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Based on BSI publication


DDENV1992-1-1: 1992.
Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures.
3 Part 1. General rules and rules for buildings.

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Thisbook of worked examples has been prepared by:
British CementAssociation
Ove Arup & Partners
and
S. B Tietz & Partners
The work was monitored by the principal authors:
A. W. Beeby BSc, PhD, CEng, MICE, MlStructE, FACI
Professor of Structural Design, Dept of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds
(formerly Director of Design and Construction, British CementAssociation),
R. S. Narayanan BE(Hons), MSc. DIC, CEng,FiStructE
Partner, S. B. Tietz & Partners, Consulting Engineers,
and
R. Whittle MA(Cantab), CEng, MICE
Associate Director, Ove Arup& Partners,
and edited by:
A. J. Threlfall BEng, DIC
Consultant (formerly a Principal Engineer at the British Cement Association).

This publication was jointlyfundedby the BritishCement Associationand theDepartmentofthe Environmentto promote
and assist the use of DD ENV 1992-1-1 Eurocode 2: Part 1.

The BritishCement Association,BCA, isaresearchand information bodydedicated tofurtheringthe efficientand proper


design and execution of concrete construction. Membership of BCA's Centre for Concrete Information is opento all
involved in the construction process. BCA is funded by subscriptions fromcementproducers, through joint ventures,
sales of publications, information and training courses, and the carrying out of research contracts.
Full details are available fromtheCentre forConcrete Information, British Cement Association, Century House, Telford
Avenue, Crowthorne, Berkshire RG11 6YS. Telephone (0344) 725700, Fax (0344) 727202.

Ove Arup& Partnersisan internationalfirm offering awide range ofdesignand specialist services for theconstruction
industry.

S. B. Tietz & Partnersoffer consultaricy services in civil, structural and traffic engineering.

A catalogue and prices for BCA publications can be obtained from PublicationSales, CentreforConcrete Information,
at the aboveaddress.

43.505 Published by
First published 1994 British Cement Association
10DM A 701A 1AA 1 Century House, Telford Avenue,
Crowthorne, Berks RG11 6YS
Price group M Telephone (0344) 762676
© British Cement Association 1994 Fax (0344) 761214
From 15Aprll 1995 the STD Code
will be (01344)

All advice or information fromthe British Cement Association is intended forthose who will evaluate the significance and limitations of its contents
and take responsibility for its useand application. No liability (including that for negligence) for any loss resulting fromsuchadviceor information
is accepted. Readers should note that all BCA publications are subjectto revision fromtime to timeand should therefore ensure that they are in
possession of the latest version.
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FOR THE DESIGN


OF CONCRETE
BUILDINGS

Based on BSI publication


DDENV1992-1-1: 1992.
Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures.
Part 1. General rules and rulesfor buildings.

Published by the British Cement Association in conjunction with:


Ove Arup & Partners S.B. Tietz & Partners The Department of the
13 Fitzroy Street 14 Clerkenwell Close Environment
LondonW1P 6BQ Clerkenwell 2 Marsham Street
Tel: 071-636 1531 London EC1R OPQ London SW1P 3EB
Tel: 071-490 5050 Tel: 071-276 3000
July 1994
FOREWORD

Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures, Part 1: General rules and rules for buildings
(EC2)1 sets out both the principles for the design of all types of concrete structure, and
design rules for buildings. Rulesfor other typesof structureand particular areas oftechnology,
including precast concrete elements and structures, will be covered in other parts of EC2.
EC2 contains aconsiderable number of parametersforwhichonly indicative valuesare given.
The appropriate values for use in the UK are setout in the National Application Document
(NAD)1 which has been drafted by BSI. The NAD also includes a number of amendments
to the rules in EC2 where, in thedraftfor development stage of EC2, it was decidedthat the
EC2 rules either did not apply, or were incomplete. Two such areas are the design for fire
resistance and the provision of ties, where the NAD states that the rules in BS 8110(2) should
be applied.
Attention is drawn to Approved Document A (Structure) related to the Building Regulations
1991, which states that Eurocode 2, including the National Application Document, is
considered to provide appropriate guidance forthedesign of concrete buildings in the United
Kingdom.
Enquiries of a technical nature concerning these worked examplesmay be addressed to the
authors directly, or through the BCA, or to the Building Research Establishment.
CoNTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS 8 SPECIALDETAILS


1.1 Introduction 5 8.1 Corbels 180
1.2 Symbols 5 8.2 Nibs 185
8.3 Simply supported ends 188
2 COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE 4 Surface reinforcement 191
2.1 Introduction 15
2.2 Basic details of structure, 9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
materials and loading 15 9.1 Introduction 193
23 Floor slab 17 9.2 Design data 193
2.4 Main beam 20 93 Serviceability limit state 195
2.5 Edge beam (interior span) 30 9.4 Ultimate limit state 204
2.6 Columns 34 9.5 Minimum and maximum areas of
2.7 Foundation 39 reinforcement 207
2.8 Shear wall 43 9.6 Reinforcement summary 207
2.9 Staircase 49
10 SERVICEABILITY CHECKS BY
3 BEAMS CALCULATION
3.1 Introduction 53 10.1 Deflection 208
3.2 Design methods for shear 53 10.2 Cracking 219
33 Shear resistance with concentrated
loads close to support 63 11 DEEP BEAMS
3.4 Design method for torsion 70 11.1 Introduction 222
3.5 Slenderness limits 81 11.2 Example 222

4 SLABS 12 LOAD COMBINATIONS


4.1 Solid and ribbed slabs 82 12.1 Introduction 236
4.2 Flat slabs 109 12.2 Example 1
— frame 237
5 COLUMNS 123 Example 2
5.1 Introduction 132 — continuous beam 1 240
5.2 Capacity check of a section by 12.4 Example 3
strain compatibility 132 — continuous beam 2 243
53 Biaxial bending capacity of 12.5 Example 4
a section 137 — tank 245
5.4 Braced slender column 141
5.5 Slender column with biaxial 13 DESIGN OF BEAM AND COLUMN
bending 143 SECTIONS
5.6 Classification of structure 147 13.1 Concrete grades 246
5.7 Sway structures 151 13.2 Singly reinforced rectangular
beam sections 246
6 WALLS 133 Compression reinforcement ... 248
6.1 Introduction 154 134 Flanged beams 249
6.2 Example 154 13.5 Symmetrically reinforced
rectangular columns 249
7 FOUNDATIONS
7.1 Ground bearing footings 158 REFERENCES 256
7.2 Pilecap design 172

fIE
I. IHTRODUCTON AND SYMBOLS
1.1 Introduction and symbols
Themainobjective of this publication is to illustrate through worked examples
how EC21 may be used in practice. It hasbeen prepared for engineers who
are generally familiar with design practice in the UK, particularly to BS 8110(2).
Theworked examplesrelateprimarilyto in-situ concrete building structures The
designs are in accordance with EC2: Part 1 as modified by the UK National
Application Document1. Where necessary,the information given in EC2 has
been supplemented by guidance taken from other documents.
Thecoreexample, in Section 2, is a re-designofthein-situconcrete office block
used inthe BCA publicationDesignedand detailed (BS 8110: 1985), by Higgins
& Rogers4. Other design aspects and forms of construction are fully explored
by means of further examples in Sections 3 to 12.
Equations and charts for the designof beam and column sections, taken from
the Concise Eurocode for the design of concrete buildings5, are given in
Section 13. Publications used in the preparation of this book, and from which
further information may be obtained, are listedirt the References Unless
otherwise stated, all references to BS 8110 refer to Part 1.
Twoconventionshave been adopted inthe preparation ofthis book. Statements
followed by OK' mark places where the calculated value is shown
to be satisfactory. Green type is used to draw attention to key information
such as the reinforcement to be provided.
Thecalculationsare cross-referencedtothe relevantclauses in EC2 and, where
appropriate, to otherdocuments; all references in the right-hand margins are
to EC2 unless indicated otherwise.
Thesymbols usedthroughout the publication are listed and defined below,and
are generally those used in EC2 itself.

1.2 Symbols
A Area of cross-section
Area of concrete cross-section
Area of concrete within tensile zone
Area of concrete tensile zone external to links
Ak Area enclosed within centre-line of thin-walled section
A Area of prestressing tendons
A Area of tension or, in columns, total longitudinal reinforcement
A' Area of compression reinforcement
Amin Minimum area of tension or, in columns, total longitudinal reinforcement

Apr Area of tension reinforcement provided


Areq Area of tension reinforcement required
A11 Area of surface reinforcement
A Area of transverse reinforcement within flange of beam
A5, Area of tension reinforcement effective at a section or, for torsion, area
of additional longitudinal reinforcement
As,,, Area of shear reinforcement or torsion links
Aymin Minimum area of shear reinforcement

E, Effective modulus of elasticity of concrete


(tTROOUCTLOL &ND SYMBOLS

E0 Secant modulus of elasticity of concrete at transfer

E Secant modulus of elasticity of concrete

E5 Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement or prestressing steel

F Force due to concrete in compression at ultimate limit state

F5 Force in tension reinforcement or prestressing tendons at ultimate limit state


FSd Design value of tie force in pilecap

Fsdp Design value of supportreaction


Fj Tie force in corbel or due to accidental action
F Vertical force applied to corbel or, for sway classification of structures, sum
of all vertical loads under service conditions
Gk Characteristic value of permanent action or dead load

Gld Characteristic dead floor load


Gkr Characteristic dead roof load
H Overall depth of tank
H0 Horizontal force applied to corbel
I Second moment of area of cross-section
Second moment of area of uncracked concrete section

1 Second moment of area of cracked concrete section


Second moment of area of beam section
Second moment of area of concrete section
Second moment of area of column section

'slab Second moment of area of slab section


Second moment of area of section in x direction
Second moment of area of section in y direction
J St Venant torsional stiffness of rectangular section
-' St Venant torsional stiffness of total section
K Deflection-curvaturefactor dependent upontheshapeofthe bending moment
diagram
K1 Reduction factor for calculation of second order eccentricity

1<2
Coefficient taking account of decrease in curvature due to increasing axial
force
M Bending moment
M0 Moment of force, F0, about tension reinforcement
Mcr Moment causing cracking
Momentof-force, N0, about x axis
Moment of force, N, about y axis
M0,,
M0 First order moment

MRd Design moment of resistance


MRdC
Moment of force, NRdC, about mid-depth of section

M'RdC Moment of force, N'RdC, about mid-depth of section

MAdS Moment of force, NRdS, about mid-depth of section


WTRODUCT%OII AHD SYMBOLS

M Design value of applied moment


MsdX Design moment in x direction

Msdy Design moment in y direction


Msdl First order moment at end 1

Msd2 First order moment at end 2

Msd/S Design moment in column strip


MSdms Design moment in middle strip
Moment in span
Moment at support

Mtm Maximum moment transfer value

M Moment about x axis


Moment about y axis
M
N Axial force

N Axial force due to concrete in compression

NRd Design resistance to axial force


NRdC Design resistance to axial force due to concrete
N'RdC Design resistance to axial force due to concrete of hypothetical section of
depthx>h
NRdS Design resistance to axial force due to reinforcement
Nsd Design value of applied axial force
NSdm Mean applied axial force
P Prestressingforce or point load
P, Average prestressing force along tendon profile
m.o Initial prestressing force at transfer
Mean effective prestressing force at time t

Pmoo Final prestressing force after all losses

P0 Maximum initial prestressing force at active end of tendon


req Requiredprestressing force
Final prestressing force at service

k Characteristic value of variable action or imposed load

kf Characteristic value of imposed floor load

kr Characteristic value of imposed roof load

RA Reaction at support A

RB Reaction at support B
S First moment of area of reinforcement about centroid of section

S1 First moment of area of reinforcement about centroidof uncracked section


S First moment of area of reinforcement about centroidof cracked section

Td Design value of tensile force in longitudinal reinforcement


TRd1
Maximum torsional moment resisted by concrete struts

TRd2
Maximum torsional moment resisted by reinforcement
(ILTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS

Tsd Design value of applied torsional moment


TsdfI Torsional moment applied to flange

Tsd tot Total applied torsional moment

TsdW
Torsional moment applied to web

VA Shear force at support A

VB Shear force at support B

VCd Design shear resistance provided by concrete


Ve,c Shear force at exterior support

t' Shear force at interior support

VRd1 Design shear resistance of member without shear reinforcement


VRd2 Maximum design shear force to avoid crushing of notional concrete struts

VRd3 Design shear resistance of member with shear reinforcement


VSd Design value of applied shear force
VsdX Design shear force in x direction

VsdY Design shear force in y direction


Vmax Maximum design shear force
VWd Design shear resistance provided by shear reinforcement
Wb Section modulus at bottom fibre
Section modulus at centroid of tendons
Wk Characteristic value of wind load

W Section modulus at top fibre


a Distance or deflection or maximum drape of tendon profile

a1 Deflection based on uncracked section

a11 Deflection based on cracked section

a0 Distanceof loadfromfaceof support (corbel) orfromcentre-line of hanger bars


(nib)
a0 Deflection due to concrete shrinkage
a Distance from face of support to effective centre of bearing

a1 Horizontal displacement of the envelope line of tensile force


a0 Total deflection

a Distance between positions of zero and maximum bending

a Deflection at distance x along span

a1,; Values of a at ends of span


b Width of section or flange width or lateral cover in plane of lap
bay Average width of trapezoidal compression zone
be Width of effective moment transfer strip
beff Effective width of flange

bmin Minimum width of support beam

br Width of rib
Width of support
OTOII MiD SYMBOLS

b Mean width of section over the tension zone

b Minimum width of section over the effective depth


c Cover to longitudinal torsion reinforcement

c1,c2 Support widths at ends of beam


d Effective depth of section
d' Depth to compression reinforcement
day Average effective depth for both directions
db Depth to bar considered
dcrt Distance of critical section for punching shear from centroid of column
Effective depth of flange

dH Effective depth for punching shear check in column head

dm Maximum effective depth for both directions

dmin Minimum effective depth for both directions

d Effective depth in x direction


d Effective depth in y direction
d1 Effective depth to bars in layer 1

d2 Effective depth to bars in layer 2

ea Additional eccentricity due to geometrical imperfections

eay Additional eccentricity in the y direction

e Additional eccentricity in the z direction

ee Equivalent eccentricity at critical section


e, First order eccentricity in y direction

e01,e02 First order eccentricities at ends of column

ot Total eccentricity

ey Eccentricity in y direction
Eccentricity in z direction
Second order eccentricity
Second order eccentricity in y direction
e Second order eccentricity in z direction
Stress in concrete at bottom fibre

1bd Design value of ultimate bond stress


Design cylinderstrength of concrete
Cube strength of concrete at transfer
Characteristic cylinder strength of concrete

cteff Effective tensile strength of concrete at time cracking is expected to occur

ctm Mean value of axial tensile strength of concrete


Characteristic cube strength of concrete
Design tensile strength of prestressing steel
Characteristic tensile strength of prestressing steel
INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS

