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Denis Delaney

Ciaran

Ward

Carla Rho Fiorina

Teacher's Book

Literature

in the English language

,
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Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh Gate, Harlow Essex CM20 2JE, England and Associated Companies throughout the world. © Pearson Education Limited All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright holders. First published 2003 Fourth impression 2008 Editorial coordination: Anna Martinello Editing: Anna Rossetto Production assistance: Stefano Zanazzi Design and pagination: Cover: Studio Apotema Set in Stone Serif 9.5/13.5 Printed in Malaysia, PJB lSBN 978-0-582-81908-5 Softdestgn

and Stone Sans 9/10

Acknowledgements
The Publishers would like to thank Manuela De Angelis and Elizabeth Sharman for their invaluable contribution and support in the development of the book.

Fields of vision reporters The Publishers would like to thank the following teachers for their useful comments on the contents of this book Gabriella Barbier, Flavia Bentinl, Antonio Bove, Giorgia Caprani, Loredana Fiaschetti, Barbara Francini, Maria Pia LaColla, Gabriella Menghini, Emma Metafora, Pasquallna Pintus, Letizia Venen, Claudia Vitale.
Authors' acknowledgements Denis Delaney would like to thank Marina Grasso and Bruna Scornito for their invaluable contribution and his family and friends for their patience and support. Ciaran Ward would like to thank his long-suffering family and friends for their endless patience and understanding. Carla Rho would like to thank ber family for their support and encouragement, I'he authors would like to thank all the staff at Longman Italia md especially Anna Martinello and Anna Rossetto without .vhorn this book would never have seen the light of day. Cover Ihe Bayeux Tapestry and William Shakespeare © photographs Jy Giancarlo Costa. Wanderer uber dem Nebelrneer by Caspar David Friedrich, copyright Hamburger Kunsthalle, photographer Elke Walford, iamburg. "ortrait of Queen Victoria, Farabolafoto. .a guerra dei gas © photograph by Giancarlo Costa. !l, detail of the left panel of Crivelli's Garden © National Gallery, .ondon - The Artist, courtesy of Marlborough Fine Art (London) ~td.

We are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright material: Extract from 'Autumn' from Collected Poems by Norman MacCaig published by Chattoo & Windus. Used by permission of The Random House Group Limited; 'Aunt Jennifer's Tigers' by Adrienne Rich. Copyright © 1993, 1951 by Adrienne Rich, from Collected Early Poems: 1950-1970 by Adrienne Rich. Used by permission of the author and W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.: 'My Papa's Waltz' by Theodore Roethke from Collected Poems reproduced by permission of Faber and Faber Ltd; 'Song' by Mick Gowar reproduced by permission of David Higham Associates Ud; Extract from Pygmalion by G.B. Shaw, The Society of Authors, on behalf of the Bernard Shaw Estate; Extracts from Waiting for Godot by Samuel Beckett reproduced by permission of Faber and Faber Ltd; Extracts from A Room with a View by E.M. Forster, the Provost and Scholars of King's College, Cambridge and The Society of Authors as the Literary representatives of the estate of E.M. Forster; 'Araby' from Dubliners by James Joyce, reproduced with the permission of the Estate of James Joyce - © copyright, Estate of James Joyce; Extract from To the Lighthouse by Virginia Woolf, The Society of Authors as the literary Representative of The Estate of Virginia Woolf; Extract from 1984 by George Orwell (copyright © George QrvI'e111949), by permission of Bill Hamilton as the Literary Executor of the Estate of the Late Sonia Brownell Orwell and Seeker & Warburg Ltd; Extract from The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, published by Penguin, reproduced by permission of David Higham Associates Ltd; Extract from A Farewell To Arms by Ernest Hemingway, reprinted with permission of Scribner, an imprint of Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group, and The Hemingway Foreign Rights Trust. Copyright © outside the United States: © Hemingway Foreign Rights Trust; 'Suicide in the Trenches' by Siegfried Sassoon, copyright Siegfried Sassoon by kind permission of George Sasso on; 'Break of the Day in the Trenches' by Isaac Rosenberg, reproduced by permission of Isaac Horvi tch; 'The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock' by T.S. Eliot from Collected Poems reproduced by permission of Faber and Faber Ltd; 'Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening'by Robert Frost from The Poetry of Robert Frost edited by Edward Connery Lathem. Copyright 1923, © 1969 by Henry Holt and Co., copyright 1944, 1951 by Robert Frost. Reprinted by permission of Henry Holt and Company, LLC; 'When you are Old' by W.B. Yeats, reproduced by permission of A.P Watt Ltd on behalf of Michael B. Yeats; Extract from The Lord of the Flies by William Golding, reproduced by permission of Faber and Faber Ltd; Extract from Wise Children by Angela Carter, copyright © Angela Carter 1991, reproduced by permission of the Estate of Angela Carter c/o Rogers, Coleridge & White Ltd, 20 Powis Mews, London W111JN; Extract from On the Road by Jack Kerouac (Penguin Books 1972) copyright © Jack Kerouac, 1955, 1957, reproduced by permission of Penguin Books Ltd; Extract from Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, reprinted by permission of Heinemann Educational Publishers; Extract from Midnight's Children by Salman Rnshdie, published by Jonathan Cape, used by permission of TI1e Random House Group Limited; 'MCMXIV' by Philip Larkin from TIw whitsun Wedding, reproduced by permission of Faber and Faber Ltd; 'Hawk Roosting' by Ted Hughes from Lupercal, reproduced by permission of Faber and Faber Ltd; 'Mid-Term Break' by Seamus Heaney from Opened Ground, reproduced by permission of Faber and Faber Ltd; 'Love after Love' by Derek Walcott from Collected Poems by Derek Walcott, reproduced by permission of Faber and Faber Ltd; Extract from The Caretaker from Plays Two by Harold Pinter, reproduced by permission of Faber and Faber Ltd. All efforts ver some tentional assistance have been made to trace all copyright holders, howeremain unknown. We will happily remedy any uninmistakes or omissions, and would be grateful for any in doing so.

Introduction Modular Paths Where to find material

6 16
.23

Cross-Curricular Project
Filmography

.25
29

Worksheet. Literature Resourceson the Internet Keys Module A Module B Module C Module 0 Module E Module F Module G Module H Visual Links Tests Keys to Tests

43 .44 49

.50 55
60

65
74 90 104 121 137 143

.253

,ffers...

The importance of literature in the history and ongoing development of human civilisation cannot be underestimated. Literature is both a mirror that reflects the inner soul of peoples and a pathway towards a deeper understanding of cultures and societies. It is also a source of personal pleasure and enrichment. Teaching literature in a foreign language is potentially a highly rewarding experience. In the reality of the classroom, however, this potential is, all too often, left unfulfilled. The difficulty of grappling with complex texts and language can make students lose sight of the enjoyment and intellectual excitement which literature can provide. With this in mind, Fields of Vision aims at making English literature both studentfriendly and teacher-friendly. The philosophy that has underpinned the writing of all features in the book has been 'simple but not simplistic'. Students should feel confident that they can do the various activities throughout the book with a large degree of autonomy, while the teacher can feel confident that his/her students are being given a thorough grounding in the history and appreciation of literature in the English language. Reading literature is an act of communication. When a student or an adult reads a book outside school, he/she usually wishes to express his opinions about it. The pooling of contrasting ideas and the sharing of feelings are natural follow-ups to reading. What takes place outside the classroom should also take place inside the classroom. The literature classroom should be a stimulating communicative forum in Which, with the teacher as guide and mentor, the student becomes an active explorer who gradually acquires the skills and tools he/she needs to discover the richness of what he/she is reading. Fields of Vision has been designed to enable the student to acquire these skills and tools in a clear and straightforward way. Much care has been taken in making Fields of Vision easy-to-use, flexible, and comprehensive. To help the teacher find his/her way through the anthology, the following pages give a general description of how the anthology is organised, of the features which make up the courseand of the various ways in which these features can be used.

Course Structure
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Fields of Vision is a comprehensive anthology of literature in the English language

from the beginnings to the present day. It has been organised into eight modules which can be used on their own or together. The modules are: Module Module Module Module Module Module Module Module
· ...Text

A: Introduction to Literary Appreciation B: From the Origins to the Middle Ages C: The Renaissance D: The Puritan, Restoration and Augustan Ages E: The Romantic Age F: The Victorian Age G: EarlyTwentieth Century and Modernism H: The Contemporary Age

andContext

Each Module (B to H) contains representative texts from the works of the major authors of the period and a context section which explains the main historical and literary events and trends of the period. In the Context there are also sections (Cross-Curricular Link and Meanwhile, Elsewhere) which offer suggestions on how to extend the work done on texts and context through various links.

Introduction

Within this overall framework, single teaching modules can be constructed to meet specific class needs. The Table of Contents has been especially designed to . TableofC::ontents help the teacher decide on what material to use in modules. For each text, the genre to which it belongs, the theme dealt with and a literary technique are pointed out. Possible links to other features in the book are also indicated. Along with the Table of Contents, the examples and suggestions in the Modular < .f\!1odl.llarPatbs> Paths section of this guide are aimed at helping the teacher get the most out of the material in Fields of Vision.

Module A
Module A can be used as a self-contained introduction to literary appreciation and/or as a reference section to be consulted when further information is required on any aspect of poetry, drama or fiction. This module covers in a clear and systematic way all the literary techniques and conventions that students should understand in order to get the most out of their study of literature. Each technique is explained and exemplified in context. Literary techniques in fiction are exemplified in short stories. Drama techniques are exemplified in appropriate excerpts from well-known plays, while poetic techniques are exemplified in short poems. By working on authentic texts students fulfil a threefold aim: • they become familiar with accessible and enjoyable literary texts; • they start to learn how to analyse literary texts; • they develop intermediate/advanced language skills. Each section in Module A starts with an explanation of a feature of a literary text'Exp.lal1ati01'l for example 'setting'. The explanations are clear and straightforward and are followed by a set of questions to be asked when analysing the feature in any text. By familiarising themselves with these sets of questions the students have a ready-made set of analytical tools which can be applied to any text. The explanation and questions are followed by a Case Study which exemplifies ......•........ ·.(~s~StlJdy the feature under review. In the case of fiction, full-length short stories have been chosen to give students the opportunity to appreciate a complete literary work. The poems are generally short and students are asked to identify a particular literary technique rather than analyse and understand the full text. The excerpts from drama have also been chosen to highlight certain characteristics of the genre. The Case Studies have been organised in the same way as the texts in the rest of the anthology. The text itself is followed by Comprehension, Analysis and an Out. So, by following this order the students become accustomed to the pattern that is repeated in the other Modules. The Analysis of the texts in Module A, however, concentrates in particular on the aspect of the text which is being highlighted. The Table of Contents shows how the work done in Module A on a literary technique or on an Author can be developed in later Modules (both as regards further information on the Author and as regards the literary technique under exam), while further clarification and exemplification of literary techniques can be found in the Glossary of Literary Terms and the Guide to genres and subgenres at the end of the anthology.

Introduction

Modules B-H
Each Module is divided into two parts: Text and Context. It is felt that in general it is better to start from a text/s before moving on to the context, though if circumstances demand, the context can be studied before the text/so The texts are divided according to genre and for each author there is one or two texts. In the case of particularly significant authors, like Shakespeare or Dickens, there are more than two. The activities for each text follow the same pattern, so in a short time the students should be able to find their way autonomously through the various features. Depending on the didactic needs of the class, the teacher can decide to do one or more texts by a certain Author, and can decide to do all or only some of the activities proposed for each Author.

The Text
The following features are described in the order in which they appear in the book. A literary text can often be a challenging experience for a student. The Lead in activity will ease the students into the text and make them reflect on some aspect of what they are about to read. Each novel, play and longer poem has a Lead in which asks the students to think and talk about an issue which will come up in the text/so These activities are generally quite short but are intended to be highly motivational, as they raise the students' curiosity about an Author or work and encourage them to think, talk, write and work on the topic under focus. The Lead ins fall into the following categories: groupwork, debating, class discussion, brainstorming, interviewing, research and presentation, pairwork, freewriting, dialogue writing, lecturing, storytelling, role-play, dramatisation and personal reflection. Depending on the type of activity, the Lead in can be done in class and/or at home. If done in class, the teacher might decide to evaluate the students' work. In this example, taken from Module H (Ill> p. H56), the students are asked to do a pairwork activity in which they must plan a trip. In this way they are introduced to the theme of travel, which is a major theme in On the Road. At the end a mark could be given for oral fluency.

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I In pairs, imagine that you and two other friends are going to spend three months on the road. You have a van

that seats and sleeps four people and enough money to pay for the bare essentials, including petrol, for three months. You can go as far as you like and do not need to worry about getting back. Plan your trip, keeping in mind the following: 1 2 3 4 5 The places you are going How far you will travel. How long you will spend The things you will bring The problems that might to see and the things you are going to do. in each place. with you. arise.

Suggested procedure: Divide the class into pairs and give twenty-five minutes to fill out the chart. Allowtwenty minutes for students to explain what they have written and if time allows, open up a discussion on any interesting points that emerge.

Introduction

The following example, which is the Lead in to To the Lighthouse C" p. GS4), involves personal reflection and class discussion as students are asked questions that introduce the technique of the interior monologue.

-111111 11---1 2 3 4 5

When we are introspective, we examine our thoughts, introspective moments into words. Answer the following questions:

impressions and feelings deeply. Virginia Woolf puts these

Are you very, quite, a little or not at all introspective? What are the things you think most deeply about? Are there times of the day when you are more introspective than others? Are there situations which make you introspective? Have you ever written your thoughts down? If so, why?

suggested procedure: Students should answer the questions at home and discuss their answers for 20/30 minutes in class. The Lead ins to shorter poems are no longer than four or five lines and do not involve structured activities. They focus the students' attention on the poem they are about to read. Here is the Lead in to Refit-geeBlues by WHo Auden CtJ> p. G13S).

1I111111---------------~---~
A refugee is someone who has been forced to flee from his/her country. How would you feel if you were obliged by war, by poverty or by political persecution to leave your country and find another one that would take you in? . In Auden's poem the jewish refugee from Hitler's Germany speaks for millions of refugees both past, present and future. __j

I I

Suggested procedure: The teacher asks the classto answer the question in the Lead in. Not more than 10/15 minutes would normally be spent on this activity. The Lead in feature is by no means a compulsory part of a teaching module and a teacher can decide whether a work can be studied with or without doing it. The authors, however, believe that Lead ins may help transform the literature classroom into a communicative forum in which students feel they are active participants in the learning process. Further suggestions on the Lead ins are provided in the Keys section of this Teacher's Book. There is an Introduction to the work of each Author, which highlights its salient qualities and explains why the Author and his/her work are regarded as important in the history of literature in English. The extracts from novels and plays are preceded by a Story which outlines the plot of the work. The authors strongly advise students to read the story before reading the texts so that they have an overview of the work they are studying. The story helps students to understand texts by putting them into context and is particularly useful when only one text from a work is chosen. The story is also intended to stimulate the students' interest in the work and in the texts. The Story is accompanied by a list of the main Characters in the work. As with the Story, students are strongly advised to read the list of characters before tackling the texts. If students have a clear idea of who the characters are, they should find texts easier to understand.

·Ihtrodiktion· ..

.• heStoryi···. T

Characters

Introduction

··Texts.··

Asfar as possible Texts have been chosen with the following criteria in mind: ~literary importance and worth; • accessibility; • relevance to students' interests; • appropriate length. Where there is more than one text for a novel or play, the teacher can feel free to do only one or all texts without losing out on a general overview of the work. In the poetry sections as well, Fields of Vision has been flexibly structured so that the teacher can choose to do as many or as few poems by one particular Author as he/she wishes. The texts are representative of the most highly acclaimed writers from Britain, Ireland, the United States and the English-Speaking World. In line with recent curricular developments and to ensure that teachers have a wide range of material to choose from, modem and contemporary literature has been afforded ample space. To bring home to the students that drama and poetry in particular are best appreciated when seen and heard, most drama texts and poems have been recorded on audiocassette. Because the language in literary texts can be difficult, special attention has been paid to the writing of Glossaries. The authors feel that students often get frustrated when studying literature because it takes so long just to understand a text. While the teacher remains an invaluable tutor for the students who are trying to understand an extract or a poem, Fields of Vision helps them work independently as far as possible by providing clear and exhaustive glossaries. As an incentive to vocabulary acquisition, all glossaries are in English. The Tasks which follow each text are divided into two sections: Comprehension and Analysis. The Comprehension section is intended to guide the student, step-by-step, towards a full understanding of the text. The Authors have put themselves in the students' shoes, and have formulated questions which lead the students through the text in such a way that they can gradually build up the meaning of what they are reading. Care has been taken to focus on and explain those points and passages in a text which create most difficulty. The Authors would like to foster the students' ability to analyse the technical aspects of literature so as to heighten their awareness and appreciation of the skill and artistry of the Authors whose works they are reading. The Analysis section highlights certain important technical and stylistic elements of the text, and asks students to do structured activities that clarify the use and importance of these elements. In both sections the tasks are graded in difficulty, with more complex ones coming towards the end. The tasks are not simply meant to test the students' understanding, but should help them to understand by explaining and encouraging reflection on the most important parts of the text. A great variety of tasks is proposed with frequent use of multiple-choice type exercises which provide the vocabulary students need to answer questions. All tasks aim at making the student an active, conscious learner and care has been taken to include activities that allow students to provide a personal response to what they have read.

Introduction

For every major novelist and poet in the anthology there is at least one Writers'Writers'\iVorkshop Workshop. In this feature students are invited to experiment with literary techniques in their own creative writing. In this way they approach the work of literature from the writer's point of view, and are then able to identify styles and techniques more easily. This feature is meant to involve the student directly and actively in the writing process. It also provides the teacher with a means to verify how much a student has understood of a particular technique. Because this activity develops language skills it can be highly motivational for weaker students, and gives better students the opportunity to expand their capabilities. The teacher should not feel that the Writers' Workshop is compulsory, but should look on it as a useful and interesting language and literature activity to be done when compatible with the needs of a class. The Writers' Workshop opens with a simple and clear definition of a literary technique. Students must then look for examples of the technique in the text that has been read and are then asked to practise using the technique in the Over to you activity. These activities normally involve writing phrases, sentences, a paragraph or a dialogue but sometimes involve research and discussion. The Over to you often gives the teacher the opportunity to evaluate writing skills, as in the following Writers' Workshop on 'Personification' for Percy Bysshe Shelley's Ode to the West Wind C'" p. E44).

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Personification is a type of metaphor in which human characteristics such as emotions, personality, behaviour and so on are attributed to an animal, object or idea:
The proud lion surveyed his kingdom.

The primary function of personification is to make abstract ideas clearer to the reader by comparing them to everyday human experience. Humanising cold and complex abstractions can bring them to life, render them more interesting and make them easier to understand. Find one example of personificationfor each of the followingin Ode to the West write the line references: seeds . the Mediterranean sea foliage .. wave . What purpose does personificationserve in Shelley'spoem? Personifyin one or more sentences one of the followingabstract ideas: Boredom Hatred Pride Kindness Victory Revenge
Example: The dull monotonous voice of boredom began to fill the room. Wind

and

For every dramatist there is at least one Staging the Play. This feature encouragesSta9ingth~Play students to view drama as a performance-based activity and not merely as a literary text. In the Staging the Play students are asked to reflect on what they have read and then produce something. For example, students might be asked to design costumes or to choose the actors for a play. They might also be asked to practise how lines should be delivered. In the example which follows students are asked to design a set for a production of William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream C'" p. C21).

Introduction

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STAGING TH E PLAY A Midsummer Night's Dream takes place in the daytime world of Athens, a state of disciplined
order and down-to-earth reality, and the night-time world of the enchanted wood, a realm of disorder and fantasy. These two distinct settings must be created by stage scenery, properties (props) and lighting. Settings for a play may vary from extravagant expensive sets to essential or abstract staging, depending on the budget that is available and the personal preferences of the director. Whatever the case may be, the stage setting should not be a distraction but should enhance the audience's understanding of the play. The speech in Text C4 takes place in the enchanted night-time wood where fairies and disorder rule. Work in groups and decide what stage scenery, props and lighting you would use for a performance of the speech in your classroom. Take into consideration the amount of time you have to prepare scenery and props, the space that is available and the possible sources of light. Be realistic in your suggestions. Discuss your proposals with other groups. Choose the best ideas and plan a performance. Every text is rounded off with an Out. This is a language extension exercise in which students are offered the opportunity to share their responses to the issues and themes raised by the literary text. The purpose of the Outs is to bring the world of literature closer to that of the student. The activities touch on major themes which are of as much interest today as they were in the past and which offer the students the opportunity to link their own personal experience with a literary work. The activities vary in length and complexity and sometimes require a written and/or an oral response that can often be evaluated (see examples below). They fall into the following categories: groupwork, debating, class discussion, brainstorming, interviewing, research and presentation, pairwork, freewriting, dialogue writing, lecturing, role-play and dramatisation. Here are two examples. The first is an activity based on a reading of Colerigde's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner C" p. E29), while the second is an oral discussion inspired by Marlowe's Doctor Faustus (.. p. C7).

S~t"tblg

Out

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I

a_co~-'="'~~r:~;;;::m::.:~'::::,:

oriqin and explain yo", finding, to the rest 01 Ih. class

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f

I Faustus wanted

to know more and do more than any other mortal man. In the end he paid a very high price for powers. Today, as science pushes the frontiers of human knowledge ever forwards, some people! are arguing that scientific research should be tightly controlled and, if necessary, limited, to avoid abuse by unscrupulous individuals or groups. In which of the following fields do you think research should or should not be limited? Give details.

I
i

!I ::

s'i Medicine ~ Military t~ch~ology. . Communlcatlo.ns and Information technology ~0Space exploration m Genetic modification of animals and plants.

_J

1Suggested

time: One lesson

Introduction

As with the Lead ins, the teacher should choose which Outs he/she thinks will be most stimulating and of most benefit to students. Further suggestions on the use of the Out activities are provided in the Keys section of the Teacher's Book. Where appropriate, texts have been linked thematically with songs or pieces of music This is just one way of showing that the world of literature is not closed and cut off from the rest of reality. The themes that are dealt with in literature are those that have always been dealt with in every art form throughout history, and music is a particularly appropriate art form to stimulate the interest of young people. The theme of vanity, for example, which is dealt with by Pope in The Rape of the Lock (~ p. D23) is also dealt with in Carly Simon's song, You're so Vain, while the destructive nature of an over-strict educational system is condemned by both Charles Dickens in Hard Times (~ p. F9) and by Pink Floyd in The Wall. Students should be encouraged to find and bring the recorded versions of the songs into class and suggest any other possible links from their own personal knowledge of the world of music. This activity should provide ample opportunity for purposeful language exploitation. This feature describes the Life and Works of each writer, so that students can view the work they have studied in the context of the Author's life and other works. It can be read before or after the texts, at home or in class. Each Writers' Gallery is followed by a brief task. Some addresses of internet sites that contain extra information about the authors are given in the Teacher's Book.

Imk'totheworld ..
()f

music

... riters' Gallery W

',

The Context
Literature is not produced in a vacuum but is open to influences from SOCiety, cultural trends and historical circumstance. For this reason the second part of each Module (B-H) describes the context in which the works of literature were produced. There are two sections: • Social and Historical Background; • The Literary Background. The teacher can decide when and whether to do all or some of the Context In order to make the Context as student-friendly as possible a simple, direct style of writing has been adopted. There are numerous tasks to test comprehension as well as side-headings, and an indication of when the background can be linked to a work and/or Author. To complement the two background areas, there are authentic documents (Pieces of the Past/Present) with tasks, links to other literatures (Meanwhile, Elsewhere) with tasks, and links to other subjects (Cross-Curricular Link) with a project. An example of a Project is provided on page 25. There is one Historical and Social Background section in each module. Modules B, C and D cover British history only, while Modules E, F, G and H contain separate sections on British History and American History. Rather than simply list facts in chronological order, the authors have endeavoured to highlight clearly and simply the main political, social and economic trends in each period. Links between history and the works of specific Authors are indicated in the margin. At the end of the Social and Historical Background there is a list of the main events of the period.

H istorlcal:~ndSodal Backgrouhd ....

Introduction

Literary Background

There is a Literary Background section in each module. Aswith history, a separate American section is introduced from Module E onwards. In Module H, since literature in English has become a global phenomenon, a section on the literature of the English-speaking world has been added. The Literary Background describes the cultural and literary context in which the anthologised Authors worked and work. It provides information on additional writers whose works have not been reproduced in Fields of Vision and pinpoints the main artistic and cultural developments in each historical period. Background sections. It contains authentic documents that shed extra light on a historical social or literary aspect of the period being described. Each document is followed by a task.

Pleces'of.thePast

... Pieces of the Past is a recurring feature in both the Historical and Literary

Meamvhilet<Elsewhere· The Meanwhile, Elsewhere occurs in the Literary Background. It focuses the

students' attention on major literary developments in other countries by highlighting a major literary figure, with special reference to the world of Italian literature. There is a task to aid and test comprehension. The Meanwhile, Elsewhere'sare listed in the Links column of the Table of Contents. For example in Module C, the Italian poet Petrarch is the focus of attention
(... p. C6Z).

CrOss-(urrh:l.lIartink··

This feature, which comes at the end of each module, suggests how some of what has been studied in the module could be linked to other subjects on the curriculum. A project is proposed which could be carried out in collaboration with teachers of other subjects. In the Teacher's Book, an explanatory example is given of how to tackle a project
(p. 25).

The Visual Links


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The Visual Links, which are to be found at the end of each book, are images, paintings and photographs that add to the students' understanding and appreciation of a text or of a period. It is not necessary to be an expert on art to use these pages, and the tasks have been designed to render the link between art and literature enjoyable and to promote worthwhile language work. While the teacher should not feel under any obligation to use the Visual Links, the authors believe that visual stimuli can prove highly motivating to students. The reference to Visual Links is highlighted in the Table of Contents, as well as throughout the book, whenever it may be of relevance.

Introduction

Other sections
L~WX~'Y~
At the end of each book there is a complete list, in alphabetical order, of all the literary terms used in the book. A concise, succinct definition is given for each term. The terms which appear in the Analysis, the Writers' Workshop and Module A are explained. The definition of the term is followed by an example. This section gives a succinct guide to the genres and sub-genres dealt with in Module A, the Analysis and the Writers' Workshop. that have been

Glossary of Literary Terms "

Genres al1dSub~genr" es

The index at the end of the anthology lists in alphabetical order all the items to be found in the book.

The Teacher's Book


The Teacher's Book includes: • an introduction to the course; • a course description; • modular paths with a step-by-step example of how to build a module; • further suggestions for modular and thematic paths; • an example of cross-curricular project development; • a filmography with a worksheet; • Literature resources on the Internet; • the keys to all exercises in volumes one and two; • tests; • the keys to all tests.

Introduction
C~{-{\¢~

English literature is a vast and varied field of study in which several different organising principles can be used to create rewarding and effective syllabi. Perhaps the most familiar organising principle is chronology. Based on the analysis of representative texts and the study of the historical and literary background, the chronological approach provides students with an overview of the development of English literature and gives them the opportunity to appreciate the greatest literary achievements in the language. Fields of Vision, which is made up of an introductory module on genre and literary technique and seven chronological macro-modules, contains all the material that is necessary for the teacher who wishes to use this approach. While a chronological approach is valid for many teachers, others find themselves in teaching situations where time restraints or other factors make it unsuitable. A modular approach to the teaching of literature offers these teachers an effective alternative by providing meaningful frameworks in which they can organise their work. Fields of Vision makes the building of modules simple and straightforward.

What is a Module?
Module (from modulus, the Latin word for 'small measure') means 'one of a set of separate parts which, when combined, form a complete whole'. In education a module is a unit of teaching/learning that: • has precise objectives and content; • is self-contained; • is limited in time (10-30 hours); • is assessable. The sum of the modules chosen by a teacher constitutes his/her complete teaching syllabus. Modules have the following features: Level the complexity of the module, which is indicated by the terms basic or advanced. the estimated time that it will take to complete the module. Time Objectives the skills students acquire in the course of the module. Materials the texts, music and visual stimuli the students analyse. Assignments the tasks the students are called upon to perform. links to European literature and other forms of artistic expression. Extensions Evaluation the intermediary and final testing of both oral and written skills.

Types of Modules
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Fields of Vision facilitates the construction of four basic module types: Period, Genre, Theme, Critical Analysis. A sample of each of these module types can be found at the beginning of each volume. Period .. A module based On Period gives the students an overview of the literature that was produced in a specific historical era. The students become familiar with the most representative works of the period and deepen their understanding of the

Modular Paths

texts by analysing the historical and literary background and the lives of the Authors. Links to literature from other European countries (Meanwhile, Elsewhere), and to visual arts (Visual Links) help the students to contextualise '. and more fully appreciate the material they are studying. A Cross-Curricular Link suggests how the major themes addressed in the module can be linked to other subjects. This type of module teaches students to recognise a particular Genre or subgenre and the techniques which are specific to it. They learn how the genre first developed and how it has evolved through different historical periods. Basic information about genre and the accompanying literary techniques are provided in Module A and in the section on Genres at the end of each volume. Visual Links ... and Link to the world of music encourage students to draw comparisons between Uterary genres to other forms of artistic expression. In the Writers' Workshops . they are encouraged to experiment with the techniques associated with the genre in their own creative writing. In the Meanwhile, Elsewhere section they explore how genre is exploited by writers from other European countries. In a module based on Theme students see how one of the universal themes in literature has been dealt with throughout the ages in Fiction, Poetry and Drama. They examine how major writers have viewed the same subject at different times and in greatly differing contexts. They are invited to express their own views on the theme both in classroom discussions and in their creative writing. In the section Link to the world of music they can examine how the theme is dealt with by contemporary songwriters, and in the Visual Links section they can also . analyse how the theme is presented in visual arts. A module based on Critical Analysis allows the students to see literature from the writers' perspective. It encourages them to examine how great writers shape their thoughts into language and gives them the opportunity of experimenting with some of the techniques in their own creative writing. It also gives them a deeper understanding of how literary texts work and a fuller appreciation of the art of writing. Essential material for this approach can be found in Module A, where the major literary techniques are explained and exemplified. The Writers' Workshops may prove a useful guide when choosing texts, as they often focus on the analysis ',of specificliterary techniques.

Criti.cal.,(nalysis

How to build a Module


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Tofacilitate the construction of modules the Table of Contents in Fields ofVisionsT~bJe()fCohtel1ts has been organised into columns, each of a different colour and each associated with one of the four basic module types. The columns indicate; • which period the Author belongs to; ..which genre he/she employs; • which themes he/she deals with; • which literary or stylistic techniques he/she uses. The course consists of an introductory module and seven period macro-modules from which period modules of varying length and difficulty can easily be formed. Genre-modules, theme-modules or critical analysis-modules can be constructed by referring to the appropriate column. For example, if a teacher wishes to build a theme-based module, he/she can find the relevant material by consulting the blue · .'Theme' column in the Table of Contents. •

...

Modular Paths

A Step-by-Step Guide to a Module based on a Theme


The following is a detailed description of one of the four sample modules presented at the beginning of each volume. Time calculations have been made on the basis that a lesson lasts 50 minutes.

Theme: The many faces of love

• Is this a theme which will interest and motivate the students? • Does this theme allow the students to analyse texts from all three major genres: fiction, drama and poetry? • Does this theme involve working on texts from different historical periods? • Will the students be able to explore the theme in other forms of artistic expression, such as visual arts and music? • Can this theme be linked to other subjects on the students' curriculum? • Is it possible to collaborate with other teachers on producing a cross-curricular project on this theme?

Objectives: To analyse the theme of love in literature throughout the ages. To study how different Authors dealt with the theme of love in poetry, fiction and drama. To examine the theme of love in songs and com pare songs to literary works. To write and talk about issues related to the texts. • Reflect on what you wish the students to do in the course of the module and formulate a series of objectives that are appropriate to their linguistic and literary competence. Ensure that the objectives involve both writing and speaking skills. Basic level: Teaching Units 1-3 Advanced level: Teaching Units 1-5 Time: 10 hours (including evaluation) Time: IS hours (including evaluation)

• Decide whether the students should explore the theme at a basic or advanced level. The basic level should be based on texts that are more linguistically and conceptually accessible to the students. Themes that you consider fundamental to the students' literary and cultural development should be dealt with at an advanced level. • Work out the amount of time you think will be spent in completing the modules, taking into consideration: - the number of texts; - the number and type of tasks; - whether the activities will be carried out in class under your supervision, or at home by the students autonomously. As a general guideline, modules should cover a minimum of 10 hours and a maximum of 30 hours.

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Teaching Unit 1 (basic level, 2 lessons)


Material
He Wishes for the Cloths of Heaven by W.B. Yeats (Text G25, p. Glll)

Assignments
I> Analyse the theme of pure, romantic love in a 20th-century .. Identify metaphor and references to light.

poem.

Out (p. Gl12)


Extension: Link to the world of music (p. G112) Lesson 1

.. Write down what you would give to a loved one. .. Compare Elton John's 'Your Song' to Yeats's poem.

The text is chosen for its brevity and linguistic accessibility. With the help of the glossary, students should be able to read the poem and do the comprehension exerciseson their own . .. Read the poem aloud in class. .. Correct the Comprehension tasks. .. Do the Analysis tasks. SO minutes in total
Lesson

The Out activity involves the students in a creative activity which may be oral or written. The Link to the world of music shows how the theme that the students have analysed in Yeats's poem is dealt with by a contemporary singer/songwriter. Students should be encouraged to find recorded versions of the song which they can listen to in class. .. Allow students the time to carry out the Out task and to share their responses with their classmates. 10 minutes .. Read the lyrics, listen to the song and do the follow-up tasks. 40 minutes

Teaching Unit 2 (basic level, 5 lessons)


Material
Lead in (p. C10) Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare

Assignments
I>

.. Define what love is for you. Read, analyse and understand two texts from a Renaissance play.

Text (2 (p. (10)

Text(3 (p. C13)


Writers' Workshop (p. e12)

Out(p. C13)
Extensions: Link to the world of music (p. C16) Visual link C3

.. Reflect on the intensity of the lovers' passion . .. Trace how dramatic tension is built up in the text. .. Think of examples of suspense in books, films etc. .. Focus on the theme of love and death. .. Identify dramatic irony, personification and metaphor. .. Talk about love between members of opposing groups. .. Identify elements from the play in the Dire Straits song 'Romeo and Juliet'. .. See how the theme has been dealt with in modern film versions.

As preparation for this Teaching Unit, teachers might ask their students to read the two texts from Romeo and Juliet at home and do the Comprehension tasks.
Lesson 1

.. Do the Lead in task which invites the students to formulate their own definitions of love. Allow students the time to write their definitions and read them aloud in class. 10 minutes .. Listen to the recording of Text CZin class.

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.. Do/Correct the Comprehension tasks. .. Do the Analysis tasks.


Lesson 2

40 minutes in total

.. Read Text C2 in parts. Ask students to highlight elements in the text which convey the intensity of the lovers' passion. 2S minutes ...Do the Writers' Workshop task on Dramatic Tension. Discuss how this technique is used to heighten the emotional impact of the scene. 25 minutes
Lesson 3 ...Read Text C3 in class. ...Correct the Comprehension tasks. 3S minutes .. Do the Analysis tasks and the Writers' Workshop task on dramatic irony. .. Read the text in parts, and have a short class discussion on the theme of love and death/people who die for love. 15 minutes As preparation for Lesson 4 students could be asked to form groups and to do research on the historical and political background to conflicts involving opposing factions. For example Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland, Palestinians and Israelisin Israel, Indians and Pakistanis in Kashmir, etc. Lesson 4

.. Ask a spokesperson for each group to give a five-minute presentation of their findings. The presentation will help students to improve their language skillsand provide feedback to the teacher for future language lessons. ...At the end of the presentation discuss what would happen if members of the opposing groups fell in love.
Lesson 5

.. Read/Listen to the Dire Straits song 'Romeo and Juliet' and find elements it has in common with the playas suggested in the Link to the world of music (p. C16). 30 minutes .. Do the Visual Links tasks which invite students to reflect how the play has been dealt with in modern film versions. 20 minutes

Teaching Unit 3 (basic level, 2 lessons)


lateriaI
me Eyre by Charlotte Bronte 'ext F8, p. F29)

Assignments .. Analyse the theme of love denied in a Victorian novel. .. See how the protagonist'S character is defined through dialogue. .. Have a class discussion about acting on principle.

Iriters' Workshop (p. F31) 'ut (p. F31)

As preparation for Lesson 1 teachers might ask students to read the text at home and do the Comprehension tasks.
Lesson 1

.. Read the text in class. .. Do/Correct Comprehension tasks. .. Do Analysis tasks.


Lesson 2

so minutes in total

.. Analyse how the protagonist's character is defined through dialogue. Identify points in the text where the protagonist is speaking with her heart and where she is speaking with her head. 30 minutes .. Have a class discussion about whether or not Jane was right to stifle her love for Rochester in order to uphold a principle. Is acting on principle always correct? 20 minutes

Modular Paths

Teaching Unit 4 (advanced level, 2 lessons)


Material Funeral Blues by W.H. Auden (Text G31, p, G132)
Extension:

Assignments
~ Analyse the theme of love and bereavement in a 20th-century poem. ~ Examine the images in the poem. ~ Listen to the poem and decide if it would make a good song. ~ Compare 'Funeral Blues' with the song 'Dreamin' by Lou Reed.

Link to the world of music (p. G134) Lesson 1 ... Read the short poem Funeral Blues in class and do the Comprehension and . Analysis tasks . .. Analyse the imagery in the poem which conveys the idea of lost love. SO minutes In preparation for Lesson 2 students should find recordings of Blues music. Lesson 2 ...Listen to a recording of Blues music and discuss the features of Blues music. ... Discuss whether the poem would make a good song, and decide what type of music would suit it. 2S minutes ... Compare the theme of 'love and loss' in Auden's poem and in Lou Reed's song 'Dreamin'. 2S minutes

Teaching Unit 5 (advanced level, 3 lessons)


Material lead in (p, H90) The English Patient by Michael Ondaatje
Text H21 (p. H90) Text H22 (p. H94) Out (p. H96)

Assignments
"'Think of novels, films etc. where wartime romance is a theme. ~ Read, analyse and understand two texts from a 20th-century novel. ~ Analyse the theme of love and danger. _. Analyse the theme of love across time and distance. _. Think and talk about the special bonds that exist between people who are in love.

In preparation for Lesson 1 students could read Text HZl from The English Patient and do the Comprehension tasks. Lesson 1 .. Lead in. Discussion about novels or films about wartime romances. Students give reasons why more people fall in love during wars than in times of peace. 15 minutes '" Read the text in class . ... Do/Correct the Comprehension tasks . .. Do the Analysis tasks. 35 minutes In preparation for Lesson Z students could read Text H22 from The English Patient and do the Comprehension tasks . ..Lesson 2 ..,: Read the text in class . ... Do/Correct the Comprehension .. Do the Analysis tasks. Lesson 3 ... Discuss how in The English Patient love: ~ •• helps Kip and Hana to overcome their fear of danger. • transcends the barriers created by time and distance. Do the Out activity in which students discuss how special bonds exist between people who are in love. so minutes tasks .

so minutes

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Evaluation
Evaluation should be intermediary (after single teaching units) and final (when the module is completed), It should assess both speaking and writing skills.

.Tests

The Tests section in the Teacher's Book contains tests on specific Authors and texts, some of which may be used for intermediary evaluation, Lead in, Staging the Play and Out activities often involve the students in making presentations which can be evaluated as oral marks. The speaking activity, for example, in the Teaching Unit 2, lesson 4, in the sample module could be used for oral evaluation. The final evaluation of the module should involve a written report and/or an ora presentation. In the case of the sample module the students might be given the following titles and asked to develop one as an essay (300-350 words), or as an oral report: 1 Choose two Authors you have studied, and compare and contrast how they deal with the theme of love, (basic) 2 'Literature often associates the theme of love with suffering', Discuss this statement with references to a least three texts you have studied. (basic!advanced) 3 'Love is an ageless theme which has fascinated writers throughout the centuries,' Support this statement making references to the Authors you have studied. (advanced) 4 The language of love - an analysis of how three great writers use words to convey the power of love. (advanced)

Cross-Curricular Links
The theme of love can be used as the basis for cross-curricular work in collaboration with teachers of other subjects.

