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Thisbook of worked examples has been prepared by:
British CementAssociation
Ove Arup & Partners
and
S. B Tietz & Partners
The work was monitored by the principal authors:
A. W. Beeby BSc, PhD, CEng, MICE, MlStructE, FACI
Professor of Structural Design, Dept of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds
(formerly Director of Design and Construction, British CementAssociation),
R. S. Narayanan BE(Hons), MSc. DIC, CEng,FiStructE
Partner, S. B. Tietz & Partners, Consulting Engineers,
and
R. Whittle MA(Cantab), CEng, MICE
Associate Director, Ove Arup& Partners,
and edited by:
A. J. Threlfall BEng, DIC
Consultant (formerly a Principal Engineer at the British Cement Association).
This publication was jointlyfundedby the BritishCement Associationand theDepartmentofthe Environmentto promote
and assist the use of DD ENV 199211 Eurocode 2: Part 1.
Ove Arup& Partnersisan internationalfirm offering awide range ofdesignand specialist services for theconstruction
industry.
S. B. Tietz & Partnersoffer consultaricy services in civil, structural and traffic engineering.
A catalogue and prices for BCA publications can be obtained from PublicationSales, CentreforConcrete Information,
at the aboveaddress.
43.505 Published by
First published 1994 British Cement Association
10DM A 701A 1AA 1 Century House, Telford Avenue,
Crowthorne, Berks RG11 6YS
Price group M Telephone (0344) 762676
© British Cement Association 1994 Fax (0344) 761214
From 15Aprll 1995 the STD Code
will be (01344)
All advice or information fromthe British Cement Association is intended forthose who will evaluate the significance and limitations of its contents
and take responsibility for its useand application. No liability (including that for negligence) for any loss resulting fromsuchadviceor information
is accepted. Readers should note that all BCA publications are subjectto revision fromtime to timeand should therefore ensure that they are in
possession of the latest version.
'.d
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P7
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Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures, Part 1: General rules and rules for buildings
(EC2)1 sets out both the principles for the design of all types of concrete structure, and
design rules for buildings. Rulesfor other typesof structureand particular areas oftechnology,
including precast concrete elements and structures, will be covered in other parts of EC2.
EC2 contains aconsiderable number of parametersforwhichonly indicative valuesare given.
The appropriate values for use in the UK are setout in the National Application Document
(NAD)1 which has been drafted by BSI. The NAD also includes a number of amendments
to the rules in EC2 where, in thedraftfor development stage of EC2, it was decidedthat the
EC2 rules either did not apply, or were incomplete. Two such areas are the design for fire
resistance and the provision of ties, where the NAD states that the rules in BS 8110(2) should
be applied.
Attention is drawn to Approved Document A (Structure) related to the Building Regulations
1991, which states that Eurocode 2, including the National Application Document, is
considered to provide appropriate guidance forthedesign of concrete buildings in the United
Kingdom.
Enquiries of a technical nature concerning these worked examplesmay be addressed to the
authors directly, or through the BCA, or to the Building Research Establishment.
CoNTENTS
fIE
I. IHTRODUCTON AND SYMBOLS
1.1 Introduction and symbols
Themainobjective of this publication is to illustrate through worked examples
how EC21 may be used in practice. It hasbeen prepared for engineers who
are generally familiar with design practice in the UK, particularly to BS 8110(2).
Theworked examplesrelateprimarilyto insitu concrete building structures The
designs are in accordance with EC2: Part 1 as modified by the UK National
Application Document1. Where necessary,the information given in EC2 has
been supplemented by guidance taken from other documents.
Thecoreexample, in Section 2, is a redesignoftheinsituconcrete office block
used inthe BCA publicationDesignedand detailed (BS 8110: 1985), by Higgins
& Rogers4. Other design aspects and forms of construction are fully explored
by means of further examples in Sections 3 to 12.
Equations and charts for the designof beam and column sections, taken from
the Concise Eurocode for the design of concrete buildings5, are given in
Section 13. Publications used in the preparation of this book, and from which
further information may be obtained, are listedirt the References Unless
otherwise stated, all references to BS 8110 refer to Part 1.
Twoconventionshave been adopted inthe preparation ofthis book. Statements
followed by OK' mark places where the calculated value is shown
to be satisfactory. Green type is used to draw attention to key information
such as the reinforcement to be provided.
Thecalculationsare crossreferencedtothe relevantclauses in EC2 and, where
appropriate, to otherdocuments; all references in the righthand margins are
to EC2 unless indicated otherwise.
Thesymbols usedthroughout the publication are listed and defined below,and
are generally those used in EC2 itself.
1.2 Symbols
A Area of crosssection
Area of concrete crosssection
Area of concrete within tensile zone
Area of concrete tensile zone external to links
Ak Area enclosed within centreline of thinwalled section
A Area of prestressing tendons
A Area of tension or, in columns, total longitudinal reinforcement
A' Area of compression reinforcement
Amin Minimum area of tension or, in columns, total longitudinal reinforcement
1<2
Coefficient taking account of decrease in curvature due to increasing axial
force
M Bending moment
M0 Moment of force, F0, about tension reinforcement
Mcr Moment causing cracking
Momentofforce, N0, about x axis
Moment of force, N, about y axis
M0,,
M0 First order moment
RA Reaction at support A
RB Reaction at support B
S First moment of area of reinforcement about centroid of section
TRd2
Maximum torsional moment resisted by reinforcement
(ILTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS
TsdW
Torsional moment applied to web
br Width of rib
Width of support
OTOII MiD SYMBOLS
ot Total eccentricity
ey Eccentricity in y direction
Eccentricity in z direction
Second order eccentricity
Second order eccentricity in y direction
e Second order eccentricity in z direction
Stress in concrete at bottom fibre
1ywk
Characteristic yield strength of shear reinforcement or torsion links
Characteristic dead load per unit area
h Overall depth of section or liquid in tank
Reduced value of h for separate check about minor axis of column section
with biaxial eccentricities
ha Active height of deep beam
kboflom
Restraint coefficient at bottom
tmln
Minimum thickness of wall
u Circumference of concrete section or critical section for punching shear
Uk Circumference of areaAk
VAd1 Design shear resistance per unit length of critical perimeter,for slab without
shear reinforcement
VRd2
Maximum design shear resistance per unit length of critical perimeter, for
slab with shear reinforcement
VRd3 Design shear resistance per unit length of critical perimeter, for slab with
shear reinforcement
ae Effective modularratio
Reduction coefficient for assumed inclination of structure due to
imperfections
Moment coefficients in x and y directions
a1 Effectivenesscoefficient for lap
Coefficient with several applications including shear resistance enhancement,
effective height of column, St Venant torsional stiffness, punching shear
magnification, design crack width
ared Reduced value of shear resistance enhancement coefficient
Coefficient associated with bond characteristics
7G.nf Partial safety factor for permanent action, in calculating lower design value
Partial safety factor for permanent action, in calculating upper design value
Partial safety factor for actions associated with prestressing force
Partial safety factor for variable action or imposed load
Partial safety factor for steel material properties of reinforcement or
prestressing tendons
5 Ratio of redistributed moment to moment before redistribution
Strain in concreteat bottom of section
Basic concrete shrinkage strain
Strain in reinforcement
e(t,t0) Estimated concreteshrinkage strain
Xmin
Slenderness ratio beyond which column is considered slender
Coefficient of friction between tendon and duct or applied moment ratio
Iim Limiting value of applied moment ratio for singly reinforced section
v Efficiency factor or assumed inclination of structure due to imperfections
1'red Reduced value of assumed inclination of structure
Longitudinal force coefficient
p Tension reinforcement ratio or density of liquid
p' Compression reinforcement ratio
p1 Longitudinal tension reinforcement ratio
Longitudinal tension reinforcement ratios in x and y directions
Effective reinforcement ratio
Shear reinforcement ratio
w,mIn Minimum shear reinforcement ratio
ANRdC Design resistanceto axial force due to concrete in areaof hypothetical section
lying outside actual section
AP Average loss of prestressing force due to elastic deformation of concrete
Loss of prestressing force at active end of tendon due to anchorage slip
AP(t) Loss of prestressing force due to creep, shrinkage and relaxation at time t
Fire resistance
1 hour for all elements
Wind load
Speed(m/sec) 40
Factors
S1 1.0
2 0.83
S3 1.0
Cl 1.1
Exposure class
2b (external) and 1 (internal)
Subsoil conditions
Stiff clay — no sulphates
Allowable bearing pressure (kNIm2) 200
Foundation type
Reinforced concrete footings to columnsand walls
Materials
GradeC32/40 concrete with 20 mm maximum aggregate
Characteristic strength of main bars (N/mm2) 460
Characteristic strength of links(NImm2) 250
Selfweight of concrete (kN/m2) 24
COMPLETE DESG4 EXAMPLE
8 (Th 500O1,0,O00
—175 waIl
R
c7
3 Notes
I All columns 300 x 300
2
c7 2 Main beams 500 x 300
3. Edge beams 350 x 300
1, Internal column bases
0 2750 x 2750 x 600
Notes
1. N Sendwindshearforcewallsresisted by
2 LateraL bracing in E.W direction
provided by staircase, and infill
masonry panels, on grid 1/Hi,
wind direction and grid 31H—J
WIND RESISTANCE
C C C CP C C C
l(ey
. P — Peripheral tie
P
—
W
—
Int —
 —
mt —
—
— (at
., Int — Internal tie
C — Column (external) tie
W — Wall (external) tie
C C C C P C C C
2.3.5 Reinforcement
2.3.5.1 Support
= 0.040
bd2fck
A = 498 mm2/m
Minimum area of reinforcement
0.6b d
0.0015 bd = 224 mm2/m OK 5.4.2.1.1(1)
2.3.5.2 Span
M
= 0.028
bd2fCk
A = 342 mm2/m
Note:
Reinforcementareasdiffer somewhatfrom those givenby BS 8110 which permits
design for the single loadcase of maximum load on all spanscombined with
20% redistribution. EC2 requiresalternateand adjacent spansto beconsidered.
In this instance, no redistribution has been carried out but it would have been
permissible to carry out 30% redistribution in the EC2 design. This would have
resulted in an identical answer to that given by BS 8110 but ductilityclass H NAD
(as defined in prEN 10080(8)) reinforcement would need to be specified. Table 5
2.3.6 Shear
Shear resistance of the slab withoutshear reinforcement is given by 43.23
rRdk(l.2 + 40p,)bd
= Eqn 4.18
VAd1
where
TRd
= 035 N/mm2 Table 4.8
2.3.7 Deflection
5000
The actual span/effectivedepth ratio is = 33.6 OK
149
Had EC2 Table 4.14 been used instead of NADTable 7, the basic ratio before
modification would have been 35, which would not have been OK.
2.3.8 Cracking
For minimum area of reinforcement assume 4.4.2.2
ct.eff
= 3 N/mm2
= 0.4
k
k = 0.8
Hence
= kkftffA!o
A Eqn 4.78
Thus this area ofthe bottom reinforcementis the minimum that should be made
continuous throughout the slab.
2.4.2 Loading
Permanent load from slab (Section 2.3.3) = 4.7 x 5 = 23.5 kN/m
2.4.3 Analysis
2.4.3.1 Idealization of structure and load cases
The structure is simplified as a continuous beam attached to columns above 2.533
and below, which are assumed to be fixedat their upper ends and pinnedat
the foundations, as shown in Figure 23.
3500
4000
REDISTRIBUTION AT AND
Case 1 — Reduce 171 to 126 (see 2)
Reduce 382 to 268 (—30%)
Case 2—Reduce 180 to 126 (_30%)
Reduce 365 to 268 (see 1) 382 (1
Case 3— No redistribution
(1) redistributed
(2) elastic
Envelope
Moments in kNm
(3) 119
Case 1
Case 2
Case 3 149 (1)
Redistributed 166 (3)
Envelope 277 (R)
Forces in kN 286 (1)
8000 6000 J
—I——
= Asfyk = I'IIm —
= 0.1442 0.0864
0.87 (1— d'Id) 0.87 (1 —
bdfck 50/440)
Af =
= — wurn + w' = 0.1084 + 0.0750 = 0.1834 (Section 13)
bdfck
= 0.1834 x 300 x 440 x 32/460 = 1684 mm2
A' =S
0.0943 x 300 x 440 x 32/460 = 866 mm2
8 >1.0
= 325 x 108
= 0.030
1660 x 4502 x 32
M = l26kNm
= 126 x 106
=0.0678<
300 x 4402 x 32 tim
= M = 76 x 106
= 0.041
bd2fCk
300 x 44Q2 x 32
w = 0.049 (Section 13, Table 13.1)
= 450 mm2
A
Use 2125 (982 mm2) with r = 4qS minimum
138 x 108
= = 0.0161
32 x 4502 x 1320
= 0.019 (Section 13, Table 13.1)
A5 kkfAIcr 4.4.2.2
Eqn 4.78
where
=
k 0.4
k = 0.68
= 3 N/mm2
= 300 x 325 mm2
= 460 N/mm2
Therefore
AS 173 mm2 OK
0.6bd
. 0.0015 bd = 203 mm2 OK 5.4.2.1.1(1)
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
Here, for comparison with BS 8110 design, grade 250 reinforcement will be 5.4.2.2
used.
VAd1
= TRdk(l .2 + 40p1) bd
Assume 2125 effective
p1
= 982/(300 x 440) = 0.00743
VRd1
= 300 x 440 x 0.35 x 1.16 x (1.2 + 40 x 0.00743) x iO = 80.2 kN
= 0.7 —
k'20° = 0.7 — 32/200 = 0.54 i 0.5 Eqn 4.21
VRd2
= 0.5 x 0.54 x (32/1.5) x 300 x 0.9 x 440 x iO = 684 kN Eqn 4.25
Design shear force is shear at a distance d from the face of the support. This 43.2.2(10)
is 590 mm from the supportcentre(ine.
A — 80.2
VSd Eqn 4.23
= = 0.0116 (VSd — 80.2)
s 0.9 x 440 x 0.87 x 250
8 m span
LH end 203 1.42 159 R12 @ 150
RH end 248 1.95 116 R12 @ 100
6 m span
LH end 202 1.41 160 R12 @ 150
RH end 128 mm. max. c
R12 300
2.4.6 Deflection
Reinforcement percentage at centre of 8 m span 4.43.2
= 100 x 1960/(450 x 1660) = 0.26%
Interpolating between 0.15 and 0.5%, basic span/effective depth ratio for end NAD
span = 40 Table 7
2.4.7 Cracking
For estimate of steel stress under quasipermanent loads 4.4.2.2
Ultimate load = 64.8 kN/m
From EC2 Table 4.12, bar spacing at supports should be 150 mm with no
limitationon size. As bars are located inside column bars the maximum possible
spacing is 125 mm OK
COtaPLETEDESIGNEX&MPLE
a, = 0.9d12 = 198 mm
1'Qnet=
25 —
460
x —1
= 782mm 5.2.a4.1
1.15 3.2
a, + net = 980 mm
Bars mark 8, whichare located outside theweb, mustextend afurther 150mm
— refer to Figure 2.&
76
Moment envelope
Curtailment Line — ——
300 c/c
R12 150 ,  300
 ,iOO 
1450' (minimum links) O'(minimum links)
242 240  Shear capacity of
—
minimum Links
(R12 —300) with
rs
Bar Notes
marks
1 Tension bars are stopped 50 mm from column face to avoid clashing with the
column bars
Nominal cover 20 + 12 = 32 > 25 mm OK 4.13.3(5)
3 Not used
510 Loose U bars are fixed inside the column bars and provide continuity for
columnand internal ties
lop legs project from centre line into span,minimum dimensions shown in 5.4.2.13
Figure 2.6
Bottom legs are lapped 1000 mm to provide continuity for internal ties BS 8110
7,8 Tension bars over the support are stopped as in Figure 2.6.
Bars mark8 are located outside the web 5.4.2.1.2(2)
11 Links are arranged in accordance with Figure 2.7 for shear. Links also
provide transverse reinforcement with a spacing 150 mm at all laps 5.2.4.1.2(2)
2.5.2 Loading
Permanent load from slab = 4.7 x 5 x 1.25 = 29.4 kN
(assuming 1.25 m strip to be loading on edge beam)
Selfweight of beam = (035 — 0.175) x 03 x 5 x 24 = 6.3 kN
Cladding load @ 5 kN/m = 5 x 5 = 25 kN
Characteristic permanent load = 60.7 kN
Characteristic imposed load = 4 x 5 x 1.25 = 25 kN
2.5.3.2 Midspan
A = 579 mm2
2.5.4.2 Midspan
Assume effective depth = 290 mm
Effective flange width = 300 ÷ 0.1 x 0.7 x 5000 = 650 mm 2.5.2.2.1
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
M
—
41.8 x iO = 0.024
bd2fk 650 x 2902 x 32
A5
= 367 mm2
650 j
I
S
2120
. 1 70
I
350
. 21 20
S
60
300 T
Figure 2.9 Edge beam crosssection
VSd
= 65.7 — 119.5 (0.28 + 0.15)/5.0 = 55.4 kN
This is greater than Vsd, hence only minimum links are required. 4.3.2.2(2)
Assuming grade 250 reinforcement for links, EC2 Table 5.5 gives
p = 0.0022
Hence
A
— = 0.0022 x 300 = 0.66 mm2/mm
S
32
. —— x — x 300 x
32
= 0.5 07 0.9 x 280 = 435 kN 43.2.3(3)
VRd2
( 200) 1.5
tOJkP.ErEDESP4 EXAMPLE
Since
VSd
< (j) VRd2, Smax
= 0.8d = 224 mm Eqn 5.17
2.5.6 Deflection
Actual span/effective depth ratio = 5000/290 = 17.2
At midspan
Using the rules, the 20 mm bars in the top may be reducedto 12 mm bars
at a distance from the face of support
150
I— 2T204
top cover 60
side cover 75
2112—2
side cover 75
ELEVATION
3443
Cover to links 40
Li U
1221
AA
2.6 Columns
2.6.1 Idealization of structure
The simplification assumed for the design of the main beam is shown in
Figure 2.3.
2.6.2 Analysis
Moments and column loads at each floor are taken from the ana'ysis for the
main beam given in Section 2.43.
Loadcase 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
96 57 355 355 30 39
= 1801 kN
Nsd
=
1801 x iO x 1.5
= 0.94 43.53.52
3002 x 32
Hence
X
mm
= 25
= = 4000j = 46
300
Nsdh/2O
= 1801 x 03/20 = 27.0 kNm 43.5.53
Eqn 4.64
This exceeds thefirst order moments.
= 0.62
bhfck
27.0x 106 =
= 0.031
bh2fk 300 x 32
Assume
d' = 45mm
COMPLETE DES)GT4 EXAMPLE
Then
d'/h = 45/300 = 0.15
Af
— = 0.16 (Section 13, Figure 13.2(c))
bhfck
Hence
= 1002 mm2
A
Use 4120 (1260 mm2)
Note:
In the design by Higgins and Rogers, the slenderness ratio exceeds the
equivalent of >tcrit but the design moment is still Nh/20. EC2 requires less
reinforcement due to the smaller design load and the assumption of a smaller
cover ratio. If the same cover ratio is used in the Higgins and Rogers design,
4T20 are sufficient in both cases.