RdU Design value of ultimate bearing stress


Stress in reinforcement
Stress in concreteat top fibre

f Design yield strength of reinforcement


Characteristic yield strength of reinforcement

cld Design yield strength of longitudinal torsion reinforcement

Wd Design yield strength of shear reinforcement or torsion links

1ywk
Characteristic yield strength of shear reinforcement or torsion links
Characteristic dead load per unit area
h Overall depth of section or liquid in tank
Reduced value of h for separate check about minor axis of column section
with biaxial eccentricities
ha Active height of deep beam

h0 Overall depth of corbel at face of support


hf Overall depth of flange

hH Depth of column head


hm Larger dimension of rectangular section
hmn Smaller dimension of rectangular section

h0 Total height of structure in metres


Radius of gyration of section
k Coefficient or factor

kA Restraint coefficient at end A

kB Restraint coefficient at end B

kboflom
Restraint coefficient at bottom

k Minimum reinforcement coefficient associated with stress distribution


Restraint coefficient at top

k1 Crack spacing coefficient associated with bond characteristics

k2 Crack spacing coefficient associated with strain distribution


1 Length or span
1' Length of tendon over which anchorage slip is taken up
Basic anchorage length
Minimum anchorage length

1net Required anchorage length


Diameter of circular column
Height of column between centres of restraints
1eff Effective span

1effslab Effective span of slab


Distance from column face to edge of column head
Clear distance between faces of support
ThOD)VT1OI4 MD SYMBOLS

Distance between positions of zero bending or effective height of column


or, for deep beams, clear distance between faces of support
Length of compression flange between lateral supports
Required lap length or floor to ceiling height in metres
min Minimum lap length
Greater of distances in metres between centres of columns, frames or walls
supporting any two adjacent floor spans in direction of tie under
consideration
Effective span in x direction

ç Effective span in y direction


11,12 Lengths between centres of supports or overall dimensions of rectangular
column head
mSd Minimum design moment per unit width
n Ultimate design load per unit area or number of tendons or number of
sub-divisions
p' Average loss of prestressing force per unit length due to friction
q Equivalent load per unit length due to prestressing force profile
qk Characteristic imposed load per unit area
r Radius of bend or radius of curvature
Radius of curvature based on uncracked section
Radius of curvature based on cracked section
Radius of curvature due to concrete shrinkage

rr Radius of curvature due to concrete shrinkage based on uncracked section


Radius of curvature due to concrete shrinkage based on cracked section
ot Total radius of curvature
s Spacing of shear reinforcement or torsion links or horizontal length of tendon
profile
Spacing of transverse reinforcement within flange of beam
Sm Maximum spacingof shear reinforcement or torsion links

s Average final crack spacing


t Thickness of supporting element or wall of thin-walled section

tmln
Minimum thickness of wall
u Circumference of concrete section or critical section for punching shear

Uk Circumference of areaAk

VAd1 Design shear resistance per unit length of critical perimeter,for slab without
shear reinforcement

VRd2
Maximum design shear resistance per unit length of critical perimeter, for
slab with shear reinforcement

VRd3 Design shear resistance per unit length of critical perimeter, for slab with
shear reinforcement

v Design value of shear force per unit length of critical perimeter


w Support width or quasi-permanent load per unit length
Design crack width
t4TODUCTION MID SYMBOLS

Wmin Minimum width of support


x Neutral axis depth or distance along span from face of support or distance
along tendon or column dimension in x direction
x' Maximum depth of concrete in compression in direction of minor axis for
column section with biaxial eccentricities

x Depth of concrete in compression at position of minor axis for column section


with biaxial eccentricities
y Drape of tendon at distance x along profile or column dimension in y
direction
Distance from centroid of uncracked section to extreme tension fibre
z Lever arm of internal forces
Distance from centroid of section to centroidof tendons
a Reduction factor for concrete compressive stress or modular ratio or
deformation parameter

a1 Value of parameter based on uncracked section

a11 Value of parameter based on cracked section

aa Effectiveness coefficient for anchorage

ae Effective modularratio
Reduction coefficient for assumed inclination of structure due to
imperfections
Moment coefficients in x and y directions
a1 Effectivenesscoefficient for lap
Coefficient with several applications including shear resistance enhancement,
effective height of column, St Venant torsional stiffness, punching shear
magnification, design crack width
ared Reduced value of shear resistance enhancement coefficient
Coefficient associated with bond characteristics

a2 Coefficient associated with duration of load


Partial safety factor for concrete material properties
Partial safety factor for actions
Partial safety factor for permanent action or dead load

7G.nf Partial safety factor for permanent action, in calculating lower design value
Partial safety factor for permanent action, in calculating upper design value
Partial safety factor for actions associated with prestressing force
Partial safety factor for variable action or imposed load
Partial safety factor for steel material properties of reinforcement or
prestressing tendons
5 Ratio of redistributed moment to moment before redistribution
Strain in concreteat bottom of section
Basic concrete shrinkage strain

ç Final concrete shrinkage strain


Minimum strain in tendons to achieve design tensile strength
Strain in tendons corresponding to prestressing force mt
€pm
tVROQUCT(OL &IID SYMBOLS

Strain in reinforcement
e(t,t0) Estimated concreteshrinkage strain

sm Mean strain in reinforcement allowing for tension stiffening effect of concrete


Ultimate compressive strain in concrete
Initial yield strain in reinforcement
Distribution coefficient
Moment coefficient
e Angle of rotation or angle between concrete struts and longitudinal axis
X Slenderness ratio

Xcrit Critical slenderness ratio

Xm Mean slenderness ratio of all columns in storey considered

Xmin
Slenderness ratio beyond which column is considered slender
Coefficient of friction between tendon and duct or applied moment ratio

Iim Limiting value of applied moment ratio for singly reinforced section
v Efficiency factor or assumed inclination of structure due to imperfections
1'red Reduced value of assumed inclination of structure
Longitudinal force coefficient
p Tension reinforcement ratio or density of liquid
p' Compression reinforcement ratio
p1 Longitudinal tension reinforcement ratio
Longitudinal tension reinforcement ratios in x and y directions
Effective reinforcement ratio
Shear reinforcement ratio
w,mIn Minimum shear reinforcement ratio

p1,p2 Principal and secondary reinforcement ratios in solid slabs


Stress in concrete adjacent to tendons due to self-weight and any other
permanent actions
Average stress in concrete due to axial force
Initial stress in concrete adjacent to tendons due to prestress
Initial stress in tendons immediately after stressing (pre-tensioning) or
immediately aftertransfer (post-tensioning)
Stress in tension reinforcement calculated on basis of cracked section

°r Value of a8 under loading conditions causing first cracking

TRd Basic design shear strength


Factor defining representative value of variable action
Value of (, for rare load combination
Value of y' for frequent loading
Value of & for quasi-permanent loading
Mechanical ratio of tension reinforcement
Mechanical ratio of compression reinforcement
(KTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS

WIim Limiting value of w for singly reinforced section


Total vertical force applied to frame at floor

A1 Anchorage slip or wedge set


Variation of longitudinal force in section of flange over distance a
AH Equivalent horizontal force acting on frame at floor j due to assumed
imperfections
Moment of force about mid-depth of section
Reduction in design moment at support

ANRdC Design resistanceto axial force due to concrete in areaof hypothetical section
lying outside actual section
AP Average loss of prestressing force due to elastic deformation of concrete
Loss of prestressing force at active end of tendon due to anchorage slip

AP(t) Loss of prestressing force due to creep, shrinkage and relaxation at time t

AP(x) Loss of prestressingforce due to friction between tendonand duct at distance


x from active end of tendon
Variation of stress in tendon due to relaxation
Bar size or duct diameter or creep coefficient
(t,t0) Creep coefficient, defining creep between times t and t, related to elastic
deformation at 28 days

(oo,t0) Final creep coefficient


.
2 COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE
2.1 Introduction
Design calculations for the main elements of a simple in-situ concreteoffice
block are set out. The structure chosen is the same as that used in Higgins
and Rogers' Designed and detailed (BS 8110: 1985)(). Calculations are, wher-
ever possible, given in thesame orderas those in Higgins and Rogersenabling
a directcomparison to be made between BS 8110(2) and EC21 designs. For
thesame reason,a concrete gradeC32140 is used. This is nota standard grade
recognized by EC2 or ENV 206(6), which gives grade C35145in Table NA.1.
Some interpolation of the tables in EC2 has, therefore, been necessary.
Theexample was deliberatelychosen to be simple and to cover aconsiderable
range of member types Comparisonshowsthat, forthis typeof simplestructure,
there is very little difference between BS 8110 and EC2 in the complexity of
calculation necessary or the results obtained.

2.2 Basic details of structure, materials and loading


These are summarized in Table 2.1 and Figure 2.1.

Table 2.1 Design information


Intended use
Laboratory and office block

Fire resistance
1 hour for all elements

Loading (excludingself-weightof structure)


Roof — 1.5
imposed (kN/m2)
— finishes (kNIm2) 1.5
Floors —
imposed including partition allowance (kN/m2) 4.0
— finishes (kNIm2) 0.5
Stairs — 4.0
imposed (kN/m2)
— finishes (kNIm2) 0.5
External cladding (kNIm) 5.0

Wind load
Speed(m/sec) 40
Factors
S1 1.0
2 0.83
S3 1.0
Cl 1.1

Exposure class
2b (external) and 1 (internal)

Subsoil conditions
Stiff clay — no sulphates
Allowable bearing pressure (kNIm2) 200

Foundation type
Reinforced concrete footings to columnsand walls

Materials
GradeC32/40 concrete with 20 mm maximum aggregate
Characteristic strength of main bars (N/mm2) 460
Characteristic strength of links(NImm2) 250
Self-weight of concrete (kN/m2) 24
COMPLETE DESG4 EXAMPLE

8 (Th 500O1,0,O00

—175 waIl

175 walL TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN

R
c7
3 Notes
I All columns 300 x 300
2
c7 2 Main beams 500 x 300
3. Edge beams 350 x 300
1, Internal column bases
0 2750 x 2750 x 600

TYPICAL CROSS SECTION

Notes
1. N Sendwindshearforcewallsresisted by
2 LateraL bracing in E-.W direction
provided by staircase, and infill
masonry panels, on grid 1/H-i,
wind direction and grid 31H—J

WIND RESISTANCE

C C C CP C C C

l(ey

. P — Peripheral tie
P


W

Int —
- —
mt —

— (at
.,- Int — Internal tie
C — Column (external) tie
W — Wall (external) tie

C C C C P C C C

TIE PROVISION — horizontcit ties


Ft 1 20 + 4n0 Ia 20 + 16 a 36 60 kN

Figure 2.1 Structural details


COMPLETEQES(GM EX&MPLE

2,3 Floor slab


2.3.1 Idealization of structure
Consider as a one-waycontinuous slab on knife-edge supportsand design a
typical 5 m interior span where
= 32 N/mm2
= 460 N/mm2

2.3.2 Cover for durability and fire resistance


Nominal cover for exposure class 1 (internal) is 20 mm. NAD
Table 6
Cover should not be lessthan the bar size when 20 mm maximum aggregate 4.1.33
size is used.
NAD 6.1(a)
175 mm slab with 20 mm cover will give 1.5 hours fire resistance.... OK &BS 8110
Table 3.5
Use 20 mm nominal cover bottom and top
& Figure 3.2
2.3.3 Loading
Self-weight of slab = 0.175 x 24 = 4.2 kN/m2
Finishes = 0.5 kN/m2
Characteristic permanent load (g) = 4.7 kN/m2
Characteristic variable load (q) = 4.0 kN/m2

Design permanent load = 135 x 4.7 = 6.35 kN/m2 Table 2.2


Design variable load = 1.5 x 4.0 = 6.0 kN/m2

2.3.4 Design moments and shears


Momentshave been obtained using momentcoefficientsgiven in Reynolds and
Steedman's Reinforced concrete designer's handbook7, Table 33.

Support moment = 0.079 x 635 x 52 + 0.106 x 6.0 x 52


= 2&4 kNm/m

Span moment = 0.046 x 635 x 52 + 0.086 x 6.0 x 52 = 20.2 kNm/m

Design shear force = 0.5 x 6.35 x 5 + 0.6 x 6.0 x 5 = 339 kN/m

2.3.5 Reinforcement
2.3.5.1 Support

Assume effective depth = 175 — 20 — 6 = 149 mm

= 0.040
bd2fck

AfS yk = 0.048, x/d = 0.092 (Section 13, Table 13.1)


bdfck
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

For zero redistribution, x/d should be less than 0.45 OK 2.5.3.4.2(5)

A = 498 mm2/m
Minimum area of reinforcement
0.6b d
0.0015 bd = 224 mm2/m OK 5.4.2.1.1(1)

Use T12 @ 200 mm crs. (565 mm2/m)

2.3.5.2 Span
M
= 0.028
bd2fCk

Afyk = 0.033, x/d = 0.063 (Section 13, Table 13.1)


bdfCk

A = 342 mm2/m

Use 112 @ 300 mm crs. (377 mm2/m)

Note:
Reinforcementareasdiffer somewhatfrom those givenby BS 8110 which permits
design for the single loadcase of maximum load on all spanscombined with
20% redistribution. EC2 requiresalternateand adjacent spansto beconsidered.
In this instance, no redistribution has been carried out but it would have been
permissible to carry out 30% redistribution in the EC2 design. This would have
resulted in an identical answer to that given by BS 8110 but ductilityclass H NAD
(as defined in prEN 10080(8)) reinforcement would need to be specified. Table 5

2.3.6 Shear
Shear resistance of the slab withoutshear reinforcement is given by 43.23
rRdk(l.2 + 40p,)bd
= Eqn 4.18
VAd1

where

TRd
= 035 N/mm2 Table 4.8

k = 1.6 — d = 1.6 — 0.149 = 1.451


565
= = 0.0038
1000 x 149
Hence
= 1023 kN/m > = 33.9 kN/m OK
VRd1 VSd

No shear reinforcement required


Note:
Since shear is rarely a problem for normally loaded solid slabs supported on
beams, as the calculation hasshown, it is not usually necessary to check in
these instances.
COMPlETE DESiGNEXAMPLE

2.3.7 Deflection

Reinforcement ratio provided in span = = 0.0025


1000 x 149
Using NADTable 7(1) and interpolating between 48 for 0.15% and 35 for 0.5%, NAD
a basic span/effectivedepth ratio of 44 is given. By modifying according to the Table 7
steel stress, the ratio becomes
4.4.3.2(4)
44(400x377) = 422
460 x342

5000
The actual span/effectivedepth ratio is = 33.6 OK
149

Had EC2 Table 4.14 been used instead of NADTable 7, the basic ratio before
modification would have been 35, which would not have been OK.

2.3.8 Cracking
For minimum area of reinforcement assume 4.4.2.2

ct.eff
= 3 N/mm2
= 0.4
k
k = 0.8

A0 = 0.5 x 175 x 1000 = 87500 mm2

Hence
= kkftffA!o
A Eqn 4.78

= 0.4 x 0.8 x 3 x 87500/460 = 183 mm2/m

Area of reinforcement provided = 377 mm/m OK

No further check is necessary as h = 175 200 mm 4.4.23(1)


NAD
Maximum bar spacing = 3h 500 mm OK Table 3
5.4.a2.1(4)

2.3.9 Tie provisions


The NAD requires that ties are provided in accordance with BS 8110. NAD 6.5(g)
Internal tie in E—W direction, with = 36 kN/m width, is given by BS 8110
3.123.4
(g + + 4) x —
5 =
Tie force = F x qk)
x—lr = 36 x (4.7
41.8 kN/m
7.5 5 7.5 5
tONPtETEDESGI4 EXAMPLE

Minimum area = 41.8 x i0 = 91 mm2/m


460

Thus this area ofthe bottom reinforcementis the minimum that should be made
continuous throughout the slab.

2.3.10 Reinforcement details


The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 2.2.

