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http://www.springer.

com/life+sciences/ecology/book/978-1-4020-0837-5
The river Rhine: a global highway for dispersal of aquatic invasive species
- Total surface area of river ctachements connected to Rhine inc
reaed by a facotor of 21.6
- Since the 18th century, 45 non-indegenious species revorded
- Average invasions per decade 1-13 SPecies
- Currently, the contribution of non-indigenous species to the t
otal species richness of
macroinvertebrates in the river Rhine is 11.3%.
- The Delta Rhine and Upper Rhine exhibit higher numbers of non-
indigenous species than other river sections,
because the sea ports in the Delta Rhine and the Main-Danube can
al function as invasion gateways.
- Important donor areas
--Ponto-Caspian area 44.4%
--North America 26.7%
- Invasive species often tolerate higher salt content, temperatu
re, organic pollution and current flow than native species.