A Sample Modular Syllabus


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The following syllabus would be suitable for a three-year course in which literature is the subject of two lessons per week, for a total of 192 hours.
1 Period module Genre module Cross-curricular project Period module Critical analysis module Theme module The Renaissance (30 hours) The development of drama - from Morality plays to the Theatre of the Absurd (20 hours) Beowulf, Ulysses and Aeneas. Heroes in classical literature (14 hours) The Romantic Period (30 hours) Narrative technique - from Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe to Salman Rushdie's Midnight's Children (20 hours) Nature and the environment in nineteenth-century and twentieth-century literature (14 hours) Contemporary Literature (30 hours) : The tragic hero - from Marlowe to Pinter (14 hours) The anti-hero (20 hours)

Period module Theme Cross-curricular project

Modular Paths

Where to find material


'2_~Xt«h~ The following is a quick reference section which contains the names and page references of Authors/texts ... may be included in Theme, Genre and Critical Analysis modules. that

Themes
Ageing/The Passing of Time Byron (Texts E12 and E13, p. E34, E35), Keats (Text EI9, p. E60), Plath (Text H38, p. H145) .. Alienation T.S. Eliot (Text G30, p. G124), Beckett (Texts H40 and H41, p. HI53, HI57), Pinter (Text H43, p. H170) Ambition Marlowe (Text C1, p. C3), Shakespeare (Texts C8 and C9, p. C34, C37), Shelley (Text E15, p. E45), Fitzgerald (Text G16, p. GI2), Miller (Text G38, p. G157) Art Keats (Text E8, p. E55). Woolf (Text G13, p. GS8), Dylan Thomas (Text G33, p. G139) Beauty Byron (Text El I, p. E32), Keats (Text EI8, p. E55), Wilde (Text F13, p. F48), Plath (Text H38, p. HI45) Children and Parents Shakespeare (Text C7, p. C27), Dickens (Text FI, p. F2), Lawrence (Texts G8 and G9, p. G3I, G35), Woolf (Text GI2, p. GS4), Miller (Text G39, p. GI61), Greene (Text H3, p. HIO), Carter (Text H7, p. H29), Doyle (Text HIl, p. H43), Gordirner (Text HI8, p. H79), Lessing (Text H20, p. H86), Heaney (Text H32, p. H129) Civilisation Arnold (Text F26, p. FlOO), Wells (Text G3, p. G9), Conrad (Text G4, p. GIS), Orwell (Text GI4, p. G62), Golding (Texts HI and HZ, p. H2, H6), Kerouac (Text H14, p. H60) Colonialism Defoe (Text 011, p. D48), Conrad (Texts G4 and G5, p. GIS, GI9), Achebe (Texts H16 and HI7, p. H69, H73), Soyinka (Text H4S, p. H180) Combat/Fighting Beowulf (Texts B1 and B2, p. B3, B6), Fielding (Text D15, p. 070), Scott (Texts E24 and E26, p. E78, E84) Death Marlowe (Text CI, p. C3), Tennyson (Text F22 and F23, p. F87, F90), Dickinson (Text F29, p. FI09), Scott Fitzgerald (Text GI7, p. G7S),Hemingway (Text GI9, p. G84), Auden (Text G3I, p. G132), Dylan Thomas (Text G34, p. G141), Heaney (Text H32, p. H129) Disability and Social Stigma Heaney (Text H3I, p. H126), Faulkner (Texts G20 and G21, p. G90, G94), Pinter (Text H43, p. H170) Education Dickens (Texts FI and F3, p. F2, F9), Greene (Text H3, p. HlO), Spark (Text H5, p. HI9) Evil Milton (Text 04, p. 014). Poe (Texts £29 and E30, p. E96, E99), Stevenson (Text FI2, p. F45), Golding (Texts HI and H2, p. H2, H6), Lessing (Text H20, p. H86), McEwan (Text H10, p. H39) Flirting Marvell (Text D3, p. DI0), Richardson (Text DI4, p. D6S) Friendship Shakespeare (Texts C4 and CS, p. C19, C22), Austen (Text E21, p. E68), Twain (Text F30, p. F79), Fitzgerald (insincere friendship - Texts G 16 and G 17, p. G72, G75), Deane (Text HIZ, p. HSO), Kerouac (Text H13, p. HS6), Ahmad (Text H23, p. H99) Growlng up Dickens (Text FI, p. F2), Twain (Texts F20 and F2I, p. F79, F82), Forster (Texts G6 and G7, p. G25, G28), Joyce (Text G10, p. G41), Deane (Text HI2, p. HSO), Kerouac (Texts H13 and HI4, p. HS6, HSO),Atwood (Text HZ3, p. H99) Heroes Beowulf(Texts BI and B2, p. B3, B6), Robin Hood (Text B3, p. B9), Milton (Text D4, p. D14), E. Bronte (Texts F5 and F6, p. F17, F22). Whitman (Text F31, p. F114), Scott Fitzgerald (Text GI6, p. G72), Spender (Text HZ7, p. H114) Love The Unquiet Grave (p. B8), Shakespeare (Texts CIO and cu. p. C40, C42), Donne (Text D2, p. D5), Burns (Texts El and EZ, p. E2, E4), Austen (Text E21, p. E68), E. Bronte (Texts F5 and F6, p. F17, F22), C. Bronte (Text F8, p. FZ9), Arnold (Text F26, p. FlOO), Joyce (Text GIO, p. G41), Hemingway (Text GI9, p. G84), Yeats (Text G2S, p. GU), 1.S. Eliot (Text G30, p. 124), Hughes (Text H30, p. H123), Ondaatje (Texts H21 and H22, p. H90, H94), Walcott (Text H36, p. H139) Love and Death Shakespeare (Texts C2 and C3, p. CIO, C13), Hemingway (Texts G18 and GI9, p. G80, G84), Auden (Text G32, p. G135) Marriage Chaucer (Text B6, p. B2I), Congreve (Text D8, p. D33), Dickens (Text F2, p. F6), Austen (Texts E20, E21 and E22, p. E64, E68, E70), E. Bronte (Text FS, p. FI7), C. Bronte (Text F8, p. F29) Memory Wordsworth (Text E7, p. E18), Joyce (Text GIl, p. G48), Yeats (Text G26, p. GIl3), Ondaatje (Text H22, p. H94) Nature Wordsworth (Texts E6, E7 and E8, p. EI6, E18, E29), Shelley (Text E14, p. £40), Hopkins (Text F27, p. F104), Dickinson (Text F28, p. FlO?), Whitman (Text F30, p. FI12), Yeats (Text G26, p. G113), R.S. Thomas (Text H28, p. HI 17), Hughes (Text H29, p. H120) Politics Milton (Text D5, p. 017), Swift (Text DI2, p. DSS), Shelley (Text E15 and E16, p. E45, E47), Orwell (Text G14, p. G62), Steinbeck (Text G22, p. G98), Gordimer (Text H19, p. H82) Poverty Gray (Text D7, p. D28), Swift (Text D12, p. 055), Steinbeck (Text G23, p. G103), R.S. Thomas (Text H28, p. H117) Race Blake (Text E3, p. E6), Scott (Text E25, p. E81), Twain (Text F2I, p. F82), Walcott (Text H37, p. H141). Gordimer (Text HI8, p. H79), Soyinka (Text H4S, p. HI80) Rebellion Milton (Text D4, p. D14), C. Bronte (Text F7, p. F26), Yeats (Text G24, p. G107), Achebe (Text H17, p. H73) Religion and Spirituality Everyman (Text B8, p. B29), Donne (Text 01, p. D2), Milton (Text OS, p. D17), Blake (E4 and ES, p. E9, Ell), R.S. Thomas (Text H28, p. Hl17), Achebe (Text H16, p. H69) Science and Research Mary Shelley (Texts E27 and E28, p. E89, E9I), Stevenson (Texts Fll and FI2, p. F4I, F45), Whitman (Text F30, p. FI12) Social Repression/Ostracism Hardy (Text FIS, p. F46), Hawthorne (Texts FI7 and F18, p. F65, F68), Orwell (Texts GI4 and GIS, p. G62, G6S), Au den (Text G32, p. 135), Heaney (Text H3I, p. HI26) Vanity Chaucer (Texts B4 and B7, p. BI4, B23), Pope (Text D6, p.D23) War Hemingway (Text G18, p. G80), Brooke (Text G27, p. G 117), Owen (Text G28, p. GII8). Sassoon (Text G29, p. GIZO), Auden (Text G31, p. 132), Harrison (Text H35, p. H135)

Modular Paths

.:: :t--ii
'0::

Women Chaucer (Texts B4, B5 and B6, p. BI4, BI7, B2l), Shakespeare (Text C8, p. C34), E. Bronte (Text FS, p. FI7), C. Bronte (Text F7, p. FZ6), Hardy (Text FlS, p. FS6), Browning (Text F24, p. F93), Wilde (F3Z, p. FII9), Lawrence (Texts G8 and G9, p. G32, G35), Joyce (Text GIl, p. G48), Woolf (Texts G12 and G13, p. G54, G58), Shaw (Text G37, p. G 152), Spark (Text HIS, p. H19), Gordimer (Texts H18 and HI9, p. H79, H82), Plath (Text H38, p. HI4S)

Drama
Comedy Shakespeare (Texts C4 and CS, p. C19, C22), Shaw (Text G37, p. G1S2), Bennett (Text H44, p. HI74) Comedy of Manners Congreve (Text OS, p. 033), Goldsmith (Text 09, p. D39), Wilde (Text F32, p. F119) Tragedy Marlowe (Text CI, p. C3), Shakespeare (Texts C2 and C3, C6-9, p. CIO-C37), Miller (Texts G38 and G39, p. GIS7, G16l), Osborne (Text H42, p. H163) Theatre of the Absurd Beckett (Texts H40 and H4l, p. HlS3, H1S7), Pinter (Text H43, p. H169)

:'

Genre
Fiction
Aesthetic Novel Wilde (Texts F13 and F14, p. F48, FSl) Allegory Golding (Texts H1 and HZ, p. H2, H6) Anti-Novel Sterne (Text 016, p. 077) Comic Novel Lodge (Text H6, p. HZ4) Epistolary Novel Richardson (Text D14, p. D65) Ghost Story James (Texts Gl and GZ, p. G2, GS) Gothic Novel Mary Shelley (Texts E27 and £28, p. E89, E9l) Historical Novel Scott (TextsE24, E2S and E26, p. E78, ESl, ES4) Horror Story Stevenson (Texts FII and F12, p. F4I, F4S) Magic Realism Carter (Texts H7 and HS, p. H29, H32), Rushdie (Text H24, p, HI03) Modernist Novel Joyce (Text GIl, p. G48), Woolf (Texts GI2 and G13, p. GS4, GSS) Novel of Initiation Dickens (Texts FI and F2, p. F2, F6), C. Bronte (Texts F7 and FS, p. F26, F29), Twain (Texts F20 and FZl, p. F79, F82), Forster (Texts G6 and G7, p. GIS, G19), Deane (Text H12, p. H50), Atwood (Text H23, p. H99) Novel of Manners Austen (Texts E21, E22, E23 and E24, p. E64--E73) Picaresque Novel Fielding (Text DIS, p. 070), Kerouac (Texts H13 and HI4, p. HS6, H60) Regional Novel Hardy (Texts PIS and FI6, p. FS6, FS9), Doyle (Text Hl1, p. H43), Achebe (Texts HI6 and HI7, p. H69, H73) Romantic Novel E. Bronte (Texts FS and F6, p. F17, F22) Science Fiction H.G. Wells (Text G3, p. G9) Short Story Poe (Texts £Z9 and E30, p. E96, E99), Joyce (Text GlO, p. G41) Utopian/Dystopian Novel Swift (Text 013, p. DS9), Orwell (Texts G14 and G2S, p. G62, G6S)

Critical Analysis
Allegory Everyman (p. B30), Golding (p. HS) Character Richardson (novel of incident and of character, p. D67), Dickens (revealing character, p. F1Il, C. Bronte (dialogue to reveal character, p. F3l), Wilde (p, F123), Woolf (p, GS7), Shaw (p, GlSS) Conceit Donne (p. 04), TS. Eliot (p. G129) Dialogue Congreve (p. D36), C. Bronte (p. F31), Lawrence (p, G3S), Doyle (p, H48) Figures of Speech Shakespeare (p, C32; metaphor, p. C39; simile, p. C41), Donne (hyperbole, p. DIZl, Gray (synecdoche, p. D3I), Burns (hyperbole, p. E3), Wordsworth (oxymoron, p. E21), Byron (parallelism, p. E33), Shelley (personification, p. E44) Imagery Robin Hood and the Bishop of Hereford (stock images, p. BIZ) Metre Chaucer (iambic pentameter, p. BZ2), Marlowe (blank verse, p. C6), Shakespeare (blank verse - heroic couplet, p. C2l), Whitman (free verse, p. F113), Heaney (free verse, PHlZ8) Mock Heroic Chaucer (p, BZ4), Pope (p, OZ5) Irony Chaucer (p, B16), Narrative Technique Defoe (p, 041), Swift (unreliable narrator, p. D6Z), Fielding (narrator, p. D74), Poe, Austen (omniscient narrator and free indirect speech, p. E66; showing and telling, p. E7S), Mary Shelley (first-person narrative, p. E9l), Poe (first-person narrator, p. £102), George Eliot (omniscient obtrusive narrator, p. F39), Twain (naive narrator, p, F84), James (limited point of view, p. G7), Joyce (stream of consciousness, p. G51), Fitzgerald (firstperson narrators, p. G78), Faulkner (interior monologue, p, G94), Steinbeck (free indirect speech, p. G 102), Green (limited omniscient narrator, p. H14), Spark (omniscient narrator, p. H2Z), Deane (first-person narrators, p. HS4), Ondaatje (omniscient third-person narrator, p. H96), Atwood (naive narror, p. HIOI) Parody Shakespeare (p. C43) Plot E. Bronte (p. FZ4) Setting Shakespeare (p, C2l), Mary Shelley (p. E94), Hardy (p. F6Z), Forster (p. G30) Satire Swift (p. DS8) Sound Features Beowulf (alliteration p. BS), Chaucer (rhyme, p. BI9), Shakespeare (onomatopoeia, p. C36), Coleridge (internal rhyme, p. E27), Keats (assonance, p. ES9), Larkin (true/imperfect rhyme, p. H112), Harrison (sound features, p. H137) Suspense Shakespeare (p, C32), McEwan (p, HSS) Symbols Blake (p. E13), Melville (p. F77), Conrad (p. GIS), Frost (p. G147), McEwan (p. H4l), Gordimer (p. HSZ), Walcott (p, H143) Tone Shakespeare (p, C36), Soyinka (p, H184)

Poetry
Ballad The Unquiet Grave (p. BS), Robin Hood and tile Bishop of Hereford (Text B3, p. B9), Coleridge (Texts E9 and E10, p. E24, E27) Dramatic Monologue Browning (Text F24, p. F93), Arnold (Text F26, p. FlOO), TS. Eliot (Text G30, p. G124) Elegy Gray (Text 07, p. D2S), Tennyson (Texts F22 and F23, p. P87, P90) Epic Beowulf(Texts Bl and B2, p. B3, B6), Milton (rext 04, p. D14) Free Verse Whitman (Text F30, p. FUZ), Heaney (Text H31, p. H126), Ginsberg (Text H39, p. H149) Ode Shelley (Text E14, p. E40), Keats (Text E17 and £18, p. ES2, E55), Sonnet Shakespeare (Texts ClO and CIl, p. C40, C42), Donne (Text Dl, p. D2), Milton (Text DS, p. 017), Shelley (Texts EIS and E16, p. £45, E47), Keats (Text E19, p. E60), Brooke (Text G27, p. GIl7), Heaney (Text H3Z, p. H129)

Introduction
Cross-Curricular links are structured activities which guide the students through short research projects ..that involve linking their studies of English literature with other literatures and/or other school subjects. The projects are generally divided into two distinct phases: _ firstly some initial research is done on the works of two or more writers, scientists, philosophers or painters and the results are presented in written or oral form; '- in the second phase students are asked to compare and contrast specific aspects of the material they have researched. Projects can be done at home or in school and can be as long or as short as time permits and interest demands. The following is an example of how the CrossCurricular link from Module F, which involves comparing the works of Charles Dickens, Emile Zola and Henrik Ibsen, might be done. Chosen texts: Hard Times by Charles Dickens, Ghosts by Henrik Ibsen and Germinal by Emile Zola.

Stephen's misery is compounded when he is wrongly accused of taking part in a theft from the bank when, in fact, it was Tom who was actually involved. The novel ends with a contrite Mr Gradgrind gratefully accepting Cissy's help in finding safe passage for Tom to escape from shame and punishment.
Ghosts

1. A brief summary of the plots


Hard Times

Thomas Gradgrind and Mr Bounderby are two leading members of the community in the northern English city of Coketown. Gradgrind liveswith his two children, Tom and Louisa, and a young girl, Cissy [upe, who he took in when she was abandoned by her father. Both Gradgrind children find it hard to bear the strict regime laid down by their father and a dispirited Louisa fails to put up the slightest resistance when her father asks her to marry Bounderby, a man thirty years her elder. Meanwhile Tom lives a lazy, feckless existence and in no way follows in his father's righteous footsteps. He is instrumental in arranging a meeting between James Harthouse, a young politician, and his very unhappily married sister. Louisa however rejects Harthouse's attempts to seduce her and goes back to her father who realises how wrong he has been to force her to marry Bounderby. Despite losing his wife, Bounderby isstill one of the most powerful men in the town and gives an example of this When he fires one of his employees, Stephen Blackpool, for no justifiable reason.

Mrs Alving, a rich widow, has been joined for the winter by her son Oswald in their beautiful isolated house overlooking a fiord. Oswald is an artist and usually lives in Paris. Parson Manders comes to pay a visit and openly berates Mrs Alving for allowing her son to live such a dissolute life in a foreign city. Regina is the Alvings' housemaid and is under pressure from her good-far-nothing father, Engstrand, to leave the house and help him set up an inn. Regina however has no intention of giving up a decent job with a good family for a lifeof slavery at the beck and call of drunken sailors. It soon emerges that that the quiet, bourgeois existence of the Alving household is a cover-up for a dark and damning past. Mr Alving, Oswald'd father had many mistresses and Regina is the fruit of one of his liaisons. Regina's mother was a maid to the Alvings and was paid to leave the house when she got pregnant. To protect him from such a potentially damaging family situation, Oswald was sent away when he was seven. In order to maintain the family's high reputation in the community, Mrs Alving has financed the building of an orphanage which is to be named after her dead husband. However, before the opening ceremony can take place the ghosts of the past come back to haunt her. Oswald falls in love with Regina and says he wants to take her back to Paris with him. His mother is distraught at the idea and to stop him reveals that the girl is his half-sister. When it seems that things cannot get any worse, the orphanage burns down. In the final scene Oswald, who is suffering from syphilis, the disease that killed his father, asks his mother to give him a lethal dose of morphine. As the play ends the audience is left to wonder whether she will grant his wish or not.
Germinal

Etienne Lantier is an idealistic young man who finds work in the Voreux, one of the hundreds of coal mines in northern France. He is helped to find a job by Maheu, an experienced miner, who lives in a very small house with his wife, seven children and his father.

Cross-Curricular

Project

There is a slump in the economy, the miners' wages are reduced and the miners' families find it increasingly difficult to feed themselves. The Maheu family is no exception even though four members of the family, including eleven-year-old [eanlin, work down the mines. With the situation becoming increasingly desperate Etienne and some of his companions organise a strike. It drags on for three months but the Company refuses to make concessions. The strike then spreads as a mob led by Etienne goes from mine to mine forcing workers to join the strike and destroy equipment. The mob has been whipped into a state of frenzy and takes revenge on the local shopkeeper who had refused to give credit. He is lynched and mutilated in a savage attack. The authorities send the army to restore law and order but the strike continues. The company decides to take in miners from Belgium but when they arrive, protected by the army, they are met by an angry crowd of strikers. Tension starts to rise as stones are thrown at the soldiers and then suddenly, to everyone's disbelief, the soldiers open fire. A number of people including Maheu, are killed. This incident breaks the will of the strikers who return to work. The mine, however, has been sabotaged by Souvarine, a Russian anarchist. Etienne is trapped underground when the mine shaft collapses but manages to survive unlike two of Maheu's children. The novel ends with Etienne setting out from the town on his way to Paris where he hopes to further the cause of international revolution.

Working conditions are extremely poor for the thousands who man the factories. They work long hours in unhealthy factories where the risk of illness and injury is very high. Living conditions at home are . not much better than those at work though basic shelter and food are provided. Most people are so tired after work that their homes are little more than dormitories where they rest before going on the next shift. There are schools in the town but they are more like penitentiaries than academies of learning. Children are crammed into damp, draughty classrooms and have endless reams of facts drummed into their heads. There are also churches in the town but the God that is worshipped on Sundays is replaced by the gods of work and money during the week. There is no room for abstract thinking or spiritual searching in Coketown. The two main characters in Hard Times, Mr Gradgrind and Mr Bounderby, represent that tiny minority in Coketown who reap the rewards of the non-stop production that drives the town. They enjoy the good things in life, safe in the knowledge that their Utilitarian, pragmatic philosophy is the key to happiness in this world and the next. Ghosts In a play the description of the setting is far less detailed than in a novel. The Alvings are a well-off family who live in a big house near a fiord in Western Norway. Mrs Alving has enough money to live without working, employ a fulltime servant and invest in the building of an orphanage. Oswald seems to live a comfortable existence in Paris. The only glimpse of a world beyond the protected enclosure of the Alving household is provided by Engstrand who desperately wants money to set up an inn. All the action of the play takes place in one room which looks out onto a garden and a fiord beyond. It is always rainy and misty.
Germinal

2. A detailed description of the social setting including living and working conditions
Hard Times Hard Times is set in Coketown, an industrial city in the

North of England, during the boom years of the midnineteenth century. The industrial revolution is in full swing and there seems to be no reason why the sun should ever set on the British Empire. Coketown is representative of hundreds of industrial towns that sprang up over northern England. It is a grim, dark place where factory chimneys spew spirals of sooty smoke into the fetid air, morning and night. All the buildings look alike and add to a pervading sense of monotony and sameness.

The novel is set in the coal mining districts of northern France at the end of the nineteenth century. The main action takes place in the housing settlement at the Voreux mine. The mine works twenty-four hours a day and miners often have to do twelve-hour shifts. They work over five hundred metres below ground in wet, humid and cold conditions and constantly run the

Cross-Curricular

Project

risk of being caught in land spills. Children as young as and women of all ages work alongside the men. ·····The miners live in housing settlements provided for them by their employer. Living conditions are cramped as large ...•..•• families like the Maheus are forced to sleep together in tiny bedrooms. Because they are paid a pittance for their .....•..• every family is in debt and must beg for credit from work, . the local shopkeeper, Maigrat. Soup is the staple food and whenever meat is available it is eaten by the father of the .. family and not by the children. As well as staving off hunger, families have to struggle to maintain adequate standards of hygiene. In the Maheu household, the bath isa barrel which has been cut in two and bathing communal activity which leaves no room for prudery. When the miners are not working and have some money ',they go to the local inns. Holidays are an excuse for getting drunk in an attempt .also means time connotations to make to escape for a few short love but any romantic . hours from the grinding mindlessness of work. Free time that are associated with love have been in a setting which is the is a

Louisa, Mr Gradgrind's daughter, does not rebel against the rigid codes of behaviour that govern her environment. Although she feels terribly restricted by the claustrophobic society in which she lives, she accepts that a dutiful daughter should do as her father tells her . Only when she can no longer stand the psychological cruelty that her husband, Mr Bounderby, has inflicted on her does she find the willpower and courage to run away and tell her father how unhappy she has been. Tom is even more alienated from his environment work diligently at building than Louisa. He rejects the unwritten rule that would have him up a career and a healthy bank balance. His behaviour is anti-social and culminates in him fleeing Coketown in disgrace having robbed from the local bank. Perhaps the character who is influenced most negatively by his environment working, members sensitive is Stephen Blackpool. He is a hardyoung man but he leads a life of defend themselves

thankless graft and misery. He represents the weaker of society who cannot against the abuses of power and privilege. He is made a scapegoat twice - first by Mr Bounderby who fires him on a spurious pretext and then by the community at large who wrongfully suspect him of stealing from the bank. The one character who manages to keep her spirits up and not fall victim to the general air of oppression that pervades in Coketown is Cissy [upe. Her optimistic outlook on life is an inspiration to both Louisa and Tom in their hours of need. The two main characters in the novel, Mr Gradgrind and M r Bounderby, Bounderby Utilitarian react differently to their environment. product of proves himself to be a perfect Victorian

removed. Girls as young as fourteen are taken to a derelict .. scrap yard and are deflowered . antithesis of romance. •. he poverty and degradation that characterise the lives of T the miners is in sharp contrast with the lifestyle of the Gregoire family. M. Gregoire has made his fortune investing channelled waited upon in the mine and much of his wealth into providing by is

a future for his daughter, house and are

Cecile. They have a large comfortable

by a small

platoon of servants.

The area around the coal mines is agricultural. When the sun shines, the fields of wheat and beetroot paint such a pretty picture that one can almost forget misery that infests the mining however, is always slightly communities. dimmed the human The sun,

England as he shows a complete

inability to treat his young wife with love and kindness. Gradgrind, on the other hand, having witnessed how his over-strict attitude to his children's upbringing has on scarred both of them, admits the error of his ways and begins to dou bt some of the cast iron principles

by the clouds of

black coal dust that drift interminably across the sky.

3. An analysis of how the characters are influenced by and react to their environment
Hard

which his own life and society at large are based.

Ghosts
It is the moral and social rather than the economic climate painted that influences the characters. A picture is of a society in moral decline where hypocrisy

Times
on which Coketown society is built. to a utilitarian,

A strong work ethic and the pursuit of monetary gain are the cornerstones Citizens are expected to live according in Hard Times struggle society. to comply

and falsity are to the fore. Norwegian society, as represented by Parson Manders, is made up of churchgoing, moral propriety. law abiding, hard working demands of people who live up to the most stringent

-. materialistic philosophy of life but some of the characters with the dictates of

Cross-Curricular

Project

Underneath the surface, however, this society is falling apart. Mrs Alving has paid a terrible price for conforming to social convention. Not only has she been forced to live a lie to cover up for her husband's infidelity but she has also seen her son waste h is life. In order to maintain respectability, she sent her son away, paid off her maid and built an orphanage. All her efforts have come to nothing. Oswald is also a victim of the crumbling moral microcosm that is his family. Forced to leave home at an early age, he settled in Paris and embarked on a bohemian lifestyle. Now sick and despondent he has come home with a death wish. The grey, rain sodden skies outside the window are in perfect keeping with his dejected desperation. Regina is probably the character who has lost most because of the false respectability that the Alving family has tried to maintain. She never knew who her mother or father were, she was adopted by a drunken stepfather and she cannot have anything to do with Oswald. She is the most innocent and defenceless victim of a society on the brink of moral collapse.
Germinal

Although the characters in Germinal do try to react against the inhuman conditions under which they are forced to live and work, most of them end up being victims. This is particularly true of the Maheu family. M. Maheu reluctantly becomes a strike leader but is killed by a soldier's bullet. His daughter Catherine, a bright and lively fifteen-yearold, does what all the other girls of her age do. She starts

a loveless affa ir in which she puts up with constant physical and psychological mistreatment. When Etienne kills her brutal lover and claims her for himself it is too late because she dies in the collapsed mine shaft. Catherine's brother, who despite being only twenty-one has already fathered two children, is also killed in the same mining accident. Two members of the Maheu family rebel against their awful lives in surprising and shocking ways. When Cecile visits grandfather Maheu to offer some charitable help the old man strangles her on impulse. By killing her he is killing the world and social class she represents, that class which has made his life and his family's life a misery for generations. Eleven-year-old [eanlin Maheu is a bit of a rascal and is well-known around the settlement because he likes playing practical jokes on people. His joking goes too far when he oversteps the boundary that separates play from reality and kills a soldier. When a shocked Etienne asks him why he did it he says he was only playing. The mob becomes a character in the novel when it takes direct action against the company's mines. Previously passive individuals are transformed into brutal aggressors as pent up anger and frustration is directed against their employers. The descent into brutality culminates in the murder and mutilation of Maigrat. Etienne reacts to what he sees and lives through by trying to understand how society can be changed. He is instrumental in organising a strike and getting workers to join the socialist International. He is alarmed when the situation gets out of control and loses public support when soldiers open fire on the miners. As the novel ends he is dreaming of a political and social revolution in the next century.

Introduction
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includes many stills from famous films based on literary works (for

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Filmography Rationale

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to develop the link between literature and cineuseful internet links to " .•,.J. updated information, and links to sites which contain useful information SUIH!(~stllonls how to exploit films in the classroom or where to find the on

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are eight lists of films, one for each Module of Fields of Vision, from A to H. information has been provided for film(s) based on the texts in the IVIUU".u,-, and a list of titles and year of release has been presented for other works .i.. ... .. in the course book but by the same Author, since students may not < ··.·\thetime and/or ability to read all the works by an Author, but they might .....• seeing films inspired by that Author . ..cases more than one production based on the same literary work has been This could be the basis for students' projects in which the various .: ~J1U'....u,~u,'u~ can be compared and contrasted to reveal how the same material has treated differently, depending on the director or the time when it was made. titles are available on DVD which contains soundtracks in more than one allowing teachers to use the original in English or switch to Italian if C()lnprertension is too difficult. This feature opens up quite a few new applications

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Filmography

Module A
My Fair Lady USA (1964); Musical/Comedy Cast: Audrey Hepburn, Rex Harrison, Stanley Holloway, Wilfrid Hyde-White Pickering The Importance of Being Earnest UK (1952): Comedy Directed by Anthony Asquith Cast: Michael Redgrave, Michael Denison, Edith Evans, Joan Greenwood Colour 95 min Musical version which has a different ending to the original play.

Pygmalion

Oscar Wilde The Importance Being Earnest of

Film which remains very

cI ose to the stage versio n.

Module B
Beowulf Beowulf (DVD only) USA (1999): Horror/Action/Sci-Fi Directed by Graham Baker Cast Graham Baker, Christopher Lambert, Rhona Mitra, Oliver Cotton, Gotz Otto Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves USA (199 1): Historica IIAdventu reiAction Directed by Kevin Reynolds Cast; Kevin Costner, Morgan Freeman, Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio, Christian Slater Colour 95 min A science fiction version of the poem set in a nonspecifi c futu re or past.

Robin Hood and the Bishop of Hereford

Colour 138 min

Story which opens quite violently with Robin fighting in the Crusades and being captured by the Turks before retu rn ing to England, where the more familiar story begins. The film tells the story of the Scottish warrior William Wallace and the Battle of Bannockburn, although not strictly historically accurate.

Historical and Social Background


(1 066- 1485)

Braveheart USA (1995): Romance/Historical/Action Directed by Mel Gibson Cast: Mel Gibson, Sophie Marceau, Patrick McGoohan, Catherine McCormack Excolibur UK (1981): Fantasy/Action Directed by John Boorman Cast: Nigel Terry, Nicol Williamson, Nicholas Clay, Helen Mirren

Colour 177 min

Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae

Colour 140 min

The legend of King Arthur and the sword which entitled him to become king of England.

Filmography

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William Shakespeare
Romeo and Juliet
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Romeo and juliet USA (1996): Action/Drama/Romance Directed by Baz Luhrmann Cast: Edwina Moore, leonardo DiCaprio, Claire Danes, Zak Orth Romeo and Juliet Italy-UK (1968): Romance/Historical Directed by Franco Zeffirelli Cast: Olivia Hussey, Leonard Whiting, Milo O'Shea, Murray Head West Side Story USA (1961): Musical/Dance Directed by Robert Wise and jerome Robbins Cast: Natalie Wood, Richard Beymer, Russ Tamblyn, Rita Moreno

Colour 120 min

Modern version of the story, set in Verona Beach in the USA, using the original language alongside a pop music soundtrack. Romeo is played by a 17year-old and juliet by a 15· year-old in this version which uses the original Shakespearean language. Musical story of the love between members of two rival gangs. Set in 1950s New York, based on the story of Romeo and juliet.

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Colour 138 min

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Colour 151 min

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William Shakespeare AMidsummer Dream Night's

A Midsummer Night's Dream


Italy/UK (1999) Directed by Michael Hoffman Cast: Kevin Kline, Michelle Pfeiffer, Rupert Everett, Stanley Tucci Hamlet USA (1990): Drama Directed by Franco Zeffirelli Cast: Mel Gibson, Glenn Close, Alan Bates, Paul Scofield Hamlet UK (1948): Drama Directed by laurence Olivier Cast: laurence Olivier, Eileen Herlie, Basil Sydney, Jean Simmons

Colour 116 min

This is set in the 1890s and has a number of stars in minor roles.

William Shakespeare Hamlet

Colour 135 min

Filmed in Scotland.

Black & White 153 min

••••

Considered to be one of the best film versions of the play. However it cuts many of the minor characters, including Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, from the story. Set in New York, the film uses the orig ina! Shakespearean language in a modern-day corporate business setting.

I'
.

Hamlet (Only available on DVD) USA (2000): Drama Directed by Michael Almereyda Cast: Ethan Hawke, Kyle Maclachlan, Sam Shepard, Diane Venora William Shakespeare Macbeth Macbeth UK (1971): Drama Directed by Roman Polanski Cast: jon Finch, Francesca Annis, Martin Shaw, Nicholas Selby

Colour 112 min

Colour 140 min

Realistic and extremely violent film version (made two years after the director's pregnant wife was brutally murdered).

Filmography

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Prospera's Books Netherlands-UK (1991): Fantasy/Drama Directed by Peter Greenaway Cast: John Gielgud, Michael Clark, Michel Blanc, Erland Josephson

Colour 129 min

Film which takes as its central theme the books which Prospero takes to the island. The story is told through dance and words; all the dialogue is spoken by Sir john. All reviews mention substantial nudity. A fictional account of the story behind the writing of Romeo and Juliet.

William

Shakespeare

Writers' Gallery

Shakespeare in Love UK/USA (1 998): Romance/ Comedy Directed by john Madden Cast: Gwyneth Paltrow, Geoffrey Rush, Tom Wilkinson, joseph Fiennes A Man for All Seasons UK (1966): Drama Directed by Fred Zinnernann Cast: Paul Scofield, Wendy Hiller, Leo McKern, Robert Shaw

Colour 122 min

Historical and Social Background (Britain 1485- 1625) Hemy VIII

Colour 120 min

Film based on the play by Robert Bolt about Sir Thomas More's personal conflict when King Henry VIII asks for his support in breaking with the Vatican and forming the Church of England. Film about the early years of the reign of Elizabeth I.

Historical and Social Background (Britain 1485-1625) Elizabeth I

Elizabeth I UK (1998): Drama Directed by Shekhar Kapur Cast: Cate Blanchett, Geoffrey Rush, joseph Fiennes, Christopher Ecdeston

Colour 124 min

Module D
Daniel Defoe Moll Flanders Moll Flanders (DVD only, not currently available in Europe) USA/Ireland (1996): Drama Directed by Pen Densham Cast: Robin Wright, Morgan Freeman, Stockard Channing, john Lynch Gulliver's Travels UK/USA (1996): Fantasy/Adventure Directed by Charles Sturridge Cast: Ted Danson, Mary Steenburg en, James Fox, Ned Beatty Cromwell UK (1970): Drama Directed by Ken Hughes Cast: Richard Harris, Alec Guinness, Robert Morley, Dorothy Tutin Color 169 min The film is inspired by the book and therefore not a faithful adaptation of the entire story.

Jonathan Swift Gulliver's Travels

Colour 187 min

This version was made for TV and thanks to its length is able to represent the book fairly accurately.

Historical and Social Background Oliver Cromwell

Colour 145 min

Not historically accurate, the film however gives an idea of the turmoil of the time.

Filmography

Module E
Authors an4 , Literary WQrks :

Film!s
The Madness of King George UK-USA (1994): Historical/Drama/Biography Directed by Nicholas Hytner Cast: Nigel Hawthorne, Helen Mirren, Amanda Donohoe, Rupert Everett Emma UK (1996): Romance Directed by Douglas McGrath Cast Gwyneth Paltrow, james Cosmo, Greta Scacchi, Alan Cumming Pride and Prejudice (made for 1V) UK (1995): Romance Directed by Simon Langton Cast Colin Firth, Jennifer Ehle, David Bomber, Crispin Bonham-Carter Sense and Sensibility USA (1995): Drama Directed by Ang Lee Cost: Emma Thompson, Alan Rickman, Kate Winslet, Hugh Grant Ivanhoe UK (1997): Adventure Directed by Stuart Orme Cast: Roger Ashton Griffith, Chris Barnes, David Barrass, Niven Boyd

Black &: White! Colour ima Duration


Colour 107 min

....

Description
A faithful adaptation of the play with Nigel Hawthorne, who played the part in the original stage version, in the role of the king.

i . I'.S.Shelley
.. -." .. .
'

••••••••

England in 1819

•••••••••

. JaneAusten . Emma

Colour 121 min

.'
'.

Emma is played by the American Gwyneth Paltrow, but her Eng Iish accent is accu rate and the rest of the cast is British. This adaptation is fairly accurate as it was made as a TV series and therefore did not have the usual problems of limited time.

lane Austen Pride and Prejudice

Colour 300 min

.....

'.

.' .....

........

jane Austen

Colour 135 min

Sense and Sensibility

The screenplay was written by the actress Emma Thompson, who plays Elinor in the film.

I>

Walter Scott

!\'rrnha,
Sir Walter Scott
(Writers' Gallery) Rob Roy

Colour 301 min

Originally made as a TV series and therefore fai rly true to th e book as it doesn't suffer from time restrictions. This is considered to be very well acted but there are some scenes of quite graphic violence.

Rob Roy Scotland-USA (1995): Drama/Action Directed by Michael Caton-jones Cast Liam Neeson, jessica Lange, john Hurt, Tim Roth Mary Shelley's Frankenstein USA (1994): Horror/Drama Directed by Kenneth Branagh Cost: Robert De Niro, Kenneth Branagh, Tom Hulce, Helena Bonham Carter

Colour 139 min

Mary Shelley .'Frankenstein I·' . Mary Shelley Frimkenstein


I.. ......

Colour 128 min

Unlike other versions of the film this is true to the book and indudes the character of Captain Walton who introduces and doses the story . Classic horror version of the story.

Frankenstein USA(1931): Horror Directed by james Whale Cast: Colin Clive, Mae Clarke, john Boles, Boris Karloff

Black & White 10 min

Filmography

-,'Lit~rary Works
Edgar Allan Poe (Writers' Gallery) The Black Cat

, 'Authors ,

~Module

E and _

-- _FilmXs' , , _, ~,

.
, ' '"

The Black Cat USA (1934): Horror Directed by Edgar G. Ulmer Cast: Boris Karloff, Bela Lugosi, David Manners, Julie Bishop

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Black &. White 65 min Story about a honeymoon couple who, with a fellow traveller, seek refuge in the home of a famed architect after an accident. They then discover the link between their travelling companion and the architect. Fictional account of one man's experience of the American War of Independence.

"'BlacR &WliIteL

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Historical and Social Background (North America from the beginnings to 1823)

The Patriot (DVD only) Germany /US(2000) Action/Drama/War Directed by Roland Emmerich Cast: Mel Gibson, Heath Ledger, [oely Richardson, Jason Isaacs

Colour 164min

Module F
Authors and Literary WorkS _
Charles Dickens David Copperfield

FilmXs

"

--- Biock"&WJilt~l<' <;oloUrand, Durqti~n' .,,"


Colour 185 min

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David Copperfield UK/USA (1999): Drama Directed by Simon Curtis Cast Bob Hoskins, Maggie Smith, Ian McKellen, Daniel Radcliffe Hard Times UK (1994): Drama Directed by Peter Barnes Cast Harriet Walter, Bill Paterson, Alex Jennings, Alan Bates Pink Floyd -The Wall UK (1982): Musical Directed by Alan Parker Cast: Bob Geldof, Christine Hargreaves, James Laurenson, Eleanor David Wuthering Heights UK/USA (1992): Drama/Romance Directed by Peter Kosminsky Cast: Juliette Binoche, Ralph Fiennes, Janet McTeer, Sophie Ward

Made for TV version, featuring highly respected cast.

Charles Dickens Hard Times

Colour 100 min

BBC production originally made for schools but with major cast.

Link to the world of music (Charles Dickens) Hard Times

Colour 99 min

Movie about a rock star's mental breakdown. Animated sequences by political cartoonist Gerald Scarfe. Complete version of the book, unlike the 1939 version which stops at chapter 17.

Emily Bronte Wuthering Heights

Colour 105 min

filmography

Jane Eyre USA (1996): Drama/Romance Directed by Franco ZeffirelJi Cast: William Hurt, Charlotte Gainsbourg, joan P!owright, Anna Paquin Jane Eyre USA (1944): Romance Directed by Robert Stevenson Cast: Orson Welles, joan Fontaine, Margaret O'Brien, Peggy Ann Garner Silas Marner UK (1985): Drama Directed by Giles Foster Cast; Ben Kingsley, jenny Agutter, Patrick Ryecart, jonathan Coy The Millon the Floss USA (1997): Drama Directed by Graham Theakston Cast: Emily Watson, lfan Meredith, James Frain, Bernard Hill Middlemarch UK (1994): Drama Directed by Anthony Page Cast: Juliet Aubrey, Simon Chandler, Ian Driver, Pam Ferris Mary Reiliy USA (1996): Horror/Drama Directed by Stepen Frears Cast: julia Roberts, john Malkovich, Glenn Close, George Cole The Importance of Being Earnest UK (1952): Comedy Directed by Anthony Asquith Cast: Michael Redgrave, Michael Denison, Edith Evans, joan Greenwood An Ideal Husband UK/USA (1999): Comedy Directed by Oliver Parker Cast: Cate Blanchett, Minnie Driver, Rupert Everett, julianne Moore Wilde UK/Germany/japan (1997): Drama Directed by Brian Gilbert Cast: Stephen Fry, jude Law, Vanessa Redgrave, jennifer Ehle Black & White 96 min

version.

Although not entirely faithful to the book, this version is considered to have the best performances. Made for TV version featuring a highly respected cast.

Colour 92 min

Colour 90 min

Made for American TV but featuring a British cast.

Colour 357 min

Made for TV version shown over several weeks.

Colour 108 min

The story of Dr. jekyll and Mr Hyde as seen from the point of view of a housemaid working in his home. Film which remains very close to the stage version.

Colour 95 min

Colour 97 min

Film which remains very close to the stage version.

Colour 118 min

Based on the highly respected biography by Richard Ellman.

filmography

-+ Module F
, ~iteratir. ,Work~
Thomas Hardy Tess of The d'Urbervilles

Authors and

FIIm/s
Tess France/UK (1979): Drama Directed by Roman Polanski Cast: Nastassja Kinski, Leigh Lawson, Peter Firth, john Collin For From the Madding Crowd UK (1967): Drama Directed by John Schlesinger Cast: julie Christie, Terence Stamp, Peter Finch, Alan Bates

'

Black &' White/ Colourand Ouratio~


Colour 170 min

I '..
,

Description "

Made when Nastassja Kinski was only seventeen, this is considered to be one of Polanski's best films.