B—B COVER o outer bars 20

Figure 2.2 Slab reinforcement details

2.4 Main beam

2.4.1 Cover for durability and fire resistance

Nominal cover for exposure class 1 (internal) is 20 mm. NAD


Table 6
Nominal cover for 1 hour fire resistance is 20 mm. BS 8110
Table 3.5

Use 20 mm nominal cover to links


COMPLETEQESLG4 EXAMPLE

2.4.2 Loading
Permanent load from slab (Section 2.3.3) = 4.7 x 5 = 23.5 kN/m

Self-weight of beam = (0.5



0.175) x 0.3 x 24 = 2.3 kN/m

Characteristic permanent load (g) = 25.8 kN/m

Characteristic imposed load (q) = 5 x4 = 20 kN/m

Maximum design load = l.3Sg + i.5qk = 64.8 kN/m 2.3.3.1


Minimum design load = l35 = 34.8 kN/m 2.3.22.(4)

2.4.3 Analysis
2.4.3.1 Idealization of structure and load cases
The structure is simplified as a continuous beam attached to columns above 2.533
and below, which are assumed to be fixedat their upper ends and pinnedat
the foundations, as shown in Figure 23.

3500

4000

Figure 23 Idealization of structure

2.4.3.2 Design moments and shears


These are summarized in Table 2.2 and Figures 2.4 and 2.5.
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

Table 2.2 Results of frame analysis

Loadcase 1 Load case2 Loadcase3

Load per m on 8 m span (kN) 64.8 64 8 34 8


Loadper m on 6 m span (kN) 64.8 34.8 64.8

Upper LH column moment (kNm) 103 109 50


Lower LH column moment (kNm) 68 72 33

LH end of 8 m span moment (kNm) —171 —180 —82


LH end of 8 m span shear (kN) 233 238 119

Middle of 8 m span moment (kNm) 242 256 116

RH end of 8 m span moment (kNm) —382 —345 —242


RH end of 8 m span shear (kN) 286 280 159

Upper centre column moment (kNm) 33 55 3


Lower centre column moment (kNm) 18 29 2

LH end of 6 m span moment (kNm) —331 —262 —247


LH end of 6 m span shear (kN) 240 146 223

Middle of 6 m span moment (kNm) 98 20 130

RH end of 6 m span moment (kNm) —57 —12 —76


RH end of 6 m span shear (kN) 149 63 166

Upper RH column moment (kNm) 34 7 46


Lower RH column moment (kNm) 22 5 30

REDISTRIBUTION AT AND
Case 1 — Reduce 171 to 126 (see 2)
Reduce 382 to 268 (—30%)
Case 2—Reduce 180 to 126 (_30%)
Reduce 365 to 268 (see 1) 382 (1
Case 3— No redistribution

(2) 180 (2) elastic


(R)
(3) eLastic 76 (3)

(1) redistributed
(2) elastic

(1) & (2) redistributed


325

Envelope
Moments in kNm

Figure 2.4 Bending moment envelope


COAPLETE SGI EX&MPLE

(R) 242 (1) 240


(1) 233 (3) 223

(3) 119

Case 1
Case 2
Case 3 149 (1)
Redistributed 166 (3)
Envelope 277 (R)
Forces in kN 286 (1)
8000 6000 -J
—I——

Figure 2.5 Shear force envelope

2.4.4 Reinforcement for tiexure


2.4.4.1 Internal support

From bending moment envelope


M = 268kNm

8 = 0.7 and xld (8 — 0.44)/1.25 = 0.208 2.5.3.4.2


Eqn 2.17
1iim
= 0.0864 and WIim = 0.1084 (Section 13, Table 13.2)
M 268x106
— —
— = 0.1442 > hm
bdç< 300 x 4402 x 32
Therefore compression reinforcement is required

= Asfyk = I'IIm —
= 0.1442 0.0864
0.87 (1— d'Id) 0.87 (1 —
bdfck 50/440)

= 0.0750 (Section 13)

Af =
= —- wurn + w' = 0.1084 + 0.0750 = 0.1834 (Section 13)
bdfck
= 0.1834 x 300 x 440 x 32/460 = 1684 mm2

Since d'Ix = d'/0.208d = 0.546 > (1


— = 0.429
çk'805)
— 0.429
Increase w' to 1 0.075 = 0.0943
1 — 0.546

A' =S
0.0943 x 300 x 440 x 32/460 = 866 mm2

Use 4T25 (1960 mm2) top


Use 2T25 (982 mm2) bottom
COMPLETE DEStGIL EX&MPLE

2.4.4.2 Near middle of 8 m span


From bending moment envelope
M = 325kNm

8 >1.0

Effective flange width = 300 + 0.2 x 0.85 x 8000 = 1660 mm 2.5.2.2.1


Eqn 2.13

= 325 x 108
= 0.030
1660 x 4502 x 32

x/d = 0.068 (Section 13, Table 13.1)

Neutral axis is in flange since x = 31 < 175 mm

= 0.035 (Section 13, Table 13.1)

= 0.035 x 1660 x 450 x 32/460 = 1819 mm2


A8

Use 4T25 (1960 mm2) I

2.4.4.3 Left-hand end of 8 m span


From bending moment envelope

M = l26kNm

8 = 0.7 and = 0.0864 (Section 13, Table 13.2)

= 126 x 106
=0.0678<
300 x 4402 x 32 tim

Therefore no compression reinforcement is required.

= 0.084 (Section 13, Table 13.1)

A8 = 0.084 x 300 x 440 x 32/460 = 772 mm2

Using 2T25 bent-up bars, minimum diameter of mandrel 5.2.1.2


NAD
= 13 (Asreq/A,pr,) = 104 Table 8

Use 2125 (982 mm2) with r=5


PETEDESGI4 EXMAPLE

2.4.4.4 Right-hand end of 6 m span


From bending moment envelope
M = 76kNm

= M = 76 x 106
= 0.041
bd2fCk
300 x 44Q2 x 32
w = 0.049 (Section 13, Table 13.1)
= 450 mm2
A
Use 2125 (982 mm2) with r = 4qS minimum

2.4.4.5 Near middle of 6 m span


From bending moment envelope
M = l38kNm

Effective flange width = 300 + 0.2 x 0.85 x 6000 = 1320 mm

138 x 108
= = 0.0161
32 x 4502 x 1320
= 0.019 (Section 13, Table 13.1)

AS = 0.019 x 1320 x 450 x 32/460 = 785 mm2

Use 2125 (982 mm2)

2.4.4.6 Minimum reinforcement

A5 kkfAIcr 4.4.2.2
Eqn 4.78
where
=
k 0.4

k = 0.68
= 3 N/mm2
= 300 x 325 mm2
= 460 N/mm2

Therefore
AS 173 mm2 OK

0.6bd
. 0.0015 bd = 203 mm2 OK 5.4.2.1.1(1)
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.4.5 Shear reinforcement 4.a2

2.4.5.1 Minimum links

Here, for comparison with BS 8110 design, grade 250 reinforcement will be 5.4.2.2
used.

Interpolation from EC2 Table 5.5 gives


Minimum
= 0.0022

= 0.0022 x 300 = 0.66 mm2lmm


A,,js
If VSd (--)
— refer to Section 2.4.5.3 for VRd2

Sm = lesser of 300 mm or 0.8d


= 300 mm Eqn 5.17

Use R12 links @ 300 mm crs. (A/s = 0.75 mm2/mm)

2.4.5.2 Capacity of section without shear reinforcement 4.3.2.3

VAd1
= TRdk(l .2 + 40p1) bd
Assume 2125 effective

p1
= 982/(300 x 440) = 0.00743

k = 1.6 — d = 1.6 — 0.44 = 1.16

= 0.35 Table 4.8


TRd

VRd1
= 300 x 440 x 0.35 x 1.16 x (1.2 + 40 x 0.00743) x iO = 80.2 kN

2.4.5.3 Shear reinforcement by standard method 4.3.2.4.3

Maximum capacity of section

= 0.7 —
k'20° = 0.7 — 32/200 = 0.54 i 0.5 Eqn 4.21

VRd2
= 0.5 x 0.54 x (32/1.5) x 300 x 0.9 x 440 x iO = 684 kN Eqn 4.25
Design shear force is shear at a distance d from the face of the support. This 43.2.2(10)
is 590 mm from the supportcentre(ine.

A — 80.2
VSd Eqn 4.23
= = 0.0116 (VSd — 80.2)
s 0.9 x 440 x 0.87 x 250

Design of shear reinforcement is summarized in Table 2.3.


CO&PL Qc.SG4EX&MPLE

Table 23 Design of shear reinforcement


s for 12 mm
Location VSd AJs links Links

8 m span
LH end 203 1.42 159 R12 @ 150
RH end 248 1.95 116 R12 @ 100

6 m span
LH end 202 1.41 160 R12 @ 150
RH end 128 mm. max. c
R12 300

Minimum R12 @ 300

2.4.6 Deflection
Reinforcement percentage at centre of 8 m span 4.43.2
= 100 x 1960/(450 x 1660) = 0.26%

Interpolating between 0.15 and 0.5%, basic span/effective depth ratio for end NAD
span = 40 Table 7

To modifyfor steel stress multiply by 400/460


To modifyfor T section multiply by 0.8

To modifyfor span > 7 m multiply by 7/8


= 40 x (400/460) x 0.8
Therefore permissible ratio x 7/8 = 243
Actual ratio = 8000/450 = 17.8 OK

2.4.7 Cracking
For estimate of steel stress under quasi-permanent loads 4.4.2.2
Ultimate load = 64.8 kN/m

Assuming 2 = 0.3 NAD


Table 1
Quasi-permanent load = 03 x 20 + 25.8 = 31.8 kN/m

Approx. steel stress at midspan = 460 x 31.8


= 196 N/mm
1.15 64.8

Approx.steel stress at supports allowing for 30% redistribution


= 196/0.7 = 280 N/mm2
These are conservativefigures since theydo notallowfor excess reinforcement
over what is needed or for moment calculated at centreline of support rather
than at face of support. Check limits on either bar size or spacing.
From EC2 Table 4.11,25 mm bars in spans are satisfactoryat any spacing since 4.4.2.3
steel stress <
200 N/mm2 OK

From EC2 Table 4.12, bar spacing at supports should be 150 mm with no
limitationon size. As bars are located inside column bars the maximum possible
spacing is 125 mm OK
COtaPLETEDESIGNEX&MPLE

2.4.8 Curtailment of reinforcement


Reinforcement must extend for a distance of a, + ¼net beyond the moment 5.4.2.13
envelope where

a, = 0.9d12 = 198 mm

1'Qnet=
25 —
460
x —1
= 782mm 5.2.a4.1
1.15 3.2

a, + net = 980 mm
Bars mark 8, whichare located outside theweb, mustextend afurther 150mm
— refer to Figure 2.&

2.4.9 Reinforcement details


5.4.2.13
Curtailmentofthemain reinforcementand arrangementofthe linkreinforcement
are shown in Figures 2.6 and 2.7. Reinforcement details are shown in Figure
2.8 and given in Table 2.4.

1400 1600 1800 1800

76

Moment envelope
Curtailment Line — ——

Figure 2.6 Curtailment diagram of main reinforcement

300 c/c
R12 150 , - 300
- ,iOO -
1450' (minimum links) O'(minimum links)
242 240 - Shear capacity of

minimum Links
(R12 —300) with
rs

vRdl+ Vwd= 147kN


I
286
2150,1
Figure 2.7 Arrangement of link reinforcement
tOThPT 5OI4 EXMJIPLE

Figure 2.8 Main beam reinforcement details


COMPLETEDStGN EX&MPLE

Table 2.4 Commentary on bar arrangement

Bar Notes
marks
1 Tension bars are stopped 50 mm from column face to avoid clashing with the
column bars
Nominal cover 20 + 12 = 32 > 25 mm OK 4.13.3(5)

2 Remaining tension bars stopped off at LH end as shown in Figure 2.6.


Bars extended at RH end to provide compression reinforcement (lap = 'iit)
and continuity for internal ties (lap = 1000 mm) BS 8110
Check minimum distance between bars bar size or 20 mm 5.2.1.1
(300—32x2—4x25)/3=45>25mm OK

3 Not used

4 Similar to bar mark 1

510 Loose U bars are fixed inside the column bars and provide continuity for
columnand internal ties
lop legs project from centre line into span,minimum dimensions shown in 5.4.2.13
Figure 2.6
Bottom legs are lapped 1000 mm to provide continuity for internal ties BS 8110

5 lop legs = 1800 mm


Bottom legs 200 + 1000 = 1200 mm
Use r = 5 for both bends
Notethatthe bottom legs are raised to avoid gap between bars being < 25 mm 5.2.1.1

10 lop legs 1500 mm


Bottom legs = 200 + 1000 = 1200 mm

6,9 216 provided as link hangers are stopped 50 mm fromcolumn face

7,8 Tension bars over the support are stopped as in Figure 2.6.
Bars mark8 are located outside the web 5.4.2.1.2(2)

11 Links are arranged in accordance with Figure 2.7 for shear. Links also
provide transverse reinforcement with a spacing 150 mm at all laps 5.2.4.1.2(2)

2.5 Edge beam (interior span)

2.5.1 Cover for durability and fire resistance


NAD
Nominal cover for exposure class 2b (external) is 35 mm.
Table 6
Nominal cover for 1 hourfire resistance is 20 mm. BS 8110
Table 3.5
Use 40 mm nominal cover to links
CQAPLE.TE ES(GI4 XMAPLE

2.5.2 Loading
Permanent load from slab = 4.7 x 5 x 1.25 = 29.4 kN
(assuming 1.25 m strip to be loading on edge beam)
Self-weight of beam = (035 — 0.175) x 03 x 5 x 24 = 6.3 kN
Cladding load @ 5 kN/m = 5 x 5 = 25 kN
Characteristic permanent load = 60.7 kN
Characteristic imposed load = 4 x 5 x 1.25 = 25 kN

Total design load = 125 x 60.7 + 1.5 x 25 = 119.5 kN

2.5.3 Design moments and shears


These are taken from the Concise Eurocode, Appendix, Table

2.5.3.1 Interior support

Moment = 0.10 x 119.5 x 5 = 59.8 kNm


Shear = 0.55 x 119.5 = 65.7 kN

2.5.3.2 Mid-span

Moment = 0.07 x 119.5 x 5 = 41.8 kNm

2.5.4 Reinforcement for flexure


2.5.4.1 Interior support
= 280 mm
Assume effective depth
M = 59.8 x 106 = 0.079
bd2ç 2802 x 300 x 32

Alyk = 0.099 (Section 13, Table 13.1)


bdfCk

xld = 0.189 < 0.45 OK 2.53.4.2(5)

A = 579 mm2

Use 2120 (628 mm2)

2.5.4.2 Mid-span
Assume effective depth = 290 mm
Effective flange width = 300 ÷ 0.1 x 0.7 x 5000 = 650 mm 2.5.2.2.1
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

M

41.8 x iO = 0.024
bd2fk 650 x 2902 x 32

Afsyk = 0.028 (Section 13, Table 13.1)


bdfck

A5
= 367 mm2

Use 2120 (628 mm2)

The cross-section is shown in Figure 2.9.