Loadcase 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
Roof
Main 184 186 39 41 145 145 104 107
Edge 55 55 55 55
Selfweight 9 9
39 41 209 209 93 98
3rd floor
Main 235 240 109 114 126 126 93 98
Edge 55 55 55 55
Selfweight 9 9
2nd floor
Main 235 240 109 114 126 126 93 98
Edge 55 55 55 55
Selfweight 9 9
let floor
Main 233 238 108 113 125 125 68 72
Edge 55 55 55 55
Selfweight 9 9
kbottom
Hence
= 0.85 Figure 4.27
X. = 25
Calculate
bottom moment
= = o = 0 43.5.5.3
e02 top moment 85
Hence
= 25(2 + 0)= 50
Slendernessratios inthe E—W and N—S directions are both lessthan 50, hence
it is only necessary to ensure that the end moment is at least Nh120.
Theworst condition occurswith load case2 at section just above the firstfloor,
where Msd is greatest.
Nsd
= 589 + 0.8 x 269 = 804 kN
Nh
— = 804 x 03 = 12.OkNm
20 20
 .i
III
U,
6'1
6',
. . J C 0
".

E
C
II I
I
0
0
3 II
®I m
,
"3
11
0
Os I
I
,
,
@1
@i
I
U,
Cl IN
IN
 ®H__ '0
11
'.5
@. .;s I
Cover to (inks 30 Fdn" cover to Links 60
L.....i.
Ilu, g —
t
Fdn. o:
3E
I
US
2.7 Foundation
Design typical pad footing for internal column.
2.7.1 Cover
Use 50 mm nominal cover against blinding 4.1.3.3(9)
_____ _____
BS 8110 specifies a nominal cover of not less than 40 mm against blinding.
EC2 specifies a minimum cover greater than 40 mm. Thisimplies a nominal
cer greater than 45 mm, hence the choice of 50 mm.
2.7.2 Loading
Taken from internal column design.
Ultimate design loads: Dead = 1226
imposed = 575
Total = 1801 kN
LJ
COMPLETE DESIGN EXDMPLE
Total = 1291 kN
The assumption is made that the base takes no moment. Also it is assumed
that thedead weight of the base less the weightof soil displaced is 10 kN/m2
over the area of the base.
—
M = 491 x 106
=0.020
bd2fck 2750 x 5252 x 32
Af = 0.023 (Section 13, Table 13.1)
bdfck
Hence
= 0.023 x 2750 x 525 x 32/460 = 2310 mm2
2.7.5 Shear
2.7.5.1 Shear across base
Shearforce may be calculated at a critical section distance d from the face 43.2.2(10)
of the column.
In calculating VRd1,
the influence of the reinforcement will be ignored since, if 43.23(1)
straight bars are used, they will not extend d + 1bnet beyondthe critical section.
VRd1
= 0.35 x 1.075 x 1.2 x 2750 x 525/1000 = 652 kN Eqn 4.18
VAd1
> Vsd, hence no requirement for shear reinforcement
/— 300 \\
II II
of_Hift
Figure 2.12 Critical perimeter for punching
VRdI
= 035 x 1.075 x 1.2 x 525 x 6.15 = 1458 kN 43.4.5.1
VSd
< VAd1,
hence no requirement for shear reinforcement
2.7.6 Cracking
Approximate steel stress under quasipermanent loads
=
460
x (908
+ 03 x 383) x—
2310
=186N/mm
1.15 1801 2830
From EC2 Table 4.11 bar size should not exceed 25 > 20 mm used. 4.4.23
Table 4.11
Hence cracking OK
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
 —f 9120—1—300 B2
  2
22 —2
9120—1—300 Bi
P LA N
41202
Fdn.
II Cover —1.0
III
•
_J[_
L1
A A
COVER — B1 = 50, end =75
1 Straight barsextend full widthof base less end cover of 75 mm. Bars should
extend an anchorage length beyond the column lace 4.13.3(9)
32 x 20 640 mm 5.23.4.1
Anchorage length
Actual extension 1150 mm
fLoor
— I—05x Wi nd
Load on
building
14300
I 900
Hence
Maximum force per unit length due to wind moment
= + Mx6
12
x
= ± 1616 6 = ±47.4kN/m
14.22
= = 2.05
kA 4a5 Eqn 4.60
kB
=
Hence
= 0.94 Figure 4.27
10
= fl1O
= 0.94 x 4 376 m
1/i
0
= 3.76 x 1000 x =
175
e02
= 11.65 x 1000/250.6 = 46.5 mm
Hence
e0
= 0.6 x 46.5 + 0 = 27.9 mm Eqn 4.66
Accidental eccentricity
ea = —1
x 3760 = 9.4 mm Eqn 4.61
200 2
COVIP%TE OESG EXDJJIPLE
37602 460 1
= x 2 x x x '<2 Eqns 4.72 &
10 1.15 x 200000 0.9 x 122 469
= 51.51<2
Assuming '<2 = 1
_!__ = 0.023
bh2fck
_L = 0.045
bhck
Al = 0.01 (Section 13, Figure 13.2(d))
"ck
Hence
A = 122 mm2/m or 61 mm2/m in each face
2.8.6 Shear
Design horizontal shear = 1.5 x 202 = 303 kN
303 x 1000 =
= __________
Shear stress 0.12 N/mm2 OK
14300 x 175
Note:
VRd1
is not calculated since it must be > 0.12bd by quick inspection of
EC2 Eqn 4.18.
Minimum for controlled cracking due to restraint of early thermal contraction 4.4.2.2
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
=
A9 kkfffAIa Eqn 4.78
kC = 1.0
k = 0.8
A9
= 1.0 x 0.8 x 1.9 x 175 x 1000/360 = 739 mm/m
According to the NAD, these should follow the rules in BS 8110. BS 8110
3.12.3
F =36kN
A = 36X10382
460
Hence
Hence T10 © 200 mm crs. horizontal reinforcement in wall 0.5 m above and
below slab is adequate.
iF = 72 or 48 kN
(a) Lesser of 2.OF or
2.5
Gt EXMAPLE
(b) 3% of total vertical load = 0.03 x 190.1 = 5.7 kN
Hence
Tie force = 48 kN
A = 48 x iO = 104mm2
460
A5
= 209 mm2/m
Ep
0
1T1O—7 2xITI 0—8 1TIO7—11 lSt.SFL Walt tie
r_
:
2 96T123—300
(48N2+48F23 C U  — 
350 U
Os
a
a a350
a
C..'
¶51  3 x13RiO 9
a
a UI — —1000 EW
K
a
+ 1
a Os
I.
Os
K
K C..'
I.
96T12—i— 300 — c%1 (48N2+ 48F2)
Fdn. V.
_____________ .t0P... I —I
cover 40
3 2x 4T12—2300B2 ends 75
AJ
(grid 2 omitted for clarity)
B—B EAST WALL ELEVATION
COVER to outer bars — Ni 40 • Fl 20
5.4.73
4,5,6 Minimum horizontal reinforcement provided
4.4.2.2
BS 8110
7,8 Peripheral tie at floor 3.12.3.5
2.9 Staircase
2.9.1 Idealization
The idealization of the staircase is shown in Figure 2.16.
,, /,/
/, , ,——————
3500
2.9.3 Loading
Average slab thickness on plan = 250 mm
Selfweight = 0.25 x 24 = 6.0 kN/m
Finishes = 0.5
2.9.4 Analysis
Using coefficients in the Concise Eurocode
Moment at interior support = 0.11 x 14.78 x 5.062 = 41.6 kNm Concise
Eurocode
Moment near midspan = 0.09 x 14.78 x 5.062 = 34.1 kNm
Table A.1
Shear = 0.6 x 14.78 x 5.06 = 44.9 kN
M 41.6x106
Interior support, = = 0.059
bd2ck iO x 1492 x 32
From Section 13, Table 13.1
Af = 0.072
bdfCk
Hence
=
A 746 mm2/m
Span
— = 0.048
bd2fck
Af = 0.058
bdfck
Hence
A = 601 mm2/m
2.9.6 Shear
754
Reinforcement ratio = = 0.0051
1000 x 149
Near support
= 0.35 x (1.6 —
0.175) x (1.2 + 40 x 0.0051) x 149 = 1043 kN 43.2.3
VRd1
Eqn 4.18
2.9.7 Deflection
Reinforcement ratio at midspan = 0.51%
Concrete is lightly stressed, hence basic span/effective depth ratio is 32. Table 4.14
= 460, this should be modified to:
Since fyk
32 x 400/460 x 754/601 = 34.9 4.43.2(4)
Actual span/effectivedepth ratio = 5060/149 = 34 < 34.9 OK
29.8 Cracking
As for floor slab in Section 2.3.8
Minimum area of reinforcement = 183 mm2/m 4.4.2.2
Thickness of waist = 175 < 200 mm 4.4.23 (1)
No further check is necessary.
150
3+ 2T10—8
10112—iS—iSO
10 16
I
FLIGHT 'B
[1
r9 1 rI I
LANDING
6
Cover to outer bars 20 14 JL9 j
AA
Cover= 40
2nd
10112—5—150
FLIGHT 'A'
NAD Limits
05
045
cot e + tan e
04
0•35
i EC2 Limits
I— —I
increase significantly and may well outweigh any notional savings in shear
reinforcement.These forces are, it should be noted, explicitly checked in EC2
but not in BS 8110. Given specialcircumstancesthe '131 method may be required
but for most practical situations, the standard method will provide the most
economic design.
..
f
VSd
1155 kM
i155
I I I
Id I
l a
J
kN
lS
The design shear resistance of the section, VRd1,
is given by 4.3.2.3(1)
= + 0•15J
VRd1 [rRdk (1.2 + bd Eqn 4.18
TRd
= 034 N/mm2 for = 30 N/mm2 Table 4.8
k = 1.6—d41 = 1
A 6434
p =
bd
=
400x900
= 0.018 i 0.02
w
a =
(assuming 8T32 throughout span)
Nsd
AC
= 0
VRd1
= 034 x 1 (1.2 + 40 x 0.018) x 400 x 900 = 235 kN
VSd
> VAd1,
shear reinforcement is required 4.3.2.4.3
VRd3
= + Eqn 4.22
where
A = area of shear reinforcement
s = spacing of shear reinforcement
f = 250/1.15 = 217.4 N/mm2
For VSd
V VSd
—
VCd;
or
A
— (0•9d VSd
—
Therefore

200
fCd = = 20 N/mm2
1.5
Therefore
VRd2
= (4) x 0.55 x 20 x 400 x 0.9 x 900 x 1
452
= = _________ = 0.0081 Eqn 4.79
sbsin a 140 x 400
140 mm spacing OK
Check minimum value of p Table 5.5
Concrete strength class C30/37
Steel class S250
Note:
Using the standard method, the increase in force in the tension reinforcement 43.2.1P(6)
is best covered by using the shift rule. 5.4.2.13
Itwill, however, becalculated in this exampleto provide a comparison with the
values obtained in the subsequent examples using the VSI method.
= 808.5 kN
VSd
VSd
= 1155 — a x 385 = 235 kN
The amountof shear reinforcement provided should be greaterthan w.mIn Table 5.5
pw,mun = 0.0022
 = pb5ina
Hence
= 235kN
Vsd
= 1782 kN from Section a2.2.it
VRd2
Since
VRd1
= 235 kN
Since VSd > VRdl, shear reinforcement is required
(520 — 235) x 10
—
= VSd VCd
= = 1.62 mm2/mm
s O.9dfd 0.9 x 900 x 217.4
A Eqn 4.79
sbsina
For vertical links sina = 1
Hence
452
= = 0.0045
250 x 400
(520 — 3 x 235) X 10
—
VSd 3Vd = = —114 N/mm2
pbd 0.0045 x 400 900 x
Maximum spacingfor crack control = 300 mm OK Table 4.13
Since
A
— = —
452 =
2.26 mm2/mm
s 200
VWd
= — (0.9d)y = 2.26 x 0.9 x 900 x 217.4 = 398 kN
VRd3 VCd+VWd
Equating
VRd3
= VSd and noting that VCd = VRd1
VSd
= VAd1 + = 235 + 398 = 633 kN
1155 — 633
Distance of point from support = = 136 m
136rn 136m
1i
U
2.39m+ 
2 39m+
60m between centres of supports
4
—
Figure 3.5 Link arrangement (standard method) example 1
Note:
In the centre portion of the beam RiO links are required by calculations but
R12 (*) are shown to avoid the possible misplacement on site. Distance from
the support(+) could be reduced to 1.70 m in this case.
This method allows the angle of the concrete compression strut to be varied
at the designer's discretion within limits stated in the Code.
It cangive some economy in shear reinforcementbutwill require the provision
of additional tension reinforcement. In most cases the standard method will
suffice.
This reduced shear reinforcementwill only beobtainedat high levelsof design
shear and is counterbalanced by increased tension reinforcement. This can
be seen by a comparison of EC2 Eqns4.22 and 4.23 in thestandard method
and EC2 Eqn 4.27 in the variable strut inclination method.
The standard method gives
VRd3
= V+ V Eqn 4.22
A
V = —a Eqn 4.23
S
(0.9d)f
Rearranging gives
= VRd3—VCd
s (O.9d)fd
The VSI method gives
A
VRd3
= —f' (O.9cf cote Eqn 4.27
S
Rearranging gives
A5,,, — VRdS
s (o.9d)c,,dcote
BEAMS
Note:
In the above equation the contribution of the concrete, VCd,
to the shear
resistance of the section is not taken into account.
Withcote = 1.5 which is the maximum value permitted inthe NAD, reductions
in shear reinforcement will only occur when
—
VRd3
or
(O.9d) cWd x 1.5 (O.9d)cWd
VRd3
< l.S(VRd3 VCd)
If
VSd
> then the VSI method will allow a reduction in shear
reinforcement.
Ifthis inequality is not satisfied, useofthe variable strut inclination method will
produce an uneconomic amount of shear reinforcement. In this case the
standard method should be used.
For elements with vertical shear reinforcement, VAd2 is given by
b zv f
VRd2 — E 426
cotO + tane
1
VSd
Figure 3.1 shows cote plotted against 1/(cote + tan8) together with the EC2
and NAD limits for cote. Hence for a given V,
the limits for cote can be
found.
Increasing the value of cote will reduce the shear reinforcement required but
increase the force in the tension reinforcement.
In this example, cotO will be chosen to minimize the shear reinforcement.
VSd 1
b = 400mm
f
= 0.7— = 0.55 z 0.5 Eqn 4.21
200
MAS
fCd =  =
1.5
20N/mm
VSd
= 808.5 kN
Therefore
1
= 80&5 x 10
= 0.22
cote + tane 400 x 810 x 0.55 x 20
From Figureai, this liesunderthecurveTherefore, cote = 1.5 canbe chosen
which is the maximum value allowed under the NAD limits.
= Eqn 4.27
VRd3
(?!)zcWdcot8
808.5 X 10
= VSd = = 3.06 mm2/mm
S
zycote 810 x 217.4 x 1.5
Check
VSd — 3V
= (80&5 3
— x 235) x iO = 38.3 N/mm2
bd 0.0075 x 400 x 900
Check S 5.4.2.2(7)
= 808.5 kN
VSd
S = 0.6d 1 300 mm
E1
Use R12 links @ 150 mm crs. (4 legs)
Note:
Although not permitted by theNAD, values of cote upto 2.5 are given in EC2.
A checkon shear reinforcement usingcote = 2.5 is now given to illustrate
the effect of increasing values of e on shear and tension reinforcement.
A
=
VSd
=
808.5x iO = 1.84 mm2/mm
s zfd cote 810 x 217.4 x 2.5
Try R12 @ 225 mm crs. (4 legs), ASW/s = 2.01 mm2/mm
VSd —3V
= 57.5 N/mm2
pbd
Maximum spacingfor crack control = 250 mm OK Table 4.13
— = VSd
= 520 X 10 = 1.96mm/mm
2
S
zfYWdcote
810 x 217.4 x 1.5
452
— = = 2
2.26mm/mm
s 200
R12 —150 I R12 —200 R12 —300 R12 —200 R12 —150
S
1 legs 4 legs 4 legs 4 legs 4 legs
145m I I 145m
"I I I
239m I I 2 39m
ri
60m between centres of supports
—
Figure 3.6 Link arrangement (VSI method) example 1
800kN 800kN
Ultimate toads
—
Figure 3.7 Beam span and loading example 2
In the example, VRd1 will be calculated at positions between the support and
2.5d away at intervals of 0.5d. This is done to illustrate the effect even though
the critical section will normally be at the position of the concentrated load.
VRd1 (mod)
\ 135m
8OOkNf 135m
211kN h
1 \
x
2llkN
—
VRd1 (mod)
}0kN
Figure 3.9 Shear force diagram example 2
1d1S
The basic design shear resistance of the section, VRdl, is given by 43.23(1)
VRd1
= [rRd k (1.2 + 40p,) + 0.15 Or]bd Eqn 4.18
TRd
= 034 N/mm2 for = 30 N/mm2 Table 4.8
Taking values of x between 0.5d and 2.5d gives values of /3rRd shown in
Table 3.1.
= —
A2, 4825
= ________ = 0.013
p1
bd 400 x 900
_sa0
N
AC
x VRd1
(m) (kN)
0.45 1052
0.90 526
125 353
1.80 211
2.25 211
BEAMS
= + VWd
"Sd VRd1
211 0 < 0
211 0 < 0
Note: 4.3.2.2(9)
If a concentrated load is positioned close to a support, it is possible that using
to modify VRd1 may lead to only minimum shear reinforcement being
provided throughout the beam. In this case, the designer may wish to base
the shear resistance on the unmodified VRd1.
Thiscan be illustratedby taking the example above butplacingthe pointload
at 0.5d from the support.
The modified shear force diagram is shown in Figure 3.10.
VRd1
ZllkN —
I I I I
— 0•5 10 15 2O 25
L Position of concentrated load
E1
In this case it would be prudent tocheckthe shear resistanceonthe unmodified
= 211 kN. The required shear reinforcementshould be provided from
VAd1
x = Otox = 0.5d
Check area of shear reinforcement required in example 2.
VRd2
= (4) vfCdbWO.9d (1 + cota) Eqn 4.25
fCd =—=
30
20N/mm2
1.5
Therefore
= (j x 0.55 x 20 x 400 x 0.9 x 900 x 1
= Eqn 4.79
sbsIna
Use R12 links @ 175 mm crs. (4 legs) for 0 < x < 2.25 m
3.3.3 Example 3 — combined loading
The revised loading and shear force diagrams are shown in Figures 3.11 and
3.12 respectively.
Ultimate loads
800 kN 800 kN
100 kN/m
I
liii
6m
:
—
Figure au Beam span and loading example 3
1100
135m
kNI
I
Ix
F"
135m l
I
KN
jioo
The basic design shear resistance of the section, VRdl, is given by 43.2.3(1)
VRd1
=
[rRdk(l.2 + 40p,) + 0.15Or]bd Eqn 4.18
For concentrated loads within 2.5d of the face of the support, TAd may be 4.3.2.2(9)
increased as in Section aa2. However, no similar enhancement is permitted
for uniformly distributed loads.
Values of the concentrated load ratio and the resulting design shear strength
are given in Tables 3.4 and 3.5.