Thomas Hardy (Writers' Gallery) For From the Madding Crowd Thomas Hardy (Writers' Gallery) Jude The Obscure

Colour 169 min

Adapted for the screen by the novelist Frederic Raphael.

Jude UK (1996): Drama Directed by Michael Winterbottom Cast: Christopher Eccleston, Kate Winslet, Uam Cunningham, Rachel Griffiths The Scarlet Letter USA (1995): Romance/Historical/Drama Directed by Roland joffe Cast: Demi Moore, Gary Oldman, Robert Duvall, Lisa joliff.Andoh MobyDick USA (1956): Adventure Directed by john Huston Cast: Gregory Peck, Richard Basehart, Leo Genn, Harry Andrews The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn USA (1993): Drama/ Adventure Directed by Stephen Sommers Cast: Elijah Wood, Courtney B. Vance, Robbie Coltrane, jason Robards

Colour 123 min

For the most part an accu rate version but overlooking the novel's final pages.

Nathaniel Hawthorne The Scarlet Letter

Colour 135 min

A very loose adaptation which, according to most critics, falls to do justice to the book.

Helman Melville MobyDick

Colour 116 min

The novel was adapted for the screen by the writer Ray Bradbury.

Mark Twain The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

Colour 108 min

Recent version of film made for Disney which shows Huck's adventures, although omitting some parts of the book including the character Tom Sawyer. Film showing the relationship between a black chauffeur and his white employer in the American South between 1948 and 1973. Film set in a private sch 001 in the USA in 1959 where the teacher encourages his students to see the relevance of poetry, and address him as "captain, my captain". Film which describes the life of Queen Victoria after the death of her husband, Prince Albert.

Mark Twain (Out) The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

Driving Miss Daisy USA (1989): Drama/Comedy Directed by Bruce Beresford Cast: JessicaTandy, Morgan Freeman, Dan Aykroyd, Patti LuPone

Colour 99 min

Walt Whitman Captain! My Captain!

Dead Poets Society USA (1989): Drama Directed by Peter Weir Cast: Robin Williams, Robert Sean Leonard, Ethan Hawke, josh Charles Mrs Brown Ireland/UK/USA (1997): Drama/romance Directed by john Madden Cast: judi Dench, Billy Connolly, Geoffrey Palmer, Antony Sher

Colour 128 min

Historical and Social Background (The Victorian Age 1837-1901) Queen Victoria

Colour 103 min

-+

Filmography

Authors and Literary Works


Historical and Social Background (The Victorian Age 1837-1901) Famine in Ire/and Historical and Sodal Background ii(North American History 1823-1900)

, ~ilm

Is,

'

',BIRck &: White! ' Colour and Duratj.on


Colour 198 min

The Hanging Gale Ireland (1995) Directed by Diarmuid Lawrence Cast: joe McGann, Mark McGann, Paul McGann, Stephen McGann Gettysburg USA (1993): War/Historical/Drama Directed by Ronald F Maxwell Cast: Tom Berenger, jeff Daniels, Martin Sheen, Kevin Conway

'

I"
"

, .. : Q~scrlption, ,

,'

Set in Ireland, it is about fou r brothers wh 0 try to save their farm during the potato famine in 1846.

Colour 248 min

Film about the Battle of Gettysburg in the summer of 1863. It concentrates on the planning and preparation for battle, and then the battle itself. Sinee the fil m lasts ove r three hours, it is able to encompass all the major events in the book.

War and Peace Italy/USA (1956): War/Historical/Drama Directed by King Vidor Cast Audrey Hepburn, Henry Fonda, Mel Ferrer, Vittorio Gassman

Colour 208 min

Module G
Authors and 1 literary Works ,
Henry James ..(Writers' Gallery) The Portrait of a Lady

Film/s '
The Portrait of a Lady UK/USA (1996): Drama Directed by Jane Campion Cast: Nicole Kidman, John Malkovich, Barbara Hershey, Mary-Louise Parker The Wings of the Dove USA/UK (1997): Drama/Romance Directed by lain Sottley Cast: Helena Bonham Carter, Linus Roache, Charlotte Rampling, Alex jennings War of the Worlds USA (1953): Science Fiction Directed by Byron Haskin Cast: Gene Barry, Ann Robinson, Les Tremayne, Lewis Martin Apocalypse Now USA (1979): War Directed by Francis Ford Coppola Cost: Marlon Brande, Robert Duvall, Martin Sheen, Frederic Forrest A Room with a View UK (1985): Drama/Comedy Directed by James Ivory Cast: Maggie Smith, Helena Bonham Carter, Denholm Elliott, julian Sands

1
,

Black &: WhiteY "I Colour and Duration,


Colour 142 min

'.','

''

m~~crip~ion'
Considered by some critics to be a feminist interpretation of the novel mainly due to the fact that it is directed by a woman. The setting of the film is slightly updated from 1902 to 1910.

Henry lames (Writers' Gallery)


<'['he Wings of the Dove

Colour 101 min

IH.G~ Wells
I

Colour 85 min

The War of the Worlds

Not a faithful adaptation of the book but a typical example of a 1950s science fiction film.

I i •.'.·

..

Joseph Conrad

H~artof Darkness

Colour 150 min

The film uses the book as the basis for the story of a group of American soldiers during the Vietnam war.

/E.M; Forster
with a View

Colour 115 min

Faithful adaptation of the book, the first half of which is set and filmed in Tuscany.

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.

Filmography

-+ Module G

'A.nthor~ yLitermy 'Works ,


E.M. Forster (Writers' Gallery) Maurice

an(t 'I

"

Filmls

"Black & Wmte/:


Colour 140 min

'Co)olJr ~~ DUr~tion -,~:,'-,~es~,ri~~~~ : ,' "~


A faithful version of the book with Hugh Grant in his first significant film role.

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Maurice UK (1987): Drama Directed by james Ivory Cast: james Wilby, Hugh Grant, Rupert Graves, Denholm Elliott Howards End UK (1992); Drama Directed by james Ivory Cast: Sir Anthony Hopkins, Vanessa Redgrave, Helena Bonham Carter, joseph Bennett A Passage to India UK (1984): Drama Directed by David Lean Cast: judy Davis, Victor Banerjee, Peggy Ashcroft, James Fox Women in Love UK (1969); Drama Directed by Ken Russell Cast: Alan Bates, Oliver Reed, Glenda Jackson, jennie Linden

E.M. Forster (Writers' Gallery) Howards End

Colour 140 min

Film by the team who made Room with a View and Maurice.

E.M. Forster (Writers' Callery) A Passage to India

Colour 163 min

A faithful adaptation of the book by a director famed for his skill in depicting exotic landscapes and cultures. The film was made at the dawn of the women's movement, when many women were driven to examine their own assumptions about relatio nsh ips. Film version of another of the short sto ries from the collection Dub/iners.

D.H. Lawrence Women in Love

Colour 129 min

James Joyce Araby

The Dead USA (1987): Drama Directed by john Huston Cast: Anjelica HUston, Donal McCann, Rachael Dowling, Cathleen Delany Orlando France/ltaly/Netherlands/UK (1993): Historical/Drama Di rected by Sally Potter Cast; Tilda Swinton, Billy Zane, Lothaire Bluteau, john Wood Mrs Dol/away Netherlands/UK/USA (1997): Drama/Romance Directed by Marleen Garris Cast; Vanessa Redgrave, Natascha McElhone, Rupert Graves, Michael Kitchen Anima/Farm UK (1955): Animated Directed by john Halas and joy Batchelor The Great Gotsby USA (1974): Drama Directed by jack Clayton Cast: Robert Redford, Mia Farrow, Bruce Oern, Karen Black

Colour 83 min

Virginia Woolf (Writers' Gallery) Orlando

Colour 93 min

The film manages to convey the changes in time and gender in the book, which were thought unfilrnable.

Virginia Woolf (Writers' Gallery) Mrs Dalloway

Colour 97min

The double casting of the central characters is realistic and makes the flashback scenes easy to follow.

George Orwell (Writers' Gallery) Animal Farm F. Scott Fitzgerald The Great Gatsby

Colour 75 min

The film is true to the original story, apart from the ending which is more positive. The screenplay was written by the well-known director Francis Ford Coppola.

Colour 144 min

Filmography

A Farewell to Arms USA (1932): War/Romance Directed by Frank Borzage Cast; Helen Hayes, Gary Cooper, Adolphe Menjou, Mary Philips For Whom the Bell Tolls USA (1943): War/Adventure Cast: Gary Cooper, Ingrid Bergman, Akim Tamiroff, Arturo de Cordova The Grapes of Wrath USA (1940): Drama Directed by John Ford Cast: Henry Fonda, jane Darwell, john Carradine, Charley Grapewin

78 min

This is the only version available on video, although it is less well-known than the 1957 version.

Colour 130 min

The film concentrates on the romance between the characters and minimises the political aspects of the book. The film, which won Oscars for best director and best actress, ends differently to the book as the original ending was considered too shocking for cinema audiences. The film tells the story of Michael Collins and his role in the Easter 1916 rising, whilst giving an overview of the Irish situation at the time, from a principally Irish perspective. Featuring the poetry of Wilfred Owen and Siegfried Sassoon, the film is set in a military hospital in Scotland where Siegfried Sassoon was sent for medical examination after drafting a statement of his disillusionment with the conduct of the war. The film focuses on the effects of th e war on the soldiers. Musical version which has a different ending to the original play.

Black &: White 129 min

Grapes of Wrath

Michael Collins Ireland/UK/USA (1996): Drama Directed by Neil jordan Cast: Ian Hart, Julia Roberts, Richard Ingram, Liam Neeson

Colour 133 min

Regeneration Canada/UK (1997): Drama/War Directed by Gillies MacKinnon Cast; jonathan Pryce, james Wilby, jenny Lee Miller, Stuart Bunce

Colour 105 min

My Fair Lady USA (1964): Musical/Comedy Directed by George Cukor Cost: Audrey Hepburn, Rex Harrison, Stanley Holloway, Wilfrid Hyde-White The Crucible USA (1996): Drama Directed by Nicholas Hytner Cast: Daniel Day-Lewis, Winona Ryder, Paul Scofield, Joan Allen

Colour 170 min

Colour 124 min

The Crucible

Adapted by Miller from his own play and therefore faithfu I to th e text, and directed by Nicholas Hytner who also directed the film version of The Madness of Kjng George. The film was adapted by Williams from his own play but given a different ending to meet the demands of the film censors of the time.

The Literary
Background (North American Literature) Tennessee Williams A Streetcar Named

A Streetcar Named Desire USA (1951): Drama Directed by Elia Kazan Cost; Vivien Leigh, Marlon Brando, Kim Hunter, Karl Malden

Black & White 122 min

Desire

Filmography

ModuleH
William Golding Lord of the Flies UK (1963): Drama Directed by Peter Brook Cast: james Aubrey, Tom Chapin, Hugh Edwards, Roger Elwin The Snapper UK (1993): Drama/Comedy Directed by Stephen Frears Cast: Tina Kellegher, Calm Meaney, Ruth McCabe, Calm O'Byrne The Commitments USA (1991): Musical/Drama Directed by Alan Parker Cast: Robert Arkins, Michael Aherne, Angeline Ball, Maria Doyle The Van UK (1996): Drama/Comedy Directed by Stephen Frears Cast: Colm Meaney, Donal O'Kelly, Ger Ryan, Caroline Rothwell, Cry Freedom UK (1987): Biography Directed by Richard Attenborough Cast: Denzel Washington, Kevin Kline, Penelope Wilton, Kate Hardie Black & White 90 min This version is better known than the 1990 version, which is mentioned in the book but not available on video. Although the film is based on the book the family's names have been changed.

Lord of the Flies

Roddy Doyle The Snapper

Colour 90min

Roddy Doyle (Writers' Gallery) The Commitments

Colour 117 min

First part of the Barrytown trilogy to be filmed, and featuring the originally named characters from the book. Third part of the Barrytown trilogy.

Roddy Doyle (Writers' Gallery) The Van

Colour 100 min

Nadine Gordimer None to Accompany

Colour 157 min

Me

Film about the friendship between Steve Biko, the south African activist and the newspaper editor Donald Woods; based on books by Woods. The film concentrates on the love story between the English patient and Katharine; told in flash backs. Documentary about the poet's life and work, including readings of works such as Howl. Features interviews with several of the beat poets including Kerouac and William S. Burroughs. Considered a very good adaptation of the play, in which the director gives a claustrophobic climax that reinforces the impact of the entire film. Adapted by Pinter from the novel by john Fowles.

Michael Ondaatje The English Patient

The English Patient USA (1996): Drama/Romance Directed by Anthony Minghella Cast: Ralph Fiennes, juliette Binoche, Willem Dafoe, Kristin Scott Thomas The Ufe and Times of Allen Ginsberg USA (1993): Documentary Directed by jerry Aronson

Colour 160 min

Allen Ginsberg (Writers' Gallery)

Colour 82 min

Harold Pinter (Writers' Gallery)

The Birthday Party UK (1968): Drama Directed by William Friedkin Cast: Robert Shaw, Patrick Magee, Dandy Nichols, Sydney Tafler

Colour 127 min

..
.

Harold Pinter (Writers' Gallery)

The French Lieutenant's Woman UK (1981): Romance Cast: Meryl Streep, jeremy Irons, Hilton McRae

Colour 123 min

..

.
'.

Filmography

The Madness of King George UK/USA (1994): Historical/Drama/ Biography Directed by Nicholas Hytner Cast: Nigel Hawthorne, Helen Mirren, Amanda Donohoe, Rupert Everett A Private Function UK (1985): Comedy Directed by Malcolm Mowbray Cost: Michael Palin, Maggie Smith, Denholm Elliott, Richard Griffiths Brassed Off UK/USA (1996): Comedy Directed by Mark Herman Cast: Pete Postlethwaite, Tara Fitzgerald, Ewan McGregor, Stephen Tompkinson Colour 93 min Comedy set in wartime England.

Colour 109 min

Set in 1992 in a northern mining town, the film tells the story of the town's brass band during the struggle to keep the local colliery open. The main character lives through American history from the 1950s to the 1980s and witnesses most of the significant historic events of the period at first hand. Based on Tennessee Williams' play; the story of an alcoholic former priest, now a bus-tour guide in . Mexico and his involvement with three women. Extremely faithful adaptation of the play about two college professors and their wives who pass a drunken and emotionally draining night together.

Forrest Gump USA (1994): Drama/Comedy Directed by Robert Zemeckis Cast: Tom Hanks, Gary Sinise, Dan Taylor, Robin Wright, Sally Field

Colour 142 min

The Night of the Iguana USA (1964): Drama Directed by John Huston Cast: Richard Burton, Ava Gardner, Deborah Kerr, Sue lyon

Black & White 118 min

Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? USA (1966): Drama Directed by Mike Nichols Cast: Elizabeth Taylor, Richard Burton, George Segal, Sandy Dennis

Black & White 129min

Filmography

Visual links

.......

Filmography

Filmography Worksheet
use the headings, suggestions and questions below as a general outline to prepare a report on any film Title: Director; Year; Main actors: Write a summary of the story in approximately complicated subplots, details etc. 120 words. Focus on the main plot and avoid

Is the story told in chronological order? Does it begin in 'medias res'? Are there any flashback or flashforward sequences? Is the plot complicated or simple to follow? Identify the time setting in which the film takes place (past, present, future?) Does the action take place in a specific time frame? Can you identify the year, decade, century? What time period does the action cover (a day, a month, several centuries ...)? Where does the action take place (country, city, village, rural setting, alien setting ...)? Does most of the action take place - indoors or outdoors? - at day or at night? What are the predominant weather conditions in the film? Who is the protagonist ofthe film? Is there a character who can be identified as an antagonist? Is the cast of characters numerous or limited in number? Choose one of the characters in the film and analyse his/her role using the following questions as guidelines: How old is he/she? What does he/she look like? Role in the plot (protagonist, main character, minor character?) Is he/she a round/flat character? Is he/she a dynamic or static character? How do the spectators respond to the character and why? What type of music is used in the sound track? Is the sound track a strong feature of the film? Is any specific music strongly associated with a cha racter, a setti ng etc.? Does the director use any special devices (camera angles, colours, lighting .. .)? Does the film contain any spectacular special effects? What is the theme of the film? What was your own personal response to the film?

General websites
Background information for students studying literary texts. Helpful resources for teachers. Web activities which can be done on line or as pencil and paper activities. Advice and support for teachers teaching literature, a range of time saving tips for busy teachers: ($ http://www.teachingtips.co.uk/ literary Resources A starting point for searching for literary resources by era. Contacts, discussion groups and information on literary events. Divided by category, from Medieval through to 20th-century Literature: ($ http://andromeda. IIItgers.edu/- jlynch/LitI Internet resources related to books for children and young adults. Authors and stories online, links to literature organisations, resources for teachers, parents and storytellers, literature discussion groups: ~ http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/-dkbrown/

on the Net

The tlterature.'. Web Guide

LiteratureOnline .. ···.·· A fully searchable library of more than 290,000 works of English and American · poetry, drama and prose, plus biographies, bibliographies and key secondary sources: ~ http://lion.chadwyck.com/htm1/ about.htm Literature Fan Club Most students understand the idea of a fan club, where a rock star or athlete or actor is appreciated for his or her talents. Why not apply that same concept to authors? Students work in groups to research their favorite authors and create and market a fan club for that author: c:j, http://www.itdc.sbcss.k12.ca.us/curriculum/li teraryfanclub.html •... It provides reading room, bibliographic, document supply and information services, as well as information on exhibitions, publications and events: ~ http://www.bl.uk/ Direct access to the English faculty library: ~ http://users.ox.ac.uk/-enginfo/

The Britishlibrary

The English Faculty ..library .. .

Literature search engines


Yahoo Literature ~ http://dir.yahoo .com/Arts/Humanities/Litera ture/ Go to the Arts & Literature link to find a writer's last name, century, country, language, culture, genre, group/period, literary theory/paradigm, popular/ notable and reference resources. Linksto all aspects of Classic and contemporary literature: http://classiclit.about.com/library/bl-bio/bl-clwrdir.htm

..About.corn

BlueWeb'N

A library of blue Ribbon Learning sites on the web. The English Literature section contains a wealth of interesting links for teachers using literature texts with students. Also has web-based projects, lesson plans, tutorials and other web resources: http://www.kn.pacbell.com/wired/bluewebn/fcEnglish.html

Literature

Resources on the Internet

of electronic texts. A good starting point for students to create their hypertext version ofthe classics: http://promo.net./pg/

Project Gutenberg

..

books page of the online Guardian newspaper is a vast source of information .•..GUilrdianUhliniited writers, genre, reviews and news on contemporary and classic literature. Find biographies of all the authors you want to know about. Select the drop down at the top right of the page: (:j http://vvww.guardianunlimited.co.uk/

teachers who wish to explore poetry with their students, take a look at 30 Days of Poetry. Students have a poetry writing assignment each of the 30 days, or reacners can assign several types of poems for students to experience: http://members.tripod.com/the-english-room/ An online library of classic poetry. Alphabetical lists of authors with links to their a generator that selects at random a poem from 1800 texts, a search as well as a Top 20 listing of favourite poems: http://www.nth-dimension.co.uk/vll ······.Vers.Libre .

You can select the first letter of the poet's last name below, or view the entire list There are approximately 3800 poems by over 200 authors in the database: (j http://www.nth-dimension.co.uk/vl/author_JZ.asp
is a great resource for teachers looking for poetry activities. The Sharing area .gives ideas for conversation starters when talking about poetry: (j http://www.poetryexpress.orgi This site shares audio and video of people reading their favorite poems, and invites readers to send in their favorite poems with a few sentences about why it is special to them. Students are invited to participate, and this could be a springboard for classrooms to develop their own favorite poem web sites: ($ http://www.favoritepoem.org/ ···.··lsP()emSyouCan·.···

·Write·N()w

From the origins to the Middle Ages


Medieval Resources provides a launch pad to texts and databases on the Medieval period literature, history and architecture: ($ http://ebbs.english. vt. edu/medievallmedieval.ebbs .html huge directory with links to biographies, life and works of Geoffrey Chaucer: http://www.unc.edu/depts!chaucer/

MedievalPeri()d

resources, texts and sites about the(jeOffrey<:h~uceti

Literature Resources on the Internet

..GeoffreyChaucerartd William Langland

This elegant site features the selected works of Medieval authors including Geoffrey Chaucer and William Langland. You can read The Canterbury Tales in its entirety, listen to audio excerpts, read famous quotes, learn about Chaucer's life, and more: ~ http://www.luminarium.org/medlit/chaucer.htm

The Renaissance
The life and works, quotes, essays and additional sources of information Renaissance playwright: ~ http://v.'WW.luminarlum.org/renlit/marlowe.htm on the

·.·ofWillial11 hakespeare S

TheCort1pleteWorks· ••• ··

I.

All the original texts. Links to further information works: ~ http://tech-two.mit.edu/Shakespeare/works.html A complete annotated guide to scholarly Internet: http://shakespeare.palomar.edu/

about Shakespeare's life and

•...•.•.••.••• ·•· .•.••• ·..rv1rWilliaOl.·.• •.•••..••. ·.< ·•·.·•· ·•·· -.····Shake~peareand •.....•.... the ~ . the Internet.

Shakespeare

resources available

on

The Puritan, Restoration and Augustan Ages


[ohnDonne
A biographical sketch plus essays, quotes, images and a catalogue of his works: ~ http://www.luminarium.org/sevenlit/ donne/

16hl1rv1ilt~r1 ....

I I

Milton's life, works, essays and more ... Lists of links to other 17th-century poets: ~ http://www.luminarium.org/sevenlit/milton/ The entire text of Gulliver's Travels online, plus links and annotations. The site includes a timeline of the writer's life and works and many noteworthy quotes: http;/ /www.;affebros.com/lee/ gulliver/index.html

Gulliver's Traveis .

The Romantic Age


A celebration of the life and works of Scotland's most famous bard: http://www.innotts.co.uk/-asperges/burnsframe.html

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http://VI'WW.tamoshanter.free-online.co.uk/launchrb.htm

Willial11Blake

Information on the life and times of William Blake with links to selected works and exhibitions: ~

http://www.newi

.ac.uk/rdover/blake/

http://www.blakearchive.org/ criticism, political

.. · SanlueITaylor.·· ·············C~lerid~e

All about Coleridge's life and his world; poetry. literary commentary and journalism: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/stc/Coleridge/stc.html

Literature Resources on the Internet

··[ordByron
... Byron Chronology is a searchable hypertext chronology life of George Gordon, Lord Byron: http://www.rc. umd.edu/reference/byronchronologyl of important dates

ii· .. http://www.cas.astate.edu/engphil/gallery!byron.html ·~

......••......... site on the Internet devoted to Lord Byron: best

i+he·percy Bysshe Shelley Resource page has links to online editions of poetry, /prose and letters and a select listing of books dedicated to criticism and (i interpretation of Shelley's works: http://wv.rw.wam.umd.edu/-djb/shelley /home.html

PercyByssneShelley

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Visit the Keats and Shelley Museum in Rome: http://heritage.virtualsite.co.uk/keats/links.html http://odin.engIish.udel.edu/swilson/mws/mws.htmI

...• ··•· ..•. ··JohnKeats& •.. Percy . ·····Byssh~Shelleyi.. .

The author's life and work, many texts and excerpts in downloadable format as (well as comments on the works. Also includes a thorough listing and hundreds ·oflinks to further information about the writer: http://www.pemberley.com/janeinfo/janeinfo.html

...... AOstell Jane

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i{ 0 http://authorsdirectory.com
Information on Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, especially material that might not •....••...•.. be readily available or accessible in every library; http://www.engHsh.udel.edu/swilson/mws/mws.html

...$irWalter'Sc:ott\i········
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the Victorian Age


..••. verything about the Victorian era; from the people, politics and history to art, E .... literature and design: i.·..·· http://landow.stg. brown.edu/victorian/victov.html

...•.• he life and times of Oscar Wilde. Also feature a random quote generator: T ....•.•... http://www.oscariana.net ~ ..•. ~ http://www.showgate.com/tots/ gross/wiIdeweb.html

....•.•... Frequently asked questions . ··about the writer: ~

about Mark Twain and links to many other sites faq.htm

http://marktwain.miningco.com/library/faq/bl

.•.•• Random quotes from Mark Twain, Oscar Wilde and many others: ....... http://www.therightside.demon.co.uk/quotes/mtwain/index.htm ~

Early Twentieth Century and Modernism


>A selection of Lawrence's poetry and extrabibliography ...~ http://VI'WW.sirius.com/ -vance/iawrence/top.html links:

Literature

Resources on the Internet

James Joyce

•• ··.·····

The official site of the James Joyce centre in the heart of Dublin: http://www.jamesjoyce.ie This site aims to encourage scholarship, criticism and study about the life, work and career of the writer and help scholars, critics, teachers, students, and general readers get in touch with one another: http://w.Nw.cohums.ohio-state.edu/english/organizations/ijjf/

The International. James Joyce Foundation F.. Scott Fitzgerald

Elegant graphics and a wealth of information make this a valuable Web site for students and scholars of Fitzgerald. The Web Site celebrates his writings, his life, and his relationships with other writers of the 20th century: http://www.sc.edu/fitzgerald/index.html

.T.S. Eliot ..

Sites devoted to the life and works of T.S. Eliot: The official website for T.S. Eliot: http://www.missouri.edu/ -tselist/tse.html

T.S. Eliot's Nobel prize acceptance speech: http://vvww.deathcIock.com/thunder / http://www.nobel.se/literature/taureates/1948/eliot -acceptance .html http://www. bbc.co. uk/history /programmes/ centurions/ eliot/ elibiog.shtml

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http://us.imdb.com/Name?Doyle,+Roddy http://vvww.philiplarkin.com/biblio.htm

For details on the life, texts and comment on the writer's works . Also contains links to other Beckett sites and sites about authors Beckett: http://beckett.english. ucsb.edu/

linked with

Biographical information: http://www. bbc.co. uk/history /programmes/ cen turions/beckett/beckbiog.sh tml

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.Alan Bennet

A listing of the writer's most noted works: http://us,imdb.com/Name ?Bennett,+Alan

What is poetry?
Case Study 1 (page
Metaphors, by Sylvia Plath

A6)

2 They die in car crashes and wars. 3 He should plant vegetables like spinach and tomatoes that he can eat. 4 Find out what her mother is like. 5 No, he should not. 6 He should always serve bread with his wine.

Comprehension
She is a woman expecting a baby because she says she is 'a cow in calf'. It is as if she is on a train she cannot get off so she will be fat until she has the baby.

Analysis
1 Prudence: squash and spinach, turnips and tomatoes, bread. Joy: the peony and the rose, nectar, wine. He advises his son to fill his life with joy. 2 Shared symbols. Yes, he uses them in a conventional way. 'Bread' is associated with sustenance (eg. The Lord's Prayer: give us this day our daily bread). Wine too has religi ous connotations but, particularly in Anglosaxon cultures, it is also associated with good times and celebration. Out (page A12) a. Skull and bones: death/poison. b. White flag: surrender. c. @ + globe: internet/world wide web. d. Raised index and middle finger: victory. e. Olive branch and dove: peace.

Analysis
1 Open answer. 2 Physical discomfort and disproportion: an elephant, a ponderous house, a melon strolling on two tendrils, I've eaten a bag of green apples; The sense that her destiny has been decided and there is no turning back: Boarded the train there's no getting off; A loss of personal identity: I'm a means, a stage; The sense of carrying something precious: money new-minted in this fat purse; The idea of nausea and indigestion which is associated with her condition: I've eaten a bag of green apples; Her communion with the animal kingdom: (an elephant), a cow in calf; The sense of growing and expanding: this loaf's big with its yeasty rising. (page A7) Apparently with no Surprise, by Emily Dickinson

Case Study 2

Case Study 5

(page A13)

The Hunter, by Ogden Nash

Comprehension
1 It cuts its head off. 2 It ignores it completely. 3 Possible answers: Sadistic, cruel, detached, indifferent.

Analysis
1 Flower, frost, The Sun. 2 Possible answers: beheads, blonde assassin.

End rhymes: blind/kind, noise/decoys, luck/duck. Internal rhymes: conjures/allure, pluck/luck/duck. The simple rhyme scheme makes the poem sound almost like a nursery rhyme and suggests that hunting is a childish activity that degrades grown men. The strong rhyme scheme also adds a humorous element to the poem that contrasts with the serious attitude of the hunter.

Case Study 6

(pageA14)

Case Study 3
Comprehension

(page A9)

Last Week in October, Thomas Hardy

Nettles, by Vernon Scannell

1 He fell into a bed of nettles. 2 Because nettles are not soft like a bed. They sting. 3 He cut down the nettles and burnt them. 4 The nettles had grown again. 5 He realised that his son would feel pain in the future in many different circumstances.

Analysis
1 green spears, that regiment of spite, the fierce parade, the fallen dead, tali recruits, sharp wounds. An association is drawn between the nettles and the enemy in a battle. 2 Sight and touch. 3 The child who has been crying starts to smile. (page All) Advice to my Son, by Peter Meinke

lei!: places/gray/radiant/laces Jail: spider/while /0/: one/downcQming lce/: that/ dangling

Alliteration: On the gray roads, the roof, the window sill Their radiant robes and ribbons and yellow laces Like a suspended criminal hangs he, mumming In golden garb, while one yet green, high yon Trembles as fearing such a fate for himself anon Assonance. Repetition of: short i (liJ): undressing/fling/in/window-sil!/wil!/still/stifl long i (li:/): leaf/each

Case Study 7 (pa£e


Example of onomatopoeia:

A15)

The Cool that Came off Sheets, by Seamus Heaney thwack (line 7).

Case Study 4

Comprehension
1 He should live every day to the full but also plan for the future.

Case Study 8

(pageA16)

From a Railway Carriage, by R.L. Stevenson

The rhythm of a train in motion.

KEYS Module A

,,">,,~L;."""~'- tudy 9 (page AU) S


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>',"_,J."f.(pfJlrr Leaps Up, by William Wordsworth

ng rhythm is iambic tetrameter (line 2 is iambic line 6 is iambic dimeter, line 9 is iambic pentameter). ed metre of line 6 adds further drama to an . dramatic statement: Or let me die!

Study 10 (pageA18) by William Wordsworth pped lines: 2, 3, 7, 9. Enjambement: 2,4,5,6, 7, 9. Study 11 (pageA19)
Allen

1, 4, 5, 6, 8.

2 First quatrain: The poet's add ressee is lovelier than a summer's day. A summer's day is imperfect because strong winds may destroy it and summer itself only lasts a short time. Second quatrain: Comparing his addressee to the sun the poet says that it is often too hot or covered by douds. Chance and change work on the things of the world and detract from their beauty. Third quatrain: The beauty of the poet's addressee will not fade or die because the poet has immortalised it in these lines. The couplet: The poet sums up what he has already said by pointing out that as long as men live and can read, the addressee's beauty will continue to live on, unchanged, in these lines.

Case Study 13 (page


40-Love, by Roger McGough

A22)

all wanted her to be their girlfriend. dying of heartbreak. ':·.·<l.(;h.;nnt up slowly and went to his bedside. Barba ra to be treated kind Iy. she heard the bells that announced his death. Willie. rose grew from his grave and a briar grew from hers. became entwined around the church spire. story is not told from the start. Some of the events up to the starting point are left untold. . is a brief description of Barbara Allen in lines 2·4 and the time of year in lines 5-6. storytelling is impersonal. "..... Repetition of phrases: Her name was Barb'ra Allen (line 4), For ....'love of Barbr'a Allen (line 8), If your name be Barb'ra Allen (line 12), . . Be kind to Barb'ra Allen (line 21), Oh, cruel Barb'ra Allen (line 24). ..·Repetition of words: slowly (lines 13-14), nigh him (lines 14 and 18), Good bye (line 19), mother (line 25), Sweet William (lines 27 and 30), grave (lines 30-31), grew (lines 31 and 33), red,redroselbriar(lines 31, 32 and 36). 5 ABCS CBCB OSEB FGHGEGEB CBCB LMNO PPQP. The <ballad generally rhymes on the second and fourth lines but it ..' ishot regular. 6 Alternate four and three line stresses: I InScar I let town I where f I was born I ,IThere was I a fair I maid dwellin' I
.,·I".rI"nn

1 The reader's eyes move from side to side. A spectator's eyes move from side to side when he is watching a tennis match. 2 40 without love. 3 It represents the emotional vacuum that exists between the two people playing tennis.

What is drama?
Case Study 14 (pageA24)
Gregory's Girl, by BillForsyth

Comprehension
2 Dorothy .

1 In a Home Economics room. They are making pastry.

3 To see if they are clean .


4 Dorothy . 5 No (No chance, line 105).

Analysis
1 Lines 3-5, 8-10, 13, 16, 26-29.
2 Steve is well-organised: I've got the biscuit mix started, you get on with the sponge and put the oven on, four hundred and fifty degrees (lines 33-34); bossy: Hands! (line 30), Watch your mixing, it goes stiff if you overdo it, thirty seconds is enough. Give me the sugar (lines 56-57); arrogant, sarcastic: Pastry? What pastry? There's more than one kind you know. Is it rough, puff ... (lines 40-41), Strudel soup, eh? I'd like to try some of that. It's NOODLE soup, and what eggs? (lines 45-46), some salt, mix it up, into the oven, fifteen minutes ... and that's it okay? No eggs, no strudels, nothing (lines 49-50); humorous: That sounds more like indigestion (line 68), Or maybe you're pregnant, science is making such progress ... (line 70); self-confident: Plenty of time for love. I'm going to be a sex maniac first ... so that Ican love something really ... expensive (lines 59-62). Gregory is shy: Hello Susan (Gregory is ignored) (lines 38-39), You'll just laugh and tell people (line 76); romantic: I'm in love. I can't eat, I'm awake half the night, when J think about it I feel dizzy. I'm restless ... it's wonderful (lines 65-67), When you're in love, things like that just don't matter (line 97); humorous: a pinch of salt (line 48), Six, if you count the music teacher {line 55); submissive: That's just paint there (line 32); immature: You're daft. You should try it. Love's great (line 63); insecure: Do you think she'll love me back? (line 99), What d'you mean no chance? (line 104).

IMade ev I ery youth I Cry well-I-a-day I IHer name I was Bar I b'ra Allen I

iCase Study 12
•.. omprehension C

(page A21) Shall I Compare Thee, by William Shakespeare

lShe is more beautiful and more temperate and does not ..Jade away like a summer's day. . 2The eye of heaven is the sun. It is dimmed by clouds and bad . weather. 3 Time destroys beauty. ~Because she will be immortalised in poetry.

AnalYSis
I ABABCDCD EFEFGG.

KEYS Module A

(page A27) Romeo and juliet, by William Shakespeare

Case Study 15

Analysis
The audience knows that Ernest's real name is Jack. Gwendolen's declaration that she was destined to love a man named Ernest puts Jack into an embarrassing situation. His inability to tell her the truth about his name creates verba! and situational humour. The audience understands that Jack says christened because, in the light of what Gwendolen has told him, he would like to change his name.

Comprehension
1 The sun. 2 Because the sun is more beautiful. 3 No (line 10: 0 that she knew she wereO. 4 They have asked her eyes to sparkle like them while they are away. 5 Because her cheeks would be brighter than them, 6 Because her eyes would brighten up the night sky so much that they would think it was daytime. 7 On her hand, like a glove.

Case Study 18 (Page A34)


Wajtjng for Godot, by Samuel Beckett

Analysis
The soliloquy gives insight into Romeo's personality (i.e. that he is a dreamer and romantic) and reveals his innermost feelings and thoughts: What light through yonder window breaks? It is the east, and Juliet is the sun. (... 0 it is my love! ) o that she knew she were! See how she leans her cheek upon her hand. o that Iwere a glove upon that hand, That I might touch that cheek.

Analysis
- provide information about the setting and scenery:
A

- describe the actions and movements of the actors on stage: ESTRAGON, sitting on a low mound, is trying to take off his boot. He pulls at it with both hands, panting. He gives UP, exhausted, rests, tries again. As before. Enter VLAOIMIR. (lines 1-3); Giving up again (line 4); Advancing with short, stiff strides, legs wide apart (line 5). - indicate the tone in which lines should be delivered: Irritably (line 15), Coldly (line 16). - give information aboutthe characters' personality or feelings: Hurt (line 16).

country road. A tree. Evening (line 1).

Case Study 16 (page


Pygmaljon, by G.B. Shaw

A29)

Comprehension
1 She is wearing an ostentatious hat, a slightly dirty apron and a cheap coat. She wants to impress but looks pathetic. 2 Because he has already studied the accent she uses. 3 To show him that she has enough money to pay for a taxi. 4 He threatens to throw her out of the window. 5 Because she wants to work in a flower shop. 6 Because he had thrown some money at her.

What is fiction?
Case Study 19 (page
The Lumber Room, by Saki

A37)

Comprehension
3 Into the gooseberry garden. 4 Because she had to keep her eye constantly on the garden and could not therefore follow him when he went somewhere else. The lumber room. S A pack of wolves is approaching a man who has killed a stag. 6 Candlesticks, a teapot, a sandal-wood box and brass figures. 7 She slipped into the rain-water tank. 8 She asked him to get a ladder under the cherry tree. He did not go because it was in the gooseberry garden and she had said he could not go there. 9 Because his aunt was angry about falling into the tank and Nicholas was thinking about the tapestry in the lumber room.
1 Because he had refused to eat his bread and milk. 2 No, he did not.

Analysis
Higgins's attitude towards Liza: He is both condescending and disrespectful. Pickering's attitude towards Liza: He tries to comfort llza and make her feel at ease. Mrs Pearce's attitude towards Liza: She dismisses Liza as someone Mr Higgins could have nothing to do with. Liza's attitude towards Higgins: Initially she is offended and then she is intimidated by Higgins. Liza's attitude towards Pickering: She trusts Pickering and turns to him for comfort. Liza's attitude towards Mrs Pearce: She resents Mrs Pearce's interference.

Case Study 17 (page


Comprehension

A32) The Importance of Being Earnest, by Oscar Wilde

Analysis
1 lorge, dim/it, one high window ... bejng its only source of light (lines 87-89), It contained a framed tapestry which was a firescreen, candlesticks, a teapot, a carved sandal-wood box that contained brass figures and a book of birds. 2 Nicholas's imagination. 3 The world of imagination and creativity. 4 A certain type of adult does not encourage children to use their imagination. S The power of memory and imagination.

1 Because she thinks that talking about the weather is just a cover-up for not talking about something else. It also makes her nervous. 2 No (line 14: I'm quite well aware of the fact). 3 To love someone called 'Earnest'. 4 She says the question is mere speculation. 5 It is unexciting and commonplace.

KEYS Module A

.. e

setting reinforces the central theme of the story: can transform the world we live in and enrich our +h"rpt·nrp children should be encouraged to use their

Case Study 21
Comprehension

(page A51)

The Invisible japanese Gentlemen, by Graham Greene

>MI.ssBri/l, by Katherine Mansfield

iiEase Study 20 (page A45)

iiComprehension
lBecause it was a little cold. . ....•..... lAfine old man and a big, ?Id w?man. Because t~ey did not speak and so she could not II~ten In on a conversation. } They had talked about getting spectacles or not. AThey were nearly all the same odd people who came every . Sunday. . . 5Because the man who had left the woman tn the ermine itoque all alone was a 'brute'. . . 6She thought that all the people there were like actors on a stage. . 7 A boy and a girl. . . . 8 He called her a stupid old thing (line 137). The girl said the fur was like a fried whiting (lines 140-141). 9 She did not stop at the baker's to buy a slice of cake. 10 She thought she heard something crying.

1 In a restaurant. Z Getting married (line 13). 3 They are writers (lines 27-28). . 4 He is thinking of entering the wine trade. She would like him to get into publishing (lines 34-36). 5 Her powers of observation (line 49). . 6 He thinks that writing is very hard work (lines 69-73) . 7 In St Tropez. The title of her next novel is Azure Blue (fine 102). 8 He hoped that she would become a succ.es~ful photographic model and that he would have a tlourishinq wine business (lines 129-130) . 9 No (line 140).

Analysis
1
Past events line 26 '... and they've sold the paperback rights already'. Line 34 'I spoke to my publisher about you and there's a very good chance ... Line 48 'He said he hadn't read a first novel in the last ten years which showed such powers of observation' Line 53 'He doesn't like The Ever-Rolling Stream. He wants to call it The Chelsea Set'. line 110 'I've done that in The Chelsea Set. 1 don't want to repeat myself'. Possible future events Line 13 'So you see we could marry next week' line 38 'I would help you at the start'. Line 56 'Especially when, really he's going to pay for our marriage, isn't he?' Line 69 'Will The Chelsea Set be read in five years?' Line 78 '1 thought we might settle down there for six months.' line 88 'And of course another advance will be due, darling, when the next book's finished. A bigger one if TIle Cheisea Set sells well.' line 97 'I mightn't come back if The Chelsea Set sells enough.' Line 127 'I found myself hoping that The Chelsea Set would prove to be a disaster and that eventually she would ... In the wine-trade in St James's.'

Analysis
1 Thoughts and actions. l No, she does not.
·3 There were a number of people out this afternoon, for more than last Sunday (line 21), Wasn't the conductor wearing a new coat, too? She was sure it was new (lines 26-27), Only two people shared her "speckii seat" (line 32), This was disappointing, for Miss Brill always looked forward to the conversation (lines 35-36), Last Sunday, too, hadn't been as interesting as usual (line 40), Other people sat on the benches and green chairs, but they were nearly always the same. Sunday after Sunday, and - Miss Brill had often noticed - there was something funny about nearly all of them (lines 57-60), Even she had a part and came every Sunday. No doubt somebody would have noticed if she hadn't been there (lines 102-103), And yet it explained why she made such a point of starting from home at just the same time each week - so as not to be late for the performance - and it also explained why she had quite a queer, shy feeling at telling her English pupils how she spent her Sunday afternoons (lines 104-108), On her way home she usually bought a slice of honey-cake at the baker's ... quite a dashing way (Lines 144-150).