650 -j
-I-
S
2120
. 1 70

I
350

. 21 20
S
60

300 T
Figure 2.9 Edge beam cross-section

2.5.5 Shear reinforcement


Design shear force may be taken to be at distance d into the span from the 43.2.2(10)
face of the support. This can be calculated approximately as

VSd
= 65.7 — 119.5 (0.28 + 0.15)/5.0 = 55.4 kN

V = 300 x 280 x 0.35 (1.6 — 0.28) x 1.2 + 40 x 628 4.3.2.3(1)


Adi 300 x 280
= 58.2 kN

This is greater than Vsd, hence only minimum links are required. 4.3.2.2(2)

Assuming grade 250 reinforcement for links, EC2 Table 5.5 gives

p = 0.0022

Hence
A
— = 0.0022 x 300 = 0.66 mm2/mm
S
32
. —— x — x 300 x
32
= 0.5 07 0.9 x 280 = 435 kN 43.2.3(3)
VRd2
( 200) 1.5
tOJkP.ErEDESP4 EXAMPLE

Since

VSd
< (j-) VRd2, Smax
= 0.8d = 224 mm Eqn 5.17

200 mm spacing gives A = 132 mm2

Use RiO links at 200 mm crs. (A5 = 2 x 7&5 = 157 mm2)

2.5.6 Deflection
Actual span/effective depth ratio = 5000/290 = 17.2
At mid-span

= 100 x 628 = 033%


100 A5
bd 650 x 290
By interpolation from NAD Table 7, modified for = 460
Basic span/effectivedepth ratio = 36 Concise
Eurocode
Note: Figure A.12
Thiscan be increased allowing for use of a largerthan required steel areato

= 36 x 628/367 = 61.6 4.4.3.2(4)

But not greater than 48/1.15 = 41.7 NAD


Table 7
Inspection shows this to be unnecessary. Note 2
Allowable l/d > actual lid OK

2.5.7 Curtailment of reinforcement


Since the bending moment diagram hasnot been drawn, simplified curtailment
rules are needed. These are givenin Section 8 ofthe Appendix tothe Concise
Eurocode.

Using the rules, the 20 mm bars in the top may be reducedto 12 mm bars
at a distance from the face of support

= 0.11 + 32cb + 0.45d = 500 + 32 x 20 + 0.45 x 280


= 1266 mm from the column face
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.5.8 Reinforcement details


The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 2.10.

150
I— 2T20-4
top cover 60
side cover 75

2112—2
side cover 75

ELEVATION
3443
Cover to links 40

Li U
1221
A-A

Figure 2.10 Edge beam reinforcement details

2.6 Columns
2.6.1 Idealization of structure
The simplification assumed for the design of the main beam is shown in
Figure 2.3.

2.6.2 Analysis
Moments and column loads at each floor are taken from the ana'ysis for the
main beam given in Section 2.43.

2.6.3 Cover for durability and fire resistance


Nominal cover for interior columns (exposure class 1) is 20 mm. NAD
Table 6
Nominal cover for exterior columns (exposure class 2b) is 35 mm.
Nominal coverfor 1 hour fire resistance is 20 mm.

Use 20 mm (interior) and 40 mm (exterior) nominal cover to links


COMPLETE DES)G1 EXAMPLE

2.6.4 Internal column


2.6.4.1 Loading and moments at various floor levels
These are summarized in Table 2.5.
Table 2.5 Loading and moments for internal column
Beam loads Column design loads Column moments
(kN) (kN) (kNm)

Total Imposed Dead Top Bottom

Loadcase 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

Roof 8m 240 238 53 51 187 187 32 42


6m 202 165 43 6 159 159
Self-weight 9 9

96 57 355 355 30 39

3rd floor Bm 283 278 131 126 152 152 33 49


6m 236 143 110 17 126 126
Self-weight 9 9

337 200 642 642 30 55

2nd floor 8 m 283 278 131 126 152 152 33 49


6m 236 143 110 17 126 126
Self-weight 9 9

578 343 929 929 33 55

1st floor 8 m 286 280 132 126 154 154 18 29


6m 240 146 111 17 129 129
Self-weight 14 14

Foundations 821 486 1226 1226

2.6.4.2 Design for column between first floor and foundation


Effective height in N—S direction

— 0.5 x 675 x 106


+ 675 x 106
÷
"top
5000 3500

3125 x 106 3125 x 106


+
8000 6000 Eqn 4.60

= 0.28 but take not less than 0.4


kbottom
Hence
= 0.8 Figure 4.27
Effective height = 0.8 x 5000 = 4000 mm
Load case 1 gives worst condition (by inspection). BS 6399:
Part 1,
Imposed load = 0.7 x 821 = 575 kN
Reduction
factor
CO&PLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

Dead load = 1226 kN

= 1801 kN
Nsd

M = 18 kNm (top), 0 (bottom)

=
1801 x iO x 1.5
= 0.94 43.53.52
3002 x 32

15Ji = 14.5 < 25

Hence
X
mm
= 25

= = 4000j = 46
300

Note: iji = (10/h) x

X > 25, hence column is slender in N—S direction

The slenderness in the E—W direction will be found to be approximately the


same.
Thestructure is braced and non-sway(by inspection),hence theModel Column
Method may be used with the column designed as an isolated column.

= e1/e2) = 50 in both E—W and N—S directions


— 43.5.53
25(2
Eqn 4.62
Slenderness ratios in both directions are less than hence it is only
necessary to ensure thatthe column canwithstand an end moment of at least

Nsdh/2O
= 1801 x 03/20 = 27.0 kNm 43.5.53
Eqn 4.64
This exceeds thefirst order moments.

Hence Nsd = 1801 kN and Msd = 27.0 kNm I

= 0.62
bhfck

27.0x 106 =
= 0.031
bh2fk 300 x 32
Assume

d' = 45mm
COMPLETE DES)GT4 EXAMPLE

Then
d'/h = 45/300 = 0.15

Af
—-- = 0.16 (Section 13, Figure 13.2(c))
bhfck

Hence
= 1002 mm2
A
Use 4120 (1260 mm2)

Note:
In the design by Higgins and Rogers, the slenderness ratio exceeds the
equivalent of >tcrit but the design moment is still Nh/20. EC2 requires less
reinforcement due to the smaller design load and the assumption of a smaller
cover ratio. If the same cover ratio is used in the Higgins and Rogers design,
4T20 are sufficient in both cases.

2.6.5 External column


2.6.5.1 Loading and moments at various levels

These are summarized in Table 2.6.


Table 2.6 Loading and moments for external column
Beam loads Column design loads Column moments
(kN) (kN) (kNm)
Total Imposed Dead Top Bottom

Loadcase 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

Roof
Main 184 186 39 41 145 145 104 107
Edge 55 55 55 55
Self-weight 9 9

39 41 209 209 93 98

3rd floor
Main 235 240 109 114 126 126 93 98
Edge 55 55 55 55
Self-weight 9 9

148 155 399 399 93 98

2nd floor
Main 235 240 109 114 126 126 93 98
Edge 55 55 55 55
Self-weight 9 9

257 269 589 589 103 109

let floor
Main 233 238 108 113 125 125 68 72
Edge 55 55 55 55
Self-weight 9 9

Foundations 365 382 778 778


COIAPLETE DESIGN EXMAPLE

2.6.5.2 Design for column between first floor and foundation

= x 106 x 0.5 + 675 x — 3125 x 106 = 0.71


(675 4000 3500106) 8000

kbottom

Hence
= 0.85 Figure 4.27

Effective height = 0.85 x 4000 = 3400 mm

Slenderness ratio = i/i = 3400


300
fi = 393

v will be small so isf7 will be less than 25


Hence

X. = 25

X > 25, therefore column is slender in N—S direction

Calculate

bottom moment
= = o = 0 43.5.5.3
e02 top moment 85

Hence

= 25(2 + 0)= 50

Slendernessratios inthe E—W and N—S directions are both lessthan 50, hence
it is only necessary to ensure that the end moment is at least Nh120.
Theworst condition occurswith load case2 at section just above the firstfloor,
where Msd is greatest.

Nsd
= 589 + 0.8 x 269 = 804 kN

Nh
— = 804 x 03 = 12.OkNm
20 20

Design end moment = 109 > 12 kNm

Hence Nsd = 804 kN and Msd = 109 kNm


DSt4 XMJIP.E

2.6.6 Reinforcement details


Maximum spacing of links for internal column 5.4.1.2.2(3)
Generally 12 x 20 = 240 mm NAD
Above and below floor 0.67 x 240 = 160 mm Table 3
Maximum spacing of links for external column 5.4.1.2.2(4)
Generally 12 x 25 = 300 mm
At lap and below floor 0.67 x 300 = 200 mm
The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 2.11.

INTERNAL COLUMN F2 EXTERNAL COLUMN Fl

Links Vertical bars Section Links Vertical bars Section


0
U,
.— '0I ®6
il.J
-
1st."
U .

--- .i
III
U,
6'1
6',
.-- --. J C 0
".
---
E
C
II I

I
0
0
-3 II
®I m
,
"-3
11
0
Os I
I
,

,
@1

@i
I
U,
Cl IN
IN
- ®H__ '0
11
'.5
@. .;s I
Cover to (inks 30 Fdn" cover to Links 60
L.....i.

Ilu, g —
t
Fdn. o:
3E
I
US

see Fig 2 13 ''?


CM I

Figure 2.11 Column reinforcement details

2.7 Foundation
Design typical pad footing for internal column.
2.7.1 Cover
Use 50 mm nominal cover against blinding 4.1.3.3(9)
_____ _____
BS 8110 specifies a nominal cover of not less than 40 mm against blinding.
EC2 specifies a minimum cover greater than 40 mm. Thisimplies a nominal
cer greater than 45 mm, hence the choice of 50 mm.
2.7.2 Loading
Taken from internal column design.
Ultimate design loads: Dead = 1226

imposed = 575

Total = 1801 kN

LJ
COMPLETE DESIGN EXDMPLE

Hence service loads: Dead = 908


Imposed = 383

Total = 1291 kN

The assumption is made that the base takes no moment. Also it is assumed
that thedead weight of the base less the weightof soil displaced is 10 kN/m2
over the area of the base.

2.7.3 Size of base


Since, at the timeof publication, EC7: Geotechnical design and EC2, Part 3:
Concrete foundations10 have not been finalized, the approach used here is
based on current UK practice.

Use2.75m x 2.75m x 0.6mdeep pad

Bearing pressure under serviceloads

= + 10 = 181 <200 kN/m2 OK


2.752

Design pressure at ultimate limit state = = 238 kN/m2


2.752

2.7.4 Flexural reinforcement


Moment at face of column = 238 x 2.75 x 1.2252/2 = 491 kNm

Average effective depth = 600 — 50 — 25 = 525 mm


M = 491 x 106
=0.020
bd2fck 2750 x 5252 x 32
Af = 0.023 (Section 13, Table 13.1)
bdfck

Hence
= 0.023 x 2750 x 525 x 32/460 = 2310 mm2

Use 9T20 @ 300 mm crs. each way (2830 mm2)

2.7.5 Shear
2.7.5.1 Shear across base

Shearforce may be calculated at a critical section distance d from the face 43.2.2(10)
of the column.

Design shear (V) = 238 x 2.75 x 0.3) — = 458 kN


[2.75_ 0.525]
Th?T D5%I4 XMJIPLE

In calculating VRd1,
the influence of the reinforcement will be ignored since, if 43.23(1)
straight bars are used, they will not extend d + 1bnet beyondthe critical section.

VRd1
= 0.35 x 1.075 x 1.2 x 2750 x 525/1000 = 652 kN Eqn 4.18

VAd1
> Vsd, hence no requirement for shear reinforcement

2.7.5.2 Punching shear


The critical perimeter is shown in Figure 2.12.
Design load on base = 1801 kN

Length of critical perimeter

u = [4x 300 + R-(2 x 1.5 x 525)]/1000 = 6.15m

/— 300 \\
II I-I

of_Hift
Figure 2.12 Critical perimeter for punching

VRdI
= 035 x 1.075 x 1.2 x 525 x 6.15 = 1458 kN 43.4.5.1

Area within perimeter = 2.98 m2 Area of base = 7.56 m2

Design shear (Vsd) = (7.56 — 2.98) x 238 = 1090 kN 43.4.1(5)

VSd
< VAd1,
hence no requirement for shear reinforcement

2.7.6 Cracking
Approximate steel stress under quasi-permanent loads

=
460
x (908
+ 03 x 383) x—
2310
=186N/mm
1.15 1801 2830

From EC2 Table 4.11 bar size should not exceed 25 > 20 mm used. 4.4.23
Table 4.11
Hence cracking OK
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.7.7 Reinforcement details


The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 2.13 and given in Table 2.7.

- —f 9120—1—300 B2

- - 2

22 —2

9120—1—300 Bi

P LA N

4120-2
Fdn.
II Cover —1.0

III

_J[_
L1

A- A
COVER — B1 = 50, end =75

Figure 2.13 Base reinforcement details

Table 2.7 Commentary on bar arrangement

Bar marks Notes

1 Straight barsextend full widthof base less end cover of 75 mm. Bars should
extend an anchorage length beyond the column lace 4.13.3(9)
32 x 20 640 mm 5.23.4.1
Anchorage length
Actual extension 1150 mm

2 Column starter bars wired to bottom mat 5.2.4.13


Minimum projection above top of base is
a compression lap + kicker = 32 x 20 + 75 = 715 mm
3 Links are provided to stabilize and locate the starters duringconstruction
COMPLETE DESiGNEXAMPLE

2.8 Shear wall


2.8.1 Structure
The structure is shown in Figure 2.14.

fLoor

— I—05x Wi nd
Load on
building

14300
I 900

Figure 2.14 Shear wall structure

2.8.2 Loading at foundation level


Dead load from firstto third floors and roof
= 0.5 (3 x 23.5 + 28.5) = 49.5 kN/m
Self-weight = 0.175 x 24 x 15.5 = 65.1 kN/m
Characteristic dead load = 49.5 + 65.1 = 114.6 kN/m
Characteristic imposed load from slabs
= 2.5 (1.5 + 3 x 4) x 0.7 = 236 kN/m
Wind loading is taken as 90% of value obtainedfrom CP3: Ch V: Part 21). NAD 4(c)
Total wind load on buildingin N—S direction = 0.9 x 449 = 404 kN
Wind load on wall= 404/2 = 202 kN
Moment in plane of wall = 202 x 8 = 1616 kNm

Hence
Maximum force per unit length due to wind moment

= + Mx6
12

x
= ± 1616 6 = ±47.4kN/m
14.22

2.8.3 Vertical design load intensities at ultimate limit state


Dead load + imposed load
= 135 x 114.6 + 1.5 x 23.6 = 190.1 kN/m Eqn 2.8(a)

Dead load + wind load


= 135 x 114.6 + 1.5 x 47.4 = 225.8 kN/m; or Eqn 2.8(a)
= 1.0 x 114.6 — 1.5 x 47.4 = 43.5 kN/m
COALETE5ESG14 EXAMPLE

Dead load + wind load + imposed load


= 135 x 114.6 + 1.35 x 23.6 ± 1.35 x 47.4 Eqn 2.8(b)
= 250.6 kN/m or 122.6 kN/m NAD 4(c)

Therefore maximum design load = 250.6 kN/m


From analysis of slab (not presented), maximum moment perpendicular
to plane of wall = 11.65 kNm/m

2.8.4 Slenderness ratio

= = 2.05
kA 4a5 Eqn 4.60

kB
=

Hence
= 0.94 Figure 4.27

10
= fl1O
= 0.94 x 4 376 m

1/i
0
= 3.76 x 1000 x =
175

Hence wall is slender

2.8.5 Vertical reinforcement


Higginsand Rogers design the shear wallas unreinforced. Plain concrete walls
will be covered in EC2 Part 1A which, at the time of publication, has not yet
been finalized. The wallwill, therefore, be designed hereas a reinforced wall.
As will be seen, the result is the same.