BEAMS
2.25 0 75 75 0
(m) (kN)
0.45 848
0.90 464
1.35 328
1.80 211
2.25 211
A
— = ______ = 637 x iO = 3.61 mm2/mm
s (0.9d)f 0.9 x 900 x 217.4
Use R12 links @ 125 mm crs. (4 legs) for 0 < x < 2.25 m
200
T
250 1500
FLoor £LQb
\\
I
When combined shear and torsion effects are to be considered, shear isto be
checked using the variable strut inclination method. The angle e of the
equivalent concretestruts isto bethesamefor bothtorsion and shear design. 433.2.2(4
The design shear resistance, VAd1, with zero axial load is given by 43.2.3(1)
VAd1
= rRdk(l.2 + 40p1)bd Eqn 4.18
TRd
= 034 N/mm2 for = 30 N/mm2 Table 4.8
VAd1
= 034 x 1(1.2 + 40 x 0.0025) x 250 x 1440 x 1O
= 159.1 kN < 355 kN
Therefore shear reinforcement required.
Use the variable strut inclination method. The maximum design shear force,
VHd2, to avoid web crushing is given by

b zvf
VRd2
= 43.2.4.4(2)
(cote + tane) Eqn 4.26
Rearranging gives
VRd2 1
= 355 kN
VSd
b = 250mm
v = 0.7 — — = 0.7
200
—
200
= 0.55 . 0.5 43.2.4.2(3)
'cd
= =  =
1.5
20N/mm2
Therefore
VSd —
355 x iO
— = 0.1
bwzufCd 250 x 1296 x 0.55 x 20
1
should be 0.1
cote + tane
By referenceto Figure 3.1, it will be seen that the value of cote may be taken NAD
anywhere between the limits of 0.67 to 1.5. Table 3
4.3.2.4.4(1)
To minimize link reinforcement, take cotO = 1.5
VRd3
=
() cWdcote 4.3.2.4.4(2)
Eqn 4.27
Rearranging gives
A sw VRd3
s zfcote
Putting VRd3 equal to VSd
Asw VSd
s zçcote

Using high yield reinforcement
= = = 400N/mm2
1.15
Therefore
A
— = 355 x 1O = 0.46 mm2/mm
s 0.9 x 1440 x 400 x 1.5
AS vi
0.74 — = 0.55 x— = 5.5 N/mm2..
400 = 20
= 0.46 x— OK
4.3.2.4.4(2)
E"n 427
bs W
250 2 2
Td
= (4) VSd(cote — cota) 43.2.4.4(5)
Eqn 4.30
For vertical links, cota = 0
—
Td = 266.3 x iO = 666mm
400
For this example the section will be divided into the subsections shown in
Figure 3.14.
1500
200f
Figure 3.14 Dimensions of subsections
hmax
= 310 mm, h. = 200 mm
hmax
= 1.55
h mm
200
hmax
= 1500 mm, hmin
= 250 mm
hmax 1500
6
h mm
250
where
u = outer circumference of the section
A = total area within the outer circumference
Therefore
= 62 x iO = 61mm
1020
t may not be less than twicethe cover, c, to the longitudinal bars. Hence, with 43.3.1(6)
10 mm links
tmm
. = 2(35 + 10) = 90 mm
3.4.4.2.2 Web
u = (1500 + 250)2 = 3500 mm
A = 1500 x 250 = 375 x 1O mm2
Therefore
t = 375 x i0 = 107 mm > 2c OK
3500
Values of t between the limits ofA/u and 2c maybe chosen provided that the
designtorsional moment, Tsd, does not exceed thetorsional moment that can
be resisted by the concrete compression struts.
TRd1
and TRd2 Eqn 4.38
Eqn 439
3.4.4.4 Torsion in flanges
2vfCdt4k
= 4.33.1(6)
TAd1
cote + tan8 Eqn 4.40
Rearranging gives
TRd1 1
cote + tan8
1
=
2vfcdtAk cote + tane
TsdfI
= 6.9 kNm
= 0.7
(0.7
— = 0385 . 0.35
= 20 N/mm2
t = 90mm
= area enclosed withinthe centre line of the thinwall section
Ak
= (310 — 90) x (200 — 90) = 24.2 x iO mm2
Therefore
T x 106 6.9
= 0.206
2ufdtAk 2 x 0385 x 20 x 90 x 24.2 x i0
By referenceto Figure 3.1 it maybe seen that thevalue of cote maybe taken NAD
anywhere between the limits of 0.67 to 1.5. Table 3
433.1(6)
To minimize link reinforcement take cote = 1.5.
Notethat this valuemust be consistent with the value taken for normal shear.
A
=
TAd2 2Ak(f—
$
cot8) 4.33.1(7)
Eqn 4.43
Rearranging gives
Asw TRd2
$ 2Aicot8
Putting TAd2 equal to Tsd
= T
s 2Akçcote
Using mild steel reinforcement
Therefore
A
— = 6.9 x 106
= 0.44mm/mm
2
s 2x24.2x103x217x1.5
where
Uk
= the circumference of the areaAk 433.1(7)
= 2[(310 —
90) + (200 — 90)] = 660 mm
Therefore
Sm
— = 82.5 mm, say 80 mm
= 660
= Eqn 4.44
Ac,d (TAd2 _!)cote
T Uk
=
Sdk cote
A Y1d
fyld 
Using high yield reinforcement
=
1.15
= 400N/mm2
Therefore
Tsdw
= 106 kNm
Ak = (1500
—
107) x (250 —
107) = 199.2 x iO mm2
Therefore
TSd 106x106
= = 032
2vfCdtAk 2x 0.385 x 20 x 107 x 199.2 x io
Again by reference to Figure 3.1, cote should fall within the limits of 0.67 to 1.5.
Similarly use cotO 1.5
As the web is subjectto shear and torsion, the combined effects should now
be checked to satisfy the condition
T 2
+
2
<
— 4.33.2.2(3)
TAd1 VRd2
Eqn 4.47
TSd
= 106 kNm
2ufcdt.4k
TRdl = 43.3.1(6)
cote + tane Eqn 4.40
=
2 x 0385 x 20 x 107 x 199.2 x iO =
1
151.5 kNm
1.5 +
VSd
355 kN
bWzufCd
VRd2
= 43.2.4.4(2)
cote + tane Eqn 4.26
Therefore
T2 + —
V2
TRd1 VRd2
=
(—)
1062
+
()3552 =
0.54 < 1.0 OK
0.46s
ASW = + 0.44s = 0.67s mm
2
'
(k)VRd2
Eqn 5.18
S = 0.6d = 864 300 mm
Therefore
S = 300 mm
For cracking
VSd —3VCd
50 N/mm2 4.4.2.3(5)
Table 4.13
Therefore S 300 mm
For torsion
U
k
smax
8
Uk
= 2[(1500 107) + (250 —
107)]
= 3072 mm
Therefore
3072
Smax = = 384mm
8
ASI
106x 106 x 3072 x 1.5 = 3065 mm2
400 x 2 x 199.2 x iO
The bars in the tension face of the web will need to be increased to provide
for theadditional longitudinal steel required for shear and combined with the
reinforcement required for flexure.
Area required in tension face for combined torsion and shear
= (3065 x 2) + 666 = 1049 mm2
16
Top flange
4T12 longitudinai bars
R8 iinks @ 80 mm crs
Bottom flange
4112 longitudinai bars
R8 iinks @ 80 mm crs.
Plus reinforcement for flexure of the nib
Web
3125 iongitudinai bars in tension face
7116 bars in each side face
112 links 160 mm cr5.
Pius reinforcement for flexure
4T12
R8_S0___f
_—T12 —160
R8_80__f/
4T12 3T25
h <4b NAD
where
b = width of the compression flange, which can be taken as bei 2.5.2.2.1(3)
for T and L beams
h = total depth of the beam
975x400 beam
B C 0
In this example the top of the beam is loaded but unrestrained (for instance,
the beam is carrying a wall).
The second requirement is satisfied i.e. h < 4b = 1600 mm
In calculating 1, the unrestrained length of the compression flange can be
taken as the distance between points of contraflexure.
These distances, which need to be < 50b = 20 m, can be obtained from Figure 2.3
EC2 Figure 23.
10(A—.B)
= 0.851(A—B) = 0.85 x 22 = 18.7 m
10(C—D)
= 21(C—D) = 2x 11 = 22 m
Spans A—C are satisfactory but span C—D is not, It is too slender and
the width will need to be increased, or additional lateral retraintwill need
to be provided.
I
4 SLABS
4.1 Solid and ribbed slabs
4.1.1 Oneway spanning solid slabs
Example of a oneway spanning slab is given in Section 2.
4.1.2 Twowayspanning solid slabs
EC21 permits the use of elastic analysis, with or without redistribution, or 2.5.1.1(5)
plastic analysis for ultimate limit state design.
Elastic analyses are commonly employed for oneway spanning slabs and for 2.53.5.1(2)
twoway spanning slabs without adequate provision to resist torsion at the
corners of the slab and prevent the corners from lifting. Plastic analyses are
commonly used in other situations.
Tabulatedresultsfor momentsand shearsfrom both typesof analysisare widely BS 8110
available. Tables
3.14 & 3.15
Care is necessary in subsequent design to ensure that adequate ductility is 2.53.2.2(5)
present.Where redistributionhasbeen performed,the necessarychecks should 2.5.3.4.2(3)
be carried out. 2.5.3.5.5(2)
I I
I I
220mm wide I tx Sm
supporting walk I
I
I
II Ii
__________ I
I.. Ly6m
4.1.2.1.1 Durability
Table 4.1
For a dry environment, exposure class is 1. ENV 206
Minimum concrete strength grade is C25/30. Table NA.1
For cement content and wlc ratio, refer to ENV 206 Table 3(6)
Note: NAD
20 mm nominal cover is sufficient to meet the NAD1 requirements in all Table 3
respects. 4.133(8)
Check requirements for fire resistance to BS 8110: Part 2(2). NAD 6.1(a)
4.1.2.1.2 Materials
4.1.2.1.3 Loading
MSdx = afl12
MSdy =
For = 1.2
lx
= 0.084, a = 0.059
—
Giving
= 30.8 kNrn/rn
MsdX
= 21.6 kNm/m
Msdy
_
M
= 0.043
bd2fck
x
— = 0.099 < 0.45 OK 2.5.3.4.2(5)
d
Af
= 0.052
bdck
=
Therefore A 478 mm2/m
_.
M
= 0.035
bd2fck
At = 0.042
bdfCk
VSdX
= 8a (i) = 24.6 kN/m
ni 2
= = 14.4 kN/m
VSdy 8a, (_)
TRd
= 0.3 N/mm2 Table 4.8
Assume p 50% of reinforcement curtailed at support
k = 1.6—d = 1.431 lzl
Assume
VRd1
= 87.0 kN/m > VSdX
= 24.6 kN/m
Control by limiting span/effectivedepth ratio based on the shorter span for a 4.43.2
twoway spanning slab.
NAD Table 7 gives basic span/effectivedepth ratios which are assumed to be 4.43.2(4)
based on = 400 N/mm2.
Note 2to NADTable7 statesthatmodificationto thetabulated valuesfor nominal
reinforced concrete should not be carried out to take into account service
stressesin the steel (referto EC2 Clause 4.43.2(4)).However,it is assumed that
the correction ought to be made for concrete with 0.15% p 0.5% but that <
the resultingvalues should notexceed those tabulated intheNADfor nominally
reinforced concreta
Basic limiting span/effective depth ratios are:
250 —
400 —
400 —
— — — 103
s I (A
yk
IA
areq sprov'
460 x 478/566
Therefore, permissible span/effective depth ratio
= 1.03 x 29.4 = 303 34
Note: BS 8110
No modification to the longer span reinforcement is required in cases where 3.5.7
short span reinforcement isincreased to complywith deflection requirements.
SLS
4.1.2.1.7 Serviceability —
cracking
For a slab with h 200 mm, no further measures to control crackingare 4.4.23(1)
necessary if the requirements of EC2 Clause 5.4.3 have been applied.
4.1.2.1.8 Detailing
Detailing requirements for cast in situ solid slabs, including twoway slabs 5.43
Slab thickness, h = 200 > 50 mm OK 5.4.3.1(1)
Forthe short span, usealternatelystaggered bars and anchor50% ofthe mid 5.43.2.2(1)
span reinforcement at the supports.
a
= + Nsd 5.43.2.1(1)
Anchorage force, F6 VSd  5.4.2.1.4(2)
NSd — 0 EqnS.15
a1 5.43.2.1(1)
Therefore
F6
= VSd
= 24.6 kN/m
24.6 x iO =
Areq = —
F6 = ________ 61.5 mm2/m
400
= 283 mm2/m OK
aalbAsreq
Net bond length, net = 1b.min 5.23.4.1(1)
A6pçp, Eqn 5.4
A. f
1
b
=
4
x—
f 5.2.2.3
EqnS.3
All bars in slabs with h 250 mm may be assumed to have good bond. 5.2.2.1
Table 5.3
= 2.7 N/mm2
'bd
1
b
12
=— x= 400
2.7
444mm
112 —300
A
/ I
112 — 200
alternateLy
staggered
220
A • 0.6b d
yk
l 0.0015bd
= 254 mm2/m 5.43.2.1(3)
5.4.2.1.1(1)
E1
Supporting beams
6m
6m
6m
I I I
4.1.2.2.1 Durability
Note: NAD
20 mm nominal cover is sufficientto meet the NAD requirementsin all respects. Table 3
4.1.3.3(8)
Check requirements for fire resistance to BS 8110: Part 2. NAD 6.1(a)
4.1.2.2.2 Materials
1=1
4.1.2.2.3 Loading
Assume 200 mm thick slab
= 4.8 + 1.0 = 5.8 kN/m2
= 5.0 kN/m2
= Table 2.2
1.35 or 1.0
= 1.5 or 0.0
lfQ
Bending moment coefficients for twoway spanning slabs supported on four BS 8110
edges, with provision for torsion at the corners, have been calculated based Table 3.15
on both elastic and yield line theory. The coefficients published in BS 8110:
Part 1, Table 3.15, are based on yield line analysisand are used in thisexample.
For continuous slabs the effects of rotational restraint from the supports can 2.53.3(3)
be ignored.
Yield line methods can only be used for very ductile structural elements. Use 2.5.3.2.2(5)
high ductility steel Class H to prEN 10080(8). NAD
Table 5
No direct checkon rotational capacity is required if high ductility steel is used. 2.53.5.5(3)
x M
— = 0.25 which is equivalent to = 0.102
d bd2ç
For the yield line (kinematic)method, avariety of possible mechanisms should 2.53.5.5(4)
be considered. Thisis assumed in theuse of the published bending moment
coefficients.
SLABS
The ratio of moments at a continuous edge to the span moment should be 2.53.5.5(5)
between 0.5 and 2.0. This is true for the published coefficients.
Consider the design of the corner panel, D, in Figure 4.4. 2.5.1.2

.
C..'
?
0.024 0028
—0•032
I
C..'
m4
c$
C...'
. —0032 —0•037
I
0
(n+
c.$
ci
— A
ni
B
u
..o
.0
9
•
0028
l
—0037 I —0•037
C4 n
1
i•f
cY ct
C 0
Using the coefficients shown in Figure 4.4 and the method described in BS 8110
BS 8110 to adjust moments for adjacent panels with unequal conditions, the 3.53.6
following moments and shears can be calculated for this panel:
In the 6 m direction, = 29.7 kNm/m
M5
Mspan = 28.5 kNm/m
In the 7.2 m direction, = 21.0 kNm/m
M5
Mspan = 20.6 kNm/m
where
Fsd su
= design supportreaction compatible with the analysismoments.
ri
For the short span, with the reinforcement in the first layer
12
d = 200 — 25 — — = 169 mm
2
__ = 0.038
bd2fIk
Af
_ = 0.045
bdck
A = 414 mm2/m
For the long span, with the reinforcement in the second layer
12
d = 200 — 25 — 12 — — = 157 mm
2
_
M
= 0.030
bd2fCk
x
= 0.068 < 0.45 OK
Af = 0.035
bdck
=
A 297 mm2/m
4.1.2.2.6 Shear
4.3.2
Use forces consistent with the analysis moments.
In the 6 m direction:
At internal beam, V. = 0.47 x 1533 x 6 = 42 kN/m
V
mt
At edge, = 031 x 15.33 x 6 = 28.5 kN/m
In the 7.2 m direction:
At internal beam, V1,
= 0.4 x 1533 x 6 = 36.8 kN/m
At edge, V = 0.26 x 15.33 x 6 = 23.9 kN/m
VAd1
= [rRdk(l.2 + 4Op,) + 0.15a] bd 4.3.2.3
Eqn 4.18
TAd
= 0.3 N/mm2 Table 4.8
aCp =0
Therefore
VAd1
= 91.0 kN/m > Vs = 28.5 kN/m at edge support
Control by limiting span/effective depth ratio based on the shorter span for a 4.43.2
twoway spanning slab. 4.43.2(5)
6000 =
Actual span/effectivedepth ratio = 35.5
169
It may be normally assumed that slabs are lightly stressed (p 0.5%). Table 4.14
4.4.3.2(5)
NAD 6.4(e) and (f) allowsthe basic span/effectivedepth ratio to be interpolated,
according to the reinforcement provided, for values in the range 0.15% < p
<0.5%.
Aprov
= 452 mm2/m, p = 0.27%
_______ x 452
— = 400
250 400
= =0.89
f
yk
x AsjeqIAsprov 460x441
4.1.2.2.8 Serviceability —
cracking
For a slab with h 200 mm no further measures are required to control 4.4.2.3(1)
cracking, providedthe requirements of EC2 Clause 5.4.3have been applied.
For theshortspan, use alternatelystaggered bars and anchor50% ofthe mid 5.43.2.2(1)
span reinforcement at the external support.
Anchorage force (at external support)
a 5.4.2.1.4(2)
F5
= VSd
x + Nsd Eqn 5.15
d
= 0
Nsd
a1
= d 5.4.3.2.1(1)
F5
= VSd
= 28.5 kN/rn
28.5 x
=—=
f
F5
As.req =71mm/rn
400
=
qSxf yd 5.2.2.3
1b
Eqn 53
SLABS
For all bars in slabs with h 250 mm, good bond may be assumed. 5.2.2.1
l
12 400
= 444mm
1b
=jx
In calculating take Asq as midspan reinforcement/4. NAD 6.5(c)
5.4.2.1.4(3)
1
= 0.7 x 444 x = 156 mm > OK
at edge beam
4.1.2.2.10 Top reinforcement
A = 110 mm2/m lz A1
Minimum area of reinforcement 5.43.2.1(3)
0.6b d
A8 z 0.001Sbtd = 254 mm2/m
yk
Use T10 @ 250 mm crs. bars extending 0.21 from inner face of 5.4.3.2.2(2)
supportinto span
Retain not less than aquarterof midspan reinforcementat support and provide 5.4.2.1.4(1)
not less than 10 anchorage.
Providecontinuity bars lapped with bottom reinforcementas shown in Figure4.6. Figure
5.13(b)
Using alternately staggered bars with continuity for 50% of the midspan
reinforcement.