4 Miss Brill describes the other people in lines 60-65. She is exactly the same as these people that she finds so curious. 5 She is lonely. 6 It makes her feel glamorous and important. 7 Miss Brill's perception of the fur is very different from other people's (Dear little thing line 8, fried whiting line 141) just as Miss Brill's perception of herself is very different from how others view her. The two become one in the final line of the story. 8 Round. 9 Dynamic Her initial happiness, which builds to euphoria when she sees herself as an actress, turns to disillusionment and sorrow at the end of the story. 10 Open answer. 11 She is single. Yes, it underlines the character's lack of husband, children. The comments made by the young couple give her a terrible insight into how others perceive her.

It allows the writer to focus on the personality of the cha racters. It maintains the reader's interest by presenting the story as a jigsaw puzzle that must be pieced together. It keeps the reader guessing. 2a He experiences external conflict because he does n~t agree with the choices his fiancee is making. His conflict is also Internal because he is faced with deciding whether to agree with what his fiancee proposes or follow his own instincts. Zb She feels external conflict because her boyfriend seems reluctant to agree with her plans for the future. .. 2c The scene creates conflict in the narrator who questions his profession as a writer. 3 Atthe very end (line 141). 4 The fact that the young girl failed to notice the Japanese gentlemen suggests that her powers of observation are, in fact, not very strong. Her lack of awareness of the p~e.sence of the Japanese gentlemen confirms the n~rrator's suspicions that she will probably not be a very good writer,

KEYS Module A

Case Study 22
Comprehension

(page A57) The Boarding House, by James Joyce

~ Polly's: paragraphs 23, 24 3 To give the reader greater insight into the minds of his characters. To allow the reader to form his own opinions about the characters and their motives.

1 Because her husband was a violent drunkard and so she left him (lines 4-6). 2 She set up a boarding house (lines 14-16). 3 Tourists, music hall artistes and clerks (lines 18-20). 4 No (line 55: She watched the pair and kept her own counsety. 5 She wanted Mr Doran to marry Polly (line 103). 6 She would win because she would convince him to marry her. 7 He had revealed the details of his affair. The priest said he had committed a terrible sin (lines 121-125). 8 Because Polly was socially inferior to him and because her mother's boarding house was getting a bad reputation (lines 138-142). 9 She prepared a hot punch for him when the night was cold or wet (lines 166-167). 10 He longed to ascend through the roof and flyaway to another country ... (lines 181-182). 11 The faces of his employer and of Mrs Mooney (line 185). 12 Secret amiable memories (line 203) and hopes and visions of the future (line 208).

Case Study 23
Comprehension

(page A63) Old Man at the Bridge, by Ernest Hemingway

1 He was sitting at a bridge, because he was too tired to go any further. 2 He had to cross the bridge, explore the position and find out to what point the enemy had advanced. 3 Because he had to look after the animals. 4 Because he needed someone to look after them. Only the cat does not worry him, since cats are independent animals. 5 No (i am without politics, line 33). 6 Because the place was getting dangerous. 7 He sat down again. 8 No. Open answer.

Analysis
1 Many innocent people become victims of war. 2 Open answer. Students may refer to the fact that the story captures a brief but telling moment during a wartime situation which is almost like a photograph or a painting. Hemingway allows the reader to form his own interpretation of this 'snapshot' of war.

Analysis
1 Mrs Mooney and Mr Doran. 2 ~ omniscient: paragraphs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 13, 14, 15 ~ Mrs Mooney's: paragraphs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 ~ Mr Doran's: paragraphs 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22

.... :.•. ~-'.;.J

in (page

62)

Text B 1

Beowulf Mortally Wounds Grendel (page B3)

C'arlaOlt<lJl

legend: How the sky came to be. stars, when the earth was long and flat, and the . was cold and plain, there lived a spirit named L Obweji was very powerful because he was the the Sky. He owned the universe and the great flat . He had many servants on earth, they were all afraid and did his bidding. They were all happy when went back up to his big dark sky again. there was a beautiful maiden named Pateka. Her the colour of a raven's wing and her eyes sparkled fire. She was kind and respectful to her people and the sun. One day Obweji came down to Pateka's choose a bride. All the people were obliged to their daughters and the families who didn't

Comprehension
1 They tried to protect their chief. 2 That he could not be injured by a sword. 3 He had committed horrible crimes. 4 His shoulder . S To a dark moor. 6 Yes, he did.

Analysis
1 Beowulf: kinsman of Hygelac (line 20); Beowulf's followers: earl of Beowulf (li~es 1-2), hardy-hearted heroes (line 6); Grendel: the foe (line 5), the accursed (line 8), hideous fiend (line 10), outlaw dire (line 22); sword: blade ancestral (line 2) keenest blade (line 8), fairest of falchions (line 9). t 2 Yes, they are rhythmic. 3 Examples of caesura are in: line 4 (their praised prince, if power~ were theirs), line 5 (never they knew, as they neared the foe), line 8 (the accursed to kill, no keenest blade), line 14 (woeful should be, and his wandering souf), line 16 (Soon he found, who in former days), line 26 (the glory was given, and Grendel thence) . Lines divided
(from edge of Iron. Yet his end and parting), line 21 (held in hand; hateful alive), line 22 (was each to other. The outlaw dire), line 23 (took mortal hurt; a mighty wound), line 28 (noisome abode: he knew too welf).

Obweji saw Pateka he chose her right away because great beauty. When Pateka was given to him she .. and cried but went with him for the sake of her . . She cried many nights after and the only thing her was staring into the sun for many hours. ji was sorry but very mad at Pateka for being .. . •.. . ;.<.'". >"n,'rtt, " to him. One night Pateka told Obweji, "I am leaving you because you are cruel to my people!!" The .·.·words shocked Obweji and he became furious at her. He igI'abbed her stone necklace from her neck. But Pateka was too quick and darted away from him. He held the broken necklace as she ran away never to be seen again. >Obweji was so overcome by anger that he threw all the ... .:beads in the sky, and there they stopped and shone like <diamonds in day and night. Obweji was ashamed and scared to face his people. He felt weak and thought about his lost love all the time. A few days later Obweji started to ..'. c9': He picked up his earth and rolled it very slowly in his .:: big hands ~hen he turned it faster and faster until his palms . < hurt and his head ached. He was so sad that he went to the nioon and slept for 4 days. Then he died of a broken heart. :The servants were overjoyed because they didn't have to w.ork for him anymore. But they would be reminded of hIm when they looked at his image on the moon. . And Pateka? She ran to the spirit of the sun and married .•...• They were very happy and had many children. They him. named them Venus, Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Pluto and Neptune. They lived happily ever after. And that is how the sky came to be.

?y colons,

semi-colons and full stops: line 12

The End

a. The earth was originally long and flat. b. Obweji owned the universe and the flat earth. c. Pateka..went with Obweji to help her people. d. Obwe!! t~rew all the beads of Pateka's necklace in the sky. e. Obwe] picked up the earth and rolled it in his hands. f. He went to the moon and slept for four days. . g. No, they were overjoyed. h.They were reminded of him when they looked at his image on the moon. ~.Pateka ma rried the spirit of the sun. '. J. They had many (eight) children.

Writers' Workshop (page 86) Tasks 1 Examples of alliteration in Text B1: fain the life of thief lord to shield (line 3) their praised Ilrince, if power were theirs; (line 4) never they knew (line 5) Hardy-hearted heroes (line 6) swords on every side (line 7) the accursed to kill, no keenest blade. (line 8) no fairest of falchions fashioned on earth, (line 9) could harm or hurt that hideous fiend! (line 10) He was safe, by his .$pells, from sword of battle, (line 11) '!:y'oefulshould be, and his '!:y'andering soul (line 14) far off flit to the fiends' domain. (line 15) Soon he found, who in former days, (line 16) harmful in heart and hated of God, (line 17) on many a man such murder wrought, (line 18) that the frame of his body failed him now. (line 19) For him the keen-souled kinsman of Hygelac (line 20) held in hand; hateful alive (line 21) took mortal hurt; a mighty wound (line 23) showed on his shoulder, and sinews cracked, (line 24) and the hone-frame hurst. To B.eowulf now (line 25) the glory was given, and Grendel thence (line 26) death-sick his den in the dark moor sought, (line 27) noisome abode: he knew too well (line 28) that here was the last of life, an end (line 29) 2 four-legged friend's five-mountain Marathon (an article about a dog that climbed five mountains); Small Screen Star (an article about new advances in DVD technology). 4 Examples of alliteration in ElvisCostello's song Shipbuilding: With all the .!:Y.ilI in the '!:y'orld Diving for dear life a picture postcard

KEYS Module B

Text BZ

Beowulf Kills Grendel's Mother {page 86)

Text B3
B9)

Robin Hood and the Bishop of Hereford (page

Comprehension
1 The Eotens, a Scandinavian tribe.

Comprehension
1 He dressed up as a shepherd.

2 Because it was too heavy.


3 Her neck. 4 The cave where Grendel was lying suddenly lit up. S Because Grendel had waged war and carried out murderous raids against the Western Danes. 6 Fifteen. 7 No, he was not (spoiled of line, line 31). 8 He cut off his head.

2 He said he was going to kill and eat one of the King's deer. 3 They took him to Barnsdale wood and started to drink. 4 He offered to pay for some of the drink. 5 No, he did not (line 65: he went gladly on his way).

Analysis
, Lines 1 to 5; The purpose of these lines is to introduce the story and involve the listener/reader by creating expectation. 2 Narration: Lines 6-12 , 25-36,43-48, 55-66, Dialogue: 1324, 37-42, 49-54. 3 When Robin blows his bugle his 'trusty' men come running to his aid. He uses intelligence and cunning. 4 No, it is not. S It adds a musical effect to the ballad. 6 And when the Bishop he did come by / They around the fire did go (lines 10- 11: And when the Bishop came by / They went around the fire), The King of thy deeds shall know (line 21: The King shall know of thy deeds), Robin Hood he set then his back to an oak (line 25: Robin Hood set then his back to an oak), And loudly a blast did blow (line 33: And blew a loud blast), Robin Hood he took then the old Bishop's hand (line 43: Robin Hood then took the old Bishop's hand), Little John he took then the old Bishop's cloak (line 55: Little John then took the old Bishop's cloak), And from the Bishop his portmanteau / He told five hundred pound (lines 58-59: And he took five hundred pounds / From the Bishop's portmanteau), Little John he took then the old Bishop's hand (line 61: Little John he then took the old Bishop's hand), And made the Bishop to dance in his boots (line 64: And made the Bishop dance in his boots). 7 When you leave out the refrain it rhymes on the second and fourth lines. It is regular throughout. 8 The rhythm is regular.

Analysis
1 Alliteration in lines 1 (battle-gear, blade), 3 (warriors, weapon), 4 (more, men), 5 (bandy, battle, bear), 6 (wrought, ready), 7 (chain, chieftain), 8 (bold, battle, brandished), 9 (reckless, wrathfully), 10 (gripped, grasped), 11 (bone, breaking, blade), 12 (fated, flesh, floor), 13 (Bloody, blade, blithe), 14 (blazed, bright), 16 (heaven, hail), 17 (wall, went, weapon), 18 (high, hilts, Hygelac), 20 (warrior, wished), 21 (Grendel, guerdon, grim), 22 (war, waged, Western), 24 (Hrothgar's hearth), 25 (slew, slumber, sleep), 26 (fifteen, folks), 28 (pray, paid), 29 (prince, prone), 30 (stretched, spent), 31 (spoiled, so, scathed), 32 (battle, body), 34 (sword-stroke savag e, severed). 2 References are made to: ~ its enormous dimensions (lines 4 and 5: 'twas more than other men to bandy-ot-battle could bear at aiD; ~ its history (lines 2 and 6: old-sword of Eotens, the giants had wrought it); - the fact of it was handed down from warrior to warrior (line 3: warriors' heirloom); - its ornamentation (line 7: chain-hilt) The use of the adjectives triumphant (line 1) and unmatched (line 3) suggest the importance of the sword.

Writer's Workshop

(page B7)

Tasks 1 Beowulf: the Scyldings' chieftain (line 7), Hygelac-thane (line 18), the wrathful prince (line 29); Grendel's mother: that fatedone (line 12); sword: blade triumphant (line 1); warriors' heirloom (line 3). 2 The formulae underline a) his noble ancestry (kinsman of Hygelac, Scydlings' chieftain, Hygelac-thane), b) his anger at the murderous deeds committed by Grendel and his mother (the wrathful prince), and c) the fact that he was honoured and admired by his followers (praised prince). 3 body: bone-frame, sun: heaven's candle. (page B7) Examples of status symbols: designer clothes, fashionable addresses, exotic holidays, private tutors/sports instructors. (page B8) a. He announces that his loved one is dead. b. It is raining and the wind is cold. e. He decides to sit on her grave for a twelvemonth d. When a twelvemonth and a day has passed. e. He wants a last kiss. f. He will die soon. g. Open answer.

Writers' Workshop

(page B12)

Task Stock images The Unquiet Grave: lily-white lips (line15), cold clay lips (line 19). Robin Hood and the Bishop of Hereford: barons bold (line 3), trusty men (line 34).

Text B4
1 2 3 4

Out

The Prioress (page B14) From The Canterbury Tales, by Geoffrey Chaucer

Comprehension
Madam Eglantyne. French. She had perfect table manners. She tried to be graceful and dignified like a lady at court. S nose: elegant; eyes: glassy grey; mouth: small; forehead: wide; height: tall (lines 35-39). 6 She fed her dogs very well (lines 27-30). 7 No she did not (line 38). 8 They were colourful and there was a brooch instead of a crucifix.

lead in

and a day.

KEYS Module B

alysis
10-14: At meat her manners were well taught withal; / from her lips did she let fall, / Nor dipped her fingers in too deep; / But she could carry a morsel up and keep / . smallest drop from falling on her breast. He is making fun of her preoccupation with table manners. lines 27-28: She used to weep if she saw but a mouse / in a trap, if it were dead or bleeding. Her reaction seems The narrator seems to be making fun of her. were not allowed to keep pets. The Prioress does not the rule since she has little dogs (line 29). flesh, milk, fine white bread (line 30). Yes, she seems concerned about animals than men. she does not. It suggests that she is vain (lines 37-38). allove. courtliness she had a special zest (line 15), And straining / to counterfeit a courtly kind of grace, / A stately bearing fitting to her <pldce, / And to seem dignified in all her dealings (lines 21-24). TBecause she seems more like a heroine from a romance than arum. It is not a suitable name for the head of a priory of nuns. >8 Yes, the prioress has worldly interests. She is concerned about her looks (lines 34-40) and her manners (lines 10-14), shEiwears jewellery (lines 41·45), she wants to appear ••.....•..... aristocratic (line 15 and lines 21-24), she is wasteful and seems to have little concern for the suffering of her fellow ....·.rnen (lines 29-30).

Analysis
1 - attended mass and communion (lines 5-69). - was married in church (line 16). - went on many pilgrimages (lines 19, 21, 22). - She attended mass and communion but if any other woman went before her to the altar she became furious and would no longer offer her gift to the church (lines 7-8). - 5he was married in church. However, she had five husbands and other company in her youth (lines 16-1 7). - She went on many pilgrimages because she enjoyed travelling and the amorous adventures it involved (lines 1923). 2 No, she chose her headwear to attract attention (lines 1011). She wanted to be the first woman to the altar (lines 5-6). Her stockings were scarlet red and gartered tight (lines 1213). She wore soft, new shoes (line 13). When travelling by horse she wore a wimple and a large ostentatious hat (line 26). 3 Line 18: she had many lovers in her youth. Line 23: when travelling abroad on pilgrimages she had numerous love affairs. Line 32: she was an experienced and skilled lover. 4 Lascivious ness. 5 worthy (lines 1 and 15). It is used ironically. 6 Open answer. Suggestions: independent (she travelled alone and had outlived her five husbands); strong-Willed (lines 5·6); sociable/extrovert (line 30); attractive (line 14); successful (lines 3-4); sexually active (lines 31-32); wealthy (references to her expensive clothes and lifestyle: lines 9-13).

Writers' Workshop

(page B16)

Tasks ....1Examples that suggest that Chaucer admires the Prioress: ·.Her way of smiling very simple and coy (line 2), And well she
sang a service, with a fine / Intoning through her nose, as was . most seemly, / And she spoke daintily in French, extremely, (lines 5-7), At meat her manners were well taught withal (line 10), She certainly was very entertaining / Pleasant and friendly in her <ways, (lines 20-21), She was so charitably solicitous (line 26), She was all sentiment and gentle heart (line 33) . .• 2 Aspects of the Prioress which are inappropriate in a nun: her · exaggerated concern for her looks and manners (lines 3-14), the fashionable way she dresses and her jewellery (lines 4145), her attempts to imitate courtly behaviour (line 15 and .... fines 21-24), her wastefulness with food (lines 29-30). Overall, ......he fact that she breaks convent rules. t

Writers' Workshop

(page B19)

Task AABBCCDDEEFFGGH HIlJJKKLLM M N NOOPP. The rhyming scheme is regular.

Out (page B19)


Examples of occasions weddings, opera/theatre. in which people may overdress:

Text B6

Lady Pertelote Speaks her Mind (page 821) From The Canterbury Tales, by Geoffrey Chaucer

Comprehension
1 She gets very angry (line 1). 2 Strong, dependable, independent, discreet, generous and intelligent (lines 6-9). 3 A man who says he is very brave but who is shown up as a coward when put to the test (lines 9-10). 4 Because he should not have said he had been frightened by his dream (line 14).

Text B5
>

The Wife of Bath (page B17) From The Canterbury Tales, by Geoffrey Chaucer

Comprehension
J Face: bold, handsome and red (line 13); teeth: a wide gap

between her two front teeth (line 24); hips: large (line 29); head kerchief: made from good quality material (line 9); .stockings: red and tied tightly around her ankles (line 12); shoes: soft and new (line 12); hat: very wide (line 26); mantle: ...long and flowing (line 28); spurs: sharp (line 29). <2 A cloth maker (line 3). . . 3 Five (line 16). 4 Jerusalem, Rome, Boulogne, Compostella, Cologne (lines i 21-22).

Analysis
1 She calls him insulting names (lines 1 and 4), she compares him to a fool (line 8), she tells him she can no longer love him (line 3), she accuses him of not having a brave heart (line 13) . 2 exclamation marks: lines 1, 2, 6. Her emotions are running high . 3 Open answer. 4 Open answer. 5 Yes, it is rhythmic: above/love, may/say, be/free, fool/cool, above/love, feared/ beard.

KEYS Module R

Writers' Workshop
Tasks

(page B22)

1 I You've for I teitect

I my heart I and
5 6 6 7

lost
8

I my love I
9 9 10

I r can I not
12 3

love
4

I a c6w I ard,
5 7

come
8

I what

may
10

Tasks (page B27) 1 a. Book of the Duchess; b. Beast fable; c. Aeneas; d. Troylus and Criseyde; e. Cleopatra. 2 Incorrect statements: d. (it is about a group of pilgrims who are journeying from London to Canterbury), f. (it was written in English).

f
.

-.-~
-{

..

2 ABBCCDDEEBBFFG. Apart from the first and last lines the rhyme scheme is regular. (page B22) Examples of warring couples in films and books: Kathleen Turner (Barbara Rose) and Michael Douglas (Oliver Rose) in the film The War of the Roses (1989). Mr and Mrs Bennet in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice. Carrie Fisher (Princess Leia Organa) and Harrison Ford (Han Solo) in Star Wars

Text B8 Everyman's
Comprehension

Salvation (page B29)

Out

(1977).

1 Because he is a true friend (line 3). 2 No, he does not (line 5). 3 Beauty, strength, discretion, foolish friends and family (lines 11-12). 4 Because he will speak to God on his behalf (line 14). 5 He hears angels singing (line 22). 6 Those who live well (line 25). 7 Because only Good Deeds will never abandon him and will help him to get to heaven (lines 30-31).

Text B 7

Chanticleer's Narrow Escape (page B23) From The Canterbury Tales, by Geoffrey Chaucer

Analysis
1 Everyman: Take example, all ye that this do hear and see, / How they that f loved best do forsake me, / Except my Good Deeds that bideth truly (lines 7-9). Deeds: All earthly things is but vanity; / Beauty, Strength, and Discretion do man forsake (lines T 0-13). Angel: Where all ye shall come / That liveth well before the judgement day (lines 24-25). This technique involves the audience more directly in the story of the play. The spectators understand that they too may behave like Everyman and therefore they should learn from his mistakes. 2 Simple and straightforward. A largely uneducated audience. 3 Alliteration: lines 12 (Foolish friends, and kinsmen, that fair spake), 22 (Thy reckoning is crystal-clear), 31 (For after death amends may no man make). End-rhymes: lines 1-3, 7-10, 11· 12,14·16,23-24,31-33.

1-

Comprehension
1 He stood up on his toes, stretched his neck and closed his eyes (lines 1-2). 2 To look important (line 4). 3 So that Chanticleer would be distracted and left open to attack. 4 On his back (line 6). 5 To the woods (line 7). 6 They started to scream and shout (lines 9-16). 7 She screamed at the top of her voice (line 17).

Analysis
1 1 The hens: a. ladies of high Trojan station (line 10), b. Roman matrons (line 26). 2 The yells of the hens: a. to the lamentation of upper class Trojan ladies when Troy fell (line 11), b. Pyrrhus killed Priam, their king (line 12). 3 Lady Pertelote: wife of Hasdrubal (line 20). 4 The shrieks of Lady Pertelote: Hasdrubal wife's lamenting when her husband lost his life in the fire of Carthage (lines 18·21). 2 Vanity. We should be wary of people who flatter us.

Writers' Workshop

(page 830) of of

Task The presence of two levels of meaning. The personification abstract concepts such as virtues, vices. The presentation moral or philosophical issues. (page B30) Examples of good deeds: - cleaning up the environment - visiting the sick in hospital. - helping the homeless. - helping people to read and write.

Out

Writers' Workshop Out

(page B24) Pyrrhus, Priam - their king and lord (lines 11-12), Hasdrubal, Roman matrons, senators of Rome, Nero (fines 26-28).

(page B24) Possible examples: London The Great Fire Hiroshima World War II Stalingrad World War II

1666 1945 1944/5

The Context
Historical and Sodal Background
Task (page B33) 1a; 2b; 3a; 4a; 5a; 6a; 7b; 8b. Pieces of the Past (page 836) 1 Taxation and justice. 2 Because the taxes he levied were too high. Tasks (page B37) 1 H; 2d; 3a; 4b; 5c; 6e. 2 Battle of Hastings: T lth century. Battle of Bannockburn: 14th century. Failed expedition to Ireland: 11th century. The English

Writers' Gallery

Geoffrey Chaucer (page B25)

Task (page B25) a. True. b. False (he received a good education). c. True. d. True. e. True.

KEYS Module

control of Wales: 13th century. King John signs the 13th century, First census: The Domesday Book, Assassination of Thomas a Becket: 12th century. universities established: 13th century. possession left in France: 15th century. Wars of century. Outbreak of Black Death: 14th century.

Pieces of the Past (page B44) Tasks 1 coat of mail, golden helmet, a shield (Priwen), a sword (Caliburn), a lance (Ron). 2 the benediction of the holy prelate, upon which the picture of the blessed Mary, mother of God was painted, calling upon the name of the blessed Virgin. 3 The Saxons. 4470 men. 5 The Britons slaughtered the Saxons. Task (page B45) a. Because after the Norman invasion the ruling class spoke French. b. French poetic forms: Chivalric romance, humorous beast epics, lyrics, ballads (which probably already existed in the Anglo-Saxon tradition). Anglo-Saxon poetic forms which continued to be popular in the Early Middle English period: sagas, Anglo-Saxon alliterative verse. Task (page B47) Street plays: in the street, as a form of entertainment, by travelling artists. Liturgical drama: during religious services, as a form of devotion, in church.

Background
percent of Old English words do not exist modern English words derive from Latin, other languages. remains of early Anglo-Saxon poetry today was written from the end of the seventh century onwards. no evidence that Beowulf existed. it gives us a good idea of what happened in Britain years ago, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is not }histolrECallYaccurate. German Literature (page B41) elements between the legend of Beowulf and the of the Nibelungelied: the hero, the slaying of a elements of magic and mystery, acts of

",,.,,,,,,_Tl,,,,

Text Cl

Faustus's Last Hour (page C3) From Doctor Faustus, by Christopher Marlowe

Writers' Gallery
(page C8)

Christopher Marlowe

Comprehension
1 live quarters (line 5): They are burning on hot coals and will never die. o'er tortured souls (line 7): They sit on a chair that burns forever. gluttons (line 9): They are fed with pieces of fire. 2 He wants time to stop. 3 A drop of Christ's blood. 4 So that God in his anger will be able to see him. 5 In the earth. 6 He wants them to lift him up into the sky so that his soul can ascend to heaven. 7 A God of justice and punishment. Christ comes across as being more merciful (lines 51-54). 8 He offers to live in Hell for a thousand years if then his soul will be free. 9 Because his soul would live on in an animal. 10 Little drops of water. They would fall into the ocean and disappear.

Task (page C8) a. True. b. True. c. False. He probably worked for the government spying on Catholic conspirators. d. False. The 'University Wits' was a circle of young writers. e. True. f. True. Tasks (page C9) 1 a. Marlowe's characters are people who are obsessed by a ruling passion. b. Compared to other theatrical works, Marlowe's dramas are far more sophisticated. c, His most famous play, Doctor Faustus, is based on a collection of stories about a German scholar. d. His use of blank verse influenced Elizabethan drama.

Text C2

What's in a Name? (page C1 0) From Romeo and Juliet, by William Shakespeare

Analysis
1 Sight and touch. Yes, the imagery reinforces the traditional association of hell and heat. 2 and midnight never come! (line 22); Faustus may repent and save his soul! (line 26); See, see where Christ's blood streams in the firmament! (I ine 31); Ah, rend not my heart for naming of my Christ (line 32); Yet I will call on him. 0, spare me Lucifer! (line 34); Where is it now? (line 35); And hide me from the heavy wrath of God! (line 38); No, no! (line 39); Earth, gape! (line 41); Ah half the hour is past! (line 49); 'Twill all be post anon (line 50); God (line 51); Why were thou not a creature wonting soul? (line 58); And why is this immortal that thou host? (line 59); Curst be the parents that engendered me! (line 66); 0, it strikes, it strikes! (line 69); Adders and serpents, let me breathe a while! (line 74); Come not, Lucifer! (line 75); Ah, Mephistopheles! (line 76). They serve the following purposes: - to show that Faustus is in a state of confusion and desperation. - to add drama to his speech. - to make his speech more natural. 3 Faustus addresses himself: lines 18, 58, 59, 67. Faustus refers to himself in the third person: lines 26, 29, 44, 55. Faustus is highly emotional, frightened and confused. 4 It builds tension and suspense. Thirty lines before the clock strikes half past eleven and twenty lines after it. The passing of time seems to accelerate. 5 The popular sections of the audience: the description of hell, references to adders, serpents etc., the bu ilding of suspense. Learned spectators: the religious and philosophical issues addressed in the passage. 6 Open answer. Students should justify their answers by referring to the text.

Comprehension
1 He says that either he or she should change their names. 2 He picks up the courage to speak because he hears her say
how much she loves him. 3 Love. 4 By his voice. 5 Because if her relations find him there they will kill him. 6 His love for Juliet.

Analysis
1 1'/1be new baptised (line 19); dear saint (line 25). 2 Suggestions: Bold, Passionate (lines 36-39). 3 Juliet. And the place death, considering who thou art. / If any of my kinsmen find thee here (lines 34-35). 4 Romeo's impulsiveness emerges in lines 38-39 when he
dismisses the fact that he is in danger as unimportant (And what love can do, that dares love attempt: / Therefore thy kinsmen are no stop to me).

Writers' Workshop

(page C12)

Tasks 1 Romeo's aside involves the audience directly in the action. It is as if the spectators should answer his question. Overheard conversations are often the cause of misunderstandings in Shakespearean drama. Tension is heightened because there is a risk that Romeo will overhear something that he misunderstands. 2 Lines 6 (,Tis but thy name that is my enemy,), 25-26 (My name, dear saint, is hateful to myself, / Because it is on enemy to thee;), 34-35 (And the place death, considering who thou art, / If any of my kinsmen find thee here). They remind the audience of the danger Romeo is running. (page C13) Examples of opposing groups: Hindus and Muslims in India. Israelis and Palestinians in the Middle East. Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland. Tutsi and Hutu in Burundi and Rwanda.

(page C6) Blank verse: lines 40-42, 44, 46-47. Lines 43, 45 and 48 are not perfect blank verse because they contain eleven syllables.

Writers' Workshop

Out

KEYS Module C

C3
...........

Ah, What an Unkind Hour (page (1 3)

Romeo and Juliet, by William Shakespeare

Julie I'd do the stars with you any time You said I love you like the stars above

.(omprehension
lips and cheeks are red. tHe calls it unsubstantial and amorous. 3 Because death wants to be her lover. <4By committing suici~e he will join Juliet and prevent death · .from taking her from him. Paris's dead body. ·6Where is Romeo? ··7A power that is beyond their control. 8 To a nunnery. 9 Because she wanted to drink some herself. JO Because she wants to waste no time in joining Romeo in death.

J Because her

Text C4

A Double Cherry Parted (page (19) From A Midsummer Night's Dream, by William Shakespeare

Comprehension
1 Because he loves Helena. 2 No, she does not (line 7).
To make fun of her (lines 9-10). Because they had always been very close friends (line 15). Since they were children (line 18). Embroidery. 7 A cherry and a coat-of-arms. 8 No. Other women will also criticise her (line 34). 3 4 5 6

>

Analysis

Analysis
1 Hurtful/Insensitive. Because he is under a rnaqic spell. 2 Open answer. 3 Suggested answers: Intimate, Feminine, Striking . 4 Open answer. S AABB(CDDDD . (page C21) As Helena's suspicion that Hermia is making fun of her grows, her speech turns from rhyming couplets to blank verse. The flexibility of free verse is better suited to her ang ry outpouring.

·lShe is, in fact, not dead. Suggested answers: It increases tension and suspense. It makes the scene more tragic. .....• Students should justify their choice. 2 Death is personified in lines 2-3 (Death, that hath sucked the ..• honey of thy breath, / Hath had no power yet upon thy beauty.), .\6 (And Death's pale flag is not advanced there), 9-10 (That unsubstantial Death is amorous, / And that the lean abhorred . monster keeps,). Poison is personified in lines 22-23 (Come, bitter conduct, come, unsavoury guide! / Thou desperate pilot, flOW at once run on). · 3 Line 17 (And shake the yoke of inauspicious stars). >4 juliet's lips (line 5), Juliet's cheeks (line 5), his own eyes (line ·18), his own arms (line 19), his own lips (line 19). <:s Romeo asks the poison (desperate pilot) to destroy (run on ...the dashing rocks) his tired body (seasick weary bark). 6 He is in a state of shock. Because she knows that had she awakened a few minutes earlier she could have prevented Romeo's death. S Romeo is in the graveyard (stage directions), keeps Thee / Here in the dark to be his paramour? (lines 10-11), this palace of ··dim night (line 13), the stony entrance of the sepulchre (line 3D), this place of peace (line 33), that nest of death contagion and unnatural sleep (line 41). Students should make their own · suggestions about how the stage should be set and the atmosphere that should be created.

Writers' Workshop

Text C5

You Juggler! You Puppet! (page e22) From A Midsummer Night's Dream, by William Shakespeare

Comprehension
1 She accuses Helena of taking Lysander from her (lines 2-3). 2 Because she is short (line 10). 3 Her height (lines 10-11). 4 She threatens to scratch her eyes out with her nails (line 17).

Analysis
1 Juggler: Helena has deceived Hermia. Ca nker blossom: because Helena has destroyed the love between Hermia and Lysander. Thief of love: because Hermia believes that Helena has stolen Lysander's love from her. 2 Although she makes fun of Helena's height (painted moypole, line 15) she seems to be conscious of the fact that she is short (because I om so dwarfish and low? line 14) . 3 The pun is on the word high (line 13). Are you grown so high in his esteem may be interpreted as 'has he grown so fond of you' or as a humorous reference to Helena's height, i.e. has your height won his affection?

Writers' Workshop

(page (15)

· Task · Impulsiveness: His disregard for the danger he is running by . hiding in Juliet's garden. Qualities: The depth and strength of his love for Juliet which makes him courageous in the face of danger and ultimately leads him to take his own life.

. Link to the world of music (page C17) ', _ Juliet is above Romeo recalling the balcony scene. He's underneath the window _ Juliet is startled by Romeo's presence. .. Juliet says hey it's Romeo you nearly gimme a heart attack '- Romeo and Juliet come from the same social background. Come up on different streets they both were streeets of shame Both dirty both mean yes and the dream was just the same _ Romeo is prepared to run risks to show his love for Juliet. Ican't do everything but I'd do anything for you _ Romeo and Juliet use celestial imagery to describe their love for each other.

Writers' Workshop

(page e23)

Task - Hermia and Helena, two very refined, ladylike characters, insult each other and threaten each other with physical violence: behavioural humour. - Hermia, who previoiusJy was loved by both Lysander and Demetrius, is now despised by both of them: situational humour. - There is a double meaning in the expression 'high in his esteem' which means 'respected' but also may be a reference to the fact that Helena is very tall: verbal humour.

KEYS Module C

Text C6

To Be or Not to Be (page C25) From Hamlet, by William Shakespeare

Comprehension
1 The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune (passive submission), to take arms against a sea of troubles (active rebellion). 2 Sleep. 3 Ay, there's the rub. 4 He means that when we die our body decays and only our soul remains. 5 - unrequited love: the pangs of despised love (line 17). - inefficiency in legal procedure: the law's delay (line 17). - political oppression: the oppressor's wrong (line 16). - ageing: the whips and scorns of time (line 15). - mistreatment by authority: the insolence of office (line 18). - contempt: proud man's contumely (line 16). - unjust criticism: the spurns / That patient merit of the unworthy takes (lines 18-19). 6 Suicide. 7 Physical hardship: fardels bear (line 21). 8 The heaven or hell or nothing that awaits man after death. 9 His conscience and thinking too much.

10 No. He wants Hamlet to comfort her when he says, step between her and her fighting soul (line 91). 11 Lines 95-98, 100, 102, 104.

Analysis
1 Lines 3 (Mother, you have my father much offended) and 5 (Go, go, you question with a wicked tongue). Hamlet's attitude is provocative and mocking, 2 lines 28-29 (Thou wretched, rash, intruding fool, farewell! / J took thee for thy better). The answer is open. 3 From the fair forehead of an innocent love. The Crime committed by the queen makes modesty lose its blush (line 36), makes virtue become hypocrisy (line 36), replaces a rose with a blister (line 39), transforms marriage into dicers' oath (line 40). They are all cruel and unnatural. 4 Hyperion, Jove, Mars, Mercury. He admired and respected his father and thought of him almost as a god. Hamlet's father is good (wholesome, line 39) while Clau dius is evil and corrupted (mildew'd, line 34). 5 Tenor
Hamlet's father Claudius love lust

Ground
wholesome, beautiful lowly, ugly, barren healthy, dignified dishonourable, immoral

Vehicle
fair mountain moor feed

Analysis
1 Weapons/war. Life is a struggle/battle. 2 Positively. 3 to be - not to be, to suffer - to take arms, to die - to sleep, to sleep - to dream. 4 A soft, lulling effect. S the law's delay (line 17), the insolence of office (line 18), patient merit (line 19). 6 The pale cast of thought. Sicklied/paie. 7 Open answer. 8 First person plural: we (lines 12, 26, 27), us (lines 13, 26, 28). They refer to a general analysis of the human condition. The speech has universal appeal because it is part of human nature to question the meaning of our existence here on earth. 9 Open answer.

batten

Writers' Workshop
Task
To express problems. Hamlet's

(page C27) thoughts on fundamental human

61t is based on lust. Hamlet's disgust is conveyed by the word rank sweat, enseamed bed, stew'd in corruption, nasty sty. 7 His immorality and deceitfulness. 8 It contrasts. Open answer. 9 Open asnwer. lOIn the past her relationship with Hamlet was positive: line 8. She is afraid of what Hamlet might do in his current state: line 16. She loves Hamlet and knows the gentle side of his nature: line 72. She thinks that Hamlet is suffering from some form of mental disorder: line 83. She is concerned about Hamlet's well-being: lines 94-97. 11 Lines 8, 17, 21, 23, 26, 33-34, 41-42, 62, 72, 79, 83, 9597,98,100. She is confused and highly emotional. Open answer. 12 Open answer.

Writers' Workshop
Task
Open answer.

(page C32)

Text C7

Words like Daggers (page C27) From Hamlet, by William Shakespeare

Staging the Play


Hamlet
No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No

(page C32) The audience


Yes Yes Yes Yes

Comprehension
1 No. The queen is talking about Claudius and Hamlet is talking about his father. 2 He is speaking figuratively. The queen does not understand what Hamlet is saying because she mistakenly thinks he wants to kill her. 3 Claudius. 4 He wants to squeeze her heart to make her teel remorse for what she has done. 5 No, he does not. 6 Lines 45-53: his father. Lines 54-57: his uncle Claudius. 7 Lines 62-65. 8 Passion, the hey·day in the blood. 9 For not having as yet revenged his father's murder by killing Claudius.

The queen

Knows that ...


Polonius is... Hamlet wishes to ... The queen has been ... Hamlet is talking to a ghost

The characters a nd the audience do not share the same information. The audience has most information. The queen's partial understanding: line 8 (Have you forgot me?), line 26 (As kill a king!), lines 33-34 (What have I done that thou dar'st wag thy tongue / In noise so rude against me?), lines 41-42 CAy me, what act / That roars so loud, and thunders

KEYS Module C

.•.......index), lines 95-98 (Alas, how is 'i with you, / That you do ." eye on vacancy, / And with the incorporal air do hold .Ii/dm-d,·~rse / Whereon do you look?), line 100 (To whom do you

Analysis
lOur castle's strength will laugh / till famine and the ague eat them up. 2 The taste of fears (line 10). I have experienced many horrible events. 3 Open answer. 4 Open answer. 5 brief candle (short), walking shadow (insubstantial), poor player (undignified), tale told by an idiot (meaningless). 6 Suggested answer: lines 1-8: defiant, confident. Lines 10-17: reflective, nostalgic. Lines 19-30: sombre, philosophical.

5-7: Femininity. Lines 7-11: Remorse. Lines 1 T-14: instinct. nobody will see Duncan's murder being carried ·>···"·~···--d to be friendly to Duncan and be very hospitable his murder. will become king. Duncan will die in the castle. heaven peep. Nighttime and the powers of evil. to his sense of pride and ambition. nd, tongue. Because they are the parts of the body municate most with. Satan in the garden of Eden.

Writers' Workshop
Tasks 1 Tenor Ufe Ground

(page C39)

Vehicle brief candle walking shadow poor player a tale told by an idiot

shortness, brevity of no real substa nee unimportant, undignified meaningless

2 Open answer. 3 Open answer.

Text CIO
of onomatopoeia: croaks (line 3). you sound made by a snake short knocking sound made when something is shaken unpleasant, high-pitched cry sound made by frying food little, low, crying sound sound made by a drink that contains a lot of gas (page C36) pies of female characters that are cold-hearted and

Sonnet 29 (page C40) By William Shakespeare

Comprehension
1 Because he feels unlucky, lonely and isolated. 2 a. optimism, b. good looks, c. friendship, d. skills e.
knowledge. 3 His mood changes when he thinks of his loved one. 4 Kings.

Analysis
1 My outcast state. like him with friends possess'd (line 6). 2 Heaven listens to prayers. The poet believes heaven is deaf
because it does not listen to his cries. 3 No. He feels inferior to others, 4 Sad. most/least. 5 Yes. Brackets. 6 Heaven, which did not listen to the poet's desperate cries, now listens to his hymns. 7 At the beginning of the poem the poet feels inferior to other men and kings. At the end of the poem, because of the addressee's sweet love, he feels superior to all other men and even to kings. Like the lark he has ascended and is now close to heaven. 8 ABAB CDCD EFEFGG. The rhyming scheme changes in the second and third quatrains. Yes, the two last lines summarise the content of the sonnet.

Close in the film Fatal Attraction (1987). (jane's aunt) in Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre. .. in Margaret Atwood's Cot's Eye. '. • Davis in What Ever Happened to Baby Jane? (1962).

C9 The Sound and the Fury (page C37) Macbeth, by William Shakespeare
does (Jines 2-3). his army is greatly outnumbered (lines 6-7). he has seen and lived through so many horrifying ions that his sense of fear has been dulled (lines 10it does not (lines 21-22). he does not. he cannot.

... -r- .' -~~.,y"'-

I When
1

in I dIsgrace, I with for I rune and I men's eyes I


2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Writers' Workshop

(page (41)

Task Tenor: the poet when he remembers the addressee's 'sweet love'. Vehicle: a lark ascending from the sui len earth. Ground: the poet's soul like the lark soars and he feels closer to heaven.

KEYS Module

Text CII

Sonnet 130 (page C42)

The Context
Historical and Social Background
Tasks (page C53) a. Sir Thomas Wolsey. b. A nobleman. c. Anne Boleyn. d. Henry VIII. e. Mary I. f. A cloth merchant. g. Sir Francis Drake. h. Elizabeth !.