Eccentricity due to applied loads


e01
= 0

e02
= 11.65 x 1000/250.6 = 46.5 mm
Hence

e0
= 0.6 x 46.5 + 0 = 27.9 mm Eqn 4.66

Accidental eccentricity

ea = —1
x 3760 = 9.4 mm Eqn 4.61
200 2
COVIP%TE OESG EXDJJIPLE

Second order eccentricity

37602 460 1
= x 2 x x x '<2 Eqns 4.72 &
10 1.15 x 200000 0.9 x 122 469
= 51.51<2

Assuming '<2 = 1

Design eccentricity = 27.9 + 9.4 + 51.5 = 88.8 mm


= 250.6 kN/m
Design ultimate load
Design ultimate moment = 88.8 x 250.6/1000 = 22.3 kNm/m

_!__ = 0.023
bh2fck

_L = 0.045
bhck
Al = 0.01 (Section 13, Figure 13.2(d))
"ck

Hence
A = 122 mm2/m or 61 mm2/m in each face

Minimum area of reinforcement


= 0.004 x 1000 x 175 = 700 mm2/m 5.4.7.2

This exceeds the calculated value. Hence the minimum governs.

Use T12 @ 300 mm crs. in each face (754 mm2/m)

2.8.6 Shear
Design horizontal shear = 1.5 x 202 = 303 kN
303 x 1000 =
= __________
Shear stress 0.12 N/mm2 OK
14300 x 175
Note:
VRd1
is not calculated since it must be > 0.12bd by quick inspection of
EC2 Eqn 4.18.

2.8.7 Horizontal reinforcement


Minimum at 50% of vertical reinforcement provided 5.4.73

A = 188 mm2/m (EF)

Minimum for controlled cracking due to restraint of early thermal contraction 4.4.2.2
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

=
A9 kkfffAIa Eqn 4.78

kC = 1.0

k = 0.8

cte = 1.9 N/mm2 (assuming concrete strength to be equivalent to Table 3.1


C16120 at time of cracking)

= 360 N/mm2 (assuming 10 mm bars) Table 4.11

A9
= 1.0 x 0.8 x 1.9 x 175 x 1000/360 = 739 mm/m

Use T10 @ 200 mm crs. in each face (785 mm2/m)

2.8.8 Tie provisions at first floor NAD 6.5(g)

According to the NAD, these should follow the rules in BS 8110. BS 8110
3.12.3
F =36kN

2.8.8.1 Peripheral tie

A = 36X10382
460

Use 1110 (7&5 mm2)

2.8.8.2 Internal tie force

Force = 2.5 x 36 (4.7 + 4.0) x —


143 = 299kN
7.5 5

Hence

AS = 299 x iO =650 mm2


460

Use 5110 in each face (785 mm2)

Hence T10 © 200 mm crs. horizontal reinforcement in wall 0.5 m above and
below slab is adequate.

2.8.8.3 WaIl tie

Take the greater of (a) and (b)

iF = 72 or 48 kN
(a) Lesser of 2.OF or
2.5
Gt EXMAPLE
(b) 3% of total vertical load = 0.03 x 190.1 = 5.7 kN

Hence
Tie force = 48 kN

A = 48 x iO = 104mm2
460

Therefore reinforcement in slab will suffice

2.8.9 Strip footing


EC2, Part 3: Concrete foundations, at thetime of publication, hasnot yet been
drafted, hence current UK practice is adopted.

Maximum pressure due to characteristic dead, imposed and wind loads

= 114.6 + 23.6 + 47.4/0.9 = 191 kN/m

For 900 mm wide strip, pressure = —


191
= 212 kN/m2
0.9

Allowextra 10 kN/m2for ground floor loadsand weight of concrete displacing


soil in foundations. This gives 222 kN/m2.

Allowable pressure = 1.25 x 200 = 250 > 222 kN/m2 OK

Use 900 mm wide strip

Calculate reinforcement for flexure

Moment = 250.6 x '09 ' — /


0175\2
= 16.5 kNm/m
8

A5
= 209 mm2/m

Minimum area = 0.OOlSbd 5.4.2.1.1

= 0.0015 x 1000 x 200 = 300 mm2/m

Use 112 @ 300 mm crs. (377 mm2/m)


COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.8.10 Reinforcement details


The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 2.15 and given in Table 2.8.

Ep
0
1T1O—7 2xITI 0—8 1TIO-7—11 lSt.SFL Walt tie
r_
----:
2 96T12-3—300
(48N2+48F23 C U - — -
350 U-
Os
a
a a350
a
C..'
¶51 - 3 x13RiO -9
a
a UI — —1000 EW
K
a
+ 1-
a Os
I.-
Os
K
K C..'

I.-
96T12—i— 300 — c%1 (48N2+ 48F2)
Fdn. -V.
_____________ .t0P... I —I

cover 40
3 2x 4T12—2-300B2 ends 75

AJ
(grid 2 omitted for clarity)
B—B EAST WALL ELEVATION
COVER to outer bars — Ni 40 • Fl 20

Figure 2.15 Shear wall reinforcement details


DEGH EXAMPLE

Table 2.8 Commentary on bar arrangement

Bar marks Notes

1 Wall starters match vertical reinforcement


Theprojection ofthe horizontallegs beyond theface of thewall formthe tension
reinforcement in the footing
This extension must be at leasta tension anchorage length 5.2.2.2
= —x
12 460
x — =208mm...
209
... OK
5.2.23
4 1.15 x 3.2 377 5.23.4.1
The minimum projection above the top of the base is a compression lap
+ 75 mm kicker
= 32x12+75 =459mm
This is detailed at 525 mm .. .. OK

2 Minimum longitudinal reinforcement provided

5.4.73
4,5,6 Minimum horizontal reinforcement provided
4.4.2.2

BS 8110
7,8 Peripheral tie at floor 3.12.3.5

9 Wall spacers to maintain location of reinforcement

2.9 Staircase
2.9.1 Idealization
The idealization of the staircase is shown in Figure 2.16.

,-, /,/
/, ,- ,——————

3500

Figure 2.16 Idealization of staircase


Design as end span of a continuous beam. Calculations will be given for 1 m
width.

2.9.2 Durability and fire resistance


As for floor slab, Section 2.3, 20 mm nominal cover will be satisfactory.
COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.9.3 Loading
Average slab thickness on plan = 250 mm
Self-weight = 0.25 x 24 = 6.0 kN/m
Finishes = 0.5

Characteristic dead load = 6.5 kN/m


Characteristic imposed load = 4.0 kN/m
Design ultimate load = 1.35 x 6.5 + 1.5 x 4 = 14.78 kN/m

2.9.4 Analysis
Using coefficients in the Concise Eurocode
Moment at interior support = 0.11 x 14.78 x 5.062 = 41.6 kNm Concise
Eurocode
Moment near mid-span = 0.09 x 14.78 x 5.062 = 34.1 kNm
Table A.1
Shear = 0.6 x 14.78 x 5.06 = 44.9 kN

2.9.5 Reinforcement for flexure


Effective depth = 175 — 20 — 6 = 149 mm

M 41.6x106
Interior support, = = 0.059
bd2ck iO x 1492 x 32
From Section 13, Table 13.1
Af = 0.072
bdfCk

Hence
=
A 746 mm2/m

Use T12 150 mm crs. (754 mm2/m)

Span

— = 0.048
bd2fck

Af = 0.058
bdfck

Hence

A = 601 mm2/m

Use 112 @ 150 mm crs. (754 mm2/m)


DSGI4 EXAMPLE

2.9.6 Shear
754
Reinforcement ratio = = 0.0051
1000 x 149
Near support
= 0.35 x (1.6 —
0.175) x (1.2 + 40 x 0.0051) x 149 = 1043 kN 43.2.3
VRd1
Eqn 4.18

VRd1 > VSd


= 44.9 kN, hence no shear reinforcement required

2.9.7 Deflection
Reinforcement ratio at mid-span = 0.51%

Concrete is lightly stressed, hence basic span/effective depth ratio is 32. Table 4.14
= 460, this should be modified to:
Since fyk
32 x 400/460 x 754/601 = 34.9 4.43.2(4)
Actual span/effectivedepth ratio = 5060/149 = 34 < 34.9 OK

29.8 Cracking
As for floor slab in Section 2.3.8
Minimum area of reinforcement = 183 mm2/m 4.4.2.2
Thickness of waist = 175 < 200 mm 4.4.23 (1)
No further check is necessary.

2.9.9 Tie provisions


E—W internal tie, the minimum area required = 91 mm2/m BS 8110
3.12.3.2
(see Section 2.3.9)
Total area for staircase = 91 x3= 273 mm2

Provide 2T12 tie bars each side of staircase in adjacent slab


COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.9.10 Reinforcement details


The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 2.17.

150
3+ 2T10—8

10112—iS—iSO

10 16
I

FLIGHT 'B
[1
r9 1 rI I
LANDING

6
Cover to outer bars 20 14 JL9 j
A-A

Cover= 40

2nd
10112—5—150

FLIGHT 'A'

Figure 2.17 Staircase reinforcement details


3 EMAS
U
3,1 Introduction
This Sectioncoversthe design of beamsfor shear and torsion,and supplements
the examplesgivenin Section 2. The requirementsfor adequate safety against
lateral buckling are also examined.

3.2 Design methods for shear


3.2.1 Introduction
EC21 differs from BS 8110(2) because the truss assumption used in shear
design is explicit. Leading on from this, two alternative methods are given in
the Code.
(1) Standard
(2) Variable Strut Inclination (VSI).
The standard method assumes a concrete strut angleof 450 (cote = 1) and
that the direct shear in the concrete, VCd, is to be taken into account. This
contrastswith theVSI method which permitsthe designer to choose strut angles
between the limits set in the NAD1, as shown in Figure 3.1, but ignores the
direct shear in the concrete.

NAD Limits

05

0-45

cot e + tan e

04

0•35

0.4 067 1-0 1-5 2-0 25


cot 0

i EC2 Limits
I— —I

Figure 3.1 Limits of cote (VSI method)


Because the direct shear in the concrete is not taken into account in the VSI
method, no savings in shear reinforcement can be achieved until the applied
shear exceeds three times the concrete shear (Vsd 3V). >
A further disadvantage of this methodis that with increasing values of cote,
i.e., reductions in the concrete strut angle, theforces in thetension reinforcement
BEAMS

increase significantly and may well outweigh any notional savings in shear
reinforcement.These forces are, it should be noted, explicitly checked in EC2
but not in BS 8110. Given specialcircumstancesthe '131 method may be required
but for most practical situations, the standard method will provide the most
economic design.

3.2.2 Example 1 — uniformly distributed loading


The beam shown in Figures 3.2 and 3.3 is to be designed for shear.

Ultimate load 385 kN/m

..

Beam span and loading —


Figure 3.2 example 1

643 4mm 2 (8132)


(
, A51
400 Cover to links 50mm
u

Figure 3.3 Typical section —


example 1
The material strengths are
= 30 N/mm2 (concrete strength class C30/37)
= 250 N/mm2 (characteristic yield strength of links)
cwk
Thebeam will be checked for shear reinforcementatthree locations using both 4.3.2.4.3
the standard and VSI methods for comparison. These are 4.3.2.4.4

(1) d from support 4.3.2.2(10)


(2) Where VSd VRd1, i.e., the point beyond which only minimum shear 4.3.2.2(2)
reinforcement is required
(3) An intermediate point between 1 and 2.

3.2.2.1 Standard method 43.2.4.3


The shear force diagram is shown in Figure 3.4.

f
VSd

1155 kM

i155
I I I
Id I

l a
J
kN

Figure 3.4 Shearforce diagram — example 1

lS
The design shear resistance of the section, VRd1,
is given by 4.3.2.3(1)

= + 0•15J
VRd1 [rRdk (1.2 + bd Eqn 4.18

TRd
= 034 N/mm2 for = 30 N/mm2 Table 4.8

k = 1.6—d41 = 1

A 6434
p =
bd
=
400x900
= 0.018 i 0.02
w

a =
(assuming 8T32 throughout span)

Nsd
AC
= 0

VRd1
= 034 x 1 (1.2 + 40 x 0.018) x 400 x 900 = 235 kN

3.2.2.1.1 Position 1 — at d from support


VSd
= 1155 — 0.9 x 385 = 808.5 kN

VSd
> VAd1,
shear reinforcement is required 4.3.2.4.3

The shear resistance of a section with shear reinforcement is given by

VRd3
= + Eqn 4.22

VCd = VRdl = 235kN

V = — (O.gd)ç Eqn 4.23

where
A = area of shear reinforcement
s = spacing of shear reinforcement
f = 250/1.15 = 217.4 N/mm2

For VSd

V VSd

VCd;
or

A
— (0•9d VSd

Therefore

= (808.5 235) x iO = 3.25 mm2/mm




A5
s 0.9 x 900 x 217.4
Try R12 links @ 140 mm crs. (4 legs), =
A/s 3.23 mm2/mm
BEAMS

Check crushing of compression struts

= (j-)vfcbw0.9d(1 + cota) Eqn 4.25


VRd2

For vertical links, cota = 0

v = 0.7 — —a = 0.55 0.5 Eqn 4.21

-
200

fCd = = 20 N/mm2
1.5

Therefore

VRd2
= (4) x 0.55 x 20 x 400 x 0.9 x 900 x 1

= 1782 kN > Vsd max = 1155 kN OK

Check maximum spacing of links 4.4.23

452
= = _________ = 0.0081 Eqn 4.79
sbsin a 140 x 400

= (808.5 3 x 235) x iO = 35 N/mm2



VSd 3V —
Table 4.13
pbd 0.0081 x 400 x 900
Maximum spacingfor crack control = 300 mm

Since (4) VRd2 < 5.4.2.2(7)


Eqn 5.18
= 0.6d p300mm
Smax

140 mm spacing OK
Check minimum value of p Table 5.5
Concrete strength class C30/37
Steel class S250

By interpolation from EC2 Table 5.5


= 0.0022 < 0.0081 proposed
w,mIn

Use R12 links @ 140 mm crs. (4 legs)

Note:
Using the standard method, the increase in force in the tension reinforcement 43.2.1P(6)
is best covered by using the shift rule. 5.4.2.13
Itwill, however, becalculated in this exampleto provide a comparison with the
values obtained in the subsequent examples using the VSI method.

Force in tension reinforcement


M
Td
= — + j- V(cote — cota) Eqn 430
BEAMS

= 884 kNm, z = 0.9d = 810 mm


Msd

= 808.5 kN
VSd

cote = 1, cota = 0 for vertical links 43.2.43(5)

Therefore Td = 1091 + 404 = 1495 kN

a2.2.1.2 Position 2 — where VSd = VRd1


= 235 kN
From Figure 3.4

VSd
= 1155 — a x 385 = 235 kN

a = 239 m from support

From Section 3.2.2.1.1, VRd2 > Vs max OK

The amountof shear reinforcement provided should be greaterthan w.mIn Table 5.5

pw,mun = 0.0022

Re-arranging EC2 Eqn 5.16 in terms of —' gives

- = pb5ina

For vertical links sina = 1

Hence

— = 0.0022 x 400 x1 = 0.88 mm2/mm


S

Maximum longitudinal spacing (Smax) is given by EC2 Eqns 5.17—5.19.

