cos t ) ( 3a cos t ⋅ sent ) dt


2
∫ x 2
ds = ∫ f ( t ) r ' ( t ) dt = 3

C t0 0
π π
2 2

∫ x ds = ∫ a
2 2
cos6 t ( 3a cos t ⋅ sent ) dt = 3a3 ∫ cos7 t ⋅ sentdt
C 0 0

Fazendo :
du du
u = cos t ⇒ = −sent ∴ dt = −
dt sent
π
Se t = 0 ⇒ u = 1 Se t = ⇒ u = 0
2
Substituindo :
π
0 0
2
 du 
∫C x ds = 3a 0∫ cos t ⋅ sentdt = 3a ∫1 u sent  − sent  = −3a 1∫ u du
2 3 7 3 3 77

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0
0
 u8  3 0
8
18   1  3a3
∫ x ds = −3a 1∫ u du = −3a  8  = −3a  8 − 8  = −3a ×  − 8  = 8
2 3 7 3 3
( )
C 1

Logo :
3a3
∫ x ds =
2

C
8

∫ x ds , onde C : rr ( t ) = ( 2 cos )  π
2
3
19. t,2sen3 t t ∈ 0,  .
C  2

Solução:

r
r ( t ) = 2 cos3 tˆi + 2sen3 tj
ˆ
Mas :
r
(
r ' ( t ) = −6cos2 t ⋅ sent, 6sen2 t ⋅ cos t )
Assim :
r
( −6cos t ⋅ sent) ( )
2 2
r ' ( t) = 2
+ 6sen2 t ⋅ cos t = 36 cos4 t ⋅ sen2 t + 36sen4 t ⋅ cos2 t
r
( )
1
r ' ( t ) = 36 cos2 t ⋅ sen2 t cos2 t + sen2 t = 36 cos2 t ⋅ sen2 t = 6 cos t ⋅ sent
r
r ' ( t ) = 6 cos t ⋅ sent

Assim:

r
r ' ( t ) = 6 cos t ⋅ sent
π
t 2
r
∫ ( 2 cos t ) ( 6 cos t ⋅ sent ) dt
2
∫ x ds = ∫ f ( t ) r ' ( t ) dt =
2 3

C t0 0
π π
2 2

∫ x ds = ∫ 4 cos t ( 6 cos t ⋅ sent ) dt = 24 ∫ cos


2 6 7
t ⋅ sentdt
C 0 0

Fazendo :
du du
u = cos t ⇒ = −sent ∴ dt = −
dt sent
π
Se t = 0 ⇒ u = 1 Se t = ⇒ u = 0
2
Substituindo :
π
0 0
2
 du 
∫C ∫0 ∫1 ∫
2 7 7
x ds = 24 cos t ⋅ sentdt = 24 u sent  −  = − 24 u7du
 sent  1

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0
0
 u8   08 18   1  24
∫C x ds = −241∫ u du = −24  8  = −24  8 − 8  = ( −24) ×  − 8  = 8 = 3
2 7

Logo :

∫ x ds = 3
2

20. ∫ ( x − y ) ds , onde C é o triângulo da figura abaixo:


C

Solução:

Parametrizando os segmentos de reta AB, BC e CA .

 3
A  1,  ; B ( 2,2 ) e C ( 2,1)
 2
x = 2 + t

AB ⇔ C1 :  1 −1 ≤ t ≤ 0
y = 2 + 2 t
Assim :
r  1   1
r ( t ) =  2 + t, 2 + t  ⇒ r ' ( t ) =  1, 
 2   2
e
1 5 5
r ' ( t) = 1 + = ∴ r ' ( t) =
4 4 2
Assim :
1  5 
0 0
 5 1 
∫ ( x − y ) ds = ∫  2 + t − 2 − 2 t   2
 dt =
2 ∫  2 t  dt
C1 −1   −1
0
0 2
5 5 t 5 0 1 5 5
∫ ( x − y ) ds =
C1 4 ∫ tdt =
−1 4
×
2
= −
8  2 2 
=−
8
∴ ∫ ( x − y ) ds = −
C1 8
−1

