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Y FELTING SHRINKAGE :- Caused by the


progressive entanglement of wool fibers
through mechanical action during washing.

Y RELAXATION SHRINKAGE :- occurs when the


stresses or strains introduced during the
processing of textile materials relaxed in
water.
CAUSES OF WOOL SHRINKAGE

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Y Caused by the difference in friction between µa and
µw .
where µa = friction coefficient when rubbing
in against - scale direction.
µw = friction coefficient when rubbing
in with ʹ scale direction.
Y Hence there is crimp i.e. springiness
Y This behavior pronounces due to agitation in
aqueous solution.
V  

When alternative compression and relaxation
are applied the compressive forces packs the
wool fibre more tightly and on relaxation the
DFE prevents many of them from reverting to
their original position.
-ETHODS OF SHRINK PROOFING
a) By modifying the scale structure in such a manner
that DFE is reduced or eliminated.
b) By introducing intermolecular cross-link there by
decreasing the elasticity.
c) By covering the fibre with a film-
i.e. -ask the surface, Hence removing the
causes of DFE.
SHRINK RESIST TREAT-ENT
Y The loose fibre treatment rely on reducing the
DFE either by degrading the scale structure or
by masking the scales.
Y The fabric treatment rely on at least a degree
of interfibre bonding to reduce interfibre
movement.
Technologies currently being developed for shrink
resist finish :-
Y For loose fibre :-
1. Combination of oxidation and additive polymer
process.
e.g.- Chlorine-Hercosett shrink resist technology.
Y For fabric :-
1. Additive polymer only process.
Y e.g.- Bunte salt finishing.
1. Plasma treatment followed by resin polymer or
softener finishing.
2. Enzymatic finishing.
m V V V VV

‰ CHLORINE-HERCOSETT RESIN PROCESS:-


I. Top is first chlorinated, usually with
dichloroisocyanuric acid(DCCA).
II. Then, anti chlorinated with bisulphite.
III. Finally finished by a substantive treatment with a
cationic resin such as hercosett,basolan F or Dylan
GRB.
‰ Drawbacks:
Y yellowing is associated with
chlorination.

Therefore to avoid Yellowing hydrogen


peroxide is used as a antichlor agent,
instead of bisulphite.
FABRIC SHRINK TREAT-ENT

‰ BUNTE SALT POLY-ER FINISH.


  
 
   
      
    
    
  

      
      

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PLAS-A TREAT-ENT
Y Plasma is an ionized gas composed of charged
and neutral particles.
Y Disrupts the outermost lipid layer of the
epicuticle.
Y Also attacks one-third of the highly X-linked
disulphide bonds in the exocuticle.
Y The shrink resist effect of the plasma treatment is
due to the oxidation of disulphide groups and
new hydrophilic groups created on the fibre
surface.
ADVANTAGE
Y Eco-friendly.
Y Use lower volume of water.
Y No chemicals required.
pictures of plasma-treated wool after
resin application
Influence of the pretreatment on the area felting shrinkage of knitted
fabrics after 50 simulated washing cycles in a domestic washing machine

    

Untreated 69

Plasma-treated 21

Plasma/resin-treated 1.3

Chlorine/Hercosett-treated 1