ByWilliam Shakespeare

Comprehension
1 Eyes: sun. Her lips: coral. Her breasts. Snow. Her hairs: wires. Her cheeks: roses. Her breath: periumes. The way she walks: the way a goddess walks. The comparisons are negative. 2 Sight: eyes, lips, breasts, hair, cheeks, walk (lines 1-6, 11, 12). Smell: breath (lines 7-8). Hearing: speech (lines 9-10). 3 Objective view: lines 1-12. Subjective view: lines 13-14. 4 No, she is very different but he is not disappointed by this. She is 'rare' because in his opinion she is very beautiful.

Analysis
1 Banal. Shakespeare is ridiculing courtly love poetry. 2 Comic/mocking. 3 True love does not demand physical periection. 4 ABABCDCD EFEFGG. The rhyming scheme changes in the final couplet. In the opening three stanzas the poet makes fun of Elizabethan courtly love poems. In the final couplet he expresses his love for his mistress. 5 I My mist I ress eyes I are no I thjng like I the sun I
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

The Literary Background


Task (page C55) a. The Renaissance. b. Man. c. Lord Chancellor. d. In the form of a dialogue. e. Corruption, misuse of private property, religious intolerance, exploitation of workers and hunting. Task (page C56) 1 a; 2b; 3b; 4b; 5a. Task (page C59) Incorrect statements: 1) Elizabethan drama only appealed to the higher, educated classes. 2) Elizabethan drama emphasised the centrality of Nature as a guide to human actions. Pieces of the Past (page C60) Tasks 1 A = Entrance. B = Open courtyard. C = Inner stage. D = Galleries. E = Outer stage. f = Hell. G = Upper stage. H = Actor's entrances onto the stage. I = 'Special effects' level. 2 Open answer. Task (page C61) a. Va/pone. b. Greed and corruption. c. At court. d. Travel literature. e. He wrote in a straightforward, modern way. Meanwhile, Elsewhere (page C62) Tasks 1 The rhyme scheme in English is very different from the original: ABBC DEED FGF HII. 2 The poet is unable to express in words the beauty of the woman he loves and how much he loves her. 3 No, he doesn't. He has tried many times to write down what he feels but has not been able to.

Writers' Workshop (page C43)


Task Petrarchan sonnet My mistress's eyes are like the sun Her lips are redder than coral Her breasts are as white as snow Golden wires grow on her head Her cheeks Her breath When she When she ground. are red and white like roses damask'd is more delightful than perfumes speaks it is like listening to music walks she is like a goddess floating above the

Writers' Gallery

William Shakespeare

(page C44)

Task (page C44) a. In Stratford-upon-Avon in 1564. b. Anne Hathaway when he was 18. c. Because he was an unknown newcomer to the theatre. d. A company of actors. e. A theatre. f. In retirement in Stratford. Task (page C48) a. Shakespeare wrote 154 sonnets. b. They are addressed to an unnamed fair youth. c. The 'dark lady' may have been Shakespeare's mistress. d. No, they are written in a variety of styles.

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Writers' Workshop
Task

(page 04)

,""·;;..~h,,,n"lon
I

Open answer.

to break down his heart. to reform him and convince him to 'mend' his and 'force him' to

Text D 2
By John Donne

The Good-Marrow

(page 06)

break down his resistance

himself to a town that is under attack from . He could be referring to Satan or the forces of is reason but it cannot defeat him because it is to be loved by God . . might be Satan or the forces of evil. He asks God break the ties he has with God's enemy. . and 14. him his slave. him. .. 1), o'etthtow (line 3), break (line 4), blowe (line . e 4) , imprison (line 12), enthrall (line 13), ravish

Comprehension
1 What lives did you and I lead before we met? They lived innocently like children or maybe slept all the time. 2 No, she is not. 3 It is a romantic setting. They are in a small room, probably a bedroom and it is morning time. 4 Because they are absorbed in their own little world and in their love for one another. 5 His face. 6 Two hemispheres . 7 If their love is strong enough to unite the two of them as one person, their love will never die.

lse,

Analysis
1 Lovers' past: lines 1-7. Lovers' present: lines 8-18. Lovers' future: lines 19-21. 2 wean'd (line 2), suck'd (line 3), countrey pleasures (line 3), childlishly (line 3), snorted (line 4), seven sleepers den (line 4). 3 - Rapid questions (line 1-4): / wonder ... till we lov'd? / Were we not wean'd till then? / But suck'd on countrey pleasures, childishly? / Or snorted we in the seven sleepers den? - An exclamation: by my troth (line 2). - Non-poetic vocabulary: wean'd, sutk'd, snorted (lines 3-4). - A run-on fine: '" and I / Did, till we ... (lines 1-2). - The language of the opening stanza is similar to everyday speech. The opening lines are dramatic, striking, original. 4 'Twas so (line 5). 5 One: lines 9,11,14 (twice). World: lines 12, 13, 14. 6 Open answer (possible answer: Fear of betrayal). No, because their love is true. 7 The poet and his lover through the true love that they feel for each other have reduced the world to a little room which includes everywhere. 8 The lover's eye . 9 North: coldness (lack of passion, loss of love), West: setting sun (ageing, death). In this world the poet hopes not to have coldness and old age. 10 The poet says that because their love is perfectly balanced it will never die.
1

:::::'~:"iijn,,"r""

7 (Reason your viceroy in mee, mee should defend). line 3 (That I may rise, and stand, o'erthrow mee). . 9·10 (Yet dearely I love you, and would be lov'd fain 'd to your enemie). ,.."·.Irt.t,,,·line 4, a town: line 5, a woman: line 14; 4.

ole/throw me breathe, shine and seeke to mend divorce never shall be free
oooositk
lOS

knocke

ravish make the poem more passionate, striking,

1: Lines 1-4; sentence 2: Lines 5-8; sentence 3: sentences 1-2 are quatrains; Sentence 3 is a sestet. blowe, burn and make me new. . ; lines 3-4 (... o'erthrow mee, and bend / Your force ...) lines 12-13 ( ... for I / except you enthrall mee ...). knocke, (pause) breathe, (pause) and seeke to mend rise, (pause) and stand, (pause), o'erthrow mee, bend (pause) to breake, (pause) blowe, (pause) bum and new. :·'i\IJ"'~>t:llike on usurpt towne, (pause) to another due, you, (pause) but Oh to no end, viceroy in mee, (pause) mee should defend, '<'-"'nt",·" and proves weak or untrue. I love you, (pause) and would be lov'd fain, 'd unto your enemie: (pause) untie, (pause) or breoke that knot againe, ... rro you, (pause) imprison mee, (pause) for I enthrall mee, (pause) never shall be free, (pause) except you ravish me. is broken. The irregular pattern of the rhythm anxiety and sense of guilt that the poet is feeling . .::.;.~:':'~'''' ABBA CDCOEE. i;Kanlple

Writers' Workshop

(page D7)

i~;fA~;';!il;;

Task Open answer. Possible answers: by my troth (line 1), wean'd (line 2), suck'd (line 3), snorted (line 4), sea-discoverers (line 12), maps (line 13), hemispheres (17), mix't equally (line 19), slacken (line 21). (page 07) Examples of song: I Will Always Love You sung by Whitney Houston. You Are Everything sung by Diana Ross and Marvin Gaye. Woman by John Lennon. Romeo and Juliet by Dire Straits.

Out

·:·.:·:,,,,:.1· ...

lead in (page 014)J


5a;6a; I

;~~~J~~:inAdvocate (1997).1 The Devil's


(1968).
Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe.

r
j1

for personal pleasure. Rel!gious '" ave poetry. Paradoxes, epigrams, puns and conceits. Passionate, dramatic poetry,

Robert De Niro in Angel Heart (1987).. Rosemary's Baby by Ira Levin and film by Roman Polansky

I
.1,.

I
.~ ..-~

Text 03

To his Coy Mistress (page 010)

By Andrew Marvell

Text D4 Better to Reign in Hell (page


From Paradise Lost, by John Milton

D14)

Comprehension
1 Lines 3-4: Time. Lines 5-7: Space. Lines 8-10: Time. 2 I always feel that life is passing us by very quickly and that death is just around the corner. 3 They will, to a certain extent, conquer Time as represented by the sun.

.J ,

Comprehension

Analysis
1 He feels that time is passing quickly. In the first verse time is described as passing slowly. 2 Open answer. Suggested answers: h umorous, ~la7f~l, persuasive. The tone in lines 11-14: solemn, pessimistic, sombre). Yes, there is a sharp contrast in tone between the first verse and the second. 3 Desarts of vast Eternity (line 14). The image is pessimistic because it conveys the idea of a vast, lifeless region. 4 Yes the choice of the part of the day is significant. Morning = the' first part of the day = youth. She feels passion for him. 5 Dynamic. The poet and his love will take action against the passing of time. 6 amorous/birds of prey, devour/slow-chapt, strength/sweetness, pleasures/strife, stand stilf/run.

1 He is in Hell. , I 2 Yes, he is happy to be far away from God because God is all· { powerful and controls the lives of those who are near him ~ (lines 4-5). 3 According to Satan, God defeated him by force and therefore . i cannot claim to have pulled off a true victory (lines 7-8). 4 No, he does not (line 8: Above his equals). 5 No. He will never change (line 15: What matters where, if I

I
I

be still the same).

6 In Hell Satan and his followers are free and can live without fear of attack from God.

Analysis
1 Lines 3-4: ( ... this mournful gloom / For that celestial light? ...). Lines 8-10: ( ... Farewell, happy fields, / Where joy for ever dwells! Hail, horrors! hail, / Infernal World! and thou, profoundest Hell ...). Heaven is associated with celestial light and joy, while

7 Open answer. Suggested answers: triumphant, optimistic. 8 AABBC(ODEE FFGG HHlJKKLLMMNNOO. Yes, the rhyme scheme is regular. There are eight syllables in each line. The lines are examples of tetrameter. In-line pauses: line 3, 4, 6, 7, 15,20, 23, 24, 27, 28. Run-on lines: lines 3-4, 5-6, 6-7, 7-8, 11-12, 13-14, 15, T 6, 17-18,23-24,27-28.

Writers' Workshop (page D12)


Space and time hyperbole (lines 5- TO): Thou by the Indian Ganges side Should'st rubies find: I by the Tide Of Humber would complain. I would Love you ten years before the Flood And you should if you please refuse Till the conversion of the Jews. Hyperbole adds a playful touch to the opening verse.

!
1

Hell is associated with horrors and a gloomy, sad light. 2 Lines 4-5: (... he / Who now is sovran ...), Lines 6-7: (... him ... / Whom reason hath equalled ...) Lines T 6- T 7: C .. · he / Whom thunder hath made greater .. .), Lines 18- T 9 C ... the Almighty hath not built / Here for his envy, will not drive us hence). Open answer. Suggested answers: ambitious, competitive, evil). 3 Open answer. Suggested answers: Courageous: He has the courage to rebel against God and renounce the joys of heavens. (Farewell, happy fields / Where joy for ever dwells, lines 8-9). Ambitious: He does not wish to submit to the wishes of God. (Here we may reign secure, and in my choice, / To reign is worth ambition, lines 20-21). Proud: He would prefer to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven (line 22). 4 Heroic qualities: he is ambitious, proud, courageous. He considers freedom more important than comfort, he has taken action against his adversary whom he does not fear. He accepts his condition without complaint. 5 Run-on lines: lines 5-6, 7-8, 11 -12, 13-14, 16-17, T 7-18, 8-19. Run-on lines make Satan's speech flow more naturally.

!
1
II'

'I

i.,

I,'

I
!

I Receive I tiiy
2 2 3

new
4 4 5

I possess I or
5 6 6 7

6ne I who brings


8 7 8 9 10

Writers' Gallery

Andrew Marwell (page D 13)

IA
1

mind

I not
3 2

t6 I be changed I by place place,


6 5 6 7

I or
9

time.
10

II
II

I
.]

Task a. False. Marvell's best works include lyrical poems which were only known to a few close friends during his lifetime. b. True. c. True. d. False. His poetry is passionate and sometimes satirical. e. False. Marvell's satirical poems ... were published towards the end of his life. f. True.

I The
1

mind make
2

I is ifs I own
34 5 4

I and in I (fsclf I
7 8 8 9 l0f

I
f

I Can
1

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3

Hea I ven Of I Hell,

a I Hell

of I Heaven
11 12,

9 10

The speech sounds natural. Yes, it could be performed as al theatrical monologue.


7 place-region, deepest-profoundest, hellish-infernal, owner-possessor.

heavenly-celestial,

...•

.•...• ,

\j•.•
:::.',

KEYS Module D

(page 016) of words of Latin origin: (see Analysis, answer 7) the classical world: happy fields (line 8) allusion fields in Greek mythology. ,.-,_••"n,r" structures: lines 1-4 (Is this the region ... celestial . 4.8 (Be it 50 .•. Above his equals); lines 16-22 (Here in Heaven). . D17) .•. .... people who fight or have fought against adverse in New York in the aftermath of the Twin Towers September, 11th, 2002. . . . .. d Ali, world heavyweight boxinq champion, racial discrimination. who spent years in prison because of his Ing who has overcome severe physical disability a world renowned scientist.

....... Workshop

Writers' Gallery

John Milton (page D20)

Task (page D20) a. The Protestant religion. b. Latin, Greek and philosophy. c. France and Italy . d. The Civil War. e. Latin Secretary to the Commonwealth. f. Because he had played a prominent Commonwealth .

role in the

Beauty Puts on all its Arms (page D23) From The Rape of the Lock, by Alexander Pope

Text 06

Comprehension
- Belinda takes her place before the dressing table: lines 1-8. - The work begins: lines 9-12. - Description of the objects on the dressing table: lines 13-18. - The work is completed: lines 19-28, Part 1 a. She is dressed in white. b. She adores the cosmetic powers (line 4). c. Belinda's. She looks down and then upwa rds as if she is bowing to it. d. Because she is at Belinda's service. Part 2 e. The many types of cosmetics on the table that come from different parts of the world. f. Belinda. Part 3 g. Jewels and perfumes. h. Tortoise shell, l, Pins, puffs, powders, artificial beauty spots, Bibles and love letters. Part 4 j. Her blush is more attractive and her eyes shine more brightly. k. She is helped by Sylphs, her guardian angels. Some of them do up her hair, some fold her sleeve and others fold her dress.

Sonnet XV1Il: On the Late Massacre in Piemont

ension
IM~F""rl<F~F"

who were killed by Catholic troops in 1655. pure faith.

their unadulterated, did not.

that the Protestant faith will grow in strength and Catholics will convert to Protestantism. saints (line 1), them who kept thy truth so ne 3), Who were thy sheep in their ancient fold martyr'd blood and ashes sow (line 10). Their 1), their purity (thy sheep, line 6), their longtraditions (lines 3-6). . appeal to the sense of sight: whose bones ( Lie the Alpine mountains cold (lines 1-2), that rol/'d ( infant down the rocks (lines 7-8), Their martyr'd sow ( O'er all th' Italian fields (Ii nes 10-11). to the sense of hearing: Their moans (The ">("011""'''' to the hills (lines 8-9), I es: lines 1-2,7-8,8-9,9·10,10·11,12-13. gives the language a more natural flow. Formal, Sombre. Allusions: thy book (line 5), the (line 12), Babylonian woe (line 14). CDC DCD. An octave and a sestet (a Petrarchan

Analysis
1 A heav'nly image (line 5), Th' inferior Priestess (line 7), her Altar's side (line 7), the sacred Rites of Pride (Hne 8), And decks the Goddess (I in e 12). 2 Here Files of Pins extend their shining Rows (line 17): the pins are compared to marching soldiers. Now awful Beauty puts on all its Arms (line 19): comparing cosmetics to arms reinforces the association between Belinda's dressing and military procedures. 3 By using incongruous religious and military imagery to describe the routine of getting dressed Pope playfully highlights its triviality. 4 Glowing Gems from India (line 12), perfumes from Arabia (line 13). Pope is making fun of Belinda's elaborate toilet routine. The references to products from distant lands highlight Belinda's vanity and frivolity. 5 Bible. To show that religion was of little importance to her. (The Bible is lost among objects such as puffs, powers and patches). 6 The Nymph intent adores (line 3), A heav'nly Image in the Glass appears, I To that she bends, to that her Eyesshe rears. (lines 5-6), And decks the Goddess (line 12), The Fair each moment rises in her

ngs with political themes: is Canna Fall by Bob Dylan (anti-nuclear song). (folk song popularised by Pete Seeger a Black civil rights anthem). UK by the punk group Sex Pistols (antiby [oni Mitchell (anti-consumerism),

KEYS Module D

her Charms (line 20), their darling Care (line 25). Open answer. Suggested answer: vain, elegant, sophisticated, frivolous. 7 <I. 10 syllables. b.lamblc:

I And
1

now,
2

I iin veil'd I the


3 4 5

Toi I let stands


6 7 8

I dis
9

play'd
10

I Each

S11I ver Wise

I in my I stic 6r I der

laid

12345678910

c. Heroic couplet. d. regular. 8 Alliteration (Puffs, Powders, Patches, Bible, Billet-doux). 9 Beauty is personified in the expression Beauty puts on all its Arms. 10 awful Beauty. 11 Purer is ironic because the blush is not natural: it is created artificially by cosmetics. Sees by degrees is an exam pie of internal rhyme due to the repetition of the /i:1 sound. 12 Rich, ornate. 13 Ironic, playful, elevated, mocking.

Writers' Workshop
Arming the heroes.

(page D25)

Out (page D26) Carly Simon's You're So Vain is more direct than Alexander Pope's The Rape of the Lock. Which is more effective? Open answer.
The Paths of Glory Lead but to the Grave (page D28) From Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard, by Thomas Gray

4 Can storied Urn or animated Bust / Back to its Mansion call the fleeting Breath? (lines 21-22), Con Honour's Voice provoke the silent Dust / Or Flattr'y sooth the dull cold Ear of Death? (lines 23-24). Formulated as questions the lines are more effective. 5 Talent often goes unnoticed. Open answer. 6 Line 4 (Or climb his Knees to share the envied Kiss), line 6 (Their Furrow has oft broke the stubborn Glebe), line 8 (How the Woods bow'd beneath their sturdy Stroke!), line 10 (Let not Ambition) obscure their homely joys and Destiny, line 18 (If Mem'ry raise o'er their Tomb no Trophies), Line 27 (Hands that might have sway'd the Rod of Empire), lines 29-30 (But Knowledge did ne'er unroll to their Eyes / her ample Page Rich with the Spoils of Time), lines 33-34 (The dark unfathom'd Caves of Ocean bear / Full many a Gem of purest Roy serene). 7 Line 8 (How bow'd the Woods beneath their sturdy Stroke?), line 13 (the Pomp of Pow'r), line 18 (if mem'l}' o'er their Tomb no Trophies raise), line 28 (living Lyre), line 35 (Full many a flower is born to blush unseen). 8 ABAB COCO EFEFGHGH 1)1)KLKL MNMN OPOP QRQR. It is regular throughout. 9 Open answer. Suggested answers: regular, measured. 10 Carefully planned because the rhyme scheme, the rhythm and the structure of the stanzas are regular throughout the poem. 11 Open answer. Suggested answers: melancholy, reflective, solitary. (page D31) Synedoche for a church: the long-drawn Isle and fretted Vault (line 19).

Writers' Workshop

Text 07

Comprehension
1 The dead people in the graveyard. 2 Simple, physical, outdoor, rural and happy. 3 They should not mock or disdain the life and work ofthe poor. 4 Death, the great leveller, does not respect ancestry, power, beauty or wealth. 5 The Proud are the rich people who are buried in the church. Their tombs are elaborately decorated unlike those of the poor. 6 Urns and busts (line 21). 7 The life-giving force. 8 No, he does not. 9 Heart once pregnant with celestial Fire: poetic inspiration. Hands that the Rod of Empire might have sway'd: great statesmanship. (Hands that) wak'd to Exstacy the living Lyre: musical genius. 10 Poverty and ignorance.

Writers' Gallery

Thomas Gray (page 032)

Task a. Thomas Gray was educated at Eton and Cambridge and his family was well-off. b. He travelled in Europe. c. His most celebrated poem is Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard. d. He won wide popularity. e. He was fascinated by Celtic and Norse mythology. f. The themes of his masterpiece, Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard are mortality and thwarted human potential.

Text D8

Any More Conditions? (page 033) From The Way of the World, by William Congreve

Comprehension
1 They are talking about the rules they will live by when they are married. 2 They should not be over-friendly and loving nor kiss in public. They should not go to plays or visit friends together (lines 6-18). She should be free to lie in bed in the morning (line 1), pay and receive visits (lines 21-22), write and receive letters (lines 23-24), come to dinner when she wants and dine in her room if she wishes (line 31). She should not be Obliged to talk to Millamant's friends (lines 26-30). Her husband should not enter her room without asking permission (lines 32-33). He should knock on the door no matter which room she is in (lines 36-37). 3 He thinks they are quite reasonable.

Analysis
1 Touch: Blazing Hearth shall burn. Sight: Housewife ply her Evening Care. Hearing: Children run to lisp. Touch: the envied Kiss to share. 2 a. Rural workers: useful Toil, homely joys, Destiny obscure. Prominent men of society: Ambition, Grandeur, Boast of Heraldry, Beauty, Wealth. b. From the criticism and disdain of the wealth and the powerful. He seems to be defending the humble life of the rural workers. 3 ambition (line 9), grandeur (line 11), memory (line 18), honour (line 23), flattery (line 24), knowledge (line 29), death (line 24), storied urn (line 21) bust (line 21), dust (line 23), the woods (line 8).

KEYS Module D

answer. Suggested answers: Determined: she wishes in a certain way and will accept no compromise. says exactly what is on her mind. Humorous: of other married couples shows a sharp sense our. Nonconformist: she does not wish to live as the :c.,;.'A'·"" of other married couples. Domineering: she sets out and insists that Mirabell abide by them. Honest: she lie to humour Mirabell. I convention: nor go to Hyde Park together the first i:Iud,dayin a new chariot, to provoke eyes and whispers, and then be seen there together again, as if we were proud of one the first week and ashamed of one another for ever after. 9-13). The implication in these lines is that married .: <c.·_I." did things together to provoke a reaction in society n to take pleasure in them. Millamant rejects this social hypocrisy. were treated as inferiors by their husbands. Their was restricted (lines 21-22). Their privacy was ·.·.··.·:inv,lded, example, they could not write and receive letters for . .. pleased (lines 23-24), their husbands could enter their :::.. ms uninvited and without knocking (lines 32-37). They ihad to wear clothes that pleased their husbands (lines 24-25). They had to socialise with their hubands' friends or relations even if they were idiots (lines 26-29). iAOpen answer. 5 Open answer. Suggested answers: formal, educated, sophisticated, refined.

is

9 Hardcastle says he received a letter from Marlow's father, thereby indicating that they were friends.

Analysis
1 Marlow does not know that he is in Hardcastle's house. He thinks he is in an inn. The 'landlord' of the inn is in fact Hardcastle, his fiancee's father, and he is in his house. It allows them to see the humour in the situation. 2 a. 1 I say nothing to your own conduct, that of your servants is insufferable, 2 I begin to lose my patience, 3 He'll drive me distracted if I contain myself any longer, 4 I desire that you and your drunken pack may leave my house directly, 5 Now that my passions are roused (...) Icommand you to leave it directly. b. 1: lines 1-2, 2: line 15, 3: line 23, 4: lines 27-8, 5: Jines 34-37. Hardcastle's anger increases . 3 By making Marlow the target of his sarcasm. 4 a. Open answer. Suggested answers: patronising, condescending, rude; b. No. 5 From line 50 on when Marlow asks for the bill. Hardcastle does not listen to him because he is too busy making sarcastic comments. 6 I assure you (lines 3, 6, 10, 37), I tell you sir (lines 30, 34), Bring me your bill (lines 50, 54, 60). Repetition intensifies the humour by adding a crescendo effect.

<Writers' Workshop
. .Mirabell Millamant . witwould Wilful! ',:....Fainall Wishfort
: .....
-'

(page D35) a man who looks at all the beautiful women he sees a person who has a thousand lovers a person who would like to be intelligent but is not a very wilful person a person who is false a person who wants something desperately

Out (page D42) Name of the book: Tristram Shandy by Laurence Sterne People involved: Uncle Toby and the Widow Wadman. Where: Uncle Toby's house. Misunderstanding: revolves around the double meaning of the word 'place' . What happened: Uncle Toby showed the Widow Wadman the 'place' where he was injured on the map and not the 'place' on his body as she had expected.

Text D 10

....

Evil and Good (page D44) From Robinson Crusoe, by Daniel Defoe

Writers' Gallery

William Congreve (page D37)

Comprehension
1 Writing down his thoughts had a therapeutic effect and eased his worried mind. 2 His reason is stronger. 3 He is alone on a desert island with little h ope of being rescued but he is alive. He is far from the rest of the world but he has been saved from death and may also be saved from this terrible situation. He does not have the company of other men but he will not die of starvation because the island is fertile. He has no clothes but the weather is warm so he will not suffer from cold. He has no means of defence but there are no wild beasts that will harm him. He has nobody to talk to but God has helped him to have everything he needs for his survival. 4 No matter how bad a situation might seem there is always something good about it.

Task a.He was in his teens. b. The Way of the World. c.They were refined, clever, witty and funny. d.Hls main theme is the superficiality of a society that has >replaced true love with flippant sexual excess. e.Witty, clever, entertaining, intelligent.
..

-'_':.::.::: ....

iJext D9 You Cannot be Serious (page D39) <From She Stoops to Conquer, by Oliver Goldsmith
Comprehension
1He says that Marlow's servants drink too much. )The servants are drinking too little. 3 ... a good supper will not sit upon good liquor. What he says is not very coherent. A He asks Marlow and his servants to leave. 5Marlow thinks Hardcastle is joking. i6Because he thinks he is a paying guest. JHardcastle asks Marlow to take all the furniture and i.household objects away with him. 8~o, he does not. He continues to sarcastically list all the things that Marlow should take away with him.

Analysis
1 a. He is literate: line 2. He has strong religious beliefs: lines 15-17. He believes in the power of reason: lines 5-6. He is familiar with the world of trade and commerce: lines 8-9. He has a practical approach to solving problems: lines: 4-5 and 42-43. b. Middle-class merchant/professional. He is literate therefore probably not an unskilled lower class labourer. His knowledge

KEYS Module

of trade and commerce would suggest a middle class merchant background. His practical approach to life would not generally be associated with the aristocracy. 2 a. I am divided from Mankjnd, a Solitaire, one banish'd from humane Society. (Psychological), I have no Clothes to cover me. (Material), I am without any Defence or Means to resist any violence of Man or Beast. (Material), Ihave no Soul to speak to, or relieve me. (Psychological). b. But I am not stcrv'd and perishing on a barren Place, affording no Sustenance. (Material), But I am in a hot Climate, where if Ihad Clothes I would hardly wear them. (Material), But I am cast on an Island, where I see no wild Beasts to hurt me, as Isaw on the Coast of Africa: And what is I had been Shipwreck'd there? (Material), But God wonderfully sent the Ship in near enough to the Shore, that Ihave gotten out so many necessary things as will either supply my Wants, or enable me to suply my self even as long as Ilie. (Material). c. No. The practical side of Robinson's nature is stronger. 3 a. Reason/Despondency, Comforts/Miseries, Debtor/Creditor, Something Negative/Something Positive. b. Suggested answer: balanced, rational, precise, journalistic. c. Robinson's language reveals his balanced, rational and practical personality.

2 Suggested answer: precise, detailed, scientific.

3 a. The same style is used throughout the passage, b. Journalistic, pseudo-scientific. c. It makes the material seem
more convincing. (page D51) Main character: He belongs to the middle class. He has no exceptional talents. Under special circumstances he shows heroic qualities. The events of the story are rendered with little emotion or sentiment, in what rnay be described as a journalistic style. Both trivial and extraordinary events are described in the same way. Descriptions are detailed.

Writers' Workshop

Writers' Gallery

Daniel Defoe (page D53)

WritersJ Workshop

(page D47)

Task (page D54) False statements: g (The Puritans did not receive the work well because of its immoral content) and h (After Robinson Crusoe Defoe wrote four more novels which have completely different features).

Tasks 1 The 'I' in the passage refers to Robinson Crusoe. The narrator, Robinson, is a character in the story. The events are told from his point of view. The reader does not see the story from any other character's perspective. 2 The first-person narrative technique adds authenticity to a work of fiction by giving the impression that the events that are recounted have actually happened and have been witnessed or experienced personally by the narrator. It is also commonly associated with non-fictional literary forms such as biography, memoirs and diaries.

Text D 12

A Modest Proposal (page 055)

By Jonathan Swift

Comprehension
1 People are saddened by the sight of poor mothers with many children begging on the streets. 2 They either become thieves, go to fight in Spain for James Stuart or emigrate to the West Indies. 3 A statue should be erected in his honour. 4 Many women have abortions because they do not have enough money to raise any more children. 5 1.5 million inhabitants in the kingdom of ireland. 200,000 couples in which the wife is of child-bearing age. 30,000 couples who can maintain their children financially. 50,000 miscarriages/infant deaths per annum. 120,000 children born to poor parents. 6 He was informed by an American friend (line 39). 7 20,000 children of the poor will be reserved for breeding. The male/female ratio will be 1 to 4. The remaining children of the poor will be sold to rich families (Jines 44·51). 8 So that they will be fat enough to supply a plentiful supply of meat (lines 52·53). 9 Because the landlords have already ruined (devoured) the lives of the children's parent by charging exorbitant rents (Jines 58-60). 10 People who eat a lot of fish are believed to breed many children. In Ireland, during Lent, many people eat fish and so it is to be expected that in March, about a year after the end of Lent, many babies will be born (lines 61-65). 11 3 to 1 (lines 66-67). 12 He has no children and cannot therefore make a profit from a trade in infants (lines 73-74).

Text D 11 Civilising Friday (page D48) from Robinson Crusoe, by Daniel Defoe
Comprehension
1 He thought they should eat them (lines 6-8). Robinson was so angry and horrified that he felt sick. 2 He found human flesh and bones. 3 The enemies of Friday's people had taken four prisoners to the island including him (Jines 24-27). Three of them were killed and eaten but he managed to escape. 4 Crusoe made it clear that if Friday ate the remains he would kill him. 5 He dressed friday. 6 Because Friday was a faithful and loving servant (lines 67· 74).

Analysis
1 a. Lines 6·9, lines 40-45. b. Friday carries a sword, bow and arrows and a gun. Robinson carries two guns. Friday gathers all the human remains. Robinson does most of the manual work. c. Submission. d. Robinson refers to Friday as: my Man (line 16), Servant (line 68), Child (line 70). He refers to the other natives as: Creatures (line 20), Wretches (line 36). He refers to himself as: Master (line 58), Father (line 70). e. He feels superior to people of other races. f. Open answer. Suggested answer: Robinson feels superior to Friday and feels the need to 'civiJise' him. Friday feels that he owes Robinson a debt of gratitude for saving his life.

Analysis
1 No, the reader is not prepared for the proposal the narrator makes. The fact that the reader is unprepared makes the impact of the proposal stronger and more dramatic. 2 Identification of a principal and secondary problem to be addressed: paragraphs 1-3. Close analysis of the problem including relevant statistical data: paragraph 4. Proposal of

KEYS Module D

paragraphs 5-9. Conclusion: 10. statistics: lines 25-36, 39-50. References to sources: lines 39, 62. roasted, baked or boiled or served in a fricassee or a example of attention to detail: lines 53-57. rhp,.detacI1ea scientific style of the passage and the attention the proposal even more horrific. of the essay and lines 37, 44. The writer's insistence nature of his proposal makes it seem even

< .... and its ramifications:

9 He attributes this reaction to the King's narrow-mindedness (line 57). 10 He has lost the opportunity to become the unchallenged ruler of his kingdom (lines 61-63).

Analysis
1 Gulliver's. 2 a. the want of which knowledge will ever produce many prejudices, and a certain narrowness of thinking, from which we and the politer countries of Europe are wholly exempted. (lines 3-6). b. Patronising. 3 a. three and four hundred years ago (line 11), a proper quantity of this powder (line 16), according to its bigness (line 18), sink down ships with a thousand men in each (line 24), divide hundreds of bodies (lines 26-27), to make those tubes of a size proportionable to a/l other things (lines 34-38), twenty or thirty of which tubes (line 40), with the proper quantity of powder (line 40). b. Logical, scientific, practical. c. Rational, logical, scientific, precise, detached. 4 a. Reaction to Gulliver's proposal: The King was struck with horror (line 46). Assessment of Gulliver: He was amazed how so impotent and grovelling an insect as I... wholly unmoved at all the scenes of blood and desolation, which I had painted (lines 47-51). Opinion of the creator of gunpowder: evil genius, enemy to mankind (line 52). b. Humane, passionate. S The King represents Swift's point of view. In the passage

Workshop (page D58) of Swift's satire: the ruling classes' indifference the problem of poverty in Ireland. The attack is . explicitly towards large property owners (landlords) 58-59. The utilitarian approach which reduces catastrophes to facts and figures. Swift ridicules nal approach to problem-solving through his pseudo-scientific style. Protestant prejudice Catholics is targeted in paragraph 9.
D58) (1979) by Monty Python: a satire on the life of a satirical political magazine. (1974), Blazing Saddles (1974) are satirical ';'""Ii.",·t"rl by Mel Brooks.
in"~rfllolt,,,o<t~'in

the world of music (page D58)


of the two works is very different. Swift's A Modest is harsher. and 5-6
time light and we banish shade a smile of joy '>.·'fJjf~'l'ln'uur arms around the world.

not make any reference to man's goodness in his answer.

Swift exposes the evils of gunpowder and therefore shares the King's opinions. 6 They are more appropriately applied to Gulliver. He is so narrow-minded that he cannot see that the uses of gunpowder which he describes are all evil and destructive. 7 Gulliver wishes to expose the miserable effects of the King's confined education. Instead he shows the miserable effects of his own confined education. This is an ironic twist. 8 Gulliver's small stature reflects his small-mindedness. 9 The British sense of superiority. Man's insensitivity to the suffering of others. Man's disregard for human life. Man's obsession with power. Open answer. 10 Clear and simple.

Writers' Workshop (page D62)


It becomes clear in paragraph 3.

Text D 14
be excused because he is cut off from the rest of .. e to be prejudiced and narrow-rnlnded. .. . (lines 12-15), guns/cannons (line T 7), bullets/ balls (line 29). Because the King is not familiar with

Lucifer in the 5hape of my Master (page D65)

From Pamela, by Samuel Richardson

Comprehension
1 He told her to rely on his honour (line 3).
2 He is ignoring the fact that they came from different social

. houses to pieces, lay waste all before them, destroy of an army at once, dash out the brains of all who rip up the pavements, batter the strongest walls to iI'l~fJi:ou~ld, through masts and rigging, sink down ships with cut men in each.
""'"."'v"'''u'mo

to make gunpowder and show the King's to construct cannons. need the gunpowder to quash rebellion in his (lines 41·43). was horrified (line 46). ordered him never to mention these things again

classes and should therefore not make amorous advances towards her . 3 He expects her to reply that he is her master but when she does not he gets angry. 4 He stops running after her for three possible reasons: a. To see if she will obey him; b. So that he will have an excuse to punish her if she does not stop running when he does; c. Because he is too proud to run after her. S Because he is angry. 6 Because he looks very powerful and commanding. 7 She will sacrifice her life but not her virtue.

Analysis
1 a. Narration of events: lines 1-2. b. Dialogue which is

KEYS Module D

directly reported: lines 26·30. c. dialogue which is jnd~rectly reported: lines 4·6. d. description: lines 41-42. Narr~tlon of events: dialogue which is directly reported and dialoque which is indirectly reported. 2 The story is told from Pamela's point of view. We do not know if she is describing exactly what happened. We have no direct insight into Mr B's thinking. His thoughts are conveyed through direct and indirect dialogue. 3 Open answer. 4 Arrogant, manipulative, authoritarian, intimidating. 5 It helps the reader to understand what the narrating character is thinking. It encourages the reader to identify and sympathise with the narrator. It makes the reader the 'addressee' of the letters or journal and involves him/her more directly in the story.

Writers' Workshop (page D67) The emphasis is on the motives behind the characters' actions. Pamela is generally classified as a novel of character.

Writers' Gallery
Task (page D69) la; 2b; 3a; 4b; 5b; 6a.

Samuel Richardson (page D68)

Lead in (page D70) Example of film: Braveheart (1995). 1 The Scottish and the English were fighting. They were fighting in groups. 2 Yes. The weapons included swords, knives, spears, etc. 3 Yes, many were killed or injured. 4 Victory for the Scots. 5 It was realistic.

54 refers to the narrator and the reader. There is a close relationship established between the reader and the narrator. Suggested answer: interfering, omnipresent, humorous. 4 His experience as a playwright may have helped Fielding in his dialogue writing. Much of the action described in the text may be compared to stage directions. 5 The characters are presented through their words and actions. There is no evidence in the text that Fieldi ng is interested in the inner worlds of the characters. 6 Suggested answer: heroic, gallant, impetuous. 7 Because as a schoolmaster he used corporal punishment. 8 Evidence that Thwackum is authoritarian (lines 6-9), has a fiery temper (line 46), is gluttonous (lines 58·59), has no concern for others (lines 36·37), inflicts corpora! punishment on his students (lines 16-17, 52-53), has always enjoyed physical combat (lines 41·42). No, Thwackum's behaviour is not fitting for an educator and a man of God. 9 Suggested answer: humorous, effective. 10 The narrator describes the blows as pleasant to see: line 60; compares fighting to playing music: lines 69-72; refers to blows as compliments: line 75. Suggested answer: light-hearted. 11 Satirical, liqht-hearted. 12 Tom jones, a hero who fights to save the lady in distress, may be considered an epic element. A fight scene in which a hero is outnumbered but emerges victorious is also a feature of many epics. The comedy in the passage is created through the light-hearted description of the fight and the humorous portrayal of characters.

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Text 016

You Shall See the Very Place (page 077) From Tristram Shandy, by Laurence Sterne

Comprehension

Text 015

A Battle Royal (page D70) From Tom jones, by Henry Fielding

Comprehension
1 He refuses to tell Thwackum the name of the girl who is with him in the woods (lines 5-6). 2 He calls her a slut (line 5). 3 He says he cannot stand idly by while his old master is being insulted (lines 25·26). 4 He goes into the wood to look for the girl and shows complete disregard for what is happening to Blifil (lines 36· 37). 5 He won honour by beating his students (lines 41-42). 6 He was passive because Thwackum beat him. Thwackum beat Tom on the backside (lines 49-52). 7 Because his belly is full of food (lines 58-60). 8 He was saved by Blifilwho rejoined the fight (lines 63-64). 9 It was shameful for two men to attack one, lone man (lines 76-77). 10 His chances of winning were slim because he had not completely regained the strength in a broken arm (Jines 92· 93).

1 She thinks he means his private parts. 2 She is very embarrassed but is curious enough to want to see it. 3 No. The reader does not really know what 'it' refers to. 4 Corporal Trim is lame so he finds it very hard to climb up to the attic. 5 His private parts. 6 It is made obvious in lines 40-43 and explains why Mrs Wadman was embarrassed. 7 He was hit by a stone in front of one of the gates of the fortification of St Nicolas. 8 A map of the battlefield. 9 Because she would have been very embarrassed.

Analysis
1 The pleasantries exchanged by the characters. 2 The initial exchanges between the characters would be of little interest to the reader. 3 Line 11. 4 Reaction Thought Look'd towards the door What would the world say if I look'd at it? Turn'd pale I should drop down, if I look'd at itI wish I could look at itBlush'd slighty again There can be no sin in looking Recovered her natural at it. colour Blush'd worse than ever - I will look at it.

Analysis

1 Narration of events. Dialogue. 2 External. No, the reader does not see the episode from more than one point of view. 3 The narrator addresses the reader directly in line 45. The narrator refers to the art of writing in lines 60-61. Our in line

KEYS Module D

the complete dialogue is not reported. The narrator asterisks to replace the missing information. e invites the reader to blow his nose, clear his nasal and sneeze. The reader has cleared his nose. There is on the word clear and the idea of clearing one's mind clearing one's nasal passages. •It intensifies the humour by building up expectation. ·'.·.n I-"~,,,., answer. Suggested answer: friendly, playful. e idea expressed in lines 32-33 is interrupted and nished. Associating clearing one's nasal passage and .'. 9 one's mind is illogical. o The narrator is quite eccentric and therefore the reader ....',.:must make a conscious effort to follow his, at times illogical or ' bizarre, train of thoug ht. The reader must interpret the graphical innovations.

The Literary Background


Task (page D95) Father of literary criticism: Samuel johnson Father of Metaphysical poetry: John Donne Wrote Paradise Lost: john Milton Wrote Songs and Sonnets: john Donne Wrote poems combining the features of both the Cavalier and the Metaphysical poets: Andrew Marvell Was mainly inspired by Latin poets: john Dryden Wrote the Holy Sonnets: john Donne Meanwhile, Elsewhere (page 098) Tasks 1 Harpagon: Money makes the world go round. Tartuffe: If only everyone was perfect like me. Le Malade Imaginaire: Imust have some rare disease . Le Misanthrope: Who needs friends anyway? The husband in L'Ecole des Maris: Why did I ever get married? Task (page 0101)

. .Writers' Workshop (page 080)


i.An eccentric narrator who interrupts the narrative to tell the .••••reader to blow his nose and dear his nasal passages. '..' <;"Asterisks which the reader must interpret. ·La Vita e Bella (1997) directed by Roberto Benigni. It is .......... unconventional because it deals with a tragic historical theme iin an almost fairytale-like manner.

Out (page 080)

a. a;

b. b;

c. a; d. a.