112— 500
_____
L12250
120
I C 4
1 100 120
Supporting beams
6m 6m
I
Ai
PLAN
1oo
A A
Note: NAD
20 mm nominal cover is sufficientto meet the NAD requirementsin all respects. Table 3
4.133(8)
4.1.3.1.2 Materials
= = = 400N/mm2 2.2.3.2P(1)
1.15 Table 23
C25/30 concrete with 20 mm maximum aggregate size
4.1.3.1.3 Analysismodel
Span 4 x slab depth 2.5.2.1(3)
6m 4 x 0.275 = 1.lm OK
1eff
= i, + a1 + a2 Eqn 2.15
Assume 300 mm wide supporting beams
= 5700 mm
a1 at edge beam = a1
taken as () t = 150 mm Figure 2.4(a)
i a = (i) t
= =
a2 at central beam 150 mm Figure 2.4(b)
= 6000 mm
For ratio of adjacent spans between 1 and 1.5
10
= 0.85i = 0.85 x 6000 = 5100 mm 2.5.2.2.1(4)
Figure 23
4.1.3.1.5 Effective width of flanges 2.5.2.2.1
be = b
+ (*) 10 b Eqn 2.13
beff= 600mm
4.1.3.1.6 Loading
= 3.6+ 1.0 = 4.6 kN/m2
= 5.0 kN/m2
= 1.35 Table 2.2
—
— 15 2.3.2.3P(2)
Table 2.2
Maximum ultimate load = 1.35 x 4.6 + 1.5 x 5.0 = 13.7 kN/m2
(a) Alternate spans carrying the design variable and permanent load
(ok + Gk)' other spans carrying only the design permanent
load,
(b) Anytwo adjacent spans carryingthe designvariable and permanent
load ('ok + 1GGk). All other spans carrying only the design
permanent load, GGk.
SLABS
305 (—370)
Notes
1. Values are per rib
2. Values in brackets are
those obtained when I
us taken as uniform
298 (30•8)
throughout the span
210 (202)
(— 202)
The following results are taken from the analysis (see Figure 4.8).
Therefore
Msup = — 283 kNmlrib
d = 275 — 25 — 10 — — = 232 mm
2
b = 600 mm (span), 125 mm (support)
M
= 0.033
bd2fk
x
= 0.075 < 0.45 OK 2.53.4.2(5)
d
Neutral axis in flange (x = 17.4 < 100 mm) OK
Afsyk
= 0.039
bdfck
AS = 295 mm2/rib
M
—E = 0.168 > lLIim
= 0.167 (Section 13, Table 13.2)
bd2fck
Therefore
x
> 0.45
d
This section may be analyzed to take account of the varying width of the
compression zone, as shown in Figure 4.9.
+ +
195
cd
125
af = 0.85 x 
Using the rectangular stress block diagram with a =
1.5
= 14.2 N/mm2
0.85 gives NAD
Table 3
4.2.1.3.3(12)
Figure 4.4
0.8x = 75 mm
bav = 140mm
z = d—39 = 193mm
A = 452 mm2/rib
b = 125mm
A
p, = —1 = 0.0155 0.02
bd
Giving
VRd1
= 21.6 kN/rib < VSd
VRd3
= VCd + VWd Eqn 4.22
SLABS
where
Therefore
VWd
= x 0.9dç 29.8 — 21.6 = 2 kN/rib Eqn 4.23
VRd2
= 0.5 x 0.575 x 16.7 x 125 x 0.9 x 232 x iO = 125 kN
(i) VRd2 < "Sd (f) VRd2
Therefore
A = 0.0022bs = 35 mm2

Use R6 links @ 125 mm cra (A8 = 57 mm2)
I
fywd = = 217N/mm2
1.15
d Eqn 4.33
=
VSd
a
F0
= acd(O.8x)b
x
= 0.075 at midspan
600 — 195
iFd = 122 x
2x600
= 41.2kN
Therefore
vSd = —
41.2
= 16.2kN/m
2.55
VRd2
= O.2çJhf
= 0.2 x 16.7 x 100 = 334 kN/m > VSd
.. OK Eqn 436
Eqn 434
VRd3
= 2.5TRdhf + Af Eqn 437
Sf
WithA = 0
VRd3
= 2.5 x 03 x 100 = 75 kN/m > VSd
OK Eqn 4.35
c1 <hf=lOOmm
Therefore, conservatively
A 150 mm2/m
403
Midspan reinforcement ratio, p = = 0.0029
600 x 232
400 x 403
Modification factor for steel stress = = 1.19
460 x 295
Since flange width > 3 x rib width, a 0.8 modification factor is required.
Since span 7 m, no further modification is required.
Permitted span/effective depth ratio = 39.2 x 1.19 x 0.8
= 373 > 25.9 OK
4.1.3.1.12 Cracking
For exposure class 1, crackwidth has no influence on durability and the limit 4.4.2.1(6)
of 0.3 mm could be relaxed. However, the limit of 03 mm is adopted for this
example.
175
125 j•_5
k = 0.8
For cracks caused dominantly by loading, crack widths generally will not be 4.4.23(2)
excessive.
4.1.3.1.13 Detailing
cbf
Basic anchorage length, 1b = 5.2.2.3
Eqn 53
x 400 =
For bottom reinforcement, 'b
4 x 2.7
Anchorage of bottom reinforcement at end support. 5.4.2.1.4
Treatas a solid slab and retain not less than halfof the midspan reinforcement. 5.4.3.2.2(1)
Anchorage force for this reinforcement with zero design axial load
a
F = VSd x 5.4.2.1.4(2)
S
d Eqn 5.15
where
= 21 kN/rib
a1
= z(1 — cota)/2 1z 0
a = 90° and z is taken as 0.9d
Although this ribbedslab falls outside the solid slab classification requirements 5.4.3.2.1(1)
for analysis, treat as a solid slab for detailing and take a1 = d.
Therefore
= 21 kN/rib
F5
21 x iO =53mm2<A
Asreq prov
OK
400
M = 0.040
bd2fmk
N18 m
2112
per rib
/ !L'
I
Lb net b13 Is
i =
lb.netal 1smin Eqn 5.7
Therefore
S
= 444 x 1.4 = 622 mm > 1
5mm
OK
R6— 125
links
h LJ1 L116 per rib
L I
1116 per rib
L b, net 160
41
This detailing prohibitsthe easy use of prefabricated rib cages because of the
intersection of the bottom reinforcement with the supporting beam cage. It is
suggested that providing suitably lapped continuity bars through the support
should obviate the need to continue the main steel into the support.
R6
T16
Design the slab shown in Figure 4.14 to support an additional dead load of
1.0 kN/m2 and an imposed load of 5.0 kN/m2.
N A B C D
A
I I.. ii
425m 52m
I. 5•2m
4•25rn
_ I _
SQm
5•2rn
4.25m +
5E—  ___
The area shown is part of a larger structure whichis laterally restrained in two
orthogonal directions by core walls.
The slab is 225 mm thick. All columnsare 300 mm square and along grid 5
there is an edge beam 450 mm deep x 300 mm wide.
4.2.1.1.1 Durability
Since a more humid environment is likely to exist at the edges of the slab,
increase concrete strength grade to C30/37.
For cement content and w/c ratio, refer to ENV 206 Table 3.
Nominal coverto reinforcement = 20 mm NAD
Table 6
Nominal cover to all bars iz bar size
NAD 6.4(a)
z nominal aggregate size = 20 mm .. OK 4.1 .3.3(5)
4.2.1.1.2 Materials
Gk
= 0.225 x 24 + 1.0 = 6.4 kN/m2
'YGGk
= 1.35 x 6.4 = 8.7 kN/m2 Table 2.2
4.2.1.1.4 Analysis
Analyses are carried out using idealizations of both the geometry and the 2.5.1.1.P(3)
behaviour of the structure.The idealizationselected shall be appropriate to the and P(4)
problem being considered.
No guidance is given in EC2 on the selection of analysis models for flat slabs,
or on the division of panels into middleand columnstripsand thedistribution
of analysis moments between these strips. This is left to the assessment of
individual engineera Therequirementsset down in BS 8110 forthe above points
are taken as a means of complying with EC2 Clause 2.5.1.1P(3).
EC2 allows analysis of beams and slabs as continuous over pinned supports. 2.533(3)
It then permits a reduction in the supportmoment given by 2.5.33(4)
= F b /8
Sd Sdsup sup
3500
'777 77
ANALYSIS MODEL
123
d2
= 195—20 = 175mm
be
= 300 + 300 (say) = 600 mm
ICu
= 37 N/mm2
Msd
=
37.9 x i0 = 0.069
bd2ck 600 x 1752 x 30
Afsyk
= 0.085
bdfCk
Note:
This approach gives more reinforcement than is necessary.
:1
I
cII
esi
T 1
•I
4_i
1
I I
Sø
I—
Check above moment against minimum value required for punching shear. 43.4.5.3
= ±0.l25perm
V = 156.4kN
Therefore
= ± 0.125 x 156.4 = ± 19.6 kNm/m
mSd
Design for mSd above in region outside edge column momenttransfer zone.
Use T12 at 300 mm crs. (373 mm2/m) top and bottom (minimum)
The ratio of the edge column distribution factors for theframes is 2.0.
be
= 300 + (say) = 450 mm
Use T16 @ 150 mm crs. (1340 mm2/m) top for a width of 600 mm
Check above moment against minimum value required for punching shear. 43.4.53
MSd 321x106
= = 0.035
bd2ck 1000 x 1752 x 30
Af
— = 0.042
bdfCk
The division of panels intocolumn and middle strips is shown in Figure 4.17. BS 8110
Figure 3.12
Although BS 8110 indicates a 2.36 m wide column strip at column B2, a
2.6 m width has been used in the following calculations. This is considered
reasonable as a loaded width of 5.2 m hasbeen taken in the analysis for grid
B and grid 2.
A B C
AS
0.076 x 2600 x 175 x 30 = 2255mm
460
Use 13116 (2613 mm2) top in column strip. Provide 9T16 @ 150 mm crs. BS 8110
in central 13 m and 2116 @ 300 mm crs. on either side a7.3.1
Msd
= tJVsd
= —0.125 x 444.7 = —55.6 kNm Eqn 4.59
Thisis to be carried over a width of 031. Since includes for a loaded width
of 5.2 m, it is assumed that the larger panel width may be used.
A5
— 0.031 x 1000 x 175 x 30 = 354 mm2/m
=
b 460
Span moments
No special provisions are required in EC2. Hence the design basis of BS 8110
is adopted forthedivision of moments.The same pattern of reinforcementwill
be provided in all panels.
The column strip moments are given in Table 4.2 where
= 0.55 Msd
Msd
Table 4.2 Column strip span moments
Total MsdS
moment MsdS b
Span Msd (kNm) (m)
b
(kNm) (kN)
!M8 1 28.6 X iO =
0.031
b / 1752 x 30
d2fck
Af x— =
—
— 0.037 0.071 < 0.45 OK 2.53.4.2(5)
bdfCk
d
A 0.037 x 175 x 30 x io
— — 422 mm2/m
b 460
Using the middle strip moment for the first interior span
= 0.45 X 123 X
MSd 106
= 0.026
bd2fk 2365 x 1752 x 30
Afk = X
=
0.031 — 0.059 < 0.45 OK 2.53.4.2(5)
bdfCk
d
A
— = 0.031 x 175 x 30 x iO = 354 mm2/m
b 460
length = 1 2 OK
breadth
Hence
= 444.7 kN
VSd
VSd
=
v
——
u
where internal column = 1.15 Eqn 4.50
Figure 4.21
= +
VRd1 rRdk(l.2 4Op1)d Eqn 4.56
p1
= reinforcement ratio within zone 1.5d from column face
(T16 @ 150 mm crs. top each way gives 1340 mm2/m)
P1
= J x
i1 p, i 0.015
1340
= = 0.0072
1000 x 185
Note:
The amount oftensile reinforcementin two perpendicular directions > 0.5%. 4.3.4.1(9)
= 2 (0.0072) > 0.005
Assume p1 + p OK
Therefore
VAd1
= 0.34 x 1.415 x (1.2 + 40 x 0.0072) x 185 = 133 N/mm
= >
VSd
174 N/mm Vf
Therefore shear reinforcement required such that VRd3 VSd 4.3.4.3(3)
Check that applied shear does not exceed the maximum section capacity
VRd2
= 2.0 VRd1
= 2.0 x 133 = 266 > 174 N/mm OK NAD
Table 3
—
f
EAswyd
—
Rd3 Rdl
u Eqn 4.58
Therefore
Minimum reinforcement ratio = 100% x value given in EC2 Table 5.5. NAD
Table 3
= 0.0012 by interpolation 5.4.3.3(2)
Pwmin
Table 5.5
Denominator =
(300 + 3 x 185)2 —
(1.5 x 185)2(4 — — 3002 = 575000 mm2
Thus A sw,mun
0.0012 x 575000 = 690 mm2
VRd2
= (2) vcdbw x 0.9d Eqn 4.25
f
= 0.7— — = 0.55 4.21
Eqn
200
= 
1.5
= 20 N/mm2 2.3.3.2
Table 2.3
Therefore
VRd2
=
(j) x 0.55 x 20 x 0.9 x 185 = 916 N/mm
VsdIVRd2
= 174/916 = 0.19 0.2
Placing shear links on 100 mm grid in 700 mm square gives 48 links with 44 4.3.4.5.2(2)
inside the critical perimeter.
By inspection the minimum preferred bar size will govern and mild steel links
could be used.
Where necessary the punching shear resistance outside the shear reinforced 4.3.4.5.2(3)
area should be checked by considering further critical perimeters.
Check where
= = 133 N/mm
VSd VAd1
Hence
u =——=V5d13 444.7 x iO x 1.15
= 3845mm
VRd1 133
vSd == V5j3
u
64.1 x
1035
x 1.5
= 93N/mm
Figure 4.21
Eqn 4.50
Reinforcement within zone 1.5d from column face is T16 @ 150 mm crs. top
each way (see Figure 4.19).
300 277
t.u '1
VAd1
= 133 N/mm (as for column B/2)
VRd1
> VSd
V = 156.4 kN
VAd1
>
Therefore no shear reinforcement required 43.43(2)
4.2.1.1.7 Deflection
Note 2 to NAD Table 7 states that modifications to the tabulated values for
nominally reinforced concrete should not be carried out to take into account
service stresses in the steel (refer to EC2: Clause 4.4.3.2(4)). However it is
assumed that correction ought to be carried out for 0.15% p < 0.5% but
that the resulting values should not exceed those tabulated in the NAD for
nominally reinforced concrete.
when
= 460 N/mm2 and Areq =
Aspr
400 A
Modification factor = — x s,req = 0.87
Aprj
Basic span/effectivedepth ratios for flat slabs are NAD
Table 7
lightly stressed (p = 0.5%) = 30 . (e)
nominally reinforced (p = 0.15%) = 41
= 5200 =
max span
29.7 < 37.5 x 0.87 = 32.6 OK
d mm
175
Limit bar size using EC2 Table 4.11 or bar spacing using EC2 Table 4.12. The
relevant limits are shown in Table 43.
1.0 08
Steel stress (N/mm2) 200 160
1ct,eff
= minimum value suggested, 3 N/mm2
k = 0.4, k= 0.8
Therefore
AC
A 0.4 x 0.8 x 3 x = 0.001 AC
2x460
< 0.0015 bd (minimum flexural steel) OK
SLABS
4.2.1.1.9 Detailing
ColumnB/2
For flexure/shearbars should extend for a distance d + 1net z 2d beyond the 5.4.2.1.3
point at which they are no longer needed (a1 = d = shift in moment (1)&(2)
diagram). Figure 5.11
=
 x —5L where f = 400 N/mm2
5.4.3.2.1(1)
Eqn 5.3
Therefore
b
400
=—x— = 33
As.req
5.23.4.1
net Olb
Eqn 5.4
Asreq
For straight bars = 1.0 and if = 1.0
Apr,
= = 534 mm for 116 bars, say 550 mm.
net
Curtail alternate bars as shown in Figure 4.20.
Alternate bars
curtailed at 1
and 2
N, 2
0•5 0
I571 ,,j..5711
Check that bars are anchored past relevant critical punching perimeter.
Earlier calculation required column strip reinforcement to extend beyond a
perimeter 420 mm from column face i.e. 570 mm from grid. It is assumed
sufficient to provide an anchorage 1flet beyond this perimeter. Inspection of
Figure 4.20 shows that this is satisfied.
dcrjt
V .1
300
IIH
For a circular column head, assumethat EC2 Equation 4.51 applies to the case 4.3.4.4(1)
where 'H = l.ShH.
Note:
It is suggested that EC2 Equation 4.55 should read dcrit = l.5dH + 05lç
which reduces to the same as Equation 4.51 when 'H = l.5hH.
Assume an effective column diameter, 1 = 300 mm
To avoid shear reinforcement:
27rdt 3845 mm
dcrit 612mm
'H 612 — 1.5d —
0.51
= 612 —
1.5(185) — 150 = 185 mm Eqn 4.51
SLABS
hH —
185
= 123 mm say 125 mm
1.5
+ = 670mm
21H
= 1.5d + 0.561 +
d 612mm
(612 — 1 .5d —
0.56l)
1.12
hH >—=
—
149
1.5
100mm
+ 21H
= 600mm
425m 52m
t.2
52 m
3
3 Sm
3 Sm
35m
3 Sm
77 zI,
Office floors
Dead load = 6.4 kN/m2
Imposed load = 5.0 kN/m2
Roof imparts load to columnsB/i and B/5
Dead load = 20 kN
Imposed load = 30 kN
SLABS
This is 90% of the value obtained from CP3: Chapter V: Part 2(11). NAD 4(c)
Note:
The distribution of horizontal load between eachframe is determined by their
relative stiffness.
7FFV
NSd,m —
n
F = E all vertical loads at given level (under service condition) A.3.2(1)
n = Numberof columns
SOkN 5OkN
wkN/m 11
P2 P3 P2 R
NSd,m =
100 + (18.9 x 59.3) = 244 kN
5
InnI
=
JII =
A
= 86.6 mm
For a horizontally loaded flat slab framedetermine the stiffnesses of the frame
and thus the effective lengths of the columns using half the slab stiffness.
Consider the centre column from foundation to first floor.
El oI d
C C
= ; Ecm assumed constant 4.3.5.3.5(1)
kA
EOJbIleff Eqn 4.60
ICCI
=
12
= 0.675 x i0 mm4
= 4725 x 225 = 2.24 x iO mm4
2x 12
= 3500 mm
1
eff
= 5200 mm 2.5.2.2.2
a = 1.0
Therefore
kA —
— 2(0.675 x 10/3500) —
— 05
2(2.24 x
10/5200)
kB
= 0° (pinned at foundation)
Hence
X = 7500/86.6 = 87
X = z 25 43.5.3.5(2)
= N5
Nsd
= 3 x 16.2 x 5.22 = 1314 kN
With the rigorous approach the design values are given by 23.2.2 P(2)
where
0k.1
= primary variable load, 0k2 = secondary variable load
= 0.7 generally NAD
Table 1
The values are given in EC2 Table 2.2.
Load cases with two variable actions (imposed and wind) are:
For nonsensitivestructures it is sufficient to consider the load cases (a) and NAD 6.2(e)
(b) above withoutpatterning the imposed loads. 2.5.1.2P(1)
The NADallows the useof EC2 Equation 2.8(b) to give a single imposed and
wind load case:
= 11. i +1
n
where n = number of columns = 5 Eqn 2.11
= 0.78
Eti
= (18.9 x 5.2) x 16.2 = 1592 kN
Therefore
= 1592 x 0.0039 = 6.2 kN per floor
Wk
= (4.725 x 3.5) x 1.0 = 16.5 kN per floor
Therefore the effects of imperfections are smaller than the effects of 2.5.1.3(8)
design horizontal loads and their influence may be ignored in load
combinations (ii) to (iv).