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 3
A  1,  ; B ( 2,2 ) e C ( 2,1)
 2
x = 2
BC ⇔ C2 :  0 ≤ t ≤1
y = 2 − t
Assim :
r
r ( t ) = ( 2, 2 − t ) ⇒ r ' ( t ) = ( 0, − 1)
e
r ' ( t) = 0 + 1 = 1 ∴ r ' ( t) = 1
Assim :
1 1 1
t2 1 1

C2
( x − y ) ds = ∫(
0
)
2 − 2 + t ( 1) dt = ∫ t dt =
0
2
=
2
∴ ∫ ( x − y ) ds = 2
C2
0

 3
A  1,  ; B ( 2,2) e C ( 2,1)
 2
x = 2 − t

CA ⇔ C3 :  1 0 ≤ t ≤1
y = 1 + 2 t
Assim :
r  1   1
r ( t ) =  2 − t, 1 + t  ⇒ r ' ( t ) =  −1, 
 2   2
e
1 5 5
r ' ( t) = 1 + = ∴ r ' ( t) =
4 4 2
Assim :
1  5 
1 1
 5  3 
∫ ( x − y ) ds = ∫  2 − t − 1 − 2 t   2
 dt =
2 ∫0 1 − 2 t  dt
C3 0  
1
5 3 t2  5 3 5 1 5 5
∫ ( x − y ) ds =
C3
t − ×  =
2  2 2 0 2 
1−  =
4 2
× =
4 8
∴ ∫ ( x − y ) ds =
C3
8

Assim:

∫ ( x − y ) ds = ∫ ( x − y ) ds + ∫ ( x − y ) ds + ∫ ( x − y ) ds
C C1 C2 C3

5 1 5 1 1
∫ ( x − y ) ds = −
C
8
+ +
2 8
= ∴ ∫ ( x − y ) ds =
2 C 2

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∫ y ds , onde C é a semicircunferência da figura abaixo:


2
21.
C

Solução:

Parametrizando a semicircunferência, temos:

 x = 2cos t
C: 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π
 y = 2sent
Assim :
r r
r ( t ) = ( 2cos t, 2sent ) ⇒ r ' ( t ) = ( −2sent, 2cos t )
e
r r
( )
1
r ' ( t ) = 4sen2 t + 4 cos2 t = 4 sen2 t + cos2 t = 4 = 2∴ r '( t) = 2

Substituindo :
π π π π
1 1 
∫C y ds = ∫0 ( 2sent ) 2dt = 20∫ 4sen tdt = 80∫ sen tdt = 80∫  2 − 2 cos ( 2t )  dt
2 2 2 2

π π
1
∫ y ds = 4∫ dt − 4∫ cos ( 2t ) dt Mas : ∫ cos ( mx ) dx = ⋅ sen ( mx ) + C
2

C 0 0
m
Assim :
π
1 1

∫C y 2
ds = 4t − 4 × sen ( 2t ) = 4 π − 2 
 sen ( 2 π ) − sen ( 0 ) 
 = 4π∴ ∫ y 2ds = 4π
2 0 C

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∫ y ds , onde C é o 1º arco da ciclóide:


2
22.
C

r
r ( t ) = 2 ( t − sent ) ˆi + 2 ( 1 − cos t ) ˆj .

Solução:

r
r ( t ) = 2 ( t − sent ) ˆi + 2 ( 1 − cos t ) ˆj
r
r ( t ) = ( 2t − 2sent,2 − 2 cos t ) 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π
Derivando :
r
r' ( t ) = ( 2-2cost,2sent )
Mas :
r
ds = r ' ( t ) dt
Assim :
r
r ' ( t) = ( 2 − 2 cos t ) + ( 2sent )
2 2
= 4 − 8 cos t + 4 cos2 t + 4sen2 t
r
( )
1
r ' ( t) = 4 − 8 cos t + 4 cos2 t+sen2 t = 4 − 8 cos t + 4 = 8 − 8 cos t