= 235kN
Vsd
= 1782- kN from Section a2.2.it
VRd2

Since

(j-) VRd2, EC2 Eqn 5.17 applies

= 0.8d 1300 mm Eqn 5.17


Smax

A = 0.88 x 300 = 264 mm2, 4R10 = 314 mm2

Use RiO links @ 300 mm crs. (4 legs)

3.2.2.1.3 Position 3 — at 1.65 m from support


Thisisapointintermediatebetweenthe section atdfromsupportand the point
at which shear reinforcement is no longer required.
= 1155 — 1.65 x 385 = 520 kN
VSd

VRd1
= 235 kN
Since VSd > VRdl, shear reinforcement is required

Re-arranging EC2 Eqn 4.23

(520 — 235) x 10

= VSd VCd
= = 1.62 mm2/mm
s O.9dfd 0.9 x 900 x 217.4

Try R12 links @ 250 mm crs. (4 legs) = 1.81 mm2/mm

Check maximum spacing of links 4.4.22

A Eqn 4.79
sbsina
For vertical links sina = 1

Hence
452
= = 0.0045
250 x 400
(520 — 3 x 235) X 10

VSd 3Vd = = —114 N/mm2
pbd 0.0045 x 400 900 x
Maximum spacingfor crack control = 300 mm OK Table 4.13

Since

(i-)VRd2 < (+W' 5.4.2.2(7)


Eqn 5.18
S = 0.6d p 300 mm

From Section 3.2.2.1.1

VRd2 > VSd


OK

Provide R12 links @ 250 mm crs (4 legs)

To optimizelinkspacing, check the point atwhich shear reinforcementis satisfied


by R12 @ 200 mm crs. (4 legs).

A
— = —
452 =
2.26 mm2/mm
s 200

VWd
= — (0.9d)y = 2.26 x 0.9 x 900 x 217.4 = 398 kN

VRd3 VCd+VWd

Equating
VRd3
= VSd and noting that VCd = VRd1

VSd
= VAd1 + = 235 + 398 = 633 kN
1155 — 633
Distance of point from support = = 136 m

The proposed link arrangement is shown in Figure 3.5.

R12— 140 R12 — 200


, I
R12 —300 I R12 —200 R12 —140
4 U
4 Legs 4 legs 4 Legs 4 legs 4 Legs

136rn 136m
1i
U
2.39m+ -
2 39m+
60m between centres of supports
4


Figure 3.5 Link arrangement (standard method) example 1

Note:
In the centre portion of the beam RiO links are required by calculations but
R12 (*) are shown to avoid the possible misplacement on site. Distance from
the support(+) could be reduced to 1.70 m in this case.

3.2.2.2 Variable strut inclination method 43.2.4.4

This method allows the angle of the concrete compression strut to be varied
at the designer's discretion within limits stated in the Code.
It cangive some economy in shear reinforcementbutwill require the provision
of additional tension reinforcement. In most cases the standard method will
suffice.
This reduced shear reinforcementwill only beobtainedat high levelsof design
shear and is counter-balanced by increased tension reinforcement. This can
be seen by a comparison of EC2 Eqns4.22 and 4.23 in thestandard method
and EC2 Eqn 4.27 in the variable strut inclination method.
The standard method gives

VRd3
= V+ V Eqn 4.22
A
V = —a Eqn 4.23
S
(0.9d)f
Re-arranging gives

= VRd3—VCd
s (O.9d)fd
The VSI method gives
A
VRd3
= —f' (O.9cf cote Eqn 4.27
S

Re-arranging gives

A5,,, — VRdS

s (o.9d)c,,dcote
BEAMS

Note:
In the above equation the contribution of the concrete, VCd,
to the shear
resistance of the section is not taken into account.
Withcote = 1.5 which is the maximum value permitted inthe NAD, reductions
in shear reinforcement will only occur when

VRd3
or
(O.9d) cWd x 1.5 (O.9d)cWd

VRd3
< l.S(VRd3 VCd)

Putting VSd VRd3 gives VSd


> 3VCd

If
VSd
> then the VSI method will allow a reduction in shear
reinforcement.
Ifthis inequality is not satisfied, useofthe variable strut inclination method will
produce an uneconomic amount of shear reinforcement. In this case the
standard method should be used.
For elements with vertical shear reinforcement, VAd2 is given by

b zv f
VRd2 — E 426
cotO + tane

Putting VSd = and re-arranging gives

1
VSd

bwzvfCd cote + tane

Figure 3.1 shows cote plotted against 1/(cote + tan8) together with the EC2
and NAD limits for cote. Hence for a given V,
the limits for cote can be
found.

Increasing the value of cote will reduce the shear reinforcement required but
increase the force in the tension reinforcement.
In this example, cotO will be chosen to minimize the shear reinforcement.

3.2.2.2.1 Position 1 — at d from support


From above

VSd 1

bWzPfd cote + tanO

b = 400mm

z = 0.9 x 900 = 810mm

f
= 0.7— = 0.55 z 0.5 Eqn 4.21
200
MAS

fCd = -- =
1.5
20N/mm

VSd
= 808.5 kN

Therefore
1
= 80&5 x 10
= 0.22
cote + tane 400 x 810 x 0.55 x 20
From Figureai, this liesunderthecurveTherefore, cote = 1.5 canbe chosen
which is the maximum value allowed under the NAD limits.

= Eqn 4.27
VRd3
(?!)zcWdcot8

Now equating VRd3 to VSd and re-arranging

808.5 X 10
= VSd = = 3.06 mm2/mm
S
zycote 810 x 217.4 x 1.5
Check

Afd= 1.66 (j-)vç = 5.5 OK

Try R12 links @ 150 mm crs. (4 legs), A/s = 3.01 mm2/mm

Check maximum spacingof links. 4.4.23

= A = 0.0075 Eqn 4.79


sbsIna

VSd — 3V
= (80&5 3
— x 235) x iO = 38.3 N/mm2
bd 0.0075 x 400 x 900

Maximum spacing for crack control = 300 mm Table 4.13

= 0.0075 > = 0.0022 OK Table 5.5

Check S 5.4.2.2(7)

= 808.5 kN
VSd

bWzvf 400 x 810 x 0.55 x 20


_______________
= = = 1644kN
cote + tane 2.167

Since (4-)VRd2 < VSd (+)VRd2 Eqn 5.18

S = 0.6d 1 300 mm

E1
Use R12 links @ 150 mm crs. (4 legs)

Check additional force in tension reinforcement.


M
Td
— + (2) vSd(cote — cota) = 1091 + 606 = 1697 kN Eqn 430

This compares with Td = 1495 kN using the standard method.

Note:
Although not permitted by theNAD, values of cote upto 2.5 are given in EC2.
A checkon shear reinforcement usingcote = 2.5 is now given to illustrate
the effect of increasing values of e on shear and tension reinforcement.

A
=
VSd
=
808.5x iO = 1.84 mm2/mm
s zfd cote 810 x 217.4 x 2.5
Try R12 @ 225 mm crs. (4 legs), ASW/s = 2.01 mm2/mm

Check maximum spacingof links


= 0.005

VSd —3V
= 57.5 N/mm2
pbd
Maximum spacingfor crack control = 250 mm OK Table 4.13

Sm = 0.6d t 300 mm OK Eqn 5.18

Use R12 links @ 225 mm crs. (4 legs)

Check additional force in tension reinforcement.


M
Td
= — + (-)Vsd (cote —
cota) = 1091 + 1011 = 2102 kN

This compares with Td


= 1495 kN using the standard method.

3.2.2.2.2 Position2 — where VSd = VRdl

Since only minimum shear reinforcement is required this case is identical to


that shown in Section 3.2.2.1.2.

3.2.2.2.3 Position 3 — at 1.65 m from support


= 520 kN
VSd

— = VSd
= 520 X 10 = 1.96mm/mm
2
S
zfYWdcote
810 x 217.4 x 1.5

Try R12 links 225 mm crs. (4 legs), ASW/s = 2.01 mm2/mm


From Section 3.2.2.2.1 spacing is satisfactory.

Use R12 links @ 225 mm crs. (4 Jegs)

As in Section a2.2.1.3,check the pointat which the shear requirementis satisfied


by R12 @ 200 mm crs. (4 legs).

452
— = = 2
2.26mm/mm
s 200

= cote = 2.26 x 810 x 217.4 x 1.5 = 597 kN Eqn 4.27


VRd3
(._)zf
1155 — 597 =
Distance from support = 1.45 m
385

The proposed link arrangement is shown in Figure 3.6.

R12 —150 I R12 —200 R12 —300 R12 —200 R12 —150
S
1 legs 4 legs 4 legs 4 legs 4 legs
145m I I 145m
"I I I
239m I I 2 39m
ri
60m between centres of supports


Figure 3.6 Link arrangement (VSI method) example 1

Comparing this with the arrangement in Figure 5


obtained using the standard
method, it can be seen that less reinforcement is required near the support
butthis needs to be carried further along the beam. There is little overall saving
in this case.

3.3 Shear resistance with concentrated loads close to


support
3.3.1 Introduction
Where concentrated loads are located within 2.5d of a support, the value TRd 4.3.2.2(9)
may be modified by afactor when calculating VRd1. Thisenhancement only
applies when the section is resisting concentrated loads and the standard
method is used. For a uniformly distributed load, an unmodified value of VRd1
should be used.

3.3.2 Example 2 — concentrated loads only


The beam shown in Figures 3.7 and 3.8 is to be designed for shear.
BEAMS

800kN 800kN

Ultimate toads


Figure 3.7 Beam span and loading example 2

ioooI.1 A1 4825mm 2 (6T32)


k 400 Cover to Links 50mm

Figure 3.8 Typical section — example 2

The materials strengths are


= 30 N/mm2 (concrete strength grade, C30137)
= 250 N/mm2 (characteristic yield strength of links)

In the example, VRd1 will be calculated at positions between the support and
2.5d away at intervals of 0.5d. This is done to illustrate the effect even though
the critical section will normally be at the position of the concentrated load.

3.3.2.1 Shear reinforcement


The shear force diagram is shown in Figure 3.9.

VRd1 (mod)

\ 135m
8OOkNf 135m
211kN h
1- \
x
2llkN


VRd1 (mod)
}0kN
Figure 3.9 Shear force diagram example 2
1d1S

The basic design shear resistance of the section, VRdl, is given by 43.23(1)

VRd1
= [rRd k (1.2 + 40p,) + 0.15 Or]bd Eqn 4.18

TRd
= 034 N/mm2 for = 30 N/mm2 Table 4.8

Forconcentrated loads within 2.5d ofthefaceofthe support, an enhancement


of shear resistance is permitted. TRd may be multiplied by a factor /3 when
determining VRdl.

/3 = 2.5d/x with 1.0 /3 5.0 Eqn 4.17

Taking values of x between 0.5d and 2.5d gives values of /3rRd shown in
Table 3.1.

Table 3.1 Design shear strength fhAd


X TRd
(m) (N/mm2)
0.45 5 1.7

0.90 2.5 0.85

1.35 1.67 0.57

1.80 1.00* 0.34

2.25 1.00* 0.34

* No enhancement taken, see Figure 3.9


Theequation for VAd1 can be modified to give a range of values corresponding
to the distance from the support.
VRd1(x)
= [BTRdk (1.2 + 40p,) + O.lSç,]bd Eqn 4.18
(mod)
k = 1.6—d41 = 1

= —
A2, 4825
= ________ = 0.013
p1
bd 400 x 900

_sa0
N
AC

Values of design shear resistance, VRd1, are given in Table 3.2.

Table 3.2 Design shear resistance VRd1

x VRd1
(m) (kN)

0.45 1052

0.90 526

125 353

1.80 211

2.25 211
BEAMS

Shear reinforcement is required when VSd > VRd1.


4.3.2.4

From Figure 3.9, VSd = 800 kN from x = 0 to x = 1.35 m

Using the standard method 4.3.2.43

= VCd+VWa Eqn 4.22

Putting VRd3 = VSd and VCd = VRd1 gives

= + VWd
"Sd VRd1

Values of design shear resistanceto be provided by shear reinforcement, V,


are given in Table 3.3.

Table 3.3 Design shear resistance


— =
VAd1 VSd 1 VSd VRdI VWd
(kN) (kN) (kN)

1052 800 < 0

526 800 274

353 800 447

211 0 < 0

211 0 < 0

Therefore maximum shear reinforcement is required when VRd1 = 353 kN,


i.e, when x = 135 m.
This should be provided over the entire length from x = 0 to x 2.25 m 4.3.2.2(9)
(0 < x < 2.5d).

Note: 4.3.2.2(9)
If a concentrated load is positioned close to a support, it is possible that using
to modify VRd1 may lead to only minimum shear reinforcement being
provided throughout the beam. In this case, the designer may wish to base
the shear resistance on the unmodified VRd1.
Thiscan be illustratedby taking the example above butplacingthe pointload
at 0.5d from the support.
The modified shear force diagram is shown in Figure 3.10.

VRd1 (mod) 1O52kN —


VSd = BOOk N Note B = 1 on span side
of concentrated load

VRd1
ZllkN —

I I I I

— 0•5 10 15 2O 25
L Position of concentrated load

Figure 3.io Shear force diagram (load at 0.5 —


example 2 modified

E1
In this case it would be prudent tocheckthe shear resistanceonthe unmodified
= 211 kN. The required shear reinforcementshould be provided from
VAd1
x = Otox = 0.5d
Check area of shear reinforcement required in example 2.

Re-arranging the equation for V gives Eqn 4.23

ASW VWd 447x103


= = = 2.54 mm2/mm
s 0.9df 0.9 x 900 x 217.4
=
Try R12 links @ 175 mm crs. (4 legs), Ajs 2.58 mm2/mm

Check crushing of compression strut

VRd2
= (4) vfCdbWO.9d (1 + cota) Eqn 4.25

For vertical links, cota = 0

v = 0.7 — —-- = 0.55 4.21


Eqn
200

fCd =—=
30
20N/mm2
1.5

Therefore
= (-j- x 0.55 x 20 x 400 x 0.9 x 900 x 1

= 1782 kN > Vsd


= 800 kN OK

Check maximum spacing of links. 4.4.2.3

= Eqn 4.79
sbsIna

For vertical links sina = 1

pW = = 0.0064 > pw,mln = 0.0022 OK Table 5.5


175 x 400
Vsd—3V = (800—3x353)x iO
bd
pww 0.0064 x 400 x 900

Maximum spacingfor crack control = 300 mm Table 4.13

By inspection, EC2 Clause 5.4.2.2(7) is satisfied. 5.4.2.2(7)

Use R12 links @ 175 mm crs. (4 legs) for 0 < x < 2.25 m
3.3.3 Example 3 — combined loading
The revised loading and shear force diagrams are shown in Figures 3.11 and
3.12 respectively.