4.2.2.1.5 Design
5.2.1 Introduction
Two examples are considered:
1. Where the neutral axis at ultimate limit state lies within the section; and
2. Where the neutral axis at ultimate limit state lies outside the section.
The firstof theseis very simple whilethe algebra necessary for the second is
more complex. For convenience, the same section will be used for both
examples. This is shown in Figure 5.1.
Assume
fyk = 460 N/mm2 and fck = 30 N/mm2
350
2Jf
_L
2132
 500
4125
k 30
tyk 460 "j _k..
5.2.2 Example 1
Calculatethe moment thatthe section can sustainwhencombined with an axial
load of 2750 kN.
If the neutral axis is within the section, thecompressiveforce generated by the 4.2.133
concrete at ultimate limit state is given by Figure 4.2
=
NRdC O.459fCkbx
and the moment by
= —
0.416x)
MAdC NRdC(h/2
(5) NRd
= + NRdS
(6) If NRd is not close enough to 2750 kN, modify the value of x and return
to step (2)
(7) If NRd is approximately 2750 kN, calculate MRdC and MRdS
(8) MRd
= MRdC + MRdS
NRdC
= 0.459 x 30 x 350 x 250/1000 = 1205 kN
0.0035
stOp
x 200 = 0.0028
250
NRdS1
= 2x 804 x 400/1000 = 643 kN
= 0 and NRdS2 = 0
cmid
€sbot
= — therefore = —400 N/mm2
NRdS3
—2 x 491 x 400/1000 = —393 kN
Hence
= 1205 + 643 — 393 = 1455 kN
NRd
= 250 x 2750
Try new valuefor x = 473 mm
1455
COLUIA4S
NRdC
= 0.459 x 30 x 350 x 473/1000 = 2289 kN
= 643 kN as before
NRdSI
0.0035
(473 —
250) = 0.00165
smid
473
mid
= 0.00165 x 200000 = 330 N/mm2
NRdS2
= 330 x 2 x 491/1000 = 324 kN
= 0.0035 (473 —
450) = 0.00017
€sbot
473
= 33 kN
NRd = 34 x 2 x 491/1000
Hence
NRd
= 2289 + 643 + 324 + 33 = 3289 kN
= 250 + 2750 —
1455\ = 407 mm
(473 — 250)
—
(3289 1455)
NRdC
= 0.459 x 30 x 350 x 407/1000 = 1961 kN
= 643 kN as before
NAdS1
0.0035
mid = (407 — 250) = 0.00135
407
0.0035
= (407— 450) = —0.00037
407
Hence
NRd
= 1961 + 643 + 265 — 73 = 2796 kN
MRdC
= 1961 x (250 — 0.416 x 407)/1000 = 158.2 kNm
MAd
= 643 x 0.2 = 12&6 kNm
= 0
MRdS2
5.2.3 Example 2
Calculate the moment and axial force that can be sustainedby the sectionwhere
the neutral axis depth is 600 mm.
Note:
The example has been given in this way so that repeated iterations are not
necessary.These would not provide any new information to the reader.
—
0.002x 0.002 x 600 = 0.0031 4.3.1.2(1)
U
x — 3 h/7 600 — 3 x 500/7 (viii) &
Figure 4.11
The conditions in the section are shown in Figure 5.2.
• •
•
600
/
"I
Strain
—/
Stress in concrete
Thetechnique adopted for the calculation of NRdC and MRdC is to calculate the
effect ofthe stress block on a depth of 600 mm nd then dduct the influence
of the part lying outside the section.
M'Rd,c = cN'Rd,c
where
c = h/2 — x(j32 — + 4 6); and
—
12 43
f3 =
O.OO2/E
Note:
It will be found that, if = 0.0035,theseequations give the values used in
the first example.
The equations for the force and moment produced by the part of the stress
block lying outside the section are
= 0.5667a(1 —
a13)(x — h)bfk
where
a =
Hence
a = 0.255 and = 0.645
N'RdC
= 0.5667(1 — 0.645/3) x 350 x 600 x 30/1000 = 2802 kN
c = 250— 600(0.6452
— 4 x 0.645 + 6) = 5.67mm
12 — 4 x 0.645
Hence
M'RdC
= 5.67 x 2802/1000 = 15.9 kNm
Hence
NRd,sl = 643kN
0.0031
Strain in middle layer of bars = x 350 = 0.00181
600
Hence
= 362 N/mm2
f8
NRd = 152 kN
NRd
= 2663 + 643 + 355 + 152 = 3813 kN
= 553 + 128 — 30.4 = 153 kNm
MRd
5.3.2 Problem
Demonstratethat the section shown in Figure 5.3 can carry ultimate design
moments of 540 and 320 kNm about the two principal axes in combination
with an axial loadof 3000 kN. Thecharacteristic strength of the reinforcement
is 460 N/mm2 and the concrete strength is 30 N/mm2.
500
I
H
2038mm2
500
• •
Ti,I
Figure 5.3 Column section
Stress in concrete
Note: NAD
It is assumed that EC21 Section 4.2.133(12) implies that a should be taken Table 3
as 0.8 for btaxial bending butthe NAD1 would allow 0.85.
It can be seen from the diagram that the axial force provided by the concrete
is given by
NC = 0.8bxf
ccd
The moments about the centroidof the concrete section are given by
Mcx =NR
c
where
h 1 1! btane 1
x = ———'lx — tane2 + —
2 2XL 2 I btane(x 6 )j
M 0.8fCdb3tane
cy
12
These equations are valid where x' < h. When x' > h, rather simpler
equations can be derived.
The location of the reinforcement is shown in Figure 5.5.
27 d
H
14
— — —— — — —
3
f
S
= (200000 x
0.0035)
. —
— ZP yd
where
z = I—c +
I (b/2 —
d')tanO — cose
0.8 db}
db
= depth from top faceof section to bar considered. This will be
d' for top bars and h — d' for bottom bars.
The force in each bar is f5A5 and the moments are obtained by multiplying the
forces by the distance of the bars from the centroid of the concrete section.
Dimensions to the right or upwards are taken as positive.
The total moments and forces carried by the section are the sum of thesteel
and concrete contributions.
The correct values of x and e have to be found by iteration.
f =—==
1.5 1.5
2ONImm2
COLUIAI4S
8 = tan1 = tan1O.59
540
The reinforcement will increase this value significantly, hence x0 will be less
= 300 mm.
than 355 mm. Try x
5.3.5 Calculation
The simplest way to carry out the calculation is by writing the equations into
x
a spreadsheet and then adjusting the values of and 0 until the correctaxial
load and ratio MIM is obtained. The resulting output for the final iteration is
given below. It will be seen that the result is satisfactory.
Barna z f F M
1 1329 22378 456.07 91.21 —91.21
2 363.13 400.00 815.20 1604 16304
3 32.29 52.26 106.50 —21.30 21.30
4 —192.54 —311.57 —634.97 126.99 12699
5,4.2 Problem
Calculatethe reinforcementrequired in a400 mm x 400 mm column subjected
toa design axial load of 2500 kN combined with thefirst order bending moments
shown in Figure 5.6.
The effective length has been calculated as 8 m. 43.5.3.5
M02 75 kNm
M01 30 kNm
Assume
= 460 N/mm2 and Ck = 30 N/mm2
X = =
101i (l0/h).[.
=
(8800I400)J = 76.2
= Nsd/(ACfCd)
e01
= —30 x 106/(2500 x 10) = —12 mm
e2 = 75 x 106/(2500 x 10) = 30 mm
Hence
= 25(2 + 12/30) = 60
5.4.5 Eccentricities
Additional eccentricity 43.5.4(3)
ea
= lI2
v = 1/200 2.5.12(4)
Eqn 2.10
ea
= 8800/400 = 22 mm
0.4e02
= 0.4 x 30 = 12.0 mm
Hence
ee
= 13.2 mm
Ultimate curvature, hr =
2K2€1j0.9d 4.3.5.6.3(5)
= 400 Eqn 4.72
Assume d — 60 = 340 mm
2x 460 x K2
hr = = 13.07K2 x 106 radians
200000 x 1.15 x 0.9 x 340
Second order eccentricity
e2
= 0.1 K1l2(1Ir) Eqn 4.69
1<1
= 1
Eqn 4.71
Hence
e2
= 88002 x 13.07 x iO 1<2
= 101.2 <2 mm
This gives
= 136.4 mm
ot
N/bhck = 2500 x l0I(400 x 400 x 30) = 0.52
Hence
= 0.137
M/bh2fCk
Hence
Af
— = 038
bhfCk
= 3965 mm2
A9
5.5.2 Problem
Design a 400 mm square column, having an effective length of 8 m in both
directions,to withstandthe design ultimatefirstorder momentsshown in Figures
5.7 and 5.8 combined with adesign axial load of 2000 kN. The concrete strength
class is C30/37 and the reinforcement has a characteristic strength of
460 N/mm2.
COLUMNS
X = (8000/400)
Assume d'Ih =
,j 0.15
= 693 in both directions
1102 53 kNm
7
Figure 5.7 First order moments Figure 5.8 First order moments
in z direction in y direction
Since
e01
= 0 43.5.6.2
Eqn 4.66
=
ee 0.6e02
Hence
0.6 x 334 x iO =
e 2000
100mm
e —
0.6x53x 10 =
16mm
2000
(eJb)/(e/h)
= = 0.16 < 0.2 4.3.5.6.4
Eqn 4.75
A reducedvalue ofh, therefore, must be used in carrying out acheck for bending
in the y direction.
The additional eccentricity in the z direction is
0.5l/200 = 20 mm
Hence
ez +eaz = 120mm
LJ
It is assumed that the intention of EC2 Section 43.5.6.4(3) is that, using the
reduced section, the applied load should just give zero stress at the least
stressed face, i.e. as shown in Figure 5.9.
!ez+eaz I
z
—
®h
I
ActuaL section
I
ELastic stress distribution
I
Reduced section
It will be seen that the point of application of the load must lie on the edge
of the middle third of the reduced section.
Hence
h' = 3(h12 — e — e)
= 3(200 — 120) = 240 mm
1 2x460x106K2
— = = 13.07K2 x 106 4.a5.63
r 1.15 x 0.9 x 340 x 0.2
Eqn 4.72
COLUMNS
Hence
= 0.1 x 82 x 106 x 13.07K2 x 106 83.7K2 mm Eqn 4.69
etot
= 100 + 20 + 83.7K2mm 43.5.6.2
Eqn 4.65
As in the previous example, iterate using the design chart in Section 13 Figure
13.2(c) to find the appropriate value for K2 and hence ASç/bhfCk, starting with
= 1. This procedure results in
= 0.8
1<2
= 0.194
M/bh2fck
= 0.417
Nbhfck
Hence
f Ibhfck=
Asyk 0.55
240
kI y
M0 32 kNm
z_
Figure 5.10 Reduced section for check in y direction
e = 16mm
oy
eay
=
e = 20mm
e2y
= e2 = 83.71(2 mm
Hence
ot = 36 + 83.71(2 mm
= x2000 =
N/bhfck 0.694
240x400x30
COLUMNS
= 0.13
M/bh2fCk
Hence
= 0.57
ASck/bhfCk
AS
= 0.57 x 240 x 400 x 30/460 = 3569 mm2
v.— ri wi
tI LI 1
Figure 5.11 Arrangement of reinforcement
5.6.2 Problem
Establishan appropriate design strategy forthe columns in the structure shown
in Figures 5.12 and 5.13. The applied vertical loadsin the lowest storey are set
out in Table 5.1.
I.I
OLM4S
a dD.*—300x300 a
750 x 450
=—— 400 x 300 400 x 300 —'.
: =: :
35m
: =: :
: =: :
35m
35m
35m
_7_7 ; 7 7 // ,? 7 , / / 7 / / , _7 7
InI
CO%MA%4S
5.6.3.1 y direction
EI,racing 4 X 15820 =
—
— 0904
Ei0 6x900+4x15820+2x675
Hence the four 750 x 450 columns can be treated as bracing
elements carrying the total horizontal loads and columnstype a, b and
d can be designed as braced in the y direction
5.6.3.2 x direction
Elbracing —
4 X 5695
— —
— 068
6x 1600 + 4 x 5695 + 2 x 675
5.6.4.1 y direction
For braced structures of four or more storeys,the frame can be classified as
nonsway if
= 4x1900+2x2100+4x3300+2x1200=27400kN
Ecm I = sum of the stiffnesses of the bracing elements.
= 2024960 x io Nmm2
COLUMNS
Hence
F 27400 x io
fEl / /mm = 0.000116 / mm = 0.116 I m
'J 2024960 x iO
Note:
Sincethe height of the building is stated to be in metres, it seems reasonable
to assume that m unitsshould be usedfor the otherfactors, thoughthis is not
stated in EC2.
Hence
IF
__.!. = 14 x = 1.62 >
E cmIc
0.116 0.6
5.6.4.2 x direction
For frames without bracing elements, if X < greater of 25 or 15IJ for all A.3.2(3)
elements carryingmore than 70% of the mean axial force then the structure
may be considered as nonsway.
= 4x2680+2x2960+4x4660+2x 1700
NSd
12
= 38680/12 = 3223 kN
= 2256 kN
7O%NSd
Columns type d carry less than this and are therefore ignored.
Assume effective length of 400 x 300 columns is 0.8 x 3.5 = 2.8 m
(i.e. value appropriate to a nonsway condition).
X = 24.25<25
5.6.5 Discussion
The results obtained in Sections 5.6.4.1 and 5.6.4.2 above are totally illogical
as the structure has been shown to be a sway structure in thestiffer direction
and nonsway in the less stiff direction.
There are two possible areas where the drafting of EC2 is ambiguous and the
wrong interpretation may have been mada
(1) In Eqn A3.2 it is specifically stated that the height should be in metres.
Nothing is stated about the unitsfor ), Fand E. Since the outputfrom
Eqn A.3.2 is nondimensional, the statement of the units is unnecessary
unless the units for I, F
and Ec are different to that for
and be in N and mm units while
Should Ji,,F
is in m? If this were so, then the
E
structure would be found to be 'braced' by a large margin.
(2) In A.3.2(3) it doesnot state whetherX should be calculated assuming the
columns to be sway or nonsway.In the calculation, the assumption was
made thatthe X was a nonswayvalue. If a swayvalue had been adopted,
the structure would have proved to be a sway frame by a considerable
margin.
2x460xK2
— 6.351<2 x 106
r 0.2 x 106 x 1.15 x 0.9 x 700
Inspection of the design charts and levels of loading suggest 1<2 is likely to be
about 0.6. Assumingan effective length under sway conditionsoftwice the actual
height gives a deflection of:
(2 x 3.5)2 x
635 x 0.6 = 19 mm
10
EC2 Section 4.3.5 gives the 'model column' method which is developed only
for nonswaycases, so it is leftto the user to find a suitable method for sway
frames on the basis of the Model Column Method. BS 8110 doesthis, so it is
suggestedthat the provisionsof3.&a7 and3.83.8 of BS 8110: Part 1 are adopted,
butthat the eccentricities are calculated using the equations in EC2.
5.7.2 Problem
Design columns type c in the structure considered in Section 5.6.2 assuming
sway in the x direction. The column loads may be taken from Table 5.1.
Thedesign ultimatefirstorder moments in the columns are as shown in Figure
5.14.
3 has been assessed from EC2 Figure 4.27(b) as 1.6 for all columns.
COLUMNS
Column H0
type kNm
ci 80
b 110
c 176
d 25
a 4 48.5
b 2 48.5
c 4 43.1
d 2 64.7
Mean value =
Since >m < 50, the simplified method may be used. A.3.5(3)
Hence
p = 0.00368
ea
= 0.00368 x 1.6 x 3500/2 = 103 mm Eqn 4.61
= + 13800K2/d = e0 + 10.3
e01
+ ea + 13800K2/d mm Eqn 4.65
The total eccentricities are shown in Table 5.3.
COLUtM4S
Column d M e0 N e1
type (mm) (kNm) (mm) (mm)
Column No. of
K2 e2
type (mm) columns
a 0.39 15.2 4
b 0.41 16.0 2
c 0.50 17.5 4
d 0.45 24.8 2
All columnswill be assumed to deflect by the average value. The resulting BS 8110
designs are shown in Table 5.5 3.8.3.8
Column e M N Vyk A8
type (mTh) bh2ck bh bhfCk (mm2)
6.2 Example
Design the lowest level of a 200 mm thick wall in an eight storey building
supporting 250 mm thick solid slabs of 6.0 m spanson each side. The storey
heights of each floor are 35 m, the heightfrom foundation tothefirstfloor being
4.5 m. The wall is fully restrained at foundation level. The buildingis a braced
nonswaystructure.
=
I
E °'Ii°'
kA 43.53.5(1)
E 'slab'1eff,slab Eqn 4.60
ab
= 1 x 0.25
12
= 13 x i0 m4
kA = 6.67 x iO +
6.67 x iO I 2x 1.3 x iO =0.78
3.5 I 6
13
= 0.7
Icol = 4500mm
Therefore
10
= 0.7 x 4500 = 3150 mm
x 200
= fY
JA
=
1000
J12x1000x200
= 57.7 mm
Therefore
X =3i5o= 54.6
57.7
where
N
= 4.3.53.5(2)
= 700kN
= = = 20N/mm
1.5
Therefore
=
x io
700 = 0.175
200 x 10 x 20
Hence
15 15
= =
J0.175
6.2.3 Design
The wall may now be designed as an isolated column in accordance with
EC21 Clause 43.5.6 and as illustrated in the example in Section 5.
Although the column or wall has been classifiedas slender, second ordereffects
need not be considered if the slenderness ratio X is less than the critical
slenderness ratio X•.
WALLS
= 25 (2 — 43.5.5.3(2)
e011e02)
Eqn 4.62
where
e1 and e2 are the first order eccentricities at the ends of the member
relating to the axial load.
01
= —
M
ande02 = —
M
'Sd IvSd
Therefore
>crit
= 25 (2 —
Msdl/Msd2)
where
<MSd2
MSdl —
These moments must be given their correct algebraic signs in the equation.
In this example:
(_)
5.0
The column or wall should therefore be designed for the following 43.5.53(2)
minimum conditions:
6.2.4 Reinforcement
The vertical reinforcement should not be less than 0.004A0 or greater than 5.4.7.2(1)
0.04A0.
Half of this reinforcement should be located at each face. 5.4.7.2(2)
The maximum spacing for the vertical bars should not exceed twice the wall 5.4.7.2(3)
thickness or 300 mm.
The area of horizontal reinforcement should be at least 50% of the vertical 5.4.7.3
reinforcement.The bar size should not be less than one quarterofthe vertical (1)—(3)
bar size and the spacing should not exceed 300 mm. The horizontal
reinforcementshould be placed betweenthevertical reinforcementand the wall
face.
=
Link reinforcement is required in walls where the design vertical reinforcement 5.4.7.4(1)
exceeds O.O2A.
In normal buildings it is unlikely that walls will be classified as slender. For
practical considerations they will generally not be lessthan 175 mm thick and
the vertical load intensity will normally be relatively low. Thus the limiting
slenderness ratio given by 15I[ will be high.