The Context
> Historical and Social Background
Pieces of the Past (page 085) 1 Monarchs existed before Parliaments and laws were ... created. ·.·.. Parliament cannot make laws unless the king agrees. . ··2 >3 The king is the supreme ruler of the land and all its people. ··4 A good ruler will act according to the law not because he .....•...• to, but out of good will and to set a good example for his has subjects. 5 Kings are God's representatives on earth and their power derives to them from God. Tasks (page D86) 1 Anglican protestants - Catholics; Kings - Parliament; Cavaliers - Roundheads; Oliver Cromwell - Charles I; William 111- James II. 2 a. Dissenters. b. The Divine Right of Kings. c. The Commonwealth. d. The Restoration. e. The Glorious Revolution. f. The Bill of Rights. Task (page D91) a. Common land was enclosed and sold off to wealthy farmers. h. Industrial production increased thanks to mechanisation. c. Living conditions improved in both town and country. It was easier to travel and people even had some free time to while away in coffee houses and gin palaces. d. The middle class emerged.

Pieces of the Past (page D102) Comments which apply to the age when the diary was written: a lady spit backward upon me by a mistake. Saw The Scomful Lady now done by a woman which makes the play appear much better than ever it did to me. when the House began to fill, she put on her vizard. But, Lord! to see how they were both painted would make a man mad ... they talk! Comments which could equally be used to describe the situation today: I saw, I confess some good dancing and some handsome women. but vexed all the while with two talking ladies and Sir Charles Sedley, yet pleased to hear their discourse. Meanwhile, Elsewhere (page D1 07) Voltaire is attacking the kings and their armies and pointing out how absurd war is. He is also attacking religious hypocrisy. Ironic words: gal/ant, well accoutred, brilliant, entertainment, the best of all possible worlds, scoundrels, heroic butchery, agreeably to the laws of war. Task (page D109) a. Because there was a revival of interest in Latin poetry which was written under the patronage of Emperor Augustus. b. Advances in printing technology and increased readership especially among women and the middle classes thanks to an improving school system and the opening of circulating libraries. c. Melodramas and pantomime became popular. d. The classical style of writing started to give way to a simpler form of expression. Blind faith in the powers of reason and logic which had characterised much of the 18th century was being replaced by an interest in the emotional side of man and what the world of nature could teach man.

Text E1.ARedi·
. BYRbb~rt Burns

Red Rose (page £2)

Text E2

Humid Seal of Soft Affection (page E4)

By Robert Burns

1 He is addressing the woman he loves. 2 He is about to go away. 3 He is telling her that he will love her forever.

Comprehension

Comprehension
1 Seal, pledge, tie. 2 Speaking silence, dumb confession, speak affection. 3 young connections, first snowdrop, virgin kiss, passion's birth and infant's play. 4 a. hope - future bliss, Glowing dawn. b. innocence - virgin kiss, chaste concession. c. affection/tenderness - Tenderest pledge, Dove-like fondness, speak affection. d. sadness Sorrowing joy, Adieu's last action. e. playfulness ~ infant's play.

Analysis
1

Suggested answers:
Tenor My Luve (line 1) My Luve (line 3) Common ground Vehicle a red, red rose the mel odie

beautiful, passionate sweet, enchanting

Analysis
1 ABABACAC ADAE. It is quite regular. The second and fourth lines in the third stanza constitute a half-rhyme. a. The rhythm is trochaic, i.e. a stressed syllable foJlowed by an unstressed syllable: I Humid I seal all s6ft ,!H I fectiens I
12345678

I will love thee still, my dear, / Till a' the seas gang dry the rocks melt wi' the sun 3 The medieval baUad A Red, Red Rose

And

- narrates a story which begins in medias res - leaves the motives behind the character's actions unexplained - contains few descriptive details

- is composed in simple two or four line stanzas - consists of alternate four and three stress lines - rhymes on the second and fourth line - makes extensive repetition use of

tells the story of a man who must leave h is lover We do not know why the man must leave contains some details that describe the lover: like a red, red rose like the melodie, As fair art thou, my bonie lass four line stanzas

consonant sound is lsi. It is appropriate because it is also the dominant consonant sound in the word 'kiss'. 2 Speaking silence (line 5), dumb confession (fine 5), sorrowing joy (line 9).

h. seal/soft (line 1), speaking/silence (line 5), dawn/day (line 8) lingering/lips (line 10), what/words (fine 11). c. The dominant

Out (page E4)


Kiss Me Honey Honey. Kiss by Prince. Is it in his Kiss su ng by Cher.

o my Luve's like a red,


723 June/tune,

4 red rose,

That's newly sprung in June I/dry, sun/run, while/mile. o my Luve's like I will love thee still Till a' the seas gang dry And fare thee wee!

Text E3

The Little Black Boy (page E6) From The Songs of Innocence, by William Blake

Comprehension
1 White. 2An angel. 3 God lives in the East where the sun rises. 4 He gives light and heat. S We are on earth to drink in God's love. 6 She compares them to a cloud. 7 The cloud vanishes and they rejoice around God's tent. 8 He will shade the white boy from the sun and they will both lean on God's knee. 9 When the black boy is like him.

- uses stock descriptive phrases - includes a refrain

My Luve's like a red, red rose My Luve's like the melodie No refrain.

f Alliteration: luve's like, (line 1, 3) red, red rose (line 1) well, a l'hile (line 14). \ssonance: my/like (line 1), newly/june (line 2), thee/Dear lines 7, 11), thee/wee! (lines 13, 14). i Suggested answer: simple, conversational, direct.

Analysis
1 a. Brightness: white, white angel, white cloud, silver hair; darkness: black, sun-burnt face, black doud, black bodies, shady grove, shade. b. The brightness column refers to the English boy. The darkness column refers to the black boy. 2 a. Line 3: White as an angel is the English child. b. Line 4:
But Iam black as if bereov'd of light.

"'riters' Workshop (page

E3)

'ask will love thee still, my dear, 'ill a' the seas gang dry (lines 7-8) nd the rocks melt wi' the sun (line 10)

3 Suggested answer: loving, simple. 4 a. A loving God (lines 10-13). b. Line 11. 5 She views life as a learning experience (line 14). 6 And round my golden tent like lambs rejoice (line 20). 7 I'll shade him fram the heat (line 25), And ... 1'1/ stand and stroke his silver hair (line 27). 8 a. Suggested answer: loving, innocent. b. Suggested answer: it makes the reader feel sorry for the young child who is a victim of prejudice.

KEYS Module E

I am black (line 2), And sitting down before the heat of 6), And pointing to the east began to say (line 8), And and gives his heat away (line 10), And flowers and and men receive (line 11), And we are put on little space (line 13), And these black bodies and this sun(line lS), Is but a cloud, and like a shady grove (line round my golden tent like lambs rejoice (line 20), Thus say and kissed me (line 21), And thus J say to little (line 22), And round the tent of God like Lambs we joy And then 1'1/stand and stroke his silver hair (line 27), him and he will then love me (line 28). b. In standard
'. ·.r.. ~"<n· ...

Text

E5 The Tyger(page Ell) From The Songs of Experience, by William Blake

Comprehension 1 The Tyger. 2 He asks him who made him. 3 Deep down in the sea or high up in the sky. 4 In a forge. S They shoot through the sky. 6 Did the same Creator who made you make the Lamb? Analysis 1 The fiery brightness associated with the tiger and the darkness of the forest at night. 2 a. All three answers are possible. b. Suggested answer: the word fearful may refer to the danger or evil embodied in the tiger's perfect symmetry. 3 a. Suggested answer: a mixture of both, because fire can both destroy and create. b. Fire links the tiger to the legends of Icarus and Prometheus. The Creator is daring and courageous and breaks the rules observed by man. 4 Physical attributes. Dread. S Suggested answer: heat, fire, dark. Yes, these concepts have already been used in the poem. 6 Personification of the stars. All three answers are acceptable. 7 Because the two animals are so different it is difficult to believe that the same Creator made both of them. 8 Could has been changed to dare (line 24). His perplexity has been increased. 9 Suggested answer: fear, awe, admiration, confusion. 10 a. The rhyming scheme (AABB) is regular. b. Alliteration: burning/bright (line 1, 21), frame/fearful (line 4), distant/deeps (line S), what/wings (line 7), began/beat (line 11), dare/deadly (line 16), stars/spears (line 17), smile/see (line 19), made/make (line 20). Assonance: Tyger/bright (line 1), fire/thine (line 6), twist/sinews (line 10), made/make (line 20), dore/frame (line 24). c. Trochaic. The metre is strong and striking. It is appropriate to the theme of the poem, which is about the nature of the Creator of a strong and striking animal such as the tiger. d. Tyger (line 1, 21), What wings (line 7), what the hand (line 8), what shoulder, what art (line 9), what dread hand, what dread feet (line 12), what the hammer, what the chain (line 13), what the anvil, what dread grasp (line 15). Repetition of stanza 1 as the final stanza with could changed to dare. e. Questions.

Thus did my mother say and kissed me, / And thus Isay to English boy. The little black boy is not well-educated.

.The rhythm is regular throughout, and it is soft and g. It suits the loving innocent childlike qualities of the to the world of music (page E8) the poem and the song the present is seen as a time while the future is viewed with hope.

E4 The Lamb (page E9) The Songs of Innocence, by William Blake


-"r1nnl""hension poet is addressing the lamb and asks him who made

has given him life, food, clothing and a tender voice. mead, vales.
•••• ·;).I~:)U',

the son of God, was also known as 'the Lamb'. became human in the form of the infant Jesus. i

lines 1-10, answer: lines 11-20. clothing of delight (line S), touch: softest clothing wooly (line 6), hearing: Gave thee such a tender voice (line 7), all the vales rejoice! (line 8). (line 5), bright (line 6), tender(line 7), rejoice (line 8). pastoral world. es 13-18; b. They are meek and mild (line lS); c. He
"U~I<.Jt;;'>Lt;;U

meek and mild and was know as the 'Lamb of God' answer: The innocence and joy of the lamb and the true nature of God. -'U<.j'y"".,cu answer: Childlike, simple. 11 ......•...... rhyming scheme is regular. b. thou/thee (Jines 2, 10), . meek/mild (line lS). c. thee/feed (line 3), stream/mead ,----L---r-------------,.------------, (line 4), making/vales (line 8). d. /1(, /m/, /g/ and /k/. The lamb The Tyger They are predominantly gentle. e. The predominant musical fewer examples of alliteration more examples of alliteration metre is trochaic. features more examples of assonance fewer examples of assonance TLfttle lamb I who made I thee? I regular rhyme scheme regular rhyme scheme ·•··.ID6st thou I know who I made thee? I . trochaic metre trochaic metre syntax question plus answer questions . The rhythm is strong and regular. f. Little lamb who diction simple, childlike references to classical ...made thee? (lines 1, 9), Dost thou know who made thee? mythology and more . (lines 2, 10), Gave thee (lines 3, S, 7), Little Lamb 1'/1tell technical vocabulary; thee (lines 11-12), Little Lamb God bless thee. (lines 19furnace, sinews etc. .30). A nursery rhyme because of the childlike the animal meek and mild powerful and fearful ..... mnocence of the poem and the references to Jesus who the Creator meek and mild enigmatic and made himself a child (line 16), and to the poet who mysterious .. f the poet's love devotion confusion, fear, awe, ire ers to himself as a child (line 17). A prayer because admiration t~e poem explores the nature of God, the Creator. L._re_sp_o_n,se _ .....L
I _l_

___J

Writers' Workshop (page E13)


Task

Wordsworth invites us to abandon our natural surroundings,

books and find wisdom in

Suggested answer: tender gentle ~ pure~meek innocent experience mystery power danger mild symmetry fear dichotomy good

Text E7 I Wandered
By William Wordsworth

Lonely as a Cloud (page E18)

Comprehension
1 He is walking alone near a lake. 2 A vast array of daffodils. 3 Colour: golden, sparkling. Number: crowd, host, never. ending line, ten thousand, Movement: fluttering, dancing, tossing. 4 Line 15, 5 He is at home lying on a couch and thinking. 6 His recollection of the daffodils fills his heart with joy.

Analysis
1 Suggested answer: pensive. 2 Lonely I host (line 4), wandering and floating / fluttering and dancing (line 6). 3 The daffodils are compared to the stars on the Milky Way. Multitude: continuous (line 7), in never-ending line (line 9), Ten thousand (line 11); brightness: stars (line 7), twinkle (line 8), milky (line 8); movement: tossing (line 12), sprightly dance (line 12). 4 Personification of the daffodils: Tossing their heads in sprightly dance (line 12), ". but they / Outdid (dancing) the sparkling waves in glee (lines 13-14), '" jocund company (line 16). Personification of the waves: The waves beside them danced ... (line 13). The movement of the daffodils is compared to dancing, 5 glee (line 14), gay (line 15), jocund (line 16), Suggested answer: fluttering and dancing (line 6), shine (line 7), twinkle (line 8), tossing (line 12), sprightly dance (line 12), danced (line 13), sparkling (line 14). 6 The hypnotic effect is conveyed by the repetition of the verb gazed. 7 No, the verb tense is now simple present In the first three stanzas it is the past tense, Static: lie (line T 9); melancholy: vacant (line 20); meditative: pensive (line 20), 8 The inward eye, Flash (line 21). 9 heart, pleasure and dances. 10 Wordsworth rejoices in the spirit of life by celebrating the beauty of the daffodils, He explains how he has the ability to 'conjure up' and relive his passions in the final stanza. As a poet he is able to share his emotional experience with his readers through the power of his words.

The lamb is a symbol of the pure and innocent aspects of God's creation while the tiger represents the more mysterious, fearful and, at times, incomprehensible elements.

Text E6

The Tables Turned (page E16)

By William Wordsworth

Comprehension
1 If you spend too much time studying you cannot stand up straight, you look very tired and worry too much. 2 It is evening time and the poet's friend has spent all day studying. 3 The sun is mellow. It can be freshening because it gives us energy. His refers to the sun. 4 Dull. 5 He refers to the throstle. The poet hears wisdom in the linnet's song. 6 She refers to nature. Nature gives us spontaneous wisdom, health, truth and cheerfulness. 7 It can teach us the difference between Good and Evil. 8 The human intellect distorts the beauty of nature. 9 Line 1 (quit your books). 10 His heart (a heart / that watches and receives).

Analysis
1 Personification (for example, the sun is personified in line 8, the throstle is personified in lines 13-14). 2 Religious imagery: He (the throstle), too, is no mean preacher (line 14), Come forth into the fight of things (line 15), Of moral evil and of good (line 23). 3 A freshening lustre mellow (line 6), the long green fields (line 7), Come forth into the light of things (line 15). 4 They are normally associated with the world of books. The normal association is not upheld. In the poem these people and concepts are associated with the world of nature. S The pun is on the word leaves. Leaves of a tree and leaves of a book. S Exclamation marks in lines 1, 3,9, 13, Imperatives in lines 1, 3, 10, 13, 15, 30, 31, Suggested answer: uplifting, joyous, :elebratory. 7 The language of The Tables Turned is simple and .traiqhtforward. Wordsworth succeeds in his objective of "'riting in the language of common men, lin the poem Wordsworth has turned the tables. Wisdom md learning are traditionally associated with books instead

Text E8

The World Is Too Much With Us (page E20)

By William Wordsworth

Comprehension
1 We have lost our powers to live in a natural way and commune with nature because our frenetic, commercialised lifestyle puts us under constant stress, 2 Line 3. 3 The moon witnesses the beauty of the sea, 4 The winds would like to be howling at all hours but are upgathered now like sleeping flowers.

5 Lines 10-14. The poet would be able to see and appreciate the majestic power of the natural world.

KEYS Module E

lysis
poem is a Petrarchan sonnet. The rhyminq scheme is ABBA CDC DCD. It is divided into two quatrains and a i n. flowers are up-gathered. Neither the winds nor the are showing their beauty to mankind. turning point in the poem occurs in line 9. It is signalled dash before Great Cod! The expression it moves us not with the sudden eruption of emotion in the lines follow. (line 10), creed (line 10), Proteus (line 13), Triton (line e poet seems to suggest that having contact with is almost a religious experience for mankind.
UI ..iit-""r·c·

Workshop

(page E21)

··.····';nrflIO

boon. An 'adjective-noun' oxymoron used to express a emphasise a contrast and create a dramatic effect.

ters' Gallery

William Wordsworth

(page

..••

(page E23) passion and involvement, hostile criticism, personal ---,.j" literary innovation, idealism followed by conserlove of nature.

- makes extensive use of repetition .I Repetition of lines: lines 4-6, lines 3-9, lines T0-12. Repetition of words / expressions: down dropped (line T7), sad (line 18), day (line 25), water (line 29); - uses stock descriptive phrases such as 'milk-white steed' for a white horse etc. X - includes a refrain X b. Ballads of the supernatural and/or crime and punishment. c. Suggested answer: by choosing an archaic, medieval poetic form Coleridge reinforces the mysterious, eerie, supernatural mood of his work. 2 Sun: lines 7-8, 21-24; Sea: lines 13-16, 20, 28, 33-40. The sun and the sea are described in a symbolic way. 3 Religious references: ... like God's own head (line 7), Christ! (line 33), cross (line 51). Supernatural: the Spirit (line 42). Suggested answer: they could be either. 4 The atmosphere is eerie and unreal. It is created by the archaic poetic form, references to religion and the supernatural, symbolic descriptions, the use of words such as fog, mist, bloody, rot, crawl, slimy, death-fires, plagued, drought, withered, choked, references to death and suffering. S All of the answers are acceptable. 6 Although the sailors were surrounded by water they were dying of thirst. 7 End-of-line rhymes: woe/blow, uprist/mist, free/sea, be/sea, noon/moon, motion/ocean, etc. Regular rhythm patterns: the rhythm is composed of four stressed syllables followed by three stressed syllables.

...

Water, Water, Every Where (page E24) The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, by S.T. Coleridge

E9

I Down dropped I the breeze, I the I 'Twas sad I as sad I could be I

sails I dropped down

Comprehension
\lHe had killed the Albatross and the sailors reacted very \iangrily by accusing him of bringing bad luck on them. They calmed down when the fog lifted. . .2.When the fog and mist cleared they said it was right to kill the bird and so became accomplices to the crime. lThe ship sailed northwards up through the Pacific Ocean until it reached the Equator. The sailors ran out of water. .4The Mariner saw slimy creatures with legs while green, blue and white fires danced in the ocean at night. i$A Spirit that was following the ship. §They could not speak because their mouths were dry. >7They hung the Albatross around the Mariner's neck.

Alliteration: would woke 'em woe (line 2), breeze to blow (line 4), Nor dim nor red (line 7), foam flew (line 13), furrow followed free (line 14), silent sea (line 16), Down dropped ... dropped down (line 17), drop to drink (line 32), deep did (line 33), slimy sea (line 36), reel and rout (line 37), death-fire danced (line 38), water ... witch (line 39), Burnt ... blue (line 40), was withered (line 46).

Writers' Workshop
Examples of internal first/burst.

(page E27) rhymes in lines 5 and 15: they/slay,

Text E10 Alone On A Wide Wide Sea! (page E27) From The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, by S.T. Coleridge
Comprehension
1 The Mariner was alone because all the sailors were dead . When he tried to pray the words would not come out and when he dosed his eyes they only hurt him. 2 No, they did not. 3 The curse of a dead man's eye was worse. 4 The sea was white like frost in the light of the moon but a horrible red in the shadow of the boat. S He saw water-snakes swimming in the sea and unconsciously blessed them. 6 The Albatross fell from his neck when he started praying.

iiArialysis
<la.
• +narrates a story .f (It recounts the adventures of the ancient Mariner); ':'iscomposed in simple two or four lines stanzas X (It is -. composed in four line and six line stanzas); -xonsists of alternate four and three stress lines .I:

ii'" rhymes

JAnd i I hact done I a hell I ish thing I <lAnd it I would work I 'em woe I
on the second and the fourth line .I (It rhymes on <the second, fourth (and sixth) line); ...,contains few descriptive details X (It contains many descriptive details); ...,Ieaves the motives behind the character's actions )Unexplained ,/ (We do not know why the Mariner killed the Albatross);

Analysis
1 The changing point occurs in line 4 T • 2 References to religion. Stanza 1: saint (line 3); stanza 4: heaven, pray (line 13), prayer (line 14); stanza 7: to hell a spirit from on high (lines 26-27); stanza 12: blessed (line 54 and 56),

KEVS Module E

kind saint (line 55). Supernatural elements: The cold sweat melted from their limbs / Nor rot nor reek did they (lines 22-23), An orphan's curse (line 26), The curse in a dead man's eye! (line 29), And from my neck so free / The Albatross fell off, and sank

(lines 58-59). 3 Personification: She in line 34 refers to the moon. The benign nature of the moon is conveyed by the idea that it is greeted on its return to the sky (its native country and natural home) with silent joy. The word softly in line 34 suggests the gentleness of the moon. 4 Colours: blue, glossy green, velvet black (line 48). Verbs of movement: moved in tracks (line 43), reared (line 44), coiled and swam (line 49). Suggested answer: they could be considered to be both. 5 See Analysis, Question 2 for references to the sun in text E9. There are references to the moon in the note before stanza 8, in stanzas 8, 9, in the note before stanza 10. The sun is associated with pain and suffering. The moon is associated with gentleness and forgiveness. 6 Open answer. 7 Alliteration: wide wide sea! (line 2), many men (line 5), dead did (line 6), thousand ... things (line 7), wicked whisper (line 15), dry as dust (line 16), kept them close (line 17), sky and the sea (line 19), Lay like a load (line 20), rot nor reek (line 23), moving moon (line 32), beams bemocked (line 36), ship ... shadow (lines 38, 41, 46), watched ... water-snakes (line 42), glossy green (line 48), flash ... fire (line 50), self-same (line 57), Like lead (line 60). Repetition: lines: 9-11, 21, 41-46,54-56. Words/phrases: all alone (lines 1-2), dead (lines 6, 12, 21, 29), curse (lines 26, 29, 30), sea (lines 2, 9, 19, 60), ship/shadow (lines 38, 41, 46). The rhyme is predominantly on the second and fourth lines. The predominant rhythm is created by four stressed syllables followed by three stressed syllables: Alone, alone, all, all alone Alone on a wide wide sea. Out (page E29) Example of common superstition: if you see a black cat it's regarded as bad luck because in the past they were associated with witchcraft.

sweet (line 11), so calm (line 14), at peace (line 17). Purity: How pure (line 12), in goodness spent (line 16), innocent (line 18). 5 Which heaven to gaudy day denies (line 6), Where thoughts serenely sweet express (line 11), The smiles that win, the tints that glow, / But tell of days in goodness spent (lines 15-16).

6 Rhyming scheme: ABABAB CDCDCD EFEFEF.Alliteration: cloudless climes /starry skies (line 2), day denies (line 6), Which waves (line 9), serenely sweet (line 11), dear ... dwelling (line 12), So soft (line 14). Assonance: like ... night (line 1), climes ... skies (line 2), shade ... ray (line 7), waves ... raven (line 9), serenely sweet (line 11). Run-on lines: Lines 1-2, 3-4, 5-6,8-9,11-12. 7 The rhythm is flowing and regular and underpins the musical features of the poem. It is in keeping with the theme of beauty.

Writers' Workshop (page E33)


Task The conjunction 'and' linking parallel structures occurs in lines 2, 3 (twice) and 4. Parallelism: And on that cheek, and o'er that brow, (line 13) So soft, so calm (line 14) The smile that wins, the tints that glow, (line 15) A mind at peace with all below, (line 17) A heart whose love is innocent! (line 18)

Text E12
By G.G. Byron

SO We'll Go No More A-Roving (page E34)

Comprehension
1 a. Statement of intent: lines 1-4. b. Explanation: lines 5-8. Reformulation of intent: lines 9-12. 2 He went a-roving when he was younger. A-roving means drinking, love-making and generally enjoying yourself. 3 Age and tiredness seem to have caused him to stop.
Co

Analysis
1 Suggested answer: it involves the reader more directly and it suggests that the 'roving' was done in company. 2 Suggested answer: that he has a fighting spirit and lives life to the full. 3 Suggested answer: melancholic, nostalgic. 4 Colloquial verb form (I), A refrain (X), Strong and regular rhythm and rhyming scheme (I), Extensive use of repetition (I), A chorus (I).

Text E11
By G.G. Byron

She Walks In Beauty (page E32)

Comprehension
1 The poet compares her to a cloudless, starry night.
2 gaudy. 3 nameless grace. 4 aspect (facial features), brow, smiles. eyes, raven tress (hair), face, cheek,

Text E13
(page E35) By G.G. Byron

On this Day I Complete My Thirty-Sixth

Year

Analysis
1 All three interpretations are possible. 2 Possible answers: The undefinable quality of the lady's beauty. The fact that her beauty is composed of different elements: darkness and light. The delicacy and gentleness of the lady's beauty. 3 Balancing opposites: One shade ... one ray (line 7), ... raven tress ... softly lightens (lines 9-10), And on that cheek, and o'er that brow (line 13), calm ... eloquent (line 14). 4 Softness: tender (line 5), softly lightens (line 10), So soft (line 14). Calmness: cloudless climes and starry skies (line 2), serenely

Comprehension
1 His heart should no longer be moved because he cannot move other people's hearts. 2 Death awaits the poet. 3 He still feels passion but it is not shared with others. He can no longer share the hopes, the fears, the jealousy and the pain of love. 4 He feels he should not be gloomy because he is being called upon to carry out heroic deeds in the fight for Greek independence. 5 His noble ancestral lineage should give him the strength to fight. 6 Dying in battle would be an honourable death.

KEYS Module E

";'"n

fllnP'

3, 4, 6, 9, 15), loneliness (line 10), ageing (line 5),


19, 20,23,24), death (lines 34, 38,40), Vehicle yellow leaf (line 5)

Common ground no longer full of life losing strength, beauty nearing death

When he was a boy he thought everything was possible and nothing could stand in the way of what he wanted to do. d. He would not have to plead in despair to the wind. e. He is wild, and fast and proud. 6 To transform him into a musical instrument (line 57), to become his spirit (lines 61·61), to carry his thoughts around the universe (line 63), to spread his words among men (lines 66·67).

Analysis
1 Rhyming scheme: ABA BCB CDC DED EE (imperfect rhymes: thou/low, everywhere/hear). Number of lines: 14. 2 Wind: breath of Autumn's being (line 1), enchanter (line 3), azure sister of the Spring (line 9), Wild Spirit (line 13), destroyer (line 14), preserver (line 14). Leaves: ghosts (line 3), pestilencestricken multitudes (line 5). Earth: dark wintry bed (line 5), grave (line 8). 3 Smell: fill ... with odours plain and hill (line 12). Hearing: Thou dirge of the dying year (lines 23·24). Sight: The sapless foliage ... suddenly grow grey with fear (lines 40·41). Touch: I fall upon the thorns of life! (line 54). 4 Scientific imagery: The sapless foliage of the ocean, know / Thy voice, and suddenly grow grey with fear (lines 40·41). Mythical imagery: Like the bright hair uplifted from the head of / some fierce Maenad (lines 20-21). Biblical imagery: Angels of rain and lightning (line 18), I fall upon the thorns of life! I bleed! (line 54). 5 Death and destruction: the leaves dead / Are driven, like ghosts from an enchanter fleeing (lines 2·3). Pestilence-stricken multitudes (line 5), each like a corpse within its grave (line 8), destroyer (line 14), like earth's decaying leaves (line 16), Thou dirge / Of the dying year (lines 23-24), a vast sepulchre (line 25). Life and regeneration: thou breath of Autumn's being (line 1), Driving sweet buds like flocks to feed in air (line 11), preserver (line 14), Oh, lift me as a wave, a leaf, a cloud! (line 53), Make me thy lyre, even as the forest is (line 57), Drive my dead thoughts over the universe (line 63), Scatter ... my words among mankind (line 66). A necessary step towards renewal and regeneration (lines 63-64: Drive my dead thoughts over the universe / Like withered leaves to quicken a new birth!). 6 The poet is in a state of suffering: in my sore need (line 52), I fall upon the thorns of life! I bleed (line 54), A heavy weight of hours has chained and bowed (line 55). The poet has qualities which will allow him to overcome his suffering: One too like thee: tameless, and swift and proud (line 56). 7 Fading coal: Scatter, as from an unextinguished hearth / Ashes and sparks, my words among mankind! (lines 66·67). An Aeolian lyre: Make me thy lyre (line 57). 8 All three options are acceptable. Varying valid opinions may emerge in class discussion. 9 Alliteration: West Wind (line 1), dead ... driven (lines 2-3), winged ... where (line 7), flocks ... feed (line 11), stream steep sky (line 15), Loose ... like ... leaves (line 16), horizon height (line 22), dirge ... dying (lines 23·24), vast ... vaulted (lines 25· 26), Black ... burst (line 28), lay Lulled (lines 30·31), Baiae': bay (line 32), saw ... sleep (line 33), 50 sweet ... the sense (line 36), path ... powers (line 37), Cleave ... chasms (line 38) woods ... wear (line 39), grow grey (line 41), pant ... power (line 45), Than thou (line 47), skiey speed Scarce seemed (lines 50·51), thus ... thee (line 52), Make me (line 57), leaves ... like (line 58), Sweet ... sadness ... Spirit (line 61), Drive ... dead (line 63), Wind ... Winter (lines 69·70). Assonance: unseen ... leaves ... fleeing (lines 2-3), hectic red (line 4), Pestitence-strtcken (line 5),

love: flowers and fruits of love. Pain of losing love: , grief. Alliteration. presents passion. The poet compares himself to a C'"'\·.'{,,,Ir'iln,FC isle and a funeral pile from which no torch is lit, i.e. shares his passion. poet wishes to share both the pleasure (hope) and the of love (fear, jealous care). No, they are not. People lIy wish to share the pleasure of Jove rather than the make him see death as an honourable end. away thy breath (lines 35·36), take thy rest (line 40). The poet's desire to change. ggested answer: the downcast, melancholic and icii,mp'wh;lt bitter tone of the opening verses is substituted by defiant tone of the fi nal verses. CDCD EFEF GHGH Ijlj etc. The rhymes in the ·,·.r"",,,"nn stanza are not, however, perfect. Suggested answers: the flow of the poem and adds tension. It makes rhythm more dramatic.

..

G,C. Byron (page E38) answer should cover the following points: Byron . 'Romantic hero: died young - lover - soldier - rebel . us - passionate - noble aspirations.

, Gallery

nsion
stanza: the effect of the sea on the land. Second stanza: effect of the wind on the sky. Third stanza: The effect of wind on the sea. Fourth stanza: The relationship between poet and the wind. Fifth stanza: The relationship between poet and the rest of mankind, a. The poem is addressed to the West Wind. b. The leaves. tiThe wind is a destroyer when it blows old dying leaves to ~heground but it is also a preserver because the seeds which .It carries through the air give birth to new plants. la. Clouds. b. They are angels/messengers because they announce the coming of a storm. c. The year has died. "~a. Besidean island in Baiae's bay. b. Old palaces and towers. c. Itforms itself into an open-topped tunnel which the wind rushes through. d. The foliage trembles with fear and destroys itself. Sa. He would like to be a wave, a leaf or a cloud that could be carried away by the wind. b. He wants to share its strength. c.

il

KEYS Module

cold ... low (line 7), sister ... Spring (line 9), sweet ... feed (line 11), stream ... steep (line 15), rain, hail (line 28), wave's ... day (line 34), blooms ... oozy woods (line 39), foliage ... ocean, know (line 40), then, when (line 50), vision ... striven (line 51), Wind ... Winter ... Spring (lines 69-70). End-rhyme: See Question 1. Run-on lines: lines 2-3, 8-9,10-12,18-19,20-21, 21-22, 23-24,24-25, 26-27, 29-30, 33-34, 35-36, 36-37, 3940, 40-41, 45-46, 46-47, 47-48, 48-49, 51-52, 66-67. Suggested answer: the musicality of the poem could be orchestral, symphonic, sweeping, grandiose.

Analysis
1 frown (line 4), wrinkled lip and sneer of cold command 0ine 5). A stern and cruel tyrant. Yes, the inscription reinforces the idea of Ozymandias that emerges in the opening lines. 2 Nothing beside remains (line 12), boundless and bare (line 13), lone and level sands (line 14). Yes, in this setting the statue seems ridiculous. 3 a. Ozymandias believed that the mighty should despair because his works were beyond compare. Others could never hope to compete with the magnificent glory of his works. b. The mighty should despair today because nothing is left of Ozymandias's great works. Those who, like Ozymandias, build their empires on tyranny and intimidation will meet a similar fate to Ozymandias. 4 Suggested answer: pompous, arrogant. 5 Suggested answer: deflated, despairing. To underline the central irony of the poem. 6 He uses the poetic form of the sonnet. Description of the monument (lines 1-8), description of the inscription (lines 911), description of the surroundings (lines 12-14). 7 a. ABABACDC EDE GEG, appear (line 9) and despair (line 11) are not, however, perfect rhymes. The rhyming scheme is not entirely regular. b. Alliteration: cold command (line 5), survive stamped (line 7), hand ... heart (line 8), boundless ... bare (line 13), sands stretch (line 14). Run-on lines: lines 1-2, 2-3, 6-7, 12-13, 13-14. c. An echoing effect which suggests th e vast ba re ness of th e desert. 8 Suggested answer: those who achieve their power through corruption, tyranny or cruelty are not truly great.

Writers' Workshop (page E44) Task Wind: o wild West Wind, thou breath of Autumn's being (line 1) Thou, from whose unseen presence (line 2) Wild Spirit, which art moving everywhere: (line 13) Destroyer and preserver; hear, oh, hear (Iine 14) Thou on whose stream (line 15) with all thy congregated might (line 26) Thou who didst waken (line 29) only less free / Than thou (lines 46-47) The comrade of thy wanderings over Heaven, (line 49) thy skiey speed (line 50) with thee in prayer in my sore need. (line 52) One too like thee: tameless, and swift, and proud (line 56) Make me thy lyre (line 57) Be thou, Spirit fierce, (line 61) My spirit! Be thou me, impetuous one! (line 62) Seeds: The winged seeds, where they lie cold and low, I Each like a corpse within its grave (lines 7-8) The Mediterranean: waken from his summer dreams I The blue Mediterranean, where he lay (lines 29-30) The Atlantic Thou / For whose path the Atlantic's level powers / Cleave themselves into chasms (line 36-38) Sea foliage The sea-blooms and the oozy woods which wear The sapless foliage of the ocean, know Thy voice, and suddenly grow grey with fear, And tremble and despoil themselves (lines 39-42) Wave A wave to pant beneath thy power, and share The impulse of thy strength (lines 45-46) Suggested answer: by human ising natural elements such as the wind, sea foliage, the Mediterranean he brings them to life and makes them more interesting.

Text E16
By P.B. Shelley

England In 1819 (page E47)

Comprehension
1 King: he is old, despised, blind and dying. Princes: they are corrupt and as inept as their ancestors were. Rulers: they are parasites who drink the lifeblood of the country until they choke to death from over-indulgence. Army: the army kills innocent people and at the same time destroys the concept of freedom. Laws: the laws are used to justify the killing of ordinary people. Religion: the Church of England is intolerant and has abandoned basic Christian principles. Senate: it passed the law that excludes non-Protestants from public office. 2 The king, the prince, the rulers, the people, the army, the laws, religion and the senate are the subjects of the verb are in line 13. 3 The Phantom might rebel and overthrow the corrupt status quo.

Analysis
1 There are 14 lines. It takes the form of a sonnet. The turning point occurs in line 13. 2 a. Rhyming scheme: ABABABCDCDCCDD. Yes, it is regular; b. Alliteration: despised ... dying (line 1), dregs ... dull (line 2), neither ... nor ... nor know (line 4), leech like ... country cling (line 5), bfind bfook ... blow (line 6), starved ... stabbed (line 7), groves gloriOUS (line 13). Run-on lines: lines 2-3, 8-9, 13-14. Co There is only one full stop. The rhythm is irregular. d. Suggested answer: the irregular rhythm conveys the poet's anger and frustration and the tumultuous state of English affairs.

Text E15
By P.B. Shelley

Ozymandias (page E45)

Comprehension
1 He met a traveller from an ancient land. 2 He saw two giant legs. 3 The lips were wrinkled as if the figure were sneering. 4 My name is Ozymandias, king of kings: / Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair! 5 The endless desert sands surrounded the monument.

KEYS Module E

"' .. . "th"nU'~l

sharp words. b. That in his anger and frustration useswords as blows to strike against his targets.

answer: a. In a country which is rich in resources not be starving. England is not making full use ial. b. The state religion is intolerant and I c. The political and religious leaders are considered because they no longer contribute to the life of the They have caused the moral death of England. d. ",''--r,ltlrJlnflS Phantom represents the rebellious spirit which the old order and bring new hope to (illumine) . The tempestuous day refers to the difficult historical Shelley is describing in the poem. answer: angry, frustrated in lines 1-12. Hopeful 13-14. E48) thirteen unarmed civilians were shot dead in Derry in Ireland by British Troops.

to the world of music


"""""PnT Nixon and his soldiers.

(page E49)

(negative). She cannot fade (positive), thou hast not thy bliss (negative). Forever will thou love (positive) she be fair (positive). 6 Personification: (happy boughs cannot) bid the Spring adieu (line 22), (Happy love) forever panting and forever young (line 27), happy (line 25), forever warm (line 26), forever panting and forever young (line 27). The semantic field of illness: a burning forehead and a parching tongue (line 30). 7 happy, forever. The joy and permanence of the scene on the urn. 8 The extensive use of questions adds to the mystery in the description of the pastoral scene in stanza 4 . 9 Synecdoche: soul stands for person. A part representing the whole. 10 Where the urn is from: Attic (line 41). Word whi ch underlines its beauty: Fair (line 41). Expression which highlights its silence: silent form (line 44). Expression which suggests that it is lacking in human warmth: Cold Pastoral (line 45). 11 Cold pastoral (line 45), a friend to man (line 48). 12 Open answer.

referring to one of the protesters who was killed and how the listener would feel if he had known her i>·n,~r<r>n<lliv and had found her dead on the ground (line 8). . Suggested answer: yes, it is similar in tone :·h,~~",I1.",'< poem.

Text E18
By John Keats

Ode ToA Nightingale (Page E55)

Comprehension
1 The poet feels sleepy and listless like someone who has taken narcotic drugs. These feelings have been caused by a sense of intense happiness. 2 The poet wants to drink wine to help him escape from the world of reality. 3 Suffering: the weariness, the fever and the fret (line 23). Ageing: Where palsy shakes a few, sad, last grey hairs (line 25). Sorrow and despair: Where but to think is to be full of sorrow And leaden-eyed despairs (line 27-28). Illness: Where youth grows pale, and spectre-thin, and dies (line 26). Ephemeral love and beauty: Where Beauty cannot keep her lustrous eyes, Or new Love pine at them beyond to-morrow (line 29-30). 4 Poetry. 5 Grass, thicket, trait-tree wild, hawthorn, pastoral eglantine, violets, musk-rose. The poet cannot see the plants and flowers but he can smell them. 6 He has considered suicide as a means of escape from life. He thinks it might be appropriate to die as he listens to the beautiful song of the nightingale but at the same time does not want to die because if he did he would not be able to hear the music any more. 7 Ruth, a character in the Bible. The nightingale's song has inspired many romantic tales. 8 Imagination cannot trick him into believing he has escaped from the real world.

refers to the urn. ddresses the urn as a bride,

as a child,

and as an

and gods, both male and female, are courting, playing and generally enjoying themselves in an idyllic setting. should use our spirit to hear them. Fair youth is playing a tune. The Bold Lover can never . his loved one. . The songs are forever new because they will never end while love is Forever warm because it will never die. Lines 28-30 describe the effect of human love. }A young cow is being brought in procession to be sacrificed. 8 The urn is an Attic shape, a Fair attitude, a silent form and a '•.friend to man. 9 Lines 49-50.

Analysis
Lquietness (line 1) and silence (line 2). Still, quietness, fosterchild, silence, slow. Although the urn is described as the fosterchild of silence its decorative paintings tell a story . .2 Metonymy: rhyme in line 4 stands for poetry in general. .~By the repeated use of questions. ,.~ ditties of no tone (line 14). Suggested answer: the decorative . Images on the urn include pipes and timbrels. The poet must Usehi.s imagination to conjure up the music produced by these Instruments. Therefore the pipes play not to the poet's sensual ear (line 13) but to his spirit or imagination. 5 Thou canst not leave / Thy song (may be interpreted as .negative or positive). Bold Lover, never, never canst thou kiss

Analysis
1 Caesura is marked in lines 1, 2 and 4 by commas. Run-on lines: 1-2, 2-3, 3-4. Broad vowel sounds: heart, aches, drowsy, numbness, pains (line 1), sense, though, hemlock, had, drunk (line 2), Emptied, dull opiate drains (line 3), one, past, and, Lethe-wards, had, sunk (line 4). - Creates a flowing movement: run-on lines. - Slows the rhythm down: broad vowel sounds. - Creates pauses: ceasura_ 2 My heart aches (line 1) suggests that the poet may be

Text E19
By John Keats

When f Have Fears (page E60)

Comprehension
Dance, Provenr;al song sunburnt 14), tull of the warm South (line 15), winking at the b. deep-delved (line 12), song ... sunburnt (line 14), beaded bubbles ... brim (line 17). Assonance: Dance/Provencal (line 14) sunburnt/mirth (line 14), full/blushful (line 16), winking/brim (line 17). Onomatopoeia: beaded bubbles winking at the brim (line 17). Images that appeal to the senses: taste: for a draught of vintage that hath been cooled ... Tasting of Flora (lines 11.13). Touch: sunburnt mirth (line 14). Hearing: song (line 14). Taste/touch: beaker full of the warm South (line 15). Sight: beaded bubbles winking at the brim (line 17). c. leave the world unseen (line 19), fade away and forest dim

17).

