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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

STRESS AND COUNSELING


By Tatik Suryani
OBJECTIVES
AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER,
YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO:

1. Describe works stress


2. Summarize the model of stress
LEARNING

3. Explain frustration
4. Explain approaches of stress management
5. Explain and apply counseling in management

© 2007 Tatik Suryani/MM UNAIR/ Stress and


Counseling
Work Stress
stressor

ST
RE
SS
© 2007 Tatik Suryani/MM UNAIR/ Stress and
Counseling
Symptoms of unmanaged Stress

1. Physiological

2. Psychological
emotional instability, burn out, chronic worry, depression,
burnout

3. Behavioral
excessive smoking,
abuse of alcohol and drugs
absenteeism, aggression, safety problem, performance
problem

© 2007 Tatik Suryani/MM UNAIR/ Stress and


Counseling
Too Much Work, Too Little Time

© 2007 Tatik Suryani/MM UNAIR/ Stress and


Counseling
A MODEL OF CAUSES, TYPES AND
CONSEQUENCES OF STRESS

Individual Constructive org.


ORGN. And personal consq
Differences
STRESSORS Positive - Short term
stress - Long term

EMPLOYESS
Negative Destructive org.
NONWORK
STRESSORS stress And personal consq
- Short term
- Long term

© 2007 Tatik Suryani/MM UNAIR/ Stress and


Counseling
Potential Sources of Stress
 Environmental Factors
– Economic uncertainties of the business cycle
– Political uncertainties of political systems
– Technological uncertainties of technical
innovations
– Terrorism in threats to physical safety and
security

© 2007 Tatik Suryani/MM UNAIR/ Stress and


Counseling
Potential Sources of Stress
 Organizational Factors
– Task demands related to the job
– Role demands of functioning in an organization
– Interpersonal demands created by other
employees
– Organizational structure (rules and regulations)
– Organizational leadership (managerial style)
– Organization’s life stage (growth, stability, or
decline)

© 2007 Tatik Suryani/MM UNAIR/ Stress and


Counseling
Potential Sources of Stress (cont’d)
 Individual Factors
– Family and personal relationships
– Economic problems from exceeding earning capacity
– Personality problems arising for basic disposition
 Individual Differences
– Perceptual variations of how reality will affect the
individual’s future.
– Greater job experience moderates stress effects.
– Social support buffers job stress.
– Internal locus of control lowers perceived job stress.
– Strong feelings of self-efficacy reduce reactions to job
stress.

© 2007 Tatik Suryani/MM UNAIR/ Stress and


Counseling
A Model of Stress

EXHIBIT 19-10
© 2007 Tatik Suryani/MM UNAIR/ Stress and
Counseling
Inverted-U Relationship between Stress and
Job Performance

EXHIBIT 19-11
© 2007 Tatik Suryani/MM UNAIR/ Stress and
Counseling
FRUSTATION

GOAL

frustration defense mechanism


• aggression
STRESS VULNERABILITY • apathetic
(INTERNAL) • withdrawal etc.

Stress threshold
Perceived control
Type of personality A or B----- > A lebih rentan
© 2007 Tatik Suryani/MM UNAIR/ Stress and
Counseling
APPROACHES TO STRESS MANAGEMENT

1. Mencegah

2. Melarikan diri

3. Coping

© 2007 Tatik Suryani/MM UNAIR/ Stress and


Counseling
APPROACHES TO STRESS MANAGEMENT
PERSONAL STRATEGIES --- coping
1. Resist working long hours or accepting overtime.
2. Volunteer for flextime or other alternatives works schedules.
3. Identify the people who cause stress and avoid them.
4. Maintain a healthy diet and eat regularly.
5. Obtain regular exercise and get enough sleep.
6. Avoid procrastination.
7. Set reasonable goals for your self.
8. Develop a simple methods.
9. Step back from stress and decide weather you need to fight
every battle.
10. Consult.
11. Develop a balancing.
12. Create opportunity to love.

© 2007 Tatik Suryani/MM UNAIR/ Stress and


Counseling
Managing Stress
 Individual Approaches
– Implementing time management
– Increasing physical exercise
– Relaxation training
– Expanding social support network

© 2007 Tatik Suryani/MM UNAIR/ Stress and


Counseling
Managing Stress
 Organizational Approaches
– Improved personnel selection and job placement
– Training
– Use of realistic goal setting
– Redesigning of jobs
– Increased employee involvement
– Improved organizational communication
– Offering employee sabbaticals
– Establishment of corporate wellness programs

© 2007 Tatik Suryani/MM UNAIR/ Stress and


Counseling
EMPLOYEE COUNSELING

COUNSELING IS DISCUSSION WITH AN EMPLOYEE


OF A PROBLEM THAT USUALLY HAS EMOTIONAL
CONTENT IN ORDER TO HELP THE EMPLOYEE
COPE WITH IT BETTER.

FUNCTIONS OF COUNSELING
1.ADVICE
2.REASSURANCE
3.COMMUNICATION.
4.RELEASE OF EMOTIONAL TENSION.
5.CLARIFIED THINKING.
6.REORIENTATION.
© 2007 Tatik Suryani/MM UNAIR/ Stress and
Counseling
Types of counseling

Non Directive Participative Directive


counseling counseling counseling

No Full
direction direction

© 2007 Tatik Suryani/MM UNAIR/ Stress and


Counseling