In cases where the wall is slender,only slenderness about theminor axis need
be considered. Even in this case it is likely that only the minimum conditions
given in EC2 Clause 4.3.5.5.3(2) Eqns 4.63 and 4.64 will apply.
7 FOUNDATIONS
U
7.1 Ground bearing footings
7.1.1 Pad footing
7.1.1.2 Durability
For components in nonaggressive soil and/or water, exposure class is 2(a). Table 4.1
ENV 206
Minimum concrete strength grade is C30/37. Table NA.1
For cement content and w/c ratio refer to ENV 206 Table 3(6)
Minimum cover to reinforcement is 30 mm. NAD
Table 6
For concrete cast against blinding layer, minimum cover > 40 mm. 4.1 33(9)
7.1.1.3 Materials
7.1.1.4 Loading
Eqn 2.8(a)
Table 2.2
Ultimate column load = l.3SGk + 15k = 1570 kN
For the design of C30/37 concrete members without any redistribution of 2.53.4.2(5)
moments, neutral axis depth factor
0.45
d
Using the design tables for singly reinforced beams
Af
— = 0.033
bdfCk
Hence
x—
30
AS = 0.033 x 2500 x 405 = 2179 mm2
460
2500 —
2(75) — 20
Bar crs. = 388 mm
6
7.1.1.6 Shear
— — 0.405 = 405 kN
VSd (a5 )
4.3.23
Shear resistance, VAd1, with zero axial load
= + Eqn 4.18
VRd1 TRdk(l.2 4Op1) bd
= Table 4.8
TAd
034 N/mm2
k = 1.6—d = 1.195z1.0
net = aalb
(a) i
prov
Eqn 5.4
= 0.7
—
—
Eqn5.3
b
4 f
For bars in the bottom half of a pour, good bond maybe assumed. Hence for 5.2.2.1(2)
4, 32mm
=

4,
x 400
—
= 33.34,
2500 400
= — — — 405 — 75 = 570 mm
2 2
<d+ = 405 + 200 = 605 mm
Therefore
= 0
A,
VRd1
= 0.34 x 1.2 x 1.195 x 2500 x 405 x iO3 = 493 kN
> VSd
405kN
7.1.1.7 Punching
a
—
h
=—>2 1050
400
Figure 4.16
Critical perimeter at 1.5d from faceofcolumn shouldbe checked for punching. 4.3.4.1P(4)
& 43.4.2.2
U = 2ir (1.5 x 405) + 4 x 400 = 5417 mm
In foundations the applied shear may be reduced to allowfor the soil reaction 4.3.4.1(5)
within the critical perimeter.
Enclosed area
Total width = (3 x 405) + 400 = 1615 mm
Corner radius = 1.5 x 405 = 608 mm
Area = 1.6152 — (4 — ir) 0.6082 = 2.29 m2
= 1570 — = 995 kN
(1
v=Y Sd
u
= 1.0 for pads with no eccentricity of load
FOUNO&TIONS
Therefore
vSd = 995 x i0 = 184N/mm
5417
=
Using 9120 (EW), A 2830 mm2 (EW)
For Bi
dx = 415mm
1OOA
S = 0.27%
bd
For B2
dy = 395mm
1OOA
S = 0.28%
bdy
The equation produces similar values to the shear check performed above
= 034 x 1.195 x 1.2 x 405 = 197 > 184 N/mm
VAd1
d = 405mm
u = 4x400 = 1600mm
1570 x i0
Stress =
405 x 1600
= 2.4 < 4.9 N/mm2 .... .... OK
A
= 0.46 x x = 0.46 x 400 x = 142 N/mm2
A prov 2830
Either limit bar size using EC2 Table 4.11(1) or bar spacing using EC2 Table 4.4.23(2)
4.12.
4) = 20 < 32mm OK
kA/a 4.4.2.2
Eqn 4.78
For A it is considered conservative to use (h/2)b
= 100% x = 460 N/mm2
Therefore
As req
= 0.4 x 0.68 x 3 x 250 x 2500/460 = 1109 mm2
Checkthat flexural reinforcement extends beyond critical section for bending 5.43.2.1(1)
for a distance d + net & 5.4.2.13
= 3334) = 667 mm
1b
Actual distance =
2500 — —
400 — 75 = 975 > 919 mm OK
2 2
I I
lIi. S S U S U
U) 111500
I
— 600
Service loads = Gk +
Column A: 1340 kN and Co!mn B: 2000 kN
Distance to centroid of loads from LH end
= 2000 x 5.5 =
0.3 + 3.593m
3340
For uniform distribution of bad under base
Length of base = 2 x 3.593 say 7.2 m
With 750 mm deep base, resultant bearing pressure
= 175 — 0.75 x 24 = 157 kN/m2
3340
Width of base required = = 2.96 say 3.0 m
7.2 x 157
7.1.2.3 Materials
7.1.2.4 Loading
= 03 + 2834 x 5.5
= 3.595m
4730
See Figures 72, 7.4 and 7.5 for loading, shear force and bending moment
diagrams respectively.
1896 kN 2834 kN
uJT316O
t tt f 657 kN/m t ft t ft
'I
kO•6m 49m 06m
+' 1•lm I
1717 kN
957 kN
I 289m
2167 kNm
x
— = 0.123 < 0.45 limit with zero redistribution OK 2.5.3.4.2(5)
d
Af = 0.064
bdfck
Particular attention is drawn to the clauses for bar sizes larger than 5.2.6.3P(1)
32 mm. These clauses are restrictive about laps and anchorages, such that & P(2)
designers may need to resort to groups of smaller bars instead.
At column face
= 398 kNm
Msd
d = 750 — 75 — 10 = 665 mm
Af = 0.012
bdfck
30
AS = 0.012 x 3000 x 665 x — = 1561 mm2 = 520 mm2/m
460
7.1.2.6 Shear
VSd
= 1717 — 0.675 x 657 = 1273 kN
VRd1
= TRd k(1.2
+ 40p,)bd
4.3.23
= 0.34 N/mm2 Eqn 4.18
TRd
Table 4.8
k = 1.6—d .z1.0 = 1.0
= 0.00476
p,
Ensure bars are continued sufficiently.
= 957 kN
VRd1
VSd
> VAd1
VRd3
= VCd
+ = VRd1 + VWd 4.3.2.43
Eqn 4.22
Therefore
1273 — 957 = 316 kN
A
V = — x O.9dfd Eqn 4.23
S
Where shear reinforcement is required, the minimum amount is 100% of the NAD
EC2 Table 5.5 value. Table 3
5.4.3.3(2)
With = 460, wmIfl = 0.0012 by interpolation Table 5.5
For links
Therefore
A
= 0.0012 x 3000 = 3.6 > 1.30 mm2/mm
mm
= Eqn 4.25
VRd2 ufcd b(0.9 d)12
= 0.55 x 20 x 3000 x 0.9 x 675 x 10I2 = 10020 kN
Vsd/VRd2
= 1273/10020 = 0.13 < 0.2
Use EC2 Eqn 5.17 to determine link spacing.
A5
— 12 x 78.5
S
= = 3.77 > 3.6 mm2/mm OK
250
= 1273 kN (max.)
VSd
VSd
< 3Vc
Xb
= 1.157 m
VRd1
= 034(1.2 + 0.06)3000 x 665 x 10 = 854> 723 kN .. OK
= 219(0
— 0.45 — 0.6 x 2) = 148 kN/m
2
From above
7.1.2.7 Punching
Length of one side of critical perimeter at 1.5d from face of column 4.3.4.1P(4) &
= 3 x
690 + 600 = 2670 mm 4.3.4.2.2
The shear stress at the column face perimeter with d = 675 mm is less than
4.9 N/mm2 in both cases (see Table 7.1) OK
8452
= 0.49 x 400 x = 172 N/mm2
12 x 804
Either limit bar size using EC2 Table 4.11 or bar spacing using Table 4.12. 4.4.2.3(2)
In Table 4.11 bar size 25 mm > 32 mm used.
In Table 4.12 spacing 285 mm in pure flexure > 250 mm used. . OK
Check minimum reinforcement requirement 4.4.2.3(2)
4.4.2.2(3)
A kckfcteffActhYs Eqn 4.78
For it is considered conservative to use (h12)b.
aS = 100% x f = 460 N/mm2
yk
7.1.2.9 Detailing
a1
5.43.2.1(1)
=
F5 VSd
The bond strength for poor conditions in the top of the pour 5.2.2.1 &
5.2.2.2
= x Table 5.3 value
0.7
= 0.7 x 3 = 2.1 N/mm2
bd
p2 O.2p1
= 0.2 x 0.00476 = 0.00095
d = 750 — 35 — 10 = 705 mm
AS 670 mm2/m
Spacing 500 mm OK
The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 7.6.
12132 — 250
12T20 — 250
T20 —250EW
LL1 120—250
Hill 1—H.J
72 Pilecap design
7.2.1 Pilecap design example using truss analogy
Afourpile groupsupports a 500 mm squarecolumn which carries a factored
load of 2800 kN. The piles are 450 mm in diameter and spaced at 1350 mm
centres.
1350
375
7.2.1.2 Durability
For components in nonaggressive soil and/or water, exposure class is 2(a). Table 4.1
• . . ENV 206
Minimum concrete strength grade is C30137.
Table NA.1
For cement content and w/c ratio refer to ENV 206 Table 3.
Minimum cover to reinforcement is 30 mm. NAD
Table 6
Use 100 mm nominal bottom cover over piles and 50 mm sides
7.2.1.3 Materials
A beam whose span is less than twice its overall depth is considered a deep 2.5.2.1(2)
beam.
With the effective span, l, taken to the centre of the piles: 2.5.2.2.2
1eff
—
h
=—=1.7<2
1350
800
Therefore treat as deep beam for analysis.
7.2.1.5 Loading
7.2.1.6 Design
Deep beams under a concentrated load may be designed using a strut and 2.5.3.72
tie model.
cOU.DLQ&T(OKS
Use a model with a node at the centre of the loaded area and lower nodes BS 8110
over thecentrelines ofthe piles at the level ofthe tension reinforcementtogether 3.11.4.1
with an effectivecolumn load to account forthe pilecap weight of, forexample:
Nsd
= 2800 + 1352 x 27 = 2850 kN
d = 800 — 100 — 25 = 675 mm
For reinforcement
= 1425 x iO =
A 3563 mm2
400
There are no specific requirements within EC2 for the distribution of the
calculated reinforcement.Theprovisionsof BS 8110: Part 1: Clause 3.11.4.2 are
adopted in this example.
With piles spaced at 3timesthe diameter,the reinforcement may be uniformly
distributed.
4Ti6
I I
800F I•
IJL 6125EW
L4J
Only in elements such as slabs may shear reinforcement be omitted where 43.2.1P(2)
calculations justify.
Despitethe classification for the pilecapgiven above, in line with commonUK
practice, it is not intended to provide shear reinforcementwhen VSd VRd1. 43.2.2(2)
Takethe critical section for shear to be located at20% ofthe pile diameter into BS 8110
the piles, extending the full width of the pilecap. Figure 3.23
Distance from centre of loaded area
x = 1350/2 — 0.3 x 450 = 540 mm
Shear resistance
= + 40p)bd
TAd k(1 .2
VRd1
4.3.2.3
Eqn 4.18
TAd
= 034 N/mm2 Table 4.8
3928
= = 0.00277
2100 x 675
All of tension steel is to continue sufficiently pastcritical section; check when
detailing.
VRd1
= 034(1.2 + 40 x 0.00277) 2100 x 675 x iO = 632 kN
Consider enhanced resistance close to the supports 43.2.2(5)
—
2.5d 2.5 x 675 =
= = 3.125
x 540 43.2.2(9)
1.0 5.0 OK
Shear force
2850
VSd =—=1425kN
2
< = 3.125 x 632 = 1975 kN
Having taken into account the increased shear strength close to the supports, 43.2.2(11)
it is necessary to ensure that the reinforcement is properly anchored.
In this caseall reinforcement will extend to centre line of pile and be anchored
beyond that position OK
7.2.1.8 Punching
Piles fall within 1.5d perimeter from column face, it is thus only necessary to 43.4.2.2(1)
check shear around column perimeter, where
Stress 0.9 = 0.9 x = 4.9 N/mm2 NAD 6.4(d)
4.4.2.3
Gk + '2°k = +
Either limit bar size to EC2 Table 4.11 value or bar spacing to EC2 Table 4.12 4.4.23(2)
value.
A5 1096 mm2
AS,prov = 3928mm2 OK
7.2.1.10 Detailing
The reinforcement corresponding to the ties in the model should be fully 5.4.5(1)
anchored beyond the nodes, i.e., past the centres of piles.
—
—
5.2.2.3(2)
b
bd
For bars in bottom half of a pour, good bond may be assumed. 5.2.2.1
Hence
= 3.0 N/mm2 (4, 32 mm) Table 5.3
Ib = 25 x 400 = 834mm
4x3
Areq >
—
b,net A b.min
prov
x 834 x —
3563
Ibnet = 0.7 = 530 mm
3928
Bars cannot be anchored in manner shown in EC2 Figure 5.2. Use bentup
bars with large radius bend and anchorage length
x — = 756mm
prov
Diameter of bends can be obtained from NAD Table 8(1). Assumethat the limits NAD
given for minimum cer
in the table are equallyapplicableto bar centres Table 8
For 125 @ 275 mm crs., bend diameter = 134,,
bend radius = (13/2) x 25 = 165 mm
3 785
1425 kN
1425 kN
425 500
1350
A6
= 2979 mm2
7.2.2.2 Detailing
At an end support, the anchorage of bottom reinforcementneeds to becapable 5.4.2.1.4(2)
of resisting a force:
= + Eqn 5.15
F6 VSdal/d Nsd
N = 0 in this case
with
a1
5.43.2.1(1)
F6
= VSd
= 1425 kN
Fv 400 kN
ac 200
b 300
d = 465
hc 500
1¼
8.1.2 Materials
= 30 N/mm2 (concrete strength class C30/37)
= 460 N/mm2 (characteristic yield strength)
8.1.3 Design
8.1.3.1 Check overall depth of corbel
Conservatively, the maximum shear in the corbel should not exceed VRd1. The 2.53.7.2(5)
depth of the corbel could be reduced by putting VRd2 F
butthis would give
an increased tie force and consequent detailing problems. Thevalueof TAd in
43.23
the expression for VRd1 (EC2 Eqn 4.18(1)) may be modified by the factor
defined in EC2 Clause 43.2.2(9).
f
By inspection 6 will be a minimum when x = in EC2 Eqn 4.17. Hence
VHdl will also be a minimum.
Now
= + 4Op1) + 0.15a]bd Eqn 4.18
VRd1 [9rRdk(1.2
TAd
= 0.34 N/mm2 Table 4.8
HC = 0.2F V
= ±8OkN
= —
A/Sd
where = —80 kN
C
Therefore
= —80 x i0 =
a —0.6 N/mm2
C 465 x 300
Hence
VAd1
= [5 x 0.34 x 1.23 (1.2 + 40 x 0.006) — 0.15 x 0.6]
x 465 x 300 = 407 kN
Therefore
> = = 400 kN OK
VRd1 VSd F 2.5.3.7.2(5)
Now 0.4h a, therefore a simple strut and tie model may be assumed, as 2.5.3.7.2(1)
shown in Figure 8.2.
Therefore
0.0035
x = x 465 = 296 mm
0.0035 + 0.002
SC(&L DrMLs
=
For equilibrium F F and further refinement gives
x = 235 mm, z = 371 mm, F = 216 kN
= 296kN
As.req = 296
x io = 740mm2
460/1.15
I =
p = 0.7 — — 0.55 0.5 Eqn 4.20
200
Therefore
VRd2
= (j) x 0.55 x 20 x 300 x 0.9 x 465 = 690 kN
Hence
VRd2
> F, = 400 kN OK
Now
= 804 < 3000 mm2
Apr
Therefore links are not required
A5 O4Aspr
= 0.4 x 804 322 mm2 5.4.4(2)
Allowable design ultimate bearing stress °•8cd for bearing bedded in EC2,
concrete. Part lB
Therefore area required = 400x103 25000 mm 2
0.8 x 20
Assume transverse bearing = 250mm
Therefore length of bearing = 100mm
8.1.4 Detailing
The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 8.3.
30 cover to
main bars
4T16 welded to
T20 cross—bar
2110
L
EC(M. DETMLS
An allowable bearing stress under the cross bar can be obtained from EC2 5.4.81
Eqn 5.22 as
= Eqn 5.22
Rdu
(mod)
Note:
Use ofthis stress requires that the concrete be confined by means of links etc.
In areas where the cover is small, the designer may wish to use a modified
version of Eqn 50 in BS 8110(2).
296x103 =
Therefore area of bar required = 4485 mm 2
3.3 x 20
For a T20 bar, length required is 225 mm.
As.req
1 = aaib > Eqn 5.4
Lnet bmrn
Aprov
Now
= (I4) Eqn 5.3
1b (cd bd
Bond conditions may be considered good as the T16 bars will be anchored 5.2.2.1(2)(b)
into a substantial support(column or wall).
Now
= 740 mm2 = 804 mm2 = 1 5.2.3.4.1(1)
Asq Asprov aa
Therefore
1
net
= 1x533xZ9 = 490mm
804
=
°31b 10 or 100 mm
Provide = 490 mm (see Figure 8.3)
SPECIALDETAILS
The detail at the front edge of the corbel is shown in Figure 8.4
100 20 40 30
I—
lI4
The inside face of the T20 bar is positioned not less than the cover beyond
the edge of the bearing area.
This is an interpretation of BS 8110 as no guidance is given in EC2
8.2 Nibs
8.2.1 Introduction
Considera nib designed to carry a precastconcretefloor slab imposing a vertical
ultimate design load of 25 kNIm.
8.2.2 Materials
fck = 30 N/mm2 (concrete strength class C30137)
fyk = 460 N/mm2 (characteristic yield strength)
8.2.3 Design
Provide a 15 mm chamfer to the outside edge of the nib and assume the line
of action of the load occurs at the upper edge of the chamfer
Permissible design ultimate bearing stress = 0•6d for dry bearing EC2 Part lB
25 x 10
Therefore minimum width of bearing = = 2.1 mm
0.6 x 20 x 1000
Minimum width of bearing for nonisolated member = 40 mm BS 8110
5.2.3.2
Allowance for nib spalling = 20 mm BS 8110
Table 5.1
Allowance for inaccuracies = 25 mm BS 8110
52.4
Nominal bearing width = 40 + 20 + 25 = 85 mm
Allow an additional 25 mm for chamfer on supported member.
ini
SEC%M. QETMLS
The distance of the line of action of the load from the face of the beam
= 110—15 = 95mm
Assuming 20 mm coverto the 110 links in the beam
a = 95 + 20 + 5 = 120 mm
Check minimum depth of nib.