Ultimate loads
800 kN 800 kN
100 kN/m
I

IAYAYVIW* YAWA AYAYAAWAVAW*WkWA\ AV*VAWAUAWAW&


1•35m 1.35m

liii
6m
:

Figure au Beam span and loading example 3

1100
135m

kNI
I
Ix
F"
135m l
I

KN

jioo

Figure 3.12 Shear force diagram —


example 3

The basic design shear resistance of the section, VRdl, is given by 43.2.3(1)

VRd1
=
[rRdk(l.2 + 40p,) + 0.15Or]bd Eqn 4.18

For concentrated loads within 2.5d of the face of the support, TAd may be 4.3.2.2(9)
increased as in Section aa2. However, no similar enhancement is permitted
for uniformly distributed loads.

must be reduced depending onthe proportion ofconcentrated loads to total


design load. 9 can then be written as

red = 1+(3—1) Vsd(COflC)


with 1.0 5.0
Vsd(tot)

= design shear force due to concentrated loads


Vsd(COflC)

= design shear force due to total loads


Vsd()

Values of the concentrated load ratio and the resulting design shear strength
are given in Tables 3.4 and 3.5.
BEAMS

Table 3.4 Concentrated load ratio Vsd(COflC)IVsd(t)

x Vsd(flC) VSfl) Vsd Vsd()IVsd


(m) (kN) (kN) (kN)

0.45 800 255 1055 0.76


0.90 800 210 1010 0.79
1.35 800 165 965 0.83
1.80 0 120 120 0

2.25 0 75 75 0

Table 3.5 Design shear strength flredTRd


X
'3redRd
red
(m) (NImm2)

0.45 5 4.04 1.37


0.90 2.5 2.19 0.75
1.35 1.67 1.56 0.53
1.80 1.0 1.00 0.34
2.25 1.0 1.00 0.34

Theequation for VRd1 can be modified to give a range of valuescorresponding


to the distance from the support.
= [adrRdk(1.2 + 4Op1) + 0.15
VRd1 (x) a] bd Eqn 4.18
(mod)
As in Section 3.3.2.1
k = 1, p1
= 0.013,
i = 0

Values of design shear resistance, VAd1, and design shear resistance to be


provided by shear reinforcement, V,
are given in Tables 3.6 and 3.7.

Table 3.6 Design shear resistance (VRd1)


x VRd1

(m) (kN)
0.45 848
0.90 464
1.35 328
1.80 211

2.25 211

Table 3.7 Design shear resistance (V)

VRd1 VSd Vsd


— = VWd

(kN) (kN) (kN)


848 1055 207
464 1010 546
328 965 637
211 120 <0
211 75 <0
M4S

Therefore maximum shear reinforcement is required when

= 328 kN, i.e., when x = 135 m


VRd1

This should be provided from x = 0 to x = 2.25 m (0 < x < 2.5d)


Checkarea of shear reinforcement required.
Re-arranging the equation for VWd Eqn 4.23

A
— = ______ = 637 x iO = 3.61 mm2/mm
s (0.9d)f 0.9 x 900 x 217.4

Try R12 links @ 125 mm crs. (4 legs), AIs = 3.62 mm2/mm


Checkcrushing of compression strut
From example 2, = 1782 kN > = 1100 kN OK
VRd2

Check maximum spacing of links 4.4.23


By comparison with example 2, requirements are satisfied OK 5.4.2.2(7)

Use R12 links @ 125 mm crs. (4 legs) for 0 < x < 2.25 m

For the remainder of the beam beyond x = 2.5d (2.25 m) provide


minimum reinforcement as example given in Section a2.2.

3.4 Design method for torsion


3.4.1 Introduction
Theedge beam shown in Figure 3.13 carries the endsofsimply supported floor
slabs seated on the lowerflange. The beam is fully restrained at its ends.
The example chosen is the same as that used in Allen's Reinforced concrete
design to BS 8110: SimplyexpIained12.
Analysisofthestructure andthe design of thesection forflexure is not included.
The section will be checked for shear, torsion and the combination of both.
560

200
T
250 1500

FLoor £LQb

\\
I

Figure 3.13 Beam section

3.4.2 Design data

Design torsional moment (T$d) = 120 kNm


Design shear (Vsd) = 355 kN

Concrete strength grade is 030/37, k = 30 N/mm2 3.1.2.4


Table ai
Nominal cover to links is 35 mm. 4.133
NAD
Assuming 25 mm bars and 10 mm links Table 6
d = 1500 — 35 — 10 — — = 1441.5 say 1440 mm
2

Assume 0.25% tensile reinforcement for flexure

3.4.3 Shear resistance


Shear will be taken as acting on the web of the section only.

When combined shear and torsion effects are to be considered, shear isto be
checked using the variable strut inclination method. The angle e of the
equivalent concretestruts isto bethesamefor bothtorsion and shear design. 433.2.2(4
The design shear resistance, VAd1, with zero axial load is given by 43.2.3(1)

VAd1
= rRdk(l.2 + 40p1)bd Eqn 4.18

TRd
= 034 N/mm2 for = 30 N/mm2 Table 4.8

k = 1.6 — d = 1.6 — 1.44 = 0.16 1.0


Assuming 0.25% tensile reinforcement, p1 = 0.0025 0.02

VAd1
= 034 x 1(1.2 + 40 x 0.0025) x 250 x 1440 x 1O
= 159.1 kN < 355 kN
Therefore shear reinforcement required.
Use the variable strut inclination method. The maximum design shear force,
VHd2, to avoid web crushing is given by
-

b zvf
VRd2
= 43.2.4.4(2)
(cote + tane) Eqn 4.26

Re-arranging gives

VRd2 1

bWzucd cote + tane

= 355 kN
VSd

b = 250mm

z = 0.9d = 0.9 x 1440 = 1296 mm

v = 0.7 — —- = 0.7
200

200
= 0.55 . 0.5 43.2.4.2(3)

'cd
= = -- =
1.5
20N/mm2

Therefore

VSd —
355 x iO
— = 0.1
bwzufCd 250 x 1296 x 0.55 x 20
1
should be 0.1
cote + tane

By referenceto Figure 3.1, it will be seen that the value of cote may be taken NAD
anywhere between the limits of 0.67 to 1.5. Table 3
4.3.2.4.4(1)
To minimize link reinforcement, take cotO = 1.5

Design shear resistance, VRd3, for shear reinforcement is given by

VRd3
=
() cWdcote 4.3.2.4.4(2)
Eqn 4.27
Re-arranging gives

A sw VRd3
s zfcote
Putting VRd3 equal to VSd

Asw VSd

s zçcote

-
Using high yield reinforcement

= = = 400N/mm2
1.15

Therefore

A
— = 355 x 1O = 0.46 mm2/mm
s 0.9 x 1440 x 400 x 1.5

AS vi
0.74 — = 0.55 x— = 5.5 N/mm2..
400 = 20
= 0.46 x— OK
4.3.2.4.4(2)
E"n 427
bs W
250 2 2

Before choosing the reinforcement,the effects oftorsion will beconsidered and


the results combined.
The force in the longitudinal reinforcement, Td, ignoring flexure, is given by

Td
= (4) VSd(cote — cota) 43.2.4.4(5)
Eqn 4.30
For vertical links, cota = 0

T = --- x 1.5 = 2663kN


2

Additional area of longitudinal reinforcement


Td = 266.3 x iO = 666mm
400

Thisarea of reinforcement must be combined with the tension reinforcement


required for flexure together with the longitudinal reinforcement required for
torsion.

3A.4 Torsional resistance


Torsionalresistance is calculated on the basis of a thin-walled closed section.
Solid sections are replaced by an idealized equivalent thin-walled section.
Sectionsofcomplex shape are divided into sub-sectionswith each sub-section
treated as an equivalent thin-walled section. The torsional resistance is taken
as the sum of the torsional resistances of the sub-sections.
The torsional moment, carried by eachsub-section according to elastic theory,
maybe found on the basis of theSt Venanttorsional stiffness. Division of the
section intosub-sectionsshould be so arranged as to maximize the calculated
stiffness.
BEAMS

For this example the section will be divided into the sub-sections shown in
Figure 3.14.

1500

200f
Figure 3.14 Dimensions of sub-sections

3.4.4.1 St Venant torsional stiffnesses


J = f3h3mh BS 8110:
Part 2
2.43 Eqn 1
a4.4.1.1 Top and bottom flanges

hmax
= 310 mm, h. = 200 mm
hmax
= 1.55
h mm
200

From which fi = 0.203 BS 8110:


Part 2
Therefore 2.4.3
Table 2.2
J = 0.203 x 200 x 310 = 0.5 x iO mm4
3.4.4.1.2 Web

hmax
= 1500 mm, hmin
= 250 mm

hmax 1500
6
h mm
250

From which 3 = 0.33 BS 8110:


Part 2
Therefore 2.43
Table 2.2
J = 033 x 250 x 1500 = 7.7 x iO mm4
3.4.4.1.3 Total stiffness

ot = [(2 x 0.5) + 7.7] x iO = 8.7 x iO mm4

3.4.4.2 Thicknesses of equivalent thin-walled sections

t = the actual wall thickness 43.3.1(6)

where
u = outer circumference of the section
A = total area within the outer circumference

a4.4.2.1 Top and bottom flanges

u = (310 + 200)2 = 1020 mm


A = 310 x 200 = 62 x iO mm2

Therefore
= 62 x iO = 61mm
1020
t may not be less than twicethe cover, c, to the longitudinal bars. Hence, with 43.3.1(6)
10 mm links
tmm
. = 2(35 + 10) = 90 mm

3.4.4.2.2 Web
u = (1500 + 250)2 = 3500 mm
A = 1500 x 250 = 375 x 1O mm2
Therefore
t = 375 x i0 = 107 mm > 2c OK
3500
Values of t between the limits ofA/u and 2c maybe chosen provided that the
designtorsional moment, Tsd, does not exceed thetorsional moment that can
be resisted by the concrete compression struts.

3.4.4.3 Torsional moments


TSd,tot = l2OkNm

This total moment is shared between theflangesand web in proportion totheir


torsional stiffness.
Therefore
TSd,fl = 120x
8.7
= 6.9kNm

TSd,w = l2OxZ = lO6kNm


8.7

Tsd mustsatisfy the following two conditions 4.3.3.1(5)

TRd1
and TRd2 Eqn 4.38
Eqn 439
3.4.4.4 Torsion in flanges

2vfCdt4k
= 4.33.1(6)
TAd1
cote + tan8 Eqn 4.40

Re-arranging gives

TRd1 1

cote + tan8

Putting TAd1 equal to Tsd

1
=
2vfcdtAk cote + tane

TsdfI
= 6.9 kNm

is = 0.7 0.7 433.1(6)


200
Eqn 4.41

= 0.7
(0.7
— = 0385 . 0.35

= 20 N/mm2
t = 90mm
= area enclosed withinthe centre line of the thin-wall section
Ak
= (310 — 90) x (200 — 90) = 24.2 x iO mm2

Therefore

T x 106 6.9
= 0.206
2ufdtAk 2 x 0385 x 20 x 90 x 24.2 x i0

By referenceto Figure 3.1 it maybe seen that thevalue of cote maybe taken NAD
anywhere between the limits of 0.67 to 1.5. Table 3
433.1(6)
To minimize link reinforcement take cote = 1.5.
Notethat this valuemust be consistent with the value taken for normal shear.

A
=
TAd2 2Ak(f—
$
cot8) 4.33.1(7)
Eqn 4.43

Re-arranging gives
Asw TRd2
$ 2Aicot8
Putting TAd2 equal to Tsd

= T
s 2Akçcote
Using mild steel reinforcement

fywd =-!= 9= 1.15


217N/mm2

Therefore

A
— = 6.9 x 106
= 0.44mm/mm
2
s 2x24.2x103x217x1.5

The spacingof torsion links should not exceed - 5.4.2.3(3)

where

Uk
= the circumference of the areaAk 433.1(7)

= 2[(310 —
90) + (200 — 90)] = 660 mm

Therefore

Sm
— = 82.5 mm, say 80 mm
= 660

A = 0.44 x 80 = 35.2 mm2

Use RB links at 80 mm crs.

The additional area of longitudinal steel for torsion is given by

= Eqn 4.44
Ac,d (TAd2 _!)cote

Re-arranging and putting TRd2 equal to Tsd

T Uk

=
Sdk cote
A Y1d

fyld -
Using high yield reinforcement

=
1.15
= 400N/mm2

Therefore

A = 6.9 x 106 x 660 x 1.5 = 353mm2


400x2x24.2x 10

Use 4T12 bars


BEAMS

Reinforcementwill also be required in the bottom flange to cater for flexure of


the flange acting as a continuous nib.

3.4.4.5 Torsion in web

Tsdw
= 106 kNm

Ak = (1500

107) x (250 —
107) = 199.2 x iO mm2
Therefore

TSd 106x106
= = 032
2vfCdtAk 2x 0.385 x 20 x 107 x 199.2 x io
Again by reference to Figure 3.1, cote should fall within the limits of 0.67 to 1.5.
Similarly use cotO 1.5
As the web is subjectto shear and torsion, the combined effects should now
be checked to satisfy the condition

T 2
+
2
<
— 4.33.2.2(3)
TAd1 VRd2
Eqn 4.47

TSd
= 106 kNm

2ufcdt.4k
TRdl = 43.3.1(6)
cote + tane Eqn 4.40

=
2 x 0385 x 20 x 107 x 199.2 x iO =
1
151.5 kNm
1.5 +

VSd
355 kN

bWzufCd
VRd2
= 43.2.4.4(2)
cote + tane Eqn 4.26

250 x 1300 xO.55 x 20


= 1650 kN
1.5 +

Therefore

T2 + —-
V2
TRd1 VRd2

=
(—)
1062
+
()3552 =
0.54 < 1.0 OK

Wherethe entire section is used to resist normal shear, each sub-sectionshould


be checked to satisfy the above interaction condition.
EMAS

3.4.5 Reinforcement in web


Link reinforcementfor torsion
Using high yield links
A 106x106
= = 0.44 mm2/mm
s 2x 199.2 x iO x 400 x 1.5
Notethat A5 for torsion relates to a single leg in the wall of the section.
Link reinforcement required for shear

— = 0.46 mm2/mm from Section 3.4.3


S

Notethat A5 for shear relates to the total shear link legs.

Assuming single links, total areafor one leg

0.46s
ASW = + 0.44s = 0.67s mm
2

Using 112 links


0.67s 113 mm2

s = 168 mm, say 160 mm


Maximum link spacing for shear
< V (+P' 5.4.2.2(7)

'
(-k)VRd2
Eqn 5.18
S = 0.6d = 864 300 mm

Therefore
S = 300 mm

For cracking
VSd —3VCd
50 N/mm2 4.4.2.3(5)
Table 4.13

Therefore S 300 mm

For torsion
U
k
smax
8

Uk
= 2[(1500 107) + (250 —
107)]
= 3072 mm

Therefore
3072
Smax = = 384mm
8

Maximum spacing to suit all conditions is 300 mm.

Use T12 Hnks @ 160 mm crs.


BEAMS

Additional area of longitudinal steel for torsion in web Eqn 4.44

ASI
106x 106 x 3072 x 1.5 = 3065 mm2
400 x 2 x 199.2 x iO

Use 16116 bars

The bars in the tension face of the web will need to be increased to provide
for theadditional longitudinal steel required for shear and combined with the
reinforcement required for flexure.
Area required in tension face for combined torsion and shear
= (3065 x 2) + 666 = 1049 mm2
16

Use 3T25 bars

3.4.6 Summary of reinforcement

Top flange
4T12 longitudinai bars
R8 iinks @ 80 mm crs
Bottom flange
4112 longitudinai bars
R8 iinks @ 80 mm crs.
Plus reinforcement for flexure of the nib
Web
3125 iongitudinai bars in tension face
7116 bars in each side face
112 links 160 mm cr5.
Pius reinforcement for flexure

The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 3.15

4T12

R8_S0___f

_—T12 —160

Additional bars T16 bars except


needed for flexure where shown
in nib otherwise

R8_80__f/
4T12 3T25

Figure 3.15 Beam reinforcement details


It will be seen from this example that choosing the upper timit value of cote,
to minimize the link reinforcement,results in substantial additional longitudinal
reinforcement being required. In practice the value of cote should be chosen
so as to optimize the total reinforcement in the section.