First quatrain: The poet expresses his fear that death will cut short his work as a poet. Writing poetry is compared to harvesting. Second quatrain: The poet fears that death will not allow him to complete his work as a poet. Writing poetry is compared to drawing night skies. Third quatrain; The poet expresses his fear that death will deprive him of his love. Couplet: The thought of death isolates the poet and paralyses his ability to think.

Analysis
1 teeming brain (line 2), high-piled books (line 3), rich garners the full ripened grain (line 4). 2 Huge - Vastness, High - Superiority, Magic - Mystery. doubts, love that is instinctive. 5 The relative insignificance of the individual in the general scheme of the universe: Of the wide world. The alienation of the poet: I stand alone. Despair: Till love and fame to nothingness do sink. Open answer. 6 The condition is completed in line 12. The turning point is marked by a semi-colon and a dash. Suggested answer: it creates tension and expectation. 7 Inversion of the subject. Typical structure: I stand alone then on the shore of the wide world. Inverted structure: then on the shore of the wide world I stand alone. 8 Rhyming scheme: ABAB CDCD EFEFGG. The rhythm is regular. Alliteration: may ... my ... my, be ... before .,. brain. Assonance: fears, cease, be, gleaned teeming. 9 The spontaneous, almost magical process of artistic creation: the magic hand of chance (line 8). The isolation of the poet: then on the shore of the wide world I stand alone (lines 12-13). Out (page E61) Examples of other famous people who accomplished a lot even though they died young: joan of Arc (19), Che Guevara (39), jimi Hendrix (28), Kurt Cobain (27), james Dean (24), St Francis of Assisi (44), Vincent Van Gogh (37), Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (35).
3 creature of an hour (line 9). 4 Suggested answer: unreflecting love may be love that has no

(line 20). 5 Metonymy for ageing: sad, last grey hairs (line 25). Personification: Where Beauty cannot keep her lustrous eyes (line 29). 6 They are primarily monosyllabic. The concentration of monosyllabic words accelerates the rhythm which mirrors the transient nature of youth and beauty. 7 Images of joyfulness: Iwill fly to thee '" on the viewless wings of Poesy (lines 31·33), And haply the Queen-Moon is on her throne, / Clustered around by all her starry Fays (lines 36-37). Introduction of a note of sorrow: But here there is no light (line 38). Reiteration of sadness: verdurous glooms (line 40). 8 flowers are at my feet (line 41): touch, smell; embalmed darkness (line 43): smell; white hawthorn (line 46): sight, smell; fading violets (line 47): sight, smell; musk-rose full of dewy wine (line 49): smell, taste; the murmurous haunt of flies (line 50): hearing. 9 Iml and lsi recreate the sound of buzzing flies. lOa. Euphemism for death: To take into the air my quiet breath (line 54). b. At the climax of the stanza the language is surprisingly direct and simple. c. In line 60 the word 50d contrasts with the expression high requiem. 11 Open answer. 12 Suggested answer; words such as Forlorn, Adieu and plaintive create a sad, wistful tone in the final stanza. The nightingale's song has only provided temporary relief from human suffering. Open answer. 13 a. There are ten lines in each stanza. The eighth line in each stanza is shorter. b. ABABCDE CDE ABABCDE CDE . The rhyming scheme is regular.

Writers' Workshop (page E59) Task a. Lines 1·3 Assonance: aches/pains/sense/hemlock/emptied,


drunk/dull, though/opiate.

numbness/-

Predominantly long and broad vowels. Lines 45-48 The short vowel sound in words such as thicket, eglantine, eldest, the create an accelerated rhythm. Short, slender vowel sounds. b.The rhythm of lines 1·3 is slower than the rhythm of lines 45·48. c. The quicker pace of lines 45·48 reflects the poet's joyfulness, while the slower pace of the opening lines reflects the poet's drowsy, meditative state of mind.

John Keats (page E62) Task (page E63) - The passing of time: Keats lost many close family members when he was young and knew that his own life would be cut short by illness. - The immortality of art: Keats dedicated life and soul to his poetry because it would outlive him. - Death as an escape from human suffering: his own ill health had made him fall 'half in love with easeful Death'. - Beauty and art as a means of overcoming despair: in his Great Year (1819), despite deteriorating health, he wrote some of his finest poems. Lead in (page E64) Example of a love story Characters: Jack Dawson (leonardo DiCaprio) DeWitt (Kate Winslet) in the film Titanic (1997).

Writers' Gallery

and Rose

KEYS Module E

""nU,nn:

nt event in the story: the sinking of the ship. The Titanic, the biggest cruise ship ever built. : Kate Winslet's character survives. Leonardo ,ch aracter dies.

- Emma interrupts conversation.

them at an interesting

point in their

Dr

Text E21

",' 20 E

This Would Not Do! (page E64)

More Than Just Friends (page E68) From Emma, by Jane Austen

Emma, by Jane Austen

Comprehension
1 She thinks they are just friends. 2 He fears the word friend because he wants to declare his love for Emma. 3 He is referring to her ever accepting an offer of marriage from him. 4 She is silent because she is overcome with happiness. 5 The exact truth is that Mr Knightley loves her and not Harriet.

hension
went onto a raised footpath beside the lane along Harriet and Mr Elton were walking. followed Emma onto the footpath. pretended she had to fix her bootlaces and asked them Ik on. talked to the child to waste more time. felt obliged to ioin them when they turned around and at her. were talking about a party that Mr Elton had gone to. rna said she had lost a piece of her lace and asked Mr if his housekeeper could give her something to tie up ,.boot with. soon afterwards took possession of a narrow footpath 3-4), She immediately stopped, under pretence of having alteration to make in the lacing of her half-boot (lines 916), She hod the comfort of further delay in her power being Overtaken by a child (lines 13-15). "Emotion anxiety frustration concern Origin She wants Harriet and Mr Elton to be alone. Harriet,who is dependent on and imitatesEmma,tries to join her. She is concerned because she believes she is interrupting an interesting conversationbetween Harriet and Elton. She discovers that Harriet and Elton are talking about trivial matters. Emma thought that the conversation about Cole's party would lead on to more interesting subjects.

Analysis
1 Hesitations: lines 8, 9, 10, 25-28, 30-33. Interrupted, unfinished sentences: fines 8, 9, 10. Repetitions: lines 11-12, 20, 28-29. He is highly emotional and this is apparent from his speech patterns. 2 Line 25. 3 He never says directly that he loves Emma. Tell me, then, have I no chance of ever succeeding? (line 14), My dearest Emma, for dearest you will always be ... my dearest, most beloved Emma - tell me at once. Say 'No' if it is to be said (lines 1 7-19), If Iloved you less I might be able to talk about it more (fine 27), The manner, perhaps, may have as little to recommend them. God knows Ihave been a very indifferent lover (lines 3031). 4 Mr Knightley: shy, emotional, insecure, sincere, speechless. Emma: mature, perceptive. In this key passage the roles are somewhat reversed .

<2

·Une Line 3 ••..··lines 5-8 , •• • •....lines 24-25

Text E22

What A Fine Thing For Our Girls! (page E70) From Pride and Prejudice, by jane Austen

.. Lines32-33

disappointment consolation

Comprehension
1 Wealthy young men are in search of wives. 2 Mrs Bennet tells her husband that a neighbouring house, Netherfield Park, has been let to a wealthy, single young man called Bingley (lines 16-17). 3 He does not want to go and suggests she go with her daughters (lines 39-40). 4 Lizzy seems to be his favourite (lines 57-58). 5 He 'abuses' them by calling them silly and ignorant (lines 6264) . 6 He is used to his wife being nervous and highly-strung (line 67). 7 Mr Bennet: quick parts, sarcastic humour, reserve and caprice. Mrs Bennet: mean understanding, little information, and uncertain temper.

IThe description of Elton's friends party in lines 34-36 suggests an upper or middle class social setting. This is .confirmed by the reference in line 51 to M r Elton's housekeeper. 4 Suggested answers: immature, interfering, well-meaning.

\Ajriters' Workshop Task

(page E67)

Obiective view of events: - Mr Elton and Harriet are having a conversation. - Emma is gaining ground on Mr Elton and Harriet. -:Mr Elton is talking about his friend's party. Emma's view of events: '--The conversation between Mr Elton and Harriet is interesting. -Mr Elton is speaking with animation and Harriet is pleased by what she hears.

Analysis
1 Mrs Bennet's. 2 a.lines 1-6: third-person narration; lines 7-75: dialogue; lines 76-82: third person narration. b. The opening section outlines the main theme of the novel. The central dialogue introduces Mr and Mrs Bennet and reveals something of their characters. It also develops the storyline. The final section confirms what has emerged about the characters in the preceding dialogue.

r
..... ~.

me and I have no objection to hearing it design in settling here? (line 35), Mr B~ngley the best of the party (lines 41-42), You mistake I have a high respect for your nerves. They are my I have heard you mention them with consideration these twenty years at least (lines 67-69). b. What is his name? (line 25), Is he married or single? (line 27), How so? How can it affect them? (line 31), Is that his design in settling here? (line

Darcy actually loves her and would propose to marry her. Her reaction when Darcy leaves the room seems to contradict the sentiment she expresses in lines 39-40. 3 Suggested answer: elegant, sophisticated, balanced dramatic, artificial. ' 4 Suggested answer: it helps maintain the light-hearted, ironic tone of the novel.

! i

35). He wishes to show his wife the absurdity of what she is saying. c. How so? How can it affect them? (line 31), Is that his design in settling here? (line 35). d. Suggested answer: he is trying to tease and provoke his wife. 4 a. Mrs Bennet's interest in material possessions: He came down on Monday in a chaise and four (line 9), A single man of large
fortune; four or five thousand a year. What a fine thing for our girls! (lines 28-30), Mrs Bennet's being 'of mean understanding': My dear, you flatter me. 1 certainly have had my share of beauty, but I do not pretend to be any thing extraordinary now aines 43-

Writers' Workshop (page E75) Task Shows character through dialogue: lines 1-14, 17-21, 24-26, 30-44. Tells the reader about the characters' feelings: lines 15-16, n 23, 27-29, 45-54.

.!

l
1
!

I[
1
i

Writers' Gallery

Jane Austen (page E76)

44). She does not realise that her husband is making fun of her. b. Women were completely dependent upon their husbands for social and economic status. 5 Open answer.

Text E23

You Are Mistaken, Mr Dorey (page E73)

From Pride and Prejudice, by Jane Austen

Comprehension
1 He should never have said that he thought

her family was

socially inferior to him. 2 No. She would have refused him no matter how nicely he asked her. 3 He was arrogant, selfish, snobbish and unfeeling towards others (lines 30-34). 4 It was incredible that he wanted to marry her because the same obiectlons that he had raised to his friend marrying her sister should apply to him marrying her (lines 51-54).

Tasks (page E77) 1 Rural middle-class. 2 Serious and popular literature, especially novels. 3 No. She had an active social life. 4 She started writing in her early teens. 5 No. 6 No. 7 Rural England. . 8 The traditional values of property, decorum, money and marriage. 9 Her writing is deceivingly simple but is actually highly sophisticated. 10 Her work belongs to the neo-classical tradition.

i
i

I
I
j
I

Text E24

Fight on, Brave Knights! (page E78)

From Ivanhoe, by Sir Walter Scott

Comprehension
1 The battle is referred to as a tide because it moves from one end of the field to the other and back again. 2 They could hear the clash of the armour, the shouts of the combatants and the sound of the trumpets (lines 5-7). 3 Dust and blood (line 11). 4 They were cut off in the heat of battle (line 13). 5 They were enthralled by the combat and could not take their eyes off the action (lines 24-25). 6 Although some of them were upset when combatants were thrown from their horses, most of them shouted encouragement and cheered on the knights (Jines 30-33). 7 They clapped their hands, waved their kerchiefs and cheered (line 31). 8 They followed every blow as if they themselves were fighting and roared their approval at every twist and turn in the battle (line 37-38). 9 The knights should fight on because it is better to die fighting than to give up in front of admiring spectators (line 40).

Analysis
1 a. Darcy's arrogance, conceit and disdain emerge in how he speaks about Elizabeth's family: Could you expect me to
rejoice in the inferiority of your conneaions? To congratulate myself on the hope of relations, Whose condition in life is so decidedly beneath my own? (lines 12.14). b. Darcy prides

himself on telling the truth. Elizabeth's accusation that his behaviour is ungentleman-like offends him deeply (lines 2023), c. Again his astonishment was obvious; and he looked at
her with an expression of mingled incredulity and mortification

(lines 27-29). Because he is socially and economically superior, Darcy automatically assumes that Elizabeth will accept his proposal of marriage. At the time Jane Austen wrote marriages often had an economic rather than emotional basis. 2 a. Suggested answer: self-com posed, intelligent, independent. b. Elizabeth was very quick to form a negative opinion of Darcy: From the very beginning, from the first
moment, I may almost say, of my acquaintance with you, your manners ... to form that ground-work of disapprobation (lines 30-36). She also seems to exaggerate her dislike of him: I felt that you were the last man in the world whom I could ever be prevailed on to marry (lines 39-40). c. She reacts to what has

II

Analysis
1 Sight: the tide of battle seemed to flow now towards the southern, now towards the northern extremity of the lists, the splendid armour of the combatants was now defaced with dust and blood, the gay plumage, shorn from the crests, drifted upon the breeze like snowflakes. Hearing: the clang of the blows, the shouts of the combatants, the groans of those who fell.

happened by crying for half an hour suggesting her great emotional involvement (line 48). She finds it incredible that

KEYS Module E

B the ladies of distinction (line 22) who crowded the galleries (lines 22-23) but without a wish to withdraw their eyes form a sight so terrible. (lines 24-25)

3 A positive and negative consequence of Jewish wealth

was at other times used to extend their influence, and to secure to them a certain degree of protection (lines 3738).

... it frequently placed them in danger,

-: ".,.""n·are naturally attracted by :t\llsij~hts of horror (lines 20-21) ',the conflict with a interest certainly

being the interest taken the fair sex in this bloody (line 34) ··in this bloody

and the shouts of the combatants (Jines 5-6) or a faint scream might be heard (line 27) but even by exclaiming, 'Brave lance! Good sword!' (line 32) that of the men is more easily understood (Jines 34-35)

2 Suggested answer: Positive: Devoted, Skilful. Negative: Suspicious, Uncomplying, Obstinacy, Avarice. Neutral: Timid, Obstinate. 3 Suggested answer: the generalisations of the text are supported by the specific detail of this story. 4 Unintermitting, general, and relentless (line 3), to hate, to revile, to despise, to plunder and to persecute (lines 9-10), increased, multiplied, and accumulated (lines 27-28), watchful, suspicious and timid (line 40), obstinate, uncomplying and skilful (line 40). If he used only one or two words, the writing would not be as effective.

btrusive narrator: Such being the interest taken by the fair game, that of the men is more easily . (lines 34- 35).

\.

rs' Workshop (page E81)

>ilSight and hearing. See Analysis Question 1. 2Suggested answer: noise, movement. 'Task (page E81) ...•a)Tide. ·•.•.• b) Shorn plumage is compared to snowflakes in lines 13-14.

Tasks (page E80)

Writers' Workshop (page ES3) Task - Scott's writing is not based purely on fact. It includes elements of humour, hyperbole and storytelling. - Open answer. - The text includes humorous elements. Comparing the Jews to flying fish in the opening line is an example of the nonpedantic approach the narrator adopts. - Scott uses a light touch in his treatment of the topic. His approach is subjective. A more objective, historical approach would not include anecdotes and humour. - Scott's main aim is to inform and entertain the reader.

Text E26

The Toumament(page

ES4)

. .Text E25

From Ivanhoe, by Sir Walter Scott


Unhappy Israelites (page EST)

/iFrom Ivanhoe, by Sir Walter Scott

Comprehension
1 1 The knights closed their visors. 2 The Grand Master threw Rebecca's glove onto the lists. 3 Both knights fell to the ground. 4 Ivanhoe pointed his sword at Bois-Gullbert's throat. 5 Bois-Guilbert died. 6 The Grand Master said, Fiat voluntas
tua .

.·.Comprehension
lNo. The persecution of the Jews was absurd and groundless. 2The Normans, Saxons, Danes and Britons persecuted the ..•.Jews. The persecution by the Normans was regular, calculated >and out of self-interest. 3 One of his teeth was pulled out every day until he paid up a large sum of money. 4 They were subjected to extortion because they had most of .•the money in the country. . 5 They put up with persecution and torture because of the .. high profits they could make in a rich country like England. ....6The Jew's Exchequer collected taxes from the Jews. ·'.7 They invented bills of exchange. · 8 Because they were so rich, the Jews were an important part of the national economy and their wealth allowed them to . have influence over and some protection from powerful < groups in the country (lines 36-38).

2 Greyishly pale (line 9). 3 Anyone who disturbed the combat would be killed instantly (lines 17-21). 4 Rebecca's glove (line 22). 5 Ivanhoe was exhausted (line 25). Bois-Guilbert struck the better blow (line 26-27) . 6 They were astonished because Ivanhoe had only lightly touched Bois-C uilbert's sh ield (lines 2S-29). Ivanhoe recovered more quickly than his opponent from his fall (lines 31-32). 7 The Grand Master (line 36). 8 He died because the violent nature of his own contending passions were tearing him apart emotionally (lines 42-43).

Analysis
.•··.1
1 Examples of persecution of the Jews 2 Reasons why Jews remained in Britain

Analysis
Their persons and property were exposed ... eve/}' species of oppression and even personal torture (lines 5-21). Yet the passive courage inspired by the love of gain induced the Jews ... in a COWl try naturally so wealthy as England
(lines 21 -24).

1 a. The esquire: prepared the knight for combat (line 4). The herald: made the announcements at the tournament (line 12). The Grand Master: he was in charge of the tournament. He decided when the fighting should beg in and if the defeated knight should be killed or not (lines 21, 36, 44). b. Suggested answer: it makes it more authentic and helps to recreate the atmosphere of the period. 2 Ashy paleness, was now becoming very much flushed (lines 911). His eyes were closed; the dark red flush was stiJ/ on his brow

· ·.·. /ii ·./i······i

-,

..

.
is associated with death. The fact that Victor has discovered how to generate life from death makes the image appropriate .

}.i(nneS39-4o).The.flushPa~sedfrom his brow, and gave way.t~ thepatlidhiieofdeath (l1~es 41 .~2). The colour. of BOIs . .....Guilbert's face represents h:s emotional state, the VIOlence of ....his own contending passions (line 43). E85) . Boxing scenes in the Rocky films starring Sylvester Stallone: Rocky I (1976), Rocky /I (1979) and Rocky /II (1982). Kung Fu films starring Bruce Lee.

Writers' Workshop

(page E91)

Out (page

Text E27

A Sudden Light Broke In Upon Me (page E89) From Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley

Comprehension
1 He was attracted by the structure of living creatures and of the human body in particular (lines 1·2). 2 Cowardice or carelessness had stopped people from understanding the mystery of human life (lines 6·7). 3 He dedicated himself to the study of physiology and anatomy and was especially interested in the decay of the human body (lines 8·9). 4 He was inspired by an almost supernatural enthusiasm (line 10). 5 His father had made sure that he was not afraid of the dark, of ghosts or of anything to do with the supernatural (fines 15· 18). 6 He carried out his research in tombs and charnel houses (lines 21 ·22). 7 He saw how the body decayed (lines 25·27). 8 He made his discovery after many days and nights of exhausting work (lines 39AO). 9 He discovered how to create life (lines 41·42).

Tasks 1 - His unorthodox upbringing: In my education my father had taken the greatest precautions that my mind should be impressed with no supernatural horrors ... a churchyard Was to me merely the receptacle of bodies deprived of life ... food for the worm (lines 15·21). - His unending thirst for knowledge: Whence I often asked myself, did the principle of life proceed? (line 3). - His passionate nature: Unless I had been animated by an almost supernatural enthusiasm ... intolerable (lines 9· 11). - His tireless pursuit of the understanding of the mystery of life: forced to spend days and nights in vaults and charnel houses (line 22), After days and nights of incredible labour and fatigue (lines 39·40). 2 Remember, I am not recording the vision of a madman. The sun does not more certainly shine in the heaven, than that which I now affirm is true (lines 36·38). Suggested answer: Victor's passionate nature and unconventional education make him a more credible narrator. The fact that he presents himself as an extraordinary man makes it more believable that he did extraordinary things.

Text E28

The Accomplishment Of My Toils (page E91) From Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley

Comprehension
1 He was very anxious (line 2). 2 It opened an eye, breathed hard and moved its arms and legs (lines 7·8). 3 He was shocked and could not explain what had gone wrong (lines 9· 11). 4 He rushed to his bedroom and spent a long time pacing up and down before going to sleep (lines 31 ·34). 5 He dreamt that while he was kissing his girlfriend Elizabeth, she was transformed into the dead body of his mother (lines 44-48). 6 He saw the monster, who had forced its way into the room (line 53). 7 He spent the rest of the night outdoors in the courtyard (lines 58·59).

Analysis
, Areas of study: the structure of the human frame, and indeed, any animal endued with life (lines 2·3), natural philosophy (line 9), physiology (line 9), science of anatomy (line 13). Victor's curiosity and desire to know more: which had peculiarly attracted my attention (line 1), and determined thenceforth to apply myself more particularly (line 8), Unless I had been animated by an almost supernatural enthusiasm, my application to this study would have been irksome, and almost intolerable (lines 9·11). Scientific and formal. 2 Words dealing with death and the supernatural (fines 13· 29): supernatural, horrors (line 16), superstition (line 17), apparition, spirit (line 18), bodies deprived of life (line 19), charnel houses (line 22), death (fines 26, 29). a. The description contains graphic and disturbing details: for example, I saw how the worm inherited the wonders of eye and brain (lines 26-27). b. His fearlessness and tirelessness suggests that he was totally focused on his work and driven by a desire for knowledge. c. He comes across as an extraordinary man. 3 a. strong. b. Suggested answer: ambitious, eccentric, self· confident, fanatical. 4 A sudden light broke in upon me - a light so brilliant and wondrous (lines 30·31), I became dizzy with the immensity of the prospect (lines 31.32), so astonishing a secret (line 35), Some miracfe might have produced it (line 38). Yes, the fact that Victor is an eccentric a nd extraordinary man makes his achievement more credible. 5 Light breaking into darkness (line 3~). No, it is not an original image. Light is traditionally associated with life while darkness

Analysis
1 - The time of year: Novem ber, - The time of day: one o'dock in the morning. - The weather conditions: it was raining. - The quality of light: dim, half-extmquished light. a. Suggested answer: expectation, excitement, fear, terror. h. Yes, this is a typical setting for a horror story. 2 Beautiful: well·proportioned limbs (line 11), beautiful features (fine 11), long, ffowing black hair (line 13), pearly white teeth (line 14). Repellent: his yellow skin (lines 16·17), his watery eyes (line 15). 3 The mood of the first paragraph is characterised by excitement, anxiety, and expectation. The mood of the second paragraph is predominantly one of horror and repugnance. The change occurs in line 12 with the exclamation Great God!. In the second half of the text Victor's anxiety and repugnance give way to fatigue and when he falls asleep his mood changes back from delight and surprise to

KEYS Module E

repugnance. When Victor awakens and sees th e he is fearful and anxious and runs away.
•...• '. imprinted the first kiss on her lips, they became live d I ......hue of death (lines 44-46). This description recalls th e black lips (line 17) of the monster. I sow the grave in the folds of flannel (lines 49-50) recalls I saw worm inherited the wonders of eye and brain (line 27 r that almost amounted to agony (line 2), breathles s disgust filled my heart (lines 28-29), unable to my mind to sleep (line 33-34), Delighted and surprised in the dream sequence) (line 43), I started from my horror; a cold dew covered my forehead, my teeth and every limb become convulsed (lines 50-51) , and down in the greatest agitation, listening catching and fearing each sound (lines 60-62). b. In

tense. 5 a. Circle references to the eye in the text: lines 10·13,29,31 32, 78-83. The narrator never refers to both the old man's eye s, As birds' eyes are located on either side of their heads yo u only see one at a time. b. Suggested answer: it dehumanise the old man.

cannot imagine how stealthily), line 94 (Do you mark me wei II have toid you that Iam nervous). The narrator assumes that he knows what the reader is thinking in line 2 (why will you say that I am mad?), line 15 (You fancy me mad), lines 44-45 (No w you may think that I drew back), lines 84-85 (And have I n ot told you that what you mistake for madness is but ave racuteness of the sense?). Suggested answer: disconcertin g,

is excited and optimistic while in text E28 he is and repulsed. In both texts his emotions are heightened. s illogical that at the moment of his greatest he should be preoccupied by the physical aspects of . In lines 20-29 Victor says that his desire to create prived him of rest and health and far exceeded

Text E30

The Old Man's Hour Had Come (page E99)

From The Tell-Tale Heart, by E.A. Poe

Comprehension
1 He threw the bed on top of the old man (line 3) and whe n he was sure he was dead he dismembered the body and hid the parts under the floorboards (lines 13·14) . 2 The police officers had been called by a neighbour who ha d heard a shriek coming from the house (lines 24-26). 3 He heard a continuous, repetitive, low, dull sound which h e thought was the old man's heart beating and tried to block it out by talking loudly (lines 42-47). 4 Yes, he bel ieved they could hear the sou nd and wer e making fun of him by pretending not to (lines 59-60).

". Tt:.vf- E29 The Eye (page E96) •••.• r,."..,... The Tell·Tale Heart, by EA Poe ·•..... ·.· .

prehension
sense of hearing had become very acute (lines 3-4). disturbed by one of the man's eyes (lines 10-11). .....•..........• .•MO.~'" him more kindly than usual (lines 18·19). _ He u d the old man's door and observed him by the gle ray that shone into the room (lines 19-22). not do his 'work' because the Evil Eye was closed. .... Il:vvc,)·the Evil Eye more than the man himself that inspired ·....·... instincts in him (lines 30-32). Id man was woken up when the narrator's thumb he was trying to open the lantern (lines 49-51). ......·.7Hp()ft.pn groaned at about midnight when his mind was ;:: med by the terrors that surrounded him (lines 55I

Analysis
1 Phrases in the text wh ich suggest the narrator's lack a remorse: I then smiled gaily, to find the deed so far done (lines 3-4), I went down to open it with a light heart (line 23), In th e wild audacity of my perfect triumph (line 35), I was singularly a t ease (lines 37-38), I answered cheerily (line 39). 2 Suggested answer: pride, pleasure. The narrator is proud of the crime he has comm itted. On several occasions (see Question 1) he expresses the pleasure he felt at having murdered the old man. 3 Suggested answer: matter of fact, clinical. 4 The narrator's primary concern is to explain to the reader that he proceeded in a logical manner and therefore should not be considered a madman. 5 a. Examples of repetition: The old man was dead (line 6), He was stone, stone dead (lines 7-8), He was stone dead (line 9), for what had I now to fear? (Ilnes 23·24), for what had I to fear? (line 29), I felt myself getting pale (line 40), I now grew very pale (line 46), Yet the sound increased (line 47), but the noise steadily increased (lines 50-51), but the noise steadily increased (line 52), but the noise steadily increased (line 54), but the noise arose over all and continually increased (line 57), Louder! Louder! Louder! Louder! (line 65); b. The sentences in the text are primarily short and arhythmic. c.
the narrator's behaviour the disturbing sound

saw the open Evil Eye (line 79). . afraid the neighbours would hear the beating of the n's heart (lines 98-99).

lysis

i
»

'i

.... <

person narrator. answer: dramatic, unorthodox. > .. ' know nothing (line 15), Ho! Would a madman ..... been so wise as this (lines 26·27). b. see how cunningly it in! (line 23), Would a madman have been so wise (lines 26-27), I felt the extent of my own powers - of (lines 40·41). c. The narrator's claim to be sane wise is not convincing. His thoughts and behaviour show that he is suffering from some form of mental
.••

addresses the reader directly in line 5 (Hearken!


how healthily - how colmly I con tell you the whole

lines 15-16 (But you should have seen me. You should ...•.•> •..'."" . .,".. seen how wisely I proceeded), lines 22-23 (Oh you would laughed to see how cunningly I thrust it in), line 36 (So you would have been a very profound old man), line 76 (you

I talked more fluently and with a heightened voice. I talked more quickly-more vehemently I arose and argued about trifles, in a high key and with violent gesticulations

yet the sound increased - and what could I do? (line 47) but the noise steadily increased (line 50) but the noise steadily increased (line 52)

KEYS Module E

I paced the floor to and fro with heavy strides, as if excited to fury I swung the chair upon which I had been sitting and grated it upon the boards

but the noise steadily creased (line 54)

in-

The Context
Historical and Social Background
Task (page El09) Points to be covered: a. 1 War 1793-1815, 2 Support for Irish rebels, 3 Influence of French revolution. b. 1 Industrialisation, 2 Exports, 3 Raw materials from colonies, 4 Banking system, 5 Energy, 6 Transport, 7 Mechanisation in agriculture. c. 1 Working conditions, 2 Local government and law and order, 3 Religious liberty, 4 Voting rights, 5 Socia! services 6 Education. ' Task (page E113) a. The genocide of the native American Indians. b. England and Spain. c. Poverty and discrimination. d. When Massachusetts tried to impose Puritan laws on all its inhabitants, a number of colonists moved to Connecticut where they set up a new colony in which all religious beliefs were respected. e. The cultivation and sale, both at home and abroad of rice corn, wool, sugar, tobacco and cotton. ' f. Because America was an important source of raw materials. g_ It was a protest against English taxes. h. They won independence by going to war.

but the noise arose over all and continually increased


(line S7)

d. Questions and exclamations are used in the final part of the story to increase te ns ion. 6 Suggested answer: the exposure of the workings of an unstable mind. 7 Poe does not focus on the traditional elements of storytelling i.e. setting, physical descriptions, characterisation. He eliminates all that is superfluous to his main objective in writing this story. 8 The story takes place at night and in darkness; it involves a violent crime; there are unexplained elements, such as the noises the narrator hears; the protagonist is highly emotional; madness is the main theme of the story.

Writers' Workshop (page E102)


Task a. J (first person). b. Yes, he relates events that he has personally experienced. c. No, he is not presented as likable. d. No, the reader is not encouraged to sympathise with his views. e. Yes, there are unbelievable elements in his storytelling. No, he is not reliable. f. Poe chose the first person narrative technique to examine the psychological make-up of the narrator.

The literary Background


Task (page Ell 7) The Romantic poets: explored the wonders of the imagination. looked back with nostalgia on the past. Pieces of the Past (page E119) Wordsworth and Coleridge achieved the goals they set themselves. Listed below are the points made in Coleridge's Biographia Literaria and the poems in which they are exemplified. - Faithful adherence to the truth of nature: The Tables Turned,
The World Is Too Much With Us.

link to the world of music (page El03)


The psycho killer's state seems to be of the same Poe's story. The psycho killer seems to finish a conversation of mind is described in lines 1-5. He nervous disposition as the narrator in

frustrated by his addressee's inability and also by people's impoliteness (i hate peopJe when they're not polite). Like the narrator in Poe's story the causes of his tension and frustration seem irrational.

Out (page El 03)


Hannibal (played by Anthony Hopkins) in The Silence of the Lambs (1991), Norman Bates (played by Anthony Perkins) in Psycho (1960),

- Power of giving the interest of novelty by the modifying colours of imagination: The Rime of the Ancient Mariner. -Incidents and agents were to be in part at least supernatural:
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.

- Subjects were to be chosen from ordinary life: I Wandered


Lonely as a Cloud.

Writers' Gallery

EA Poe (page El04)

Task (page El05) Much of the horror and psychological trauma that are to the fore in Poe's work can be linked to his poor, unhappy parentless childhood, his nervous disorders and his addiction to alcohol. As one of the earliest writers of psychological thrillers and detective stories, Poe concentrated more on why crimes were committed rather than how they were committed. Logic and reason along with psychological analysis are brought into play to find a solution to crimes.

Task (page E120) First Generation poets: - Blake, Wordsworth, Coleridge - Developed conservative attitudes later in life - Became disillusioned with what happened after the French Revolution - Never openly opposed English society - Were so committed to the ideals of Romanticism that they lived in isolation Second Generation poets: - Died relatively young - Were highly critical of English society - Shelley, Byron, Keats - Were initially inspired by the French Revolution. Task (page E122) The historical novel: detailed description of a period from the past, Alessandro Manzoni, political description, Sir Walter

KEYS Module E

Ivanhoe, '/i\his;tOrlCII

mixture

of fact and fiction,

well-known

figures. novel: horror films, frightening the reader, ghosts castles, macabre stories, Mary Shelley. of manners: classical form, characterisation and irony, lives of ordinary people, Jane Austen, ~"~tr~t·rn(l psychological insights, social hierarchies. of the Past (page E123) cs dealt with in the letters are: visiting, death, local news and marriage. reading,

underlined how the world of nature, which he personified in the 'noble savage', is a source of moral and emotional inspiration. b. Romanticism emerged late in France because of the volatile political situation and the strength of the neo-classical tradition. c. The theatre. d. The novel gained in prestige and populatity. e. His passionate nationalism. f. Foscolo, Leopardi and Manzoni. g. 'Sturm und Drang' was a group of young German writers. Task (page E127) Political essays - Thomas Jefferson Romantic tales - Washington Irving Adventure stories - James Fenimore Cooper Horror stories - Edgar Allan Poe

:',"·";.I,n.th,,<

(page E12S) is considered one of the forefathers of Romanticism he was one of the first intellectuals to use the word to describe a new sensibility and because he also

I Fall into Disgrace (page F3) From David Copperfield, by Charles Dickens

Text FI

Analysis
1 a. Immature, childish, playful. b. Desire to please her husband: in lines 1-5 and 14-35 she tries unsuccessfully to do the accounts, in lines 36-46 she fails to sort out the bills. Fear of angering him: in lines 55-56 she looks scared and disconsolate. 2 In lines 70·74 David wishes Dora were different but in the following fines admits that it was unrealistic to expect her to change. He is also reproachful in line 58. 3 A father/child relationship. 4 The old unhappy 105s or want (line 64), fill up the void ... about me (line 73-74), had no partner in them (line 82). Dora has not filled the emptiness in his life. 5 The narrator appeals to the reader's sympathy in lines 7780, If I did any wrong... now. The style is confessional. 6 The tone is quite humorous and at times melancholic.

Comprehension
, Mr and Miss Murdstone make David feel so nervous that he starts to forget what he has learnt (lines 6-8). 2 Miss Murdstone suggests that she should give the book back to David and tell him to study it again (lines 32-33). 3 David is even less successful than the first time and starts thinking about the things he sees around him (lines 39-42). 4 She tries to lip-read the answers to him (lines 52-54). S He has to do a complicated sum (lines 61-62). 6 He would have done much better if the Murdstones had not been there (lines 71-72). 7 They would not let David play with other children because they believed children were basically bad and would have a bad influence on him (lines 80-83).

Analysis
, Sentences beginning: Let me remember ... (line 1) and It seems to me ... (line 70). 2 The use of the present tense makes the narration more vivid and dramatic. 3 David's mother is intimidated by the Murdstones when she replies Yes, certainly, in line 33, when she glances submissively at them in line 44 and when she starts, colours and smiles faintly in line 57. David is not critical of his mother's behaviour. 4 a. They were like two snakes who ensnared a wretched young bird (line 74). b. Line 64: J see Miss Murdstone secretly overjoyed. c. 'Murdstone' could be associated with the crime of murder and the hard coldness of a stone. S Detached, formal. 6 In the text Mr. Murdstone is the figure of authority (lines 2324) and chief supervisor of David's lessons (lines 61-62). His sister and David's mother play subordinate roles.

Text F3

The One Thing Needful (page f9) From Hard Times, by Charles Dickens

Comprehension
Forehead Eyes Mouth Hair Legs Shoulders square wall in two dark caves wide, thin and hard set bristled on the skirts of his bald head, a plantation of firs square square

Writers' Workshop
Task

(page F5)

2 Inflexible, dry, dictatorial (line 14). 3 Education means learning facts (line 22). 4 He is a practical man and is associated with mathematical instruments such as rules, scales and mu Itiplying tables because he believes that everything in life can be measured and calculated. 5 He wished to destroy any semblance of imagination.

David is like a runner and when he says he starts off at a racing pace he means that he starts speaking very quickly. Maintaining the analogy with a runner David says he trips over a word, meaning he hesitates, until he eventually tumbles or falls over, which means he stops speaking completely.

Analysis
, Children are reasoning animals (line 3). The fact that people can reason distinguishes them from animals. 2 The scene takes place in a school-room which is plain, bare and monotonous (line 7) and no superfluous decoration adorns the room. It epitomises Mr Gradgrind's practical outlook on life. 3 Personification: his very neckcloth ... grasp (line 20). Metaphor: square wall of a forehead (line 10); eye sockets compared to two dark caves (line 11); his hair compared to a plantation of firs (line 16). Simile: knobs like the crust of a plumb pie (line 17); neckcloth ... like a stubborn fact (line 21). Tenor
Mr Gradgrind's neckcloth Mr Gradgrind's hair Mr Gradgrind's scalp Mr Gradgrind's head

Text F2 Our Housekeeping


Comprehension

(page F6) From David Copperfield, by Charles Dickens

, She meant that she would try to be an efficient, dutiful and diligent wife. 2 [lp sometimes walked over and smeared the account-book with ink (lines 7-8). She punished him by inking his nose and told him to lie down on the table (lines 17-19). 3 Because the figures would not add up. 4 She concentrated for about five minutes and then started to curf David's hair Of turn down his collar (lines 51-54). David was reluctant to reproach her because when he did she looked sad and frightened (lines 55-56). 5 No, he was not bitter but he did wish his wife had a stronger character so that she could help him and give him advice. 6 He did not believe that he could be perfectly happy in this world and he realised that he had to face the problems that came his wayan his own (lines 81-82).

Vehicle
stubborn fact plantation of firs

Ground
take him by the throat keep the wind off

crust of a plum pie warehouse

covered
no room

with knobs

These original terms of comparison more humorous and caricatural.

make the description

KEYS Module

·'CC.'~·nh'"

is little vessels. phor: imperial gal/on (line 25), poured ... full to 26), little pitchers (fine 41), filled (line 42). hor underlines Mr Gradgrind's theory that a matter of simply learning facts by heart and vessels into which facts should be poured. are four (line 29), a rule ... multiplication table (line 44), galvanizing apparatus (line 46). s facts, square and the name Gradgrind are often

. of sentences begin, The emphasis was helped by ... .: ), and A man ... (lines 27-28). The use of repetition that Mr Gradgrind is methodical and systematic in and the way he thinks. Gradgrind indicates that he is a tough, hard :;;;;;;,.,,",i<irl([ man who expects others to do as he says.

Workshop

(page F11)

details: his large cavernous eyes, his square line of hair that skirted his bald knobbly head (lines about Mr Gradgrind is square. This shape ;ntl,'Ylhllltv lack of imagination and stubbornness. his mouth is wide, thin and hard set, his voice is ·dry and dictatorial, his carriage is obstinate and his · is tied firmly like a stubborn fact.

Smell: ill-smelling dye (line 9). Hearing: rattling ... piston of the steam engine (lines 10-11). 4 The words red, brick, black, same, 0/1 and fact are repeated to highlight what an ugly and uninspiring place Coketown is. S The tone of the passage is detached and at times a little sarcastic. 6 Coke is a form of coal which powered the factories in the town. To choke means to 'strangle' and Choakumchild is an appropriate name for the schoolteacher because he terrorises his pupils . 7 The narrator does not express his criticism openly but it is implicit in his description of Coketown. Negative imagery: see answers 2, 3. Repetition of key words: see answer 4. Repetition of sentence structures: It was ... (lines 4-6). Repetition of phrases that have might have been as main verb in lines 39-41. Irony/sarcasm: pious warehouse (line 31), world without end, Amen (line 49).

Writers' Gallery

Charles Dickens (page F15)

the world of music


of education which thought. brick in the wolf!

(page F12) undermines

the student's

Tasks (page F16) 1 The following statements are false: Dickens was born into a wealthy family. His small literary production also includes poetry. His characters often rebelled against Victorian morality and conventlo ns. 20pen.

Text F5 I am HeathC/iff(page
Comprehension
· all the buildings are made of red brick which has by black smoke and ash; lines that reveal is an industrial town are: It was a town of black and tall chimney ... (lines 6-7), It had a black canal (lines 9-1 3). are monotonous and their daily routine never

F17) From Wuthering Heights, by Emily Bronte

"'V~."LV'NI

do not, because the nice things they make are sold people around the world . . work very long hours and have no free time to enjoy ly more decorative than the other buildings is stuccoed and the four pinnacles on the steeple wooden legs (lines 37-38). look alike. . .and the commercial exchange of goods dominate

iscient third-person narrator. The narrator addresses directly in line 22 (we will not ask ... ). lowing images compare the town to a jungle: the of a savage (line 6), interminable serpents of smoke like the head of an elephant (line 12). suggests that Coketown is a dark, savage, .... place. black canal (line 9).

1 Nelly tells Catherine that Heathcliff is working in the stable, when in fact she knows he is in the room. 2 Catherine asks Nelly if she is doing the right thing by marrying Linton. 3 Nelly asks Catherine if she loves Linton. 4 Catherine tells Nelly of a dream. S Catherine tells Nelly that marrying Heathcliff would degrade her. 6 Catherine says that Heathcliff's soul is made of the same substance as her own. 7 Nelly notices Heathcliff leaving the room but does not tell Catherine. 8 Catherine says that Heathcliff does not know what being in love is. 9 Nelly tells Catherine that her marriage to Linton will separate her from Heathcliff . 10 Catherine says that nothing in the world could separate her from Heathcliff. 11 Nelly says that Linton will never accept her plan. 12 Catherine explains the difference between her Jove for Linton and her love for Heathcliff.