Assuming T8 bars, minimum internal diameter of loop is 6. NAD
Table 8
Therefore minimum depth of nib = 20 + 8 8 + 20 = x 104 mm
M = 25 x 0.12 = 3 kNm/m
—
M
= 3x106 = 0.015
bd2ck 1000 X 812 x 30
Afsyk = 0.018 (Section 13, Table 13.1)
bdfCk
= 0.6
A5 (r') 0.0015bd Eqn 5.14
=
0.6 x 1000 x 81 = 106mm2
460
= Eqn 4.78
kckfcteffAciOs
k = 0.8forh 300 mm
Ct5ff
= 3.0 N/mm2
VAd1
=
[!3rAdk(1.2 + '40p1) + o.i&i] bd Eqn 4.18
= 2.5d/x ___
= 2.5 x
120
81
= 1.69 Eqn 4.17
= 034 N/mm2
TAd
k = 1.6—dlzl = 1.52
A
p = — = 168
= 0.0021
bd 1000 x 81
N
C
A
Therefore
VAd1
= 1.69 x 034 x 1.52(1.2 +40 x 0.0021)x 1000 x 81 = 90.8 kN/m
= 25 kN/m
VSd
Therefore
VRdl
> 1"Sd
OK
net = aa 1b
(j 1tmin
Eqn 5.4
SPECIAL DETAILS
Now
= (I'I4) Eqn 53
(d'bd)
= 400 N/mm2
Bond conditions may be considered good as the bars are anchored at least 5.2.2.1(2)(b)
300 mm from the top of the member.
= 3 N/mm2 Table 5.3
Therefore
1
b.net
= 122
1x267x—
168
= 194mm 4l mm
1bmin
= 10 or 100 mm
Therefore
= 100 mm
1b.min
Therefore
= 160 mm
1mmn
= 1.0
'bnet
=
0alb
() s.prov
iz lmIfl Eqn 5.4
= 3 N/mm2 Table 53
= 400 N/mm2
Therefore
1b
= (cb/4) x (400/3) = 3334
4min
=
°31b lz 10 or 100 mm Eqn 5.5
Therefore
1b,net (a)=
1 x 333 = 3334.
A
A (mm)
10 12 16 20 25 32
{I
tb,net ,net J b(b)L
I
Assuming 20 mm cover
b(a) = (333cb + 20) x 1.5 = 50q5 + 30 mm
b(b) = (23.3q + 20) x 1.5 = 354 + 30 mm
SPECL DETMLS
,
AspraY '
mm'/ 10 12 16 20 25 32
EC2 also refers to the use of skin reinforcement located inside the links. Skin 4.4.2.3(4)
reinforcement is provided to control cracking in the side facesof beams 1 m
or more in depth.
ioooL fll
400 I
A5t=4825mm2 (6132)
Coverto Links 50mm
=1
SPECIAL DETAILS
Therefore
A ssuri = 0.01 x 79 x iO = 790 mm2
Hence
790 =
AS,SU1/m= 617 mm2/m
1.280
r n l
— 1 r
B785 surface
reinforcement
1 f dx=54O
Ifl S — —. _' I
<600
i(
8132 — .1. I.
5L150 '1.I
7200
7200
j
7200
7200
PLAN
3900
3900
A—A
=
PRSTRESSEO CONCRETE
2508
•1
110
I 60
750 750
9.2.2 Durability
For components in dry environment, exposure class is 1. Table 4.1
Minimum concretestrength grade for posttensioned members is C25/30. 4.2.a5.2
Minimum coverto—reinforcement is 15 mm. 4.1.3.3
NAD
Use 25 mm nominal cover to reinforcement Table 6
Type 2 deformed bars, characteristicstrength, ck = 460 N/mm2 having high NAD 63(a)
ductility
= 150 mm2
A
E8
= 190 kN/mm2 3.3.4.4
9.2.3.3 Concrete
In order that this example can be compared with that given in Example 2 of
the Posttensioned concrete floors: Design handbook, a nonstandardconcrete
strength grade has been chosen of C32/40.
psEssc. CGIICRrE
= 32 N/mm2
Ecm
= 9.5 x (32 + 8)' = 32.4 say 32 kNImm2 3.1.2.5.2(3)
E1
= 9.5 x (20 + 8)T = 28.8 say 29 kN/mm2
4 i4 14—I
7200 7200
P0
= 0.75 x xA = 199.1 kN per tendon 4.23.5.4P(3)
InI
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
Span 2—3
= x 57602 =
48.2
1111 kN
req
8x180x1000
Number of tendons required = 1418/139.4 10.17
Span 1 2 2 3
Span 1 2 2 3
InI
PRE5ThESSEDCOt4CETE
For continuous beams, the following arrangements of imposed loads should 2.5.1.2(4)
be considered:
(a) alternate spans loaded; 
k
Frequent combination, +P+
Quasipermanent combination, Gk
0•6k
+ ' +
Eqn 2.9(b)
Eqn 2.9(c)
Therefore
= 44.1 x 106 mm3
Wb
= 34.6 x 106 mm3
(support)
42 — — 1.83
1—2
15 2.21 40 2.20
(span)
2 &81 — — 134
(support)
2 — —
4.10 0.97
(support)
2—3
3.07 1.23 4.66 2.29
(span)
3 4.45 — — 0.53
(support)
'f
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
Rare loading
Frequent loading
Top stresses, 1 f
Bottom stresses, b
Zone (N/mm2) (N/mm2)
1
—087 6.62
(support)
1—2
437 2.19 269 —010
(span)
2 —1.96 a02
(support)
2 —1.17 700
(support)
2—3
344 1.19 398 1.09
(span)
3 —0.77 648
(support)
Quasipermanentloading
lopstresses, 1 Bottom stresses, fb
Zone (N/mm2) (N/mm2)
°•6Ck
= 0.6 x 32 = 19.2 N/mm2 4.4.1.1(2)
The maximum stress from Table 9.4 is 10.8 N/mm2 OK
To control creep thecompressivestress under quasipermanentloading should
not exceed
= 0.45 x 32 = 14.4 N/mm2 4.4.1.1(3)
The maximum stress from Table 9.4 is 5.87 N/mm2 OK
= 0.2 mm 4.4.2.1
Wk
Table 4.10
The method adopted to determine the minimum reinforcement required is to 4.4.1.2.(5)
carry out arigorous calculationofthe crackwidth where theflexuraltensilestress 4.4.1.2(7)
under rare loads exceeds 3 N/mm2. If the calculated crack width under 4.4.2.4
frequent loads does not exceed 0.2 mm then furtherbonded reinforcementis
not required.
From Table 9.4 the stress at support 2 under the rare load combination is
—4.19 N/mm2 and hence a more detailed calculation is required. As this
example is a beam, at leasttwo longitudinal bars at the top and bottom are
required to hold the links in place.
For this analysis include 2116s in the top of the beam.
Wk
= /3Srmsm Eqn 4.80
S = h — x 4.4.2.4(8)
The values of a9 and x, the neutral axis depth, for this example were
determined from computer analysis assuming linear stress/strainrelationships
and no tension from the concrete.
Applied moment = —377.6 kNm (frequent load case)
x = 213mm
= —95.8 N/mm2
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
95.8
Hence wk = 1.7 x (350 — 213) x = 0.11 < 0.2 mm . . OK
200x103
E5 190
Modular ratio = = = 6.55
E.CI 29
= 4.66 —
(4.66 —
1.23) = 4.05 N/mm2
350
C
= 0.5 x 4.05 x 6.55 x 150 x iO = 1.99 kN
P0
= jacking force = 199.1 kN
8a
0 = for each span
Span 1—2
0 = 4x30 +
8x141
+
4x40 =0.392
1440 5760 1440
= 199.1(1
— e°19°392 + 0.0085 x 7.2)) = 16.4 kN
Therefore
P2
= 199.1 — 16.4 = 182.7 kN
STSSED C0t4CRErE
Span 2—3
8 = 8x45 +
8x180 = 0.500
1440 5760
Therefore
P3
= 199.1 — 34.9 = 164.2 kN
where
199.1 — 164.2
p' = = 242 kN/m
I
14.4
ii =
J
E
isis
p'
Ap
=
J
0.006 x 190 x 150
______________
2.4
= 4m
si
= 2 x 2.42 x 8.4 = 40.7 kN
8400
I
Jacking 2
199
158 4 Trn
1312
—— — 47'2 I352
inaI C ALL forces in kN
199.1 — 158.4
At 1: x 100 = 20.4%
199.1
199.1 — 175.8
At2: x 100 = 11.7%
199.1
199.1 — 164.2
At3: x 100 = 17.5%
199.1
2A
— = 2(2508 x 110 + 1500 x 240) = 230mm
u 2(2508 + 240)
For inside conditions and transfer at 7 days,
= 3.0 Table 33
(oo,t0)
e(oo) = 0.00058 Table 4
9.3.9.2.2 Relaxation data 4.23.4.1(2)
Table 4.8
Long term class 2 relaxation loss for initial stress of 0•67pk immediately after NAD
transfer Table 3
= 1.5 x 0.02a0 =
O.O3a
ç(t,t0) E8 ÷ + a(t,t0)(o +
= 4.2.3.5.5(9)
"rc+8+r
1 +c
A
— 1 +
Az2 CP + 0.8(t,t0)1 Eqn 410
[1
A0
E 190
a
Ecm 32
= 0
At1:z0
Therefore
= 0
0cg
=
11 x 158.4 x iO = 2.74 N/mm2
CO
635880
= 6.79 X 10
wC = = 74.2 x 106 mm3
91.5
M P
1
cg
+ocpa = —+—
w0 A
Using moment and force at transfer
(6.17 + 3038) x 106 11 x 175.8 x
aIa = +
cg cpo
74.2 x 106 635880
= 0.49 + 3.04 = 3.53 N/mm2
= 91.5mm
At3:z
= 74.2x 106 mm3
W,
49.36 x 106 11 x 164.2 x iO
0+0 = +
cg CO
74.2 x 106 635880
Losses of prestress
0.00058 x 190 x iO + 31.7 + 5.94 x 3 x 2.74
____________________________
Atl:Aa p.c+s+r =
1+ 5.94 x 1650 1 + 635880 x 02 (1 +0.8x3)
635880 6.79 x iO
—
110.2+ 31.7 + 48.8
1 + 5.24 x 102(1 + 9.36 x 1O x 02)
190.7 =
= 181.2 N/mm2
1.052
210.9
= = 193.0 N/mm2
1.093
199.1 — 131.2
At 1: x 100 = 34.1%
199.1
199.1 — 147.2
At2: x 100 = 26.1%
199.1
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
199.1 — 135.2
At 3: x 100 = 32.1%
199.1

4.3.1.2(4)
4.2.1.3.3(12)
a = 0.85, fCd = 21.3 N/mm2 Figure 4.4
1.5
F5 pd A
—O•4 xl
d
I 08x1
cd

4.2.3.3.3
Figure 4.6
fpd = og = 0.9 x 1770
= 1385 N/mm2
1.15
1385
Minimum strain, = 0.0073
E3 190x103
=1
SSE COI4CRETE
139.4
Prestrain = 0.0049
pm
AE 150 x 190
Increment, = 0.0073 — 0.0049 = 0.0024
0.0035 = 0.593
d 0.0035 + 0.0024
FS = fpdA p
= 1385 x 11 x 150 x i0 = 2285 kN
MRd
= F(d — 0.4x) = 2.285(d — 0.4x) kNm
where
=
afCdb(O.8x
= 0.85 x 213 x 0.8bx = 14.Sbx
=
F F5 gives
x iO =
x= 2285
14.5b
157600
b
mm
MRd =
— 0.4
2.285(196 x 105) = 351.9 kNm
157600
x = = 63 mm <h = 110 mm OK
2508
MAd
= 2.285(287.5 — 0.4 x 63) = 599.4 kNm
x2_2.5dx+2.5M = 0
14.5b
Hence
M
x = 1.25 1_Il— 9.06bd d
4
x 106
= 1.25 1 —
j i —
628.8
9.06 x 1500 x 287.52 287.5 = 121 mm
x = 121
d 287.5
= 0.421 < 0.593 OK
= M 628.8 x iO = 2630 kN
F
d — 0.4x 287.5 — 0.4 x 121
Additional area of reinforcement required
AS = F —
A. = (2630
—
2285)10 = 863 mm2
400
Use 2116 top and bottom throughout beam with additional 2120 top at
support2
SThESSD cot4cRErE
Although it is not clear whatshould be assumed from EC21, the total area of
steel has been taken as the sum of the untensioned and tensioned steel.
As+p = AS iAp
= (2 x 201) + (11 x 150) = 2052 mm2
9.5.1 Minimum
Minimum area of total tension reinforcement
At support, b = 2508 mm
9.5.2 Maximum
Maximum area of total tension and compression reinforcement
10.1 Deflection
Calculatethe longtermdeflectionor a 7.0 m span simply supported beam whose
section is shown in Figure 10.1. The beam supports the interior floor spans of
an office building.
1650 d': 50
___
I'S
I I
_1_
Deflections will be calculated using the rigorous and simplified methods given
in EC21, together with an alternative simplified method. The results will then
be compared with the limiting span/effective depth ratios given in EC2.
Span = 7.0 m
= 19.7 kN/m
= 19.5 kNIm
A'9 = 402 mm2
= 2410 mm2
A9
= 30 N/mm2 (concrete strength class C30/37) ai.2.4
Table 3.i
(1) Uncracked
(2) Cracked.
Members which are not expected to be loaded above the level which would A4.3(2)
causethe tensile strength of the concrete to be exceeded, anywhere in the
membe will be considered to be uncracked. Members which are expected
to crackwill behave in a manner intermediatebetween the uncracked and fully
cracked conditions.
For memberssubjecteddominantlytoflexure, the Codegives ageneral equation
for obtaining the intermediate value of any parameter between the limiting
conditions
InI
SCE&BUTY CIBCKS BY CALCULATION
a = + (1
—
a1 A43(2)
Eqn A.4.1
where
a is the parameter being considered
a1 and a are the values of the parameter calculated for the uncracked
and fully cracked conditions respectively
is a distribution coeffient given by
= —
a 2
1 ,a2 A43(2)
Eqn A.4.2
Theeffectsof creep are catered forby the useof an effective modulus ofelasticity
for the concretegiven by
Ecm
E = A43.(2)
1 + Eqn A.43
Bond and deterioration of bond undersustained or repeated loading is taken
account of by coefficients and in Eqn A.4.2
Curvatures due to shrinkage may be assessed from
caS
r
1
— 0 CS
=
I A4.3(2)
Eqn A.4.4
Shrinkage curvatures should becalculated forthe uncracked and fully cracked
conditions and the final curvature assessed by use of Eqn A.4.1.
In accordance with theCode, the rigorous method of assessing deflections is
to calculatethe curvaturesatfrequent sectionsalong the member and calculate
the deflections by numerical integration.
Thesimplified approach, suggested by theCode, is to calculate the deflection
assuming firstly the whole member to be uncracked and secondly the whole
member to be cracked. Eqn A.4.1 is used to assess the final deflection.
Gk + 2.3.4 P(2)
Eqn 2.9(c)
SWJ1CEABLTY CHECKS BY CALCULATION
= 0.3 NAD
1'2
Table 1
Therefore
Therefore
32
ECff = = 7.8 kN/mm2
1+3.1
E
Effective modularratio (cx)
e
= —a
Eeff
==
Therefore
a 25.64
7.8
AS 2410
= = 3.75x103
bd 1650 x 390
A' 402
p' = — = = 6.25x 10
bd 1650 x 390
For the uncracked section, the depth to the neutral axis is given by
bh2/2— (b — b)(h — h
('iLf +hf) + (ae 1) (A'd' +Ad) = 165.2mm
—
x = ______________________________
bhf + b(h h + (cxe (A's +
— — 1)
bEWV1CEAB1UTI CHECKSBY CALCULATION
=
bh3 b(h—h)3 +
+
12 bh (x — h/2)2 + b(h — hf)
2
h+h — x + (Oe_1) A'8(x—d')2+ (ae1) A(d—x)2 = 7535 x lO mm4
2
For the cracked section the depth to the neutral axis is given by
÷ (ae — l)p'] +
+j[aeP + (ae 1)p']2 2[aep+(a
— — —
1)p']
x = 0.345d = 134.6 mm
Mcr
yt
= h — x = 450 — 165.2 = 284.8 mm
1
— M
____ = 156.8 x 106
= 2.668 x 10 rad./mm
, EI1 7.8 x x 7535 x 106
Having obtained the values for the two limiting conditions Eqn A.4.1 is used
to assess the intermediate va'ue.
Hence
= + —
3 (1 3I A43(2)
Eqn A.4.1
SE%CEAB%UTY CHECKSBY CALCULATION
= 1
Therefore
— aeM (d
— x)
—
—
x x
25.64 156.8 106 (390 — 134.6) = 188.5 N/mm2
S
5448x106
a is the stress in the tension steel calculated on the basis of a cracked section
underthe loading which will just cause cracking at the section considered.
Therefore
= aM.(d — x)
sr
Therefore
= 92.2 2 =
1 — 0.5 0.88
188.5
Note:
a— M
may be replaced by .— in the above calculation
M
1 = [(0.88 x 69) + (1—a88) x 2.668] x 106 = 567 x 106 rad./mm
10.1.3.2.2 Shrinkagecurvature
The shrinkage curvature is given by
= A.43.2
'cs Eqn A.4.4
where
is the free shrinkage strain
S1
= A(d — x) —
A'5(x
—
d') = 495.5 x iO mm3
SERVICEABU.VTYChECKS WI CALCULATION
1
— = 0.60 x iO x 25.64 x 495.5 x i0 = 1.0 x 106 rad./mm
r1 7535 x 106
Curvature of the cracked section
S11
= A(d — x) A' (x d') = 581.5 x iO mm3
—
Theflexural, shrinkage and total curvatures at positions xli along thespan are
given in Table 10.1.
0 0 0 0 0 0 1.000 1000
0.1 56.4 0960 — — 0.960 1.000 1.960
by
= e1 +
1
7+7
2
1
'
Theuncorrected rotation at anypoint may be obtained by thefirstintegralgiven
InI
SERVICEABIUTYCHECKSBY CALCULATION
aX =ax1 +e÷e1
2
I
n
where the subscript x denotes the values of the parameters at the fraction of
the span being considered, and the subscript x—1 denotes the values of the
parameters at the preceding fraction of the span.
l is the span
n is the number of span divisions considered.
Hence the uncorrected rotation at 0.11
_1__
+ r0 1
e = e0 + r0.11
0.11
2 n
= +
a0.11 a0
(e0.11+ e)i
= a ÷
(1.036+ 0)
io x 7000 =
0363 mm
1 = 7.Om
E = 7.8 kN/mm2
Therefore
5w14
aII =
384Eeff II I
I = 5448 x 106 mm4
Therefore
a = 5x 25.6 x 74 x 1012 = 18.8mm
384 x 7.8 x x 5448 x 106
a = rail + (1
—
)a1 A4.3(2)
Eqn A.4.1
=
M
SEVICEABILITYCHECKS BY CALCULATION
= 1.0
= 0.5
Therefore
= 1 — 0.5 = 0.88
(7• )2
Therefore
a = (0.88 x 18.8) + (1 —
0.88) x 13.6 18.2 mm
aCs =——1
1 1 2 = 1.563x106x72x106 = 9.6mm
8 r5 8
I
deflection is given by
a = K12 BS 8110:
rtot Part 2
where 3.7.2
Eqn 11
K is a factor dependent upon the shape of the being moment diagram.