Assim :
r r
r ' ( t ) = 8 ( 1 − cos t ) = 8 1 − cos t ∴ r ' ( t ) = 2 2 1 − cos t

Substituindo na integral:

∫ y ds = ∫ ( 2 − 2 cos t)
2 2
× 2 2 1 − cos t dt
C 0

(
∫ y ds = 2 2 ∫ 4 − 8 cos t + 4 cos t 1-cost dt
2 2
)
C 0
2π 2π 2π

∫ y ds = 8 2 ∫ 1 − cos t dt − 16 2 ∫ cos t 1 − cos t dt + 8 2 ∫ cos2 t 1 − cos t dt


2

C 0 0 0

Mas :
cos2 t = 1 − sen2 t
Assim :
2π 2π 2π

∫ y ds = 8 2 ∫
2
1 − cos t dt − 16 2 ∫ cos t 1 − cos t dt + 8 2 ∫ 1 − sen2 t ( ) 1 − cos t dt
C 0 0 0
2π 2π 2π 2π

∫ y ds = 8 2 ∫ 1 − cos t dt − 16 2 ∫ cos t 1 − cos t dt + 8 2 ∫ 1 − cos t dt − 8 2 ∫ sen t 1 − cos t dt


2 2

C 0 0 0 0
2π 2π 2π

∫ y ds = 16 2 ∫ 1 − cos t dt − 16 2 ∫ cos t 1 − cos t dt − 8 2 ∫ sen t 1 − cos t dt


2 2

C 0 0 0

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2π 2π 2π

∫ y ds = 16 2 ∫ 1 − cos t dt − 16 2 ∫ cos t 1 − cos t dt − 8 2 ∫ sen t 1 − cos t dt


2 2

C 0 0 0

Fazendo :
t = 2θ ⇒ dt = 2dθ
e
se t = 0 ⇒ θ = 0 e se t=2π ⇒ θ = π
e
mais :
1 − cos t = 1 − cos 2θ cos ( 2θ ) = cos2 θ − sen2 θ
Assim :
1 − cos t = 1 − cos2 θ + sen2 θ = sen2 θ + sen2 θ = 2sen2 θ
Logo :
1 − cos t = 2 senθ
Substituindo :
2π 2π 2π

∫ y ds = 16 2 ∫ 1 − cos t dt − 16 2 ∫ cos t 1 − cos t dt − 8 2 ∫ sen t 1 − cos t dt


2 2

C 0 0 0
π π π

∫ y ds = 16 2 ∫ 2 senθ ( 2dθ) − 16 2∫ cos ( 2θ) ×


C
2

0 0
( )
2 senθ × ( 2dθ ) − 8 2∫ sen2 ( 2θ ) ×
0
( )
2 senθ × ( 2dθ)

π π π

∫ y ds = 64∫ senθdθ − 64∫ cos ( 2θ) senθ dθ − 32∫ sen ( 2θ) senθ dθ
2 2

C 0 0 0

Resolvendo 64∫ cos ( 2θ ) senθ dθ :


0

π π

(
64∫ cos ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = 64∫ cos2 θ − sen2 θ senθ dθ)
0 0
π π π
64∫ cos ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = 64∫ cos2 θsenθdθ − 64∫ sen2 θsenθ dθ
0 0 0
π π π

(
64∫ cos ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = 64∫ cos2 θsenθdθ − 64∫ 1 − cos2 θ senθ dθ )
0 0 0
π π π π
64∫ cos ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = 64∫ cos2 θsenθdθ − 64∫ senθdθ+64∫ cos2 θsenθ dθ
0 0 0 0
π π π
64∫ cos ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = 128∫ cos2 θsenθdθ − 64∫ senθdθ
0 0 0

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π π π
64∫ cos ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = 128∫ cos θsenθdθ − 64∫ senθdθ
2

0 0 0
π
Re solvendo 128∫ cos2 θsenθdθ :
0
π −1 −1
 du 
128∫ cos θsenθdθ = 128 ∫ u senθ  −
2 2
 = −128 ∫ u du
2