Analysis
, a. Nelly is not very sympathetic towards Catherine. b. She lies when she says she is alone (line 2) and when she says that Heathcliff is in the stable (line 6) because she does not want Catherine to know that Heathcliff is actually in the room and can hear what they are saying.

c. Suggested answer: it is quite rational on Nelly's behalf to want to know if and why Catherine loves the man she is about to marry. d. She seems to side with Heathcliff and that is why she wants him to hear what Catherine has to say about her marriage. 2 a. She answers off the top of her head without giving much thought to what she is saying. Catherine's decision to marry Linton in based on reason rather than on love. b. Lines 50-53. She makes an illogical analogy between her forehead and her soul. c. Open answer. 3 a. he's more myself than I am. Whatever our souls are made of, his and mine ore the same. b. Heathcliff is compared to lightning and fire. Linton is compared to a moonbeam and frost. Lightning and fire stand for uncontrollable passion. Moonbeams and frost stand for aloof, untouchable coldness. c. - Her love for Heathcliff is compared to eternal rocks. - Her Jove for Linton is compared to foliage in the woods. A rock is hard and permanent and seemingly irremovable. All the adiectives are appropriate. The image is effective because it encapsulates many aspects of Heathcliff's character.

He is always in my mind, while Heathcliff expresses his desire to be with Catherine even in death when he says J wish they may shovel in the earth over us both in lines 31-32, Text F6.

Writers' Workshop

(page F24)

Task 1 Heathcliff tried to dig up Catherine's grave ... 2 Heathcliff was tortured ..,
3 Heathcliff asked the sexton ...

4 Heathcliff told Nelly ...


5 Nelly criticised Heathcliff ... The re-ordering of events builds suspense by slowly disclosing the events of the past.

Out (page F25) In james joyce's The Dead a boy stands outside the house at the girl he loves and throws pebbles at her window to attract her attention. His health was generally poor and she suspects that his standing outside her house in freezing condition, contributed to his death. In the film Ocean's Eleven the main character, played by George Clooney, organises an elaborate robbery to win back his ex-wife.
F25) 1 The atmosphere (wiley, windy moors), passion (a temper '" too hot, too greedy), contrasting feelings (! hated you. I loved you, my one dream, my cruel master), the spirit coming back (it's me.,.) etc. 2 Yes (Text F5, lines 75-79),

Text F6

Her Presence Was with Me (page F22) From Wuthering Heights, by Emily Bronte

Link to the world of music (page

Comprehension
1 He opened one side of Catherine's coffin in such a way that when he dies, his body, which will also be buried in a onesided coffin, will merge with hers. 2 It has eased his troubled soul (line 12). 3 He went to the churchyard to open Catherine's coffin but stopped tearing off the lid when he felt her presence near him. 4 Her spirit led him home. 5 No, he did not see her. 6 When he: (she was) - was in the house with Hareton on the moors. - walked on the moors coming in. - went from home in the house. 7 She has been killing him slowly by seeming to appear to him but never actually doing so.

Text F7 My

Soul Began to Expand (page F26) From jane Eyre, by Charlotte Bronte

Comprehension
2 Georgiana should be given the book because she really is a
liar. 3 She says she will disown her as an aunt, never visit her and tell everyone how cruelly she has been treated by her. 4 Her aunt showed her heartlessness when she kept her locked in the red room even though she was not feeling very well. 5 She is shocked, distressed and a little frightened. 1 She has said that jane is deceitful and a liar.

Analysis
1 Line 1: Heathcliff; line 10: Nelly. 2 - the previous day: lines 1-11.
- the day Catherine was buried: lines 17-50. - the intervening period: lines 12-16, 51-68. 3 - contempt for Linton, his rival for Catherine's love: damn him (line 6). - spirituality and belief in the supernatural: Ihave ... among us (Jines 18-19), Ifelt that Cathy was there (line 37). - physical strength: delve wUh all my might (line 27), I wrenched ... still (lines 32-33). - fearlessness: Ididn't fear ... (line 21). - disregard for social conventions: Ibribed the sexton (line 7). 4 the anguish of my yearning (fine 30), I was wild after she died ." spirit (lines 18·19), Iwill have her in my arms again (line 24), / wish ... both (lines 31-32). Heathcliff's love for Catherine has been a source of suffering. 5. Both Catherine and Heathcliff express their love for one another in terms of intense, inseparable passion as if they are one person. Catherine says in line 130, Text F5, I am Heathcliff.

Analysis
1 - cannot tolerate injustice and hypocrisy: lines 8-12, 38-39. - understands the importance of social appearances to Mrs Reed and threatens to expose her: lines 24-30,39-41. - shows vulnerability and a need for love: lines 32-38. - is exalted by the freedom she experiences through speaking her mind: lines 42-45. 2 Mrs Reed's look is as cold as ice. She is taken aback by Jane's outburst, is frightened and shocked (Jines 45-47) and tries to appease her (lines 47-52). 3 Lines 8·9: I declare Ido not love you. Line 9: Idislike you the worst of anybody in the world . Unes 24-30: Iwill never coli .., miserable cruelty. Line 41: you are bad, hard hearted. You are deceitful. Line 54: I'll let everybody at Lowood know who you are. Lines 61-62: I am not ... live here. 4 roughly, violently, locked me up, agony, suffocating with distress.

KEYS Module F

48-49, 59-60. rson narrator. From the point of view of an adult a childhood experience.

jane is a com passionate, principled independent young woman.

and determinedly

(page f31) Example: do not buy a product because it has been tested on animals.

Out

Onrlhesrer wants jane to say that she will be his. I tone unnerves her so much that she is afraid she in to him. jane advises Rochester to trust in God and to believe in Heaven (lines 25-26). law that he asks her to break is the law against . my because he is already married. He says that if she ···.·:·'·nm... to live with him nobody will know or care because she ' friends or relatives. conscience and reason turned against her (lines 44-45). are least necessary when people are not tempted by evil and are most necessary when they are (lines 56. throws himself on the sofa and starts to cry. kisses him on the cheek and caresses his hair. es 9, 11, 13, 16 etc.) She answers tersely in order to she will not give in to his wishes. -like nature: a lion rising (line 7), a wild look (line 17), the blood ... arms out (lines 78-79). Fear: ominous terror . ·6), Think of ... despair (lines 47-49), but I evaded ... room . 79-80). 6: cold is associated with terror. 1-62: fire is associated with conflicting passions. you to live sinless (line 31), I shall keep the laws given sanctioned by man (line 54), God bless you ... to me

Writers' Gallery
(page f32)

Charlotte

and Emily Bronte

Task (page F33) The independence of the female characters and the natural landscapes appear to be drawn from personal experience. The Gothic elements along with the passionate and violent relationships appear to be the product of imagination.

Old Master Marner (page F34) From Silas Marner, by George Eliot

Text F9

Comprehension
1 All his time was taken up with working and saving money but he never thought of what he would do with his money. 2 Wiser men have withdrawn from life to dedicate themselves to research and study (lines 7-8). 3 He was very thin, his complexion was pale and he was bent over like a hunchback. His eyes which used to be large and attractive were now small and beady. H is appearance changed because he spent all his time indoors working, stooped over his loom. 4 He heard the noise of the loom and saw the cloth he was weaving. 5 He closed the shutters and locked the doors (lines 23-24). 6 He used the shillings and sixpences for his routine needs. The guineas were his favourite coins so he saved them and did not spend them.

71-74).

:::(tr"n.nth

have been allies because they have given her the to say No to Rochester even though her feelings have ... . . her to comply with his requests. 6 jane's resolve weakens : lines 46-51. ilane's resolve strengthens : lines 52-64. 1lane is indomitable because despite all the pressu re > Rochester has put on her and all the emotional pressure she has felt welling up inside herself, she manages to find the strength to reject him. Her decision is correct because she has istuck to the principles she has always lived by. BOpen answer.

Analysis
1 Omniscient third person. The narrator interrupts narrative in lines 6-10, The same ... theory. 2 He is compared to a bird and is hunting for money.
Tenor
Money
L

the

Ground
Hunting for

Vehicle
tiny grain

Writers' Workshop
Task

(page F31)

Moral values and religious beliefs: jane has a strong belief in C;;od and urges Rochester to trust in God (line 25). She also livesby a strict moral code; she advises Rochester to five sinless (!ine 31) and despite being tempted to give in to him she says fIrmly I will keep the law given by God (line 54). feelings for Rochester: she feels sympathy for a gentleness that broke me down (line 5) but also fears him and is struck with omin?us terror (line 6). She feels very strongly for him (line 46) and IS overcome by compassion when she kisses his cheek i(Hne 70). iSel~"image: she is proud of her independent spirit (The more SOht~ry... the more I will respect myself, lines 53-54). FamIly background: she is alone in the world and has neither <relatives nor acquaintances (line 42).

3 - the sense of sight: guineas shone as they came pouring out (line 28). - the sense of touch: bathed his hands in them. 4 Line 39: unborn children. 5 The river of his life which was once wide and full has been reduced to a tiny stream. This 'rivulet' flows through barren sand because Silas lives in complete isolation from his fellow men. 6 weaving and hoarding (line 5), faith and love (line 8), a loom and a heap of guineas (line 8), face and figure (line 10), trusting and dreamy (line 13), withered and yel/ow (line 16). This stylistic feature underlines his monotonous and repetitive lifestyle. 7 The narrator is slightly critical of Silas. Negative attitude: narrowing and hardening (line 2), face and figure, shrank and bent (line 10), withered and yellow (line 16), slow growth of sameness (line 20), his life had shrunk away ... barren sand (lines 46-48).

KEYS Module

37) 1 jack keep your hands off m)' stack/don't take a slice of my pie. 2 new car, caviar, four star daydream, a football team. 3 In the second last line. In the last line the point is made that although money is said to be the root of all evil, everybody, including employers, like to keep it and not give it away. 4 He is more interested in what money can buy.

link to the world of music (page

8 He is so horrified that he covers his eyes so as not to see what is happening (lines 96-97).

Analysis
1 It is midnight. Midnight is associated with mystery and the supernatural and is sometimes referred to as the witching hour. This time setting adds a sense of mystery and macabre expectation to the passage. 2 Line 14: shocking expression on his face. Lines 16· 19: the odd ... rigor. Lines 28-29: I put him back ... blood. Line 47: his face was so ghastly. Line 50: dreadful smile. Line 52: I sat petrified. Lines 95-97: at the next moment ... in terror. His repulsion is mainly physical but also psychological. 3 Lines 20-22: but I have since ... hatred. 4 This ind irect description allows the reader to use his imagination and build up his own picture. S Sight: reddish hue, crystals melted to brighten in colour, dark purple, watery green. Hearing: effervesce audibly. Smell: fumes of vapour. 6 Line 14-17: I was struck ... neighbourhood. Line 43: my own growing curiosity. 7 Line 25: on fire with sombre excitement. Line 26: impatience. Line 41: hysteria. Lines 46-48: Icould hear ." reason. Lines 5153: At the sight ... petrified. Lines 92-93: staring ... open mouth. Line 99: pale ... groping.

Text F10

Our Life Is Wonderful (page F37) From Silas Marner, by George Eliot

Comprehension
1 Silas asked them to leave because after such a momentous day he wanted to be alone with Eppie to go over the events of the day in peace and quiet. 2 No. At times he wished he had his gold back instead of Epple. 3 She would have been taken to the workhouse. 4 Their life is wonderful because not only does he have Eppie but he has also been given his money which can be used to help her make her way in life. S Epple.

Analysis
1 fineness of ear for a/I spiritual voices (lines 12-13), lose the feeling that Cod was good to me (line 55). It is suggested that Eppie is a saviour in lines 34-36, how his ... sent to him. 2 Sensual appeal of money: line 40. Eppie appeals to his sense of sight, hearing and touch. 3 Open answer. 4 The theme of this passage is how the love of a child has changed an old man's outlook on life.

Out

(page F44) Hyde Jekyll bloodshot, ringed protruding crooked, snub wretched death-like hunchbacked

Writers' Workshop

(page F39)

Eyes Ears Nose Face Complexion Posture

bright, light blue small and neat aquiline, Roman happy, smiling healthy upright

Task The narrator interrupts the storytelling in line 9 with the sentence beginning Anyone who has watched ... She does so to draw a general conclusion from the specific incident which has just been described.

Henry jekyll's Full Statement of the Case (page F45) From The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, by Robert L. Stevenson

Text F12

Text F11

Dr Lanyon's Narrative (page F41) From The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, by Robert L. Stevenson

Comprehension
1 He discovered that man's nature ca n be split into two different parts, one evil and the other good (line 7). 2 He predicts that even more sides to man's nature will be discovered (lines 7-11). 3 He dreamt of separating the good side from the evil (lines 18-19). 4 The evil side would no longer make futile attempts to aspire to be good while the good side would continue on the road to moral righteousness without being shackled by the evil side (lines 20-25). 5 When he saw the reflection in a mirror he welcomed it warmly (lines 41-42). 6 Most people were horrified by Mr Hyde because he was evil incarnate (lines 46-47).

Comprehension
1 He was crouching against the pillars (line 3) and looking around him as if he was worried about being seen (lines 6-7). Besides when he saw a policeman approaching he started and made greater haste (lines 8-9). 2 He was excited and impatient (line 27). 3 He repulsed him (line 28). 4 At first he refuses to open the drawer but then, out of pity for his visitor and because his own curiosity has been raised, he does open it (lines 42-43). 5 He cries out with relief (line 52). 6 He chooses to witness what his guest is going to do because he has already seen enough to want to know what is going to happen in the end (lines 84-85). 7 He almost falls to the ground but stays on his feet by grabbing the table. His face starts to horribly transform until it takes on the features of Henry Jekyll (lines 91-95),

Analysis
1 dreadful shipwreck (line 6). 2 The transformation takes place in the dead of night, thus heightening the suspense and sense of secrecy. 3 - that these discoveries would eventually have been made by someone else: lines 8-11 (Others will follow ... denizens).

KEYS Module F

he was proud to be the first man to carry out this form entation: lines 16-19 (and from on early date .. he did not find Mr Hyde, who is the embodiment of evil, totally repugnant: Jines 39-45 (J am conscious ... call name Hyde is appropriate by others. because he did not want to

Writers' Workshop

(page F50)

Task Paradoxical statements: beauty is a form of genius - is higher, indeed, than Genius (line 17). It is only shallow people who do not judge by appearances (line 24-25). The true mystery of the world is the visible, not the invbble (line 25-26).

Workshop

(page F46)

is like the evil menacing twin in the doppelganger According to the myth if you see your doppelganger it you are going to die and Dr Jekyll does indeed die after creating Mr Hyde.
'.·ILC(;IIU

Text F14

Itls the Face of My Soul (page F51) From The Picture of Dorian Gray, by Oscar Wilde

Comprehension
1 His soul (line 2). 2 He is horrified at the painting and only very slowly realise that he painted it (lines 7, 16-19). 3 He breaks into a sweat, and his mouth, which starts to twitch, is so dry that he cannot speak. Dorian observes Basil dispassionately though he shows some slight signs of satisfaction at Basil's discomfiture (lines 29-30). 4 He says that the dampness in the room has distorted the canvas (lines 42-43). He concludes that Dorian has led a life which is more evil than anyone could imagine (lines 64-66). 5 They have committed the sin of pride (line 81).

in (page F48) students have filled out the chart a class discussion uld get underway on the modern-day cult of physical and the lengths to which people go to stay youngng and fit.
Beauty Is a Form of Genius (page F48) The Picture of Dorian Gray, by Oscar Wilde

. ext F13

prehension
.....•..•. Because the sun will ruin his complexion (lines 2-3). jVouth (lines 9-10). 3 He will realise it when he is old and ugly (lines 12-15). Beauty is higher than genius because it does not need to be explained (lines 17-18). Thought is more superficial than beauty (line 23). 6The passing of time (lines 31-33). 7Dorian's age is marked by the pursuit of worthless objectives .in a world of ignorance and vulgarity (lines 36-38). 8 New sensations (line 40). 9 Flowers die but are reborn whereas once youth and beauty are gone they never come back.

Analysis
1 a. Line 3: The voice that spoke was cold and cruel. Lines 27-32: The young man ... pretending to do so. b. Line 78: he could hear window. Lines 85-86: Dorian Gray faltered. c. When Dorian says Each of us has heaven and hell in him, he means that every individual has the potential to be good and/or evil. Dorian blames Basil to a certain extent when he says that Basil taught him to be vain in line 36 and when he says bitterly in line 54 Can't you see your ideal in it? He does accept some responsibility for what has happened when he says that his wish to have eternal youth was made in a mad moment (line 39). 2 Lines 78-82: Pray ... answered also. 3 - what is missing or has been lost from the painting: golden hair, lovely blue eyes, scarlet, sensual mouth, noble curves of chiselled nostrils and plastic throat (lines 12-15) . - Basil's reaction: line 7 (An exclamation of horror), line 9 (disgust and loathing), lines 19-20 (his blood ... ice), lines 25-26 (his mouth twitched ... sweat), lines 73-76 (His hand shook ... hands).

>4
is

<Analysis
.•.1a. - physical degeneration: lines 13-15 (old and wrinkled ... terribly), lines 32-33 (Time is jealous ... roses). •.....•.•. ~ psychological anxiety: lines 29-31 (and then ... defeats), lines 33-34 (You will suffer horribly), lines 52-55 (Our limbs ... yield to). .. b.~ intellectual ability: lines 17·18. ,_natural phenomena: lines 18-20, 33 . •.•..precious metal: line 36. . c.Lines 20-21: It makes princes of those who have it. Lines 42•.• The world belongs to you for a season. ·43: Hord Henry does not agree with others. He refers to them as 'the tedious (line 36) and gives the impression that he feels ...superior to them . . ...•.... personification: lines 73-74 (thought has seared ... lips); ~fine 31 (Time is jealous of you). .<natural imagery: lines 18-20 (sunlight ... moon); lines 48-51 .••.•• common hill-ffowers ... purple stars). (The .; metonymy: lilies and roses stand for healthy complexion (line 33). Lord Henry speaks eloquently, fluently and persuasively and seems to be totally convinced of what he is saying. The style is appropriate because the sophisticated language expresses philosophical ideas.

Text F15
1
Clothes Headwear Physique Hair

The Girl in the Pink Cotton Dress (page F56) From Tess of the d'Urbervilles, by Thomas Hardy

Comprehension
pink cotton jacket bonnet flexuous, finely drawn dark brown

2 She had decided to return to outdoor work because she could make more money harvesting than working from home (lines 11-14). 3 A group of children approached the harvesters from the

KEYS Module F

brow of a hill (lines 23-25). One girl was carrying an infant in a shawl (lines 27-29). 4 They looked away (lines 43-44). 5 She sat the child up in her lap and kissed it violently (lines 50-51). 6 Tess said she wished both she and her child were dead but the woman in the red petticoat did not believe her because she could see that Tess loved the child.

line 18 (tower-like
trifithons). the Winds).

pillar),

line 41 (towering

monoliths

and

-lack of shelter: lines 6-7 (The wind ... harp), line 21 (Temple of The setting is hostile, alien and inhospitable. 2 She does not want to walk any more. She does not want to live any more. 3 The uniform concavity ... like the lid of a pot. 4 There is a sense of impending doom especially because the stone of sacrifice becomes visible. The wind dying down also suggests that something is about to happen. The landscape is like a reserved, taciturn and hesitant person. S a. The eastward pillars and their architraves stood up ... lay still. b. The wide angle camera picks out an indistinct detail: At the same time ... mere dot (lines 55-57). c. The camera focuses on the detail which becomes clearer: It was ... Sun-stone (lines 57-58). d. The camera draws closer to the detail: The iiqure ... were (lines 59-60). 6 Tess is compared to the pillars around her. The men are policemen and are about to arrest her. In the past people were sacrificed to the Sun at Stonehenge. Tess will be sacrificed to Victorian morality and society which will justify her execution as the will of God. 7 - the sun as the god to which sacrifices : line 45. - the sun that warms and dries the stone : fines 33·34. - the sun that creates an early morning landscape ... : line 51. - the sun that awakens Tess's unconscious form: lines 80-81. - the sun is like God that gives life and light but also exacts retribution. 8 Tess has a fatalistic attitude towards life and accepts that she must abide by the rules of Victorian society. She accepts her arrest with resignation and maybe with a sense of relief.

Analysis
, The third person narrator is detached and objective. 2 Long shots: lines 15-19: description of women working. Lines 23-25: children coming over the hill. Lines 27-32: the children arrive and the harvesters start eating. Lines 43-47: men smoking and women talking. Close ups: lines 22-23 (Tess's glance flitted wistfully to the brow of the hi/O, line 26 (The face of Tess flushed slightly), lines 3342: Tess suckles her child. Lines 48-53: Tess kisses her child. 3 She is good looking: flexuous and finely drawn (line 2). Her bonnet is pulled down over her face because she does not want people looking at her. She has dark, brown hair (line 5). 4 - Tess does not join in the activities of her fellow workers: line 37 (But she did not accept his offer), line 46 (Alf the women
... talk).

- there is a physical distance between her and the other workers: lines 33-35 (She sat down ... companions). S Tess has an ambivalent attitude towards her child. On the one hand she rejects it because it is the fruit of a loveless relationship and has complicated her life. On the other hand she has a mother's instinct to love the child she has given birth to. dandled it with a gloomy indifference: her moral and religious upbringing. fell to violently kissing it: her natural maternal instinct. 6 The other workers seem to be aware of Tess's embarrassment and the men show their consideration by politely turning away while she breastfeeds the child. The women seem to be less considerate and ignore her (lines 4647). They seem to think that Tess's attitude to the child will change in time and that she will accept it fully as any mother would.

Writers' Workshop (page F62)


Task The setting is symbolic because in earliest times sacrifices to the sun were made at Stonehenge while in the novel Tess is a Victorian sacrificial victim. Out (page F62) Possible answer: these sites are fascinating because they are a tangible link with our earliest ancestors. They are often situated in very beautiful natural settings and were probably devised as areas for the worship of primitive gods. For example, the Sun-god was worshipped at Stonehenge. A feeling of spiritual continuity that pervades these sites still attracts the modern visitor.

Text F16

It Is Stonehenge (page F59) From Tess of the d'Urbervil/es, by Thomas Hardy

Comprehension
, Temple of the Winds (line 21). The heathen temple (line 28). Pavilion of the night (line 26).

2 The stone is warm and dry and she is protected from the wind by a pillar (line 32). 3 Dawn. 4 It was used to offer sacrifices to the sun (line 45). 5 From the east (lines 56·57). 6 He realised that they were hunting Tess down and that she really had committed a murder, her story was true! (line 66). 7 He asks them to let her finish her sleep (line 7). 8 No, she does not, I'm ready, she said quietly (lines 87-88).

Lead in (page F65) Possible answer: there was only one course of action to take. He prepared the email with great care and programmed that it would arrive on all his top managers' desktops at nine 0' dock the following morning. Shaun Horlock was never seen again.

Text F17

The Light that Is to Reveal all Secrets (page F65)

Analysis
, - it was extremely dark: line 13 (the black sky blacker), line 38 (The uniform concavity of black cfoud). - the enormity of the stones: line 3 (vast erection rising sheer), line 10 (colossal rectangular pilfar), line 14 (vast architrave),

From The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne

Comprehension
, If the minister stood with Pearl and her mother he would be admitting in public that he was Pearl's father and would be disgraced in the eyes of the community (lines 5-6).

KEYS Module

•• . promises to join hands with them on 'the great ... day' (line 17). feels impelled to tell the child the truth because he is a .• i"'ir1II~Iel f the church, a professional teacher of the truth (lines o lit up the night sky and made the whole town as if it were midday.

7 By owning up to a wrong that was committed in the past, the wrongdoer frees himself and those close to him from the anguish of deceit.

Writers' Workshop

(page F70)

mesdale's conscience. b. She laughs because she realises that he is being hypocritical. of his fellow-men (line 50). (JnI'rlr.O,·'K that sholl unite all who belong to one another 42-43). b. Enlightenment. mniscient third person. He guides the reader's · ·,.;..~T~"o'~lro,.,n of events in lines 29-38, It showed the familiar .: before. DM""n,t,r;lt!,.,n· line 42: light that is to reveal all secrets. Line "n"h'OIW that shall unite af/. Ie: lines 28-29: The great vault brightened, like the dome of immense lamp. . language is appropriate because it underlines the .,:.·;,.~"",,,Iir nature of the events.

Tasks 1 All the examples listed contribute to the reader sympathising with the characters. 2 Emotionally charged language: a voice ... remorse and woe (linesl-3). ye, that have loved me! ... the one sinner of the world (lines 4-5)_ Behold! Behold a dreadful witness of it! (line 19). May God forgive thee! (line 31). dear little Pearl, wilt thou kiss me now? (line 37).

Text F19

It Is Moby Dick YeHave Seen (page F72) From Moby Dick, by Herman Melville

Comprehension
1 He walks around the deck (line 7) and is happy at the way the crew answers his questions (lines 12-21). 2 He raises the gold coin to show it to the sailors and says it will be given to the man who captures the white whale (lines 40-44). 3 It has a white head, a wrinkled brow, a crooked jaw and three holes in its side (lines 41-43). 4 Moby Dick tore off one of Captain Ahab's legs so he vows to chase him through all the seas of the world until he catches and kills him (lines 77, 85-86). S Starbuck wants to catch whales to make money and not to satisfy Ahab's thirst for vengeance. He things that Ahab is a little mad to be so obsessed with getting revenge on a dumb animal (lines 108-110).

.ornorehenslon
lThey have held him in high regard (line 4). 2 She has been repudiated as an outcast by the villagers (lines IT-12). ..... 3He shows the horrified crowd the stigma in the shape of the '.. ,.JetterA that burns on his breast (lines 14-19). 4 Dimmesdale has escaped because by revealing his secret in public he has freed himself from the terrible sense of guilt which Chillingworth had used to torture him with. 5 He asks God to forgive Chillingworth (line 31). 6 He asks Pearl to kiss him (lines 37-80). 7 She promises to become a woman who will accept the joys and sorrows that come her way in life without being bitter ". about what has happened to her and her mother (lines 41-43).

Analysis
1 a. He wishes to create expectancy and suspense. b. The way Ahab begins his speech adds to the tense atmosphere. His tone of voice is vehement. c. Because the crew expected the captain to talk - not to ask questions. d. while the mariners began to gaze ... question. (lines 23-25). they were all eagerness again (line 26). By asking questions he wishes to unite the men and create a crowd mentality. e. It is a constant reminder to the crew that their main purpose on the ship is to hunt down Moby Dick. f. The sailors and Ahab give their fellowmariners bits of information about the white whale in a climate of growing interest and expectancy until his name is repeated in line 69. 2 a. - a machine: it seemed the mechanical humming of the wheels of his vitality in him (line 37). - a wild animal: a terrific, loud, animal sob like that of a heartstricken moose (lines 79-80) . These associations with a machine and a wild animal give the impression that Ahab is not in fuJI control of his actions. b. There seems to be a dose relationship between them and they seem to respect him. c. Line 77: dismasted me, Line 78: brought me to this dead stump. Line 81: made a poor pegging lubber of me. The image, dismasted, is very effective because it refers to ships. d. Lines 82·88. e. Obsessed. 3 Similes: lines 66-67: His spout ... shock of wheat. Repetition: lines 47-48: white. Lines 82-83: round. Parallelism: lines 12-20. Questions beginning with what: lines 12·20. Questions beginning with Whosoever. The style is bombastic and virulent.

Analysis
...1- proud: line 14 (he stands up before you). '
- fearful: line 2 (tremor). relieved: line 35 (a spirit sinking into deep repose). ,'"victorious: lines 24-25 (flush of triumph ... victory). ',- compassionate: line 30 (May God forgive you). i2 The climax occurs when he reveals the stigma on his breast . to the crowd (lines 14-19). . 3 The narrator says that it would be irreverent to describe the stigma. This indirect form of description is effective because the object being described takes on an aura of mystery and the reader's curiosity is raised. 4 The Stigma and the way it is revealed add an almost supernatural dimension to the text. S He has fathered a child out of wedlock and left Hester to suffer public denigration. 6 This scene recalls the crucifixion of Christ and Dimmesdale's stigma is like Christ's. In both the biblical scene and this scene from Hawthorne's novel a man is publicly punished and denigrated for something he has done.

KEYS Module F

4 It makes the passage more realistic because it gives the reader a very clear picture of the setting. 5 The voice of reason. 6 Tragic hero: when he is compared to a heart-stricken moose in lines 79-80 Ahab's tragic past is stressed whereas his quest takes on heroic proportions when he vows to go to the ends of the earth to hunt down his enemy. Obsessed individual: he seems to be obsessed when his tone of voice is one of wild approval (line 22), when he hums inarticulately (line 36), when he shows the gold coin to the sailors (lines 38-44), and when he describes Moby Dick (lines 65-69).

Regional speech makes the language seem more authentic and more colourful and makes the characters come to life.

Out

(page F81) Possible answers: Tom and jerry, The Roadrunner, ForrestGump.

Text F21

'1'1/ Go to Hell' (page F82) From Huckleberry Finn, by Mark Twain

Comprehension
1 He would be a disgrace to the white community (lines 1-3). 2 He can't pray because he knows that God will realise his
prayers are insincere and in his heart he feels he is deceiVing himself (lines 14-15). 3 He decides to write the letter and then see if he can pray (line 23). 4 He remembers how kind jim always was to him when they were sailing down the river. He used to let Huck sleep on even though it was his turn to keep watch. jim was always glad to see Huck when he came back from his short trips on land and he was very grateful when Huck helped him out (35-47). 5 He wants to look on jim as a fugitive slave rather than as a friend but he does not succeed in doing so. 6 He be!ieves he willi go to hell (line 51). 7 He tears up the letter and decides to help Jim gain his freedom.

Writers' Workshop

(page F77)

Task Ahab was one of the most powerful and ruthless kings of the Israelites. He is reputed to have had seventy children and one of his wives was Jezebel. The use of the name Ahab for the captain of the Pequod suggests he is a messianic, almost biblical figure.

Lead in (page F79) Slavery was practised in ancient Rome and Egypt. Today slavelike working conditions exist in some developing countries.

Text F20

Polly-Voo-Franzy (page F79) From Huckleberry Finn, by Mark Twain

Comprehension
1 Louis XVI had his head cut off and his son was locked away in jail where he may have died. He may, however, have escaped and fled to America (lines 3-6). 2 An offensive name. jim would hit a black man but not a white man. 3 Huck argues that just as animals have their own language, French people have their own distinctive way of speaking. Jim is not convinced and argues that animals are different from humans and since French people are human like him, they should speak like him. 4 According to Huck, Jim is unable to argue because he is black (line 53).

Analysis
1 It is a racist society in which whites feel honour bound to maintain their position of superiority over blacks. 2 He has been led to believe that he is a 'wicked' traitor to his own people because he is helping a black slave. 3 He remembers jim's kindness and helpfulness. 4 Huck is confused but sincere. 5 Huck's final decision is a triumph of friendship and humanity.

Writers' Workshop

(page F84)

Analysis
1 The characters are presented through dialogue. The reader is left to form his own opinion of the characters. 2 a. Huck knows something about Louis XVI and has seen a book written in French. b. He is unsure about what happened to the 'dolphin' and he says that an unemployed king might get a job as a teacher or a policeman in America (lines 10-11). c. Lines 20-21: Iwouldn't 'low no nigger to call me dot; line 53: you can't learn a nigger to argue. 3 a. Line 4: Po' little chap. Line 6: he'll be pooty lonesome. b. Lines 19-20: I'd take en bust him over the head - dot is, if he warn't white. 4 jim is not intimidated by Huck. Huck's racist comment is motivated by his frustration at jim's refusal to agree with him. 5 Huck is a good-natured, if flawed, product of a deeply divided and racist society. 6 jim wins the argument. Huck's comment at the end is ironic because Jim's argument was more logical than his own. 7 jim deviates most from standard English: lines 6-7: dey oin' no kings here, is dey, Huck? Line 11: learns people how to talk French. Line 12: we does. Line 14: How do dot come. Line 16: If he warn't.

Tasks 1 Text F20: He is naive when he tells jim about Louis XVI, the 'dolphin' and the French language. Text F21: His exaggeration of his wickedness and his conviction that he will go to hell is an example of juvenile naivety. 2 The reader is not expected to share Huck's view because he knows that Huck is not really wicked. Open answer. It is effective because the reader sees events from the narrator's limited point of view and from his own privileged standpoint.

Text F22

Break, Break, Break (page F87) By Lord Alfred Tennyson

Comprehension
1 He addresses the sea (lines 2, 14). 2 He cannot express his thoughts. 3 The fisherman's boy is shouting and playing with his sister while the sailor lad is singing in his boat. The ships are headed to their haven (line 10). 4 He longs for the touch of his dead friend's hand and for the sound of his voice. 5 He has lost the tender grace of a day (line 15) to be shared with his dead friend.

KEYS Module F

Analysis
sad, mournful atmosphere. make a distinctive sound as they break against but the poet is unable to utter any sound to express . Therefore the sound of the sea is frustrating relaxing to him. o well, suggests that the poet is envious of he describes. He envies their carefree spirit. The and sings contrast with the poet's silence. are heading for a safe harbour where they will find The poet cannot find peace and repose 1 Philosophical, resigned and spiritual. 2 In medieval times it was believed that the earth was tied around God's feet by gold chains. Arthur also makes constant reference to the strong medieval belief in the power of prayer . 3 A voice in prayer is compared to a fountain. This image underlines the notion of prayer ascending towards heaven. 4 Avalon is described in concrete, natural terms. a. Adjectives: happy, fair. Adjective-noun compounds: deep-meadow'd. Noun-noun compounds: islond- valley, orchard- lawns, bowery hollows, summer sea. b. They are predominantly open and full Co', 'u' sounds). 5 Arthur's boat is compared to a swan. Assonance: full, fluting, pure, plume, flood, stood. 6 Line 2: changeth. Line 3: Lest. Line 5: thyself. Line 7: thou. Line 8: shouldst. Line 9: wrought. Line 10: Wherefore. Line 18: Farewell. Line 19: seest. Line 29: ere. Line 34: mere. 7 The lakeside setting and images of natural beauty such as the swan, the use of melodic open and full sounds in expressions like bowery hollows and the calm, unperturbed way in which Arthur speaks (The old order changeth) help to create a mood of dignity, solemnity and tranquillity.

2).
shouts sister ... sailor ... sings (lines 6-8), stately 9), haven hill (line 10), vanish'd ... voice (lines 11... dead (line 15). rhyme: cold ... stones (line 2). poet feels estranged from the external world as :.}r·epn~serlted by the Sea, the fisherman's boy, his sister, the sailor ···.·J.•""o,, the stately ships.

Workshop
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(page F88)

Out (page F91) The Parsees allow the bodies of the dead to be eaten by vultures. The Hindus burn corpses on funeral pyres. The Aztecs cremated their dead .

marks (there are 6 in the poem). (page F89) down and looks out over the bay. Georgia because he had no thin to live for but things not changed since. ask him to do what ten people can do. lonely. ested answer: in the poem and the song both people and depressed. The poet is sad because his friend has '. while in the song the person is sad because he is lonely . city he does not know very well.
I

to the world of music

Text F24

My Last Duchess (page F93) By Robert Browning

Comprehension
1 He is showing his visitor a portrait of his first wife. 2 The painting is by Fra Pandolf and people comment on the woman's glance (line 8). The painter may have paid her a compliment (lines 16-19) that brought that spot of joy to her face . 3 She liked the presents he gave her, sunsets, being offered fruit by a sycophantic admirer and her white mule. 4 The gift is his noble name which she took on when she married him. 5 He never confronted her directly. 6 He gave commands to have her killed. 7 He wants the Count to agree to his marrying his daughter . He draws the emissary's attention to a bronze statue of Neptune which has been cast for him.

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F23 Morte d'Arthur (page F90) Alfred Tennyson


prehension
. is in a boat (barge) and is ready to sail away. is the will of God that the old order should make way for new. life may not have been pure but he hopes that God will him for any wrongs he has done (lines 6-7). asks the addressee to pray for his soul because prayer achieve great things (lines 9-10). gift of prayer distinguishes man from beasts (lines 12<15). The world is tied around God's feet by gold chains (lines 16·1 7). 6He is travelling to Avalon with some other people. He expresses doubts about his departure in line 20. He /hopes to find a beautiful, fertile land where he will be ··healed.

Analysis
1 - the person who is speaking: the Duke. - the person he is speaking about: his first wife. - the listener: an emissary from the Count. 2 Line 5: the Duke asks him a question. Line 7: the Duke refers to strangers like you. Line 12·13: not the first are you. Line 43: Oh Sir. Line 47: Will't please you rise? Line 49: the reference to His master. Line 53-54: We'll go together down. 3 Young, frivolous, playful. 4 Lines 23·24: she liked whate'er ... everywhere. Lines 31-34: She thanked men ... anybody's gift. The Duke gave orders for

is

Sir Bedivere stands for a long time beside the lake ian? thinks of the past. He can hear the sound of someone

crying.

KEYS Module

her to be killed. This punishment is criminally unappropriate for the supposed crime she has committed. 5 - he enjoys impressing people with his possessions: in lines 53-56 he points out a statue of Neptune to his visitor which was especially made for him. - he is obsessively possessive of his wife ... : he is the only person who is allowed to pull back the curtain to reveal his wife's portrait (line 10). - he is proud and inflexible: he lets his visitor know that he would never condescend to his wife when he says, and Ichuse Never to stoop (Jines 42-43). - he is boastful of his ancestry: he is proud of his ninehundred-year-old name (line 33). - he is ruthless and remorseless: he shows no remorse for ordering his wife to change her ways in lines 45-46. - he believes that he can have everything he desires: he believes that because he is so rich he can have anything he wants, including the Count's daughter (lines 49-53). 6 Because he now owns her portrait. 7 Fillers: line 3: Now. Line 32: I know not how. Line 36: which I have not. Internal pauses: lines 3, 13, 15, 19,22,25,28, 34, 35, 38, 39, 44,46,48, 53. Run-an-lines: most lines are run-an-lines, e.g. lines 2-3-4; lines 46-47-48. The rhyme scheme is regular: AA BB CC etc. but is understated thanks to the use of run-on lines. The rhyme is understated to bring out the colloquial tone of the Duke's speech.

7 He says that buttercups are much brighter and consequently more beautiful than the melon-flower he is looking at. He would much rather be in Eng/and surrounded by buttercups, 8 The rhyming scheme is irregular because each verse is different: First verse: AB AB CC DD. Second verse: M BC BC DD EE FF. Run-on-lines: most lines are run-on lines, e.g. 1-2. 3-4. 11·12. 18-19. Internal pause: line 8, line 13, line 14.

link to the world of music (page F98) 1 The singer is in Italy. She is surprised she is feeling homesick because Italy is really nice and the weather is great. 2 hedgerows ond townhalls. There will be nothing left because it is changing so quickly. After oil, there'll soon be nothing left at all. 3 whatever she's done wrong. I hate what it's become.

Text F26

Dover Beach (page F100) By Matthew Arnold

Comprehension
1 The poet is looking out over the sea from Dover beach and can see the white cliffs of Dover as well as the lights shining on the French coast. 2 He asks the addressee to come to the window and smell the night air. The sound of the pebbles being sucked in and thrown back by the sea onto the beach evokes a feeling of sadness. 3 Sophocles referred to the ebb and flow of the Aegean in his works. The poet and Sophocles both use the movement of the sea as an image to express an idea. 4 The sea of Faith is ebbing. 5 He promises to be faithful and true to her. All the certainties and beliefs of the past are being brought into question. Darkness has descended on the world and peace and joy have been replaced by war and chaos.

Writers' Workshop

(page F95)

Task He reveals that he was and still is very jealous of his wife.

Text F25

Home- Thoughts, from Abroad (page F96) By Robert Browning

Comprehension
1 It is springtime and the poet would like to be in England. 2 His nostalgia for England has made him aware of the small things in nature that a person would not normally notice e.g. the tiny leaves round the elm tree bole (lines 6). 3 Its natural beauty. 4 The whitethroat builds a nest. 5 Blossom and dewdrops fall from the pear tree (line 13). 6 He sings each song twice to prove to listeners that he sings as well the second time as the first (lines 14-16). 7 The fields are whitish-grey in the early morning but the buttercups will make them gay by midday.

Analysis
1 Tranquillity: calm (line 1), full (line 2), stand (line 4). Beauty: fair (line 2), gleams (line 4), glimmering (line 5), sweet (line 6). Gleams and Glimmering signal the presence of light which is coming from the French coast and from the white cliffs. 2 a. grating roar. b. suck, fling. These verbs suggest power and strength. 3 Repetitive movement is suggested by repetition of the verb begin. Tremulous suggests apprehension as the poet is overcome by sadness. 4 Lines 1-8 appeal to the senses of sight and smell. Lines 9-14 appeal to the sense of hearing. The poet's mood changes when he hears the ebb and flow of the tide. 5 He underlines the universality of his reflections by showing that they extend beyond geographical and tem poral boundaries. 6 a. In line 23 the poet compares faith to a girdle that protected society. In the past spirituality was seen as a form of protection. b. The tide going out. c. the naked shingles of the world are revealed. It is a negative image. 7 - seems to be: lines 30-32. - is: lines 33-34. The world seems to be a dream-like fairyland but is in reality a land of war, sadness and chaos.

Analysis
1 Nostalgia. 2 It is April/springtime and the poet is abroad but his mind goes back to England. By referring to a very specific time and place the poem is more authentic and easier to relate to. 3 elm tree (line 6), chaffinch (line 7), whitethroat (line 10), swallows (line 10), pear-tree (line 11), hedge (line 11), clover (line 12), thrush (line 14), buttercups (line 19), melon-flower (line 20). They make the setting of the poem more specific. 4 my. 5 Wisdom. 6 Buttercups are yellow. Children pick them and give them as presents (dower) to their friends.