For a simply supported beam with uniformly distributed load
K = 0.104 BS 8110:
Part 2
Total curvature at midspan, from Section lOi.3.2
—
1 Table ai
= 5.130 x 10 6 rad./mm
rtot
For flanged beams where b/b > 3.0 the basic span/effective depth ratio 4.43.2(3)
should be multiplied by a factor of 0.8
Thespan/effectivedepth ratios givenin NADTable7 are based on a maximum
service stress in the reinforcement in a cracked section of 250 N/mm2. The
tabulated values should be multiplied by the factor of 250/as for other stress
levels, where is the service stress at the cracked section underthe frequent
load combination. Asa conservativeassumptionthe Codestates that thefactor
may be taken as
250 
—
fg 400
A
yk A
s,prov
 = 28 x 0.8
(460 x 2392/2410)
= 19.6
If the span/effective depth ratio is modified using the service stress in the
reinforcementas calculated in Section 10.1.3.2.1 but adjusted for the frequent
load combination
10.2 Cracking
Check by calculation that the longitudinal reinforcement in the reinforced
concrete wall section shown in Figure 10.2 is sufficient to control crackingdue
to restraint of intrinsic deformation resulting in pure tension.
T16— 200
T12— 125
= kkfcffAt 4.4.2.2(3)
A S Eqn 4.78
where
= area of reinforcement within the tensile zone
= 905 x 2 = 1810 mm2/m
SERV(CEABIUTYCHECKS BY CALCULATION
a$ = 1.0 x 0.8 x 8
x 200 x iO
_____________________ = 336 N/mm2
1810
Mean strain:
sm = _ 1
fl1f2 4.4.2.4(2)
E (a)2
a Eqn 4.81
where
200
336
x io
1 — 0.5 = 8.4 x i0
10.2.3.2 Calculation of crack spacing
Ic
= a coefficient taking account of the bond properties of the bar
= 0.8 for high bond bars
MUTYCCKS Y CALCULATION
In the caseof imposed deformations,k1 should be multiplied by k, with k being
in accordance with EC2 Section 4.4.2.2.(3).
k2
= a coefficient taking account of the form of strain distribution
= 1.0 for pure tension
A
= the effective reinforcement ratio = —f
ceff
= the effective tension area.
The effective tension area is generally the area of concrete surrounding the
tension reinforcementto a depth of2.5timesthe distancefromthetension face
to thecontroid ofthereinforcement or, for members in tension, halfthe actual
member thickness, whichever is the lesser. This is calculated as:
Therefore
Wk
= 13S€ 4.4.2.4
Eqn 4.80
where
= a coefficient relating the average crack width to the design value
= 1.3 for restraint cracking in members with a minimum dimension
of 300 mm or less.
Therefore
Wk
= 1.3 x 263 x 8.4 x iO = 0.29 < 03 mm (limit)
11,1 Introduction
The design of deep beams may be based on analyses applying:
In EC21 details of theanalysis model and, therefore, much of the design are
notgiven and it is leftfor the Engineerto satisfythe principal Code requirements.
This can be achieved using CIRIA Guide 2, The design of deep beams in
reinforced concrete18, which also provides recommendations on the detailed
analysisand design. TheGuide was written for usewith the then current British
Standard CP 110(19).
Here it has been assumed that a complete design to the CIRIA Guidewould
be carried out and then checks made to demonstrate compliance with the
specific clauses for deep beams in EC2.
To highlight some of the differences between EC2 and design to the CIRIA
Guide, the example in Appendix B of the Guide has been used.
A small number of EC2 clauses have been identified as relating specifically to
deep beams:
11.2 Example
A proposed arrangementof walls and columns is shown in Figure 11.1. Loading
details are presented in Figure 11.2. It is intended to justify a design using the
Simple Rules of Section 2 of the CIRIA Guide.
Thebeam is aflat vertical plate and thethickness is small compared with other CIRIA
dimensions. Guide 2
Cl.2.1.1(1)
There are two loads which may be defined as concentrated and no indirect Cl.2.1.1(4)
loads or supports. Cl.2.1.1(5)
In EC2 a beam is classified as a deep beam if the span is less than twice the 2.5.2.1(2)
depth.
CIRIA Guide2 classifies deep beams as 'Beams with span/depth ratios of less
than2 for single spanbeams or less than 2.5 for multi span beams',thusgiving
an extended range of elements to be designed as deep beams in comparison
with EC2.
DRIP BEMAS
1800
I 900
k—..1
200L
300
14220
1120 It
+ 300— d
10 80
V
300
T 1
I
I
I
Iv 7140 300
300k
I I
I
E
I
I
I
I 0
300
I
30O iv
I 3600
iL
I
1
L2SO
1—1
25o.....:j1! 5000 00O 1O0O
I I I
ELEVATION
=
DEEP BEAMS
11e220
576 kNIm dead load
÷ 440 kNIm live load
475 kN
1' dead load 'I 475 kN
dead load
11.2.1 Durability
For dry environment, exposure class is 1. Table 4.1
Minimum concretestrength class is C25/30. ENV 206
= 30 N/mm2 Table NA.1
The CIRIA Guide example uses
Use C25130 for design to EC2 to keep examples broadly consistent.
Minimum cement content and water cement ratio ENV 206
= 15 mm Table 3
Minimum coverto reinforcement NAD
Assume nominal aggregate size = 20 mm Table 6
Assume maximum bar size 20 mm
Nominal cover 20 mm NAD 6.4(a)
EU
'DEEP BEAWIS
Check requirements for fire resistance to BS 8110: Part 2(2). NAD 6.1(a)
11.2.2 Materials
Note that EC2 effective spans typicallycome to the midpoint of the supports. Figure 2.4
= lesser of h and I
Active height (ha)
h = 10920 > 1 = 5750 mm
Therefore
h = 5750 mm
Thickness of beam = 300 mm
This thickness is used to be consistent with the CIRIA Guide2 example. It will
be necessary under EC2 to demonstrate that the required reinforcement can
be accommodated within thiswidth. Theeffectivedimensions ofthebeam are
shown in Figure 113
Height of beam
h 10920
Ii
Clear span 15000
.1502j
=
DEEP BEAMS
The floor slabs are monolithic with the wall so the effective height, 10, is 4.3.5.a5
calculated fromthe relevant clauses in EC2 referring to columns. However the Eqn 4.60
design example does not give anyinformation on the adjacent structure so kA
cannot be calculated but =
ljl cannot exceed 1.0 and therefore
Figure 4.27
= radius of gyration = = 86 mm
300/f
X = l/l = 3540/86 = 41.2
=
NSIACfCd
= 57.6x3x135+44x3x1.5+2x475x1.35/5.75
= 654 kN/m
= 654x io = 0.13
U
1000 x 300 x 25/1.5
11.2.5 Loading
Loading details are shown in Figure 11.2 and evaluated in Tables 11.1 and 11.2.
DEEP BEAMS
CIRIA
Total loads
(kN)m) (kNPm) Guide 2
Cl.2.3
Slab at level
14.220 44.0* 57.6* CI.2.a1
10.680 44.0* 57.6*
7.140 44.0 57.6
3.600 44.0 57.6
Selfweight 0.3 x 10.92 x 24 — 78.6
176.0 309.0
Point loads at level 14.220; 2 @ 475 kN*, which are considered as dead loads CIRIA
Vertical forces applied above a level of 3.30 + 0.75 x 5.75 = 7.620 are Guide 2
considered as top loading and loads below as hanging loads 01.23.1(1)
considered as top loads
In EC2 differing 'F values produce slightly different design forces to those in
CIRIA Guide 2
= 135, = 1.5
44.0 136.2
The CIRIA Guide Simple Rules apply where the intenstty of any load is less CIRIA
than 0.2f0 and the load is applied over a length which exceeds 0.21. More Guide 2
intense loads and those applied over shorter lengths are considered to be 01.23.1(5)
'concentrated', in which case reference should be made to the Supplementary
Rules in the Guide.
To allow for design to EC2 where different values and concrete strength
classesare used, the check for load intensitymight reasonablybe made against
0.2
= 0.2x I
x ratio of
1.4
values
25 ck
x (u'k) x
= 0.23fck
=
BEM4S
This loading is well below°23ck but, because the length of the loaded area
is lessthan 0.21 = 0.2 x 5750 = 1150mm, some additional reinforcement
may be required and must be calculated using the Supplementary Rules in
the CIRIA Guide.
1•35x 475 kN
kN
RBZlO3
RA
= 1944 kN, R8
= 2103 kN
Shear forces must be considered for top and bottomload cases separately.
Consider the bottomloaded case shown in Figure 11.5.
Total bottom load = 135 x 193.8 + 1.5 x 88 = 393.6 kN/m
Reactions from bottom applied loads are
= 1027 kN, = 941 kN
RAb RBb
15x 86 kN/m I
RAt
= 1944 — 1027 = 917 kN
= 2103 — 941 = 1162 kN
RBt
Loads acting over the effective support width apply an additional shear force CIRIA
to the critical section of the beam (i.e., at the support face). In this example, Guide 2
one ofthe pointloads acts atthe centreline ofthe actual support, B, as shown CI. 23.2
in Figure 11.6.
Innnl
641 kN
2000
Active height
of beam
h0= 5750
Support Support
support
. 0
500 5000 2000
4
Since the effective support width is halfthe actual width, the additional shear
force
= 0.5 x 641 x (h —
0.210)Ih
At support A
Top loading (VAt)
= 917 kN
Bottom loading = 1027 kN
(VAb)
Total (VA)
= 1944 kN
At support B
Top loading = 1162 + 265 = 1427 kN
(VBt)
Bottom loading (VBb)
= 941 kN
Total = 2368 kN
(VB)
Therefore x = 2.85 m
2852
M = 1944 (2.85 + 0.25) — 681 x —— = 3261 kNm
2
DEEP REAMS
fyd
= . = 1.15
= 400 N/mm2 Table 2.3
= 3261 x 106
I A8 = = 2363 mm2 I
400 x 3450
This is 15% less than CIRIA Guide 2, predominantly due to a higher yield
strength reinforcementused in this example, but also in part because of lower
values used in EC2.
CIRIA Guide2 states 'Reinforcementis notto becurtailed inthe span and may CIRIA
be distributed over a depth of 0•2ha A minimum steel percentage in relation Guide 2
to the local area of concrete in which it is embedded is given in 01.2.4.1
Table 1'. 01.2.6.2
EC2 requires for beams a maximum bar size or a maximum bar spacingto 4.4.2.3
limit cracking under quasipermanent loading.
Gk +
Quasipermanent loading = °3k 4.4.2.3(3)
Ratio to ultimate loading = 0.56
In CIRIA Guide2, the bars must be anchored to develop 80% ofthe maximum CIRIA
ultimateforce beyondthefaceofthe support and 20% ofthe maximum ultimate Guide 2
force at or beyond a point 0.21from theface of thesupport, or at or beyond C.2.4.1
the farface of the support, whichever is less. The main reinforcement must be
anchored so thatthe concrete within theareaof support relied upon for bearing
is adequately confined.
alA
ab sjeq
net
= A min 5.23.4.1
"s.prov Eqn 5.4
where
i
b
= = = 37q Eqn53
42.7
Therefore
2363
1
b.net
= 0.7 x (37 x 16) x = 348 mm
2814
Basing the flexural steel on the active height assumed for the beam design
A = kckfceIas 4.4.2.2(3)
Eqn 4.78
where
Hence
A
—s = 0.4 x 0.5 x 3/460 = 0.0013
ACt
The requirements of either Table 4.11 or Table 4.12 of EC2 should be met.
Assume steel stress = () x value for main bars = 94 N/mm2 4.4.23(4)
Table 4.11
Maximum bar size
= 32 mm
9max
A5
= 1048 > 900 mm2/m . OK
o 1
.0 IL 0
.0
I UJ
o
In
— 0
U'
I
• 0
.
0 I
!
If. IL
Lu
.
I.,
I
Lfl
C.,'.

I
.
'Q
I
..t
Cl
I
'.4
—
10 — 50T16 — 15OEF
'1
I I
—
36T16150
Ubar L — Bars continued
II — 10
I
I. through from
column and tied
to verticaL
reinforcement
I
l00J.. —
5000 2000
jIJ__
h0
Full tension lap
J'
Figure 11.8 Detail at bottom of wall
______ Hanger bar anchored as
a link around main bars
k = lasd>0.6m
d = h — 0.2h, say
= 10920 — 0.2 x 5750 = 9770 mm
b = 300mm
Therefore
VAd1
= 03 (1.2 + 40 x 0.0015)300 x 9770 x i0 = 1108 kN
Therefore
—
ASh = 393.6 2
=0.99mm/mm
s 400
A 2x201 =
—a = 2.68 > 036 + 0.99 = 135 mm2/mm . . . OK
s 150
A5
— 2x78 =
= _____ 1.04 > 036 mm2/mm OK
s 150
SW
= 0.0012b = 036 mm2/mm OK
S
For heavily loaded deep beams it may prove morecomplicated to justifythe
shear.
Mathematically the design loadfor ultimate limit state may be represented as:
(a) where only one variable load occurs the design load
= E +
7G.JGkJ
(b) when more than one variable load occurs the design load
= E +
It is importantto note thatthis Codepermitsthe useof eitherapproach although
in some circumstances the general method may result in higher loading.
In practice the simplified procedure will be perfectly satisfactory for most
situations and could be used.
For the particular case of continuous beams without cantilevers, the Code
permits the use of = 135 for all the spans
When caFâulating the loads on vertical elements of multistorey structures the
vertical loads may be based on either:
(a) loads from beams multiplied by suitable 4' and 'y values; or
(b) loads on beams multiplied by 'y values and a global reduction in loading
applied using the proceduregiven in BS 6399(21). This is the approach in
the NAD.
12.2 Example 1 — frame
For the frameshown in Figure 12.1 identifythe various load arrangements, to
check the overall stability. Assume office use for this building.
Note that the loadarrangements forthe design of elements could be different.
77/7 77/7
—
Figure 12.1 Frame configuration example 1
12.2.1 Notation
Characteristic loads/m
= dead — roof
Gkr
= dead — floor
Gkf
kr = imposed — roof
= imposed — floor
Characteristic load/frame
YGJGk.J
+ Q,1kj + Eqn 2.7(a)
7_7 7_7 77 7
—
Figure 12.2 Load case 1 example 1
O•7(l5WkJ
//////////
77
InI
COWfl4AT1O%4S
0.7 (1•5Wk
/ VV 'Y
I
___________
7_7 /_7
O96kr
/
r 135Gkr
'/
+ 07 (150.kr)
135Gkf +
/7/////// II
096 kf
I 1•Sakf
l35Gkf ÷ 15kf
/ / / / 7/
O•9Gkf
I
'A/
,//////// /
0.96 kf 1356kf ÷ 07 (1•50.)
I
/1/ // / ///
O9G kf 135Gkf ÷ 07 c15akf)
Note:
When the wind loading is reversed, another set of arrangements will need to
be considered. However, in problems ofthistype, thecritical arrangementsare
likely to be found intuitively rather than by directly searching through all the
theoretical possibilities.
k1 IUo05)
—
Figure 12.7 Beam configuration example 2
12.3.1 Notation
= characteristic dead load/rn
= characteristic irnposed load/rn (domestic use)
= characteristic imposed load/rn (parking use)
135Gk
A V N'V
Note
f1c\cfhl\rf
Load case A above should be combined with cases B —J
below as necessary
15ak1 O7 15k2)
B
{4}
Max. Iye moment in 1 2 and max. col. moment at 1
15ak2
f1
O7 (l5a2
05 (l.5Q ) 15Qk2
v1
Max. Iye moment
at
4—5
2
and max. col. moment
150k1
at
O7 (15Q k2 )
S
H _____
Max. —ye moment
at 3
3 ( see case H also I
(.5Q
0.5 I 1SQk2
F
Max. —ye moment at 4
—
Figure 12.8 Load cases example 2
LOAD COMBINATIONS
—
Figure 12.9 Beam configuration example 3
12.4.1 Notation
= characteristic dead load/rn
= characteristic imposed load/rn
P = characteristic point load (dead)
135P
O9 Gk
I
\ 13SGk +l•SO.k
N Jr
ti 12
Max.—ve moment and anchorage of top bars at 3
Also max. cot. moment at 3 C see F.g. 12.13 also
O9P
l.3SGk+ 50k
2 3
Max.—ve moment at 2
135P
O9P
135Gk ÷ 1 5Qk
O9Gk
IO9G k
I
/ rv'vyN I
11 2
Max.+ve moment in 23, max. cot. moment at 2
(see Fig. 12.12 also) and, possibly, max. cot. moment
at 3 (see Fig. 12.10 also)
:f
Awatertank, as shown in Figure 12.14, ofdepth H (in metres)hasan operating
depth of water h (in metres). Calculate the designlateral loadsfor the ultimate
limit state.
According to the draft EC1, earth loads are permanent loads. The same
reasoning can be applied to lateral pressurescaused by water. The NAD for
EC2 confirms this.
density
h water
1 35ph
Figure 12.15 Design load based on operating water depth —
example 4
Hj p
1 15pH
density
50
40
C'1
E
5 30
1
0
U
20
C
10
where
= M
bd2fck
— 0.44
(xld). rn =
1.25
o — 0.56
(x/d).urn =
1.25
Wi.
= (X/d).Il .918
Table 13.2 gives values of (XId)Jim' 'hum and WIim as a function of the amount of
redistributioncarriedout. EC2 states that plastic design, for exampleyield line 2.5.3.5.5
analysis,canbe used where xld 0.25.Thelimits corresponding tothisvalue
are also included in the table.
C., = 'h'hIIm
0.87(1 — d'/d)
where
mechanical ratio of compression steel
=x
=
bd 'ck
InnI
DESIGN OP BEAM AND COLUMN SECTiONS
A'8
= area of compression reinforcement
xld hf/d
where
= thickness of the flange
hf
For beams where the neutral axis lies below the flange, it will normally be
sufficientlyaccurate to assume that the centre of compression is located at mid
depth of the flange. Thus, for singly reinforced beams, approximately
M = 0.87 —
ASck(d hI2)
The neutral axis depth is given approximately by
a
In
U)
0
ci
CI)
E
0
0
0)
0
a)
C' C4 
,.
a
a a
C
Q
'0
a
II
a a a
("4
a a
CM
1
C)
1
0)
C)
U
(t1
0
0
(I,
C
E
0
0
0)
C
0
_ '9 1
a C'1
a ;
Q a
c'J
1
cv,
a) .0
I
0)
Li
LC)
CI,
C
E
0
C)
0)
C
c'j
C)
ci
C%1
z 'I
0)
I
0)
U

Figure 13.2(c) Rectangular columns (d'Ih = 0.15)
DESiGN OF BEAM AND COLUMN SECTIONS
UI
6
UI
m
U
UI
C4
6
UI
0
C" a
o
Cl)
E
0
0 UI
I 8
Ca
C)
0
w
c'j
1
C)
a)
I
0)
U
lnnI
DESiGN OP BEAM AND COLUMN SECTIONS
'I
4
U)
c'J
d
a,
C
E
0
0
C',
C
C',
0
a,

'.
m
'—
c'i —
—
q u'
Q
— ' L  Cl
1C) 'I
C)
LL
tAI
DS1ON OF BEAM AND COLUMN SET1ONS
0 0
h12
7__of
Centroid
.
bars in half section
.1
Figure 133 Method of assessing an effective value for d'
Worked examples for the design of concrete bui'dings Cl/SfB
UDC
BRITISH OEMENT ASSOCIATIONPUBLICATION 43.505 6240124006.77