3.5 Slenderness limits 4.3 5.7


The Code requires that a beam has an adequate factor of safety against
buckling.
Providing that the following requirements are met, the safety against lateral 4.3.5.7(2)
buckling may be assumed to be adequate

'ot < 50b; and Eqn 4.77

h <4b NAD

where
b = width of the compression flange, which can be taken as bei 2.5.2.2.1(3)
for T and L beams
h = total depth of the beam

1 unrestrained length of the compression flange taking lateral 2.5.2.2.1(4)


bracing into account

For example, consider the beam shown in Figure 3.16.

975x400 beam

B C 0

Figure 3.16 Beam spans and loading for slenderness check

In this example the top of the beam is loaded but unrestrained (for instance,
the beam is carrying a wall).
The second requirement is satisfied i.e. h < 4b = 1600 mm
In calculating 1, the unrestrained length of the compression flange can be
taken as the distance between points of contraflexure.
These distances, which need to be < 50b = 20 m, can be obtained from Figure 2.3
EC2 Figure 23.

10(A—.B)
= 0.851(A—B) = 0.85 x 22 = 18.7 m

(B—C) = 0.71(B—C) = 0.7 x 22 15.4 m

10(C—D)
= 21(C—D) = 2x 11 = 22 m

Spans A—C are satisfactory but span C—D is not, It is too slender and
the width will need to be increased, or additional lateral retraintwill need
to be provided.
I
4 SLABS
4.1 Solid and ribbed slabs
4.1.1 One-way spanning solid slabs
Example of a one-way spanning slab is given in Section 2.
4.1.2 Two-wayspanning solid slabs
EC21 permits the use of elastic analysis, with or without redistribution, or 2.5.1.1(5)
plastic analysis for ultimate limit state design.
Elastic analyses are commonly employed for one-way spanning slabs and for 2.53.5.1(2)
two-way spanning slabs without adequate provision to resist torsion at the
corners of the slab and prevent the corners from lifting. Plastic analyses are
commonly used in other situations.
Tabulatedresultsfor momentsand shearsfrom both typesof analysisare widely BS 8110
available. Tables
3.14 & 3.15
Care is necessary in subsequent design to ensure that adequate ductility is 2.53.2.2(5)
present.Where redistributionhasbeen performed,the necessarychecks should 2.5.3.4.2(3)
be carried out. 2.5.3.5.5(2)

4.1.2.1 Design example of a simply-supported two-way spanning solid slab

Design a solid slab, spanning in two directions and simply-supported along


each edge on brickwork walls as shown in Figure 4.1. The slab is rectangular
on plan and measures 5 m by 6 m between the centre of the supports.
In addition to self-weight, the slab carries a characteristic dead load of
0.5 kN/m2 and an imposed load of 5.0 kN/m2.
The slab is in an internal environment with no exposure to the weatheror
aggressive conditions.

I I

I I
220mm wide I tx Sm
supporting walk I
I
I
II Ii

__________ I

I.. Ly6m

Figure 4.1 Layout of slab

4.1.2.1.1 Durability
Table 4.1
For a dry environment, exposure class is 1. ENV 206
Minimum concrete strength grade is C25/30. Table NA.1
For cement content and wlc ratio, refer to ENV 206 Table 3(6)

Minimum coyer to reinforcement = 15 mm NAD


Assume nominal aggregate size = 20 mm Table 6
Assume maximum bar size = 12 mm
Nominal cover 20 mm NAD 6.4(a)

Use nominal cover = 25 mm I

Note: NAD
20 mm nominal cover is sufficient to meet the NAD1 requirements in all Table 3
respects. 4.133(8)
Check requirements for fire resistance to BS 8110: Part 2(2). NAD 6.1(a)

4.1.2.1.2 Materials

Type 2 deformed reinforcement


= 460 N/mm2 NAD 63(a)

= 460 = 400 N/mm2 2.23.2


yd 1.15 Table 23
.ys

C25/30 concrete with 20 mm maximum aggregate size

4.1.2.1.3 Loading

Assume 200 mm thick slab


= 4.8 + 0.5 = 5.3 kN/m
Gk
= 5.0 kN/m2
= 135
Table 2.2
= 1.5

Ultimate load = 7GGk + 1O k = 14.66 kN/m2 Eqn 2.8(a)


NAD 6.2(d)
4.1.2.1.4 Flexural design

Bending moment coefficients for simply-supported two-way spanning slabs, BS 8110


without torsionalrestraintat thecorners or provisionto resistupliftatthe corners, Table 3.14
based on the Grashof-Rankine Formulae, are widely published and are
reproduced in BS 8110.

MSdx = afl12
MSdy =

For = 1.2
lx
= 0.084, a = 0.059


Giving
= 30.8 kNrn/rn
MsdX
= 21.6 kNm/m
Msdy

For short span with reinforcement in bottom layer


12
d = 200 — 25 — — = 169 mm
2

_-
M
= 0.043
bd2fck

x
— = 0.099 < 0.45 OK 2.5.3.4.2(5)
d

Af
= 0.052
bdck

=
Therefore A 478 mm2/m

Use T12 @ 200 mm crs. (566 mm2/m) in short span

For longer span


d = 200—25—12—6 = 157mm

_.
M
= 0.035
bd2fck

At = 0.042
bdfCk

Therefore A = 359 mm/m

Use T12 @ 300 mm crs. (377 mm2/m) in long span

4.1.2.1.5 Shear 4.3.2

VSdX
= 8a (-i) = 24.6 kN/m

ni 2
= = 14.4 kN/m
VSdy 8a, (_)

The shear resistance with no axial load:


VRd1
= rRdk(l.2 + 40p,)bd 43.2.3
Eqn 4.18
Where

TRd
= 0.3 N/mm2 Table 4.8
Assume p 50% of reinforcement curtailed at support
k = 1.6—d = 1.431 lzl
Assume

= = 0 p 0.02 Figure 4.12


bd
Hence

VRd1
= 87.0 kN/m > VSdX
= 24.6 kN/m

No shear reinforcement required 4.3.2.1P(2)


4.3.2.2

4.1.2.1.6 Serviceability — deflection

Control by limiting span/effectivedepth ratio based on the shorter span for a 4.43.2
two-way spanning slab.

As,prov = 566 mm2/m p = 0.0033

NAD Table 7 gives basic span/effectivedepth ratios which are assumed to be 4.43.2(4)
based on = 400 N/mm2.
Note 2to NADTable7 statesthatmodificationto thetabulated valuesfor nominal
reinforced concrete should not be carried out to take into account service
stressesin the steel (referto EC2 Clause 4.43.2(4)).However,it is assumed that
the correction ought to be made for concrete with 0.15% p 0.5% but that <
the resultingvalues should notexceed those tabulated intheNADfor nominally
reinforced concreta
Basic limiting span/effective depth ratios are:

Concrete lightly stressed (p = 0.5%): 25 NAD


Concrete nominally reinforced (p = 0.15%): 34 6.4(e)&(f)
By interpolation at p = 033%: 29.4 Table 7

The actual service steel stress modification factor is

250 —
400 —
400 —
— — — 103
s I (A
yk
IA
areq sprov'
460 x 478/566
Therefore, permissible span/effective depth ratio
= 1.03 x 29.4 = 303 34

Since span i 7 m, no further adjustment is required. 4.43.2(3)

Actual span/effective depth ratio = = 29.6 < 303 .... OK


169

Note: BS 8110
No modification to the longer span reinforcement is required in cases where 3.5.7
short span reinforcement isincreased to complywith deflection requirements.
SLS

4.1.2.1.7 Serviceability —
cracking

For a slab with h 200 mm, no further measures to control crackingare 4.4.23(1)
necessary if the requirements of EC2 Clause 5.4.3 have been applied.

4.1.2.1.8 Detailing

Detailing requirements for cast in situ solid slabs, including two-way slabs 5.43
Slab thickness, h = 200 > 50 mm OK 5.4.3.1(1)

Forthe short span, usealternatelystaggered bars and anchor50% ofthe mid- 5.43.2.2(1)
span reinforcement at the supports.
a
= + Nsd 5.43.2.1(1)
Anchorage force, F6 VSd -- 5.4.2.1.4(2)
NSd — 0 EqnS.15

a1 5.43.2.1(1)

Therefore

F6
= VSd
= 24.6 kN/m

24.6 x iO =
Areq = —
F6 = ________ 61.5 mm2/m
400

= 283 mm2/m OK

aalbAsreq
Net bond length, net = 1b.min 5.23.4.1(1)
A6pçp, Eqn 5.4

= 1.0 for straight bars 5.2.3.4.1

A. f
1
b
=
4
x—
f 5.2.2.3
EqnS.3

All bars in slabs with h 250 mm may be assumed to have good bond. 5.2.2.1
Table 5.3
= 2.7 N/mm2
'bd

1
b
12
=— x= 400
2.7
444mm

= °31b lOqS or 100 mm = 133 mm 5.23.4.1(1)


Eqn 5.5

In calculating net takeA6req as mid-span reinforcement/4 giving NAD 6.5(c)


5.4.2.1.4(3)

r.et = 1.0 x 444 x - = 222 mm > l OK Eqn 5.4


For a direct support, the anchorage length required is
5.4.2.1.4(3)
(2/3)1b,net = 148 mm Figure
5.12(a)
The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 4.2.

112 —300

A
/ I
112 — 200
alternateLy
staggered

(2/3) tb,net 148

220

Figure 4.2 Section through short span support

The use of (213)1bn at a direct support is an allowance for the transverse


compression due o the support reaction.

Minimum area of reinforcement

A • 0.6b d

yk
l 0.0015bd
= 254 mm2/m 5.43.2.1(3)
5.4.2.1.1(1)

Minimum area provided (T12 @ 400 mm crs.) near support


= 283 mm2/m OK

Maximum bar spacing = 3h 500 mm NAD


Table 3
5.4.3.2.1(4)
Maximum spacing used = 400 mm near support OK

4.1.2.2 Design example of a continuous two-way spanning solid slab

Design a solid slab spanning between beams, as shown in Figure 4.3.


In addition to self-weight, the slab carries a characteristic dead load of
1.0 kN/m2 and an imposed load of 5.0 kN/m2.

E1
Supporting beams

6m

6m

6m

I I I

72m 72m 72m j


Figure 43 Layout of slab

4.1.2.2.1 Durability

For a dry environment, exposure class is 1. Table 4.1


Minimum concrete strength grade is C25/30.
ENV 206
For cement content and wlc ratio, refer to ENV 206 Table 3. Table NA.1

Minimum cover to reinforcement = 15 mm NAD


Assume nominal aggregate size = 20 mm Table 6
Assume maximum bar size = 12 mm
Nominal cover 20 mm NAD 6.4(a)

Use nominal cover = 25 mm

Note: NAD
20 mm nominal cover is sufficientto meet the NAD requirementsin all respects. Table 3
4.1.3.3(8)
Check requirements for fire resistance to BS 8110: Part 2. NAD 6.1(a)

4.1.2.2.2 Materials

Type 2 deformed reinforcement, ck = 460 N/mm2


C25/30 concrete with 20 mm maximum aggregate size.

1=1
4.1.2.2.3 Loading
Assume 200 mm thick slab
= 4.8 + 1.0 = 5.8 kN/m2
= 5.0 kN/m2
= Table 2.2
1.35 or 1.0
= 1.5 or 0.0
lfQ

For non-sensitivestructures, a single designvaluefor permanent actionsmay 2.3.2.3


be applied throughout the structure, i.e. = 1.35 throughout.

Maximum ultimate load = 1.35 x 5.8 + 1.5 x 5.0 = 1533 kN/m2


Minimum ultimate load = 1.35 x 5.8 = 7.83 kN/m2

4.1.2.2.4 Load cases

For continuous beams and slabs in buildings without cantileverssubjected to 2.5.1.2(4)


dominantly uniformly distributed loads, itwill generally be sufficient to consider
only thefollowing load cases.
(a) Alternate spans carrying the design variable and permanent load
(ok
+ 'yGGk), otherspans carrying only the design permanent
load, 7GGk.

(b) Anytwo adjacentspanscarrying the design variable and permanent


load (Q0k + 'YGGk). All other spans carrying only the design
permanent load, 7GGk.

4.1.2.2.5 Flexural design

Bending moment coefficients for two-way spanning slabs supported on four BS 8110
edges, with provision for torsion at the corners, have been calculated based Table 3.15
on both elastic and yield line theory. The coefficients published in BS 8110:
Part 1, Table 3.15, are based on yield line analysisand are used in thisexample.

For continuous slabs the effects of rotational restraint from the supports can 2.53.3(3)
be ignored.

Yield line methods can only be used for very ductile structural elements. Use 2.5.3.2.2(5)
high ductility steel Class H to prEN 10080(8). NAD
Table 5
No direct checkon rotational capacity is required if high ductility steel is used. 2.53.5.5(3)

The area of steel should not exceed a value corresponding to 2.53.5.5(2)

x M
— = 0.25 which is equivalent to = 0.102
d bd2ç

For the yield line (kinematic)method, avariety of possible mechanisms should 2.53.5.5(4)
be considered. Thisis assumed in theuse of the published bending moment
coefficients.
SLABS

The ratio of moments at a continuous edge to the span moment should be 2.53.5.5(5)
between 0.5 and 2.0. This is true for the published coefficients.
Consider the design of the corner panel, D, in Figure 4.4. 2.5.1.2

-
-.
C..'
?
0.024 0028
—0•032

I-
C..'
m4
c$
C...'
. —0032 —0•037

I
0
(n+
c.$

ci
— A
ni
B
u
..o
.0
9

0028

l
—0037 I —0•037
C4 n-
1
-i•f
cY ct
C 0

Figure 4.4 Bending momentcoefficients cI1 = 1.2

Using the coefficients shown in Figure 4.4 and the method described in BS 8110
BS 8110 to adjust moments for adjacent panels with unequal conditions, the 3.53.6
following moments and shears can be calculated for this panel:
In the 6 m direction, = 29.7 kNm/m
M5
Mspan = 28.5 kNm/m
In the 7.2 m direction, = 21.0 kNm/m
M5
Mspan = 20.6 kNm/m

Thesupportmoments calculated can be further reduced by an amount IMSd 2.5.3.3(4)

M$d = Fsdsup x b5I8 Eqn 2.16

where

Fsd su
= design supportreaction compatible with the analysismoments.

In the 6 m direction, Fsd = 81.9 kN/m


In the 7.2 m direction, Fsd SUP
= 69.9 kN/m

For a 300 mm wide supporting beam:

In the 6 m direction, = 3.1 kNm/m


AMSd
In the 7.2 m direction, Msd = 2.6 kNm/m

Therefore, the design support moments are:

In the 6 m direction, Msup = 26.6 kNm/m


In the 7.2 m direction, M = 1&4 kNm/m
sup

ri
For the short span, with the reinforcement in the first layer

12
d = 200 — 25 — — = 169 mm
2

__ = 0.038
bd2fIk

= 0.087 < 0.25 OK 2.5.3.5.5(2)

Af
_- = 0.045
bdck

A = 414 mm2/m

Use T12 @ 250 mm crs. (452 mm2/m) I in short span


The span moment is similar to that over the support and the same
reinforcement may be used in the bottom

For the long span, with the reinforcement in the second layer
12
d = 200 — 25 — 12 — — = 157 mm
2

_-