0 1  senθ  1

Onde :
du du
u = cos θ → = −senθ ∴ dθ = −
dθ senθ
e
se θ = 0 ⇒ u = 1 e se θ = π ⇒ u = −1
Logo :
π −1 −1
u3
128∫ cos θsenθdθ = −128 ∫ u du = −128 ×
2 2

0 1
31
π  ( −1) 3 ( 1) 3  128 128 256
128∫ cos θsenθdθ = −128 × 
2
− = + =
0  3 3 

3 3 3
Assim :
π
256
128∫ cos2 θsenθdθ =
0
3

Substituindo:

π π π
64∫ cos ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = 128∫ cos2 θsenθdθ − 64∫ senθdθ
0 0 0
π
256
64∫ cos ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = − 64 × ( − cos θ ) 0
π

0
3
π
256 256
64∫ cos ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = + 64 × ( cos θ ) 0 = + 64 × ( cos π − cos 0 )
π

0
3 3
π
256 256 256
64∫ cos ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = + 64 × ( −1 − 1) = + 64 × ( −2 ) = − 128
0
3 3 3
π
128
64∫ cos ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = −
0
3

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Resolvendo 32∫ sen2 ( 2θ ) senθ dθ :


0

π π
32∫ sen2 ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = 32∫ ( 2senθ cos θ ) senθ dθ
2

0 0
π π
32∫ sen ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = 128∫ sen2 θ cos2 θ senθ dθ
2

0 0
π π

( )
32∫ sen2 ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = 128∫ 1 − cos2 θ cos2 θ senθ dθ
0 0
π π π
32∫ sen ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = 128∫ cos θsenθdθ − 128∫ cos4 θsenθdθ
2 2

0 0 0

Fazendo :
du du
u = cos θ → = −senθ ∴ dθ = −
dθ senθ
e
se θ = 0 ⇒ u = 1 e se θ = π ⇒ u = −1
Assim :
π π π

32∫ sen ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = 128∫ cos θsenθdθ − 128∫ cos4 θsenθdθ


2 2

0 0 0
π −1 −1
 du   du 
32∫ sen2 ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = 128 ∫ u2 senθ  −  − 128 ∫ u4 senθ − 
0 1  senθ  1  senθ 
π −1 −1
32∫ sen ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = −128 ∫ u du + 128 ∫ u4 du
2 2

0 1 1
-1 −1
π
 u3   u5 
32∫ sen ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = −128 ×   + 128 ×  
2

0  3 1  5 1
π  ( −1) 3 ( 1) 3   ( −1) 5 ( 1) 5 
32∫ sen ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = −128 × 
2
−  + 128 ×  − 
0  3 3 
 

5 5 

π
 1 1  1 1  256 256 512
32∫ sen2 ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = −128 ×  − −  + 128 ×  − −  = − =
0  3 3  5 5 3 5 15
Assim :
π
512
32∫ sen2 ( 2θ ) senθ dθ =
0
15

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Substituindo na integral:

π π π

∫ y ds = 64∫ senθdθ − 64∫ cos ( 2θ ) senθ dθ − 32∫ sen ( 2θ) senθ dθ


2 2

C 0 0 0

Onde :
π
64∫ senθdθ = 64 ( −cosθ ) 0 = −64 ( cos π − cos 0 ) = ( −64 ) × ( −1 − 1) = 128
π

0
π
128
64∫ cos ( 2θ ) senθ dθ = −
0
3
π
512
32∫ sen2 ( 2θ ) senθ dθ =
0
15
Substituindo :
π π π

∫ y ds = 64∫ senθdθ − 64∫ cos ( 2θ ) senθ dθ − 32∫ sen ( 2θ ) senθ dθ


2 2

C 0 0 0

 128   512  128 512 2048


∫ y ds = 128 −  −
2
 −  = 128 + − =
C
3   15  3 15 15
Logo :
2048
∫ y ds =
2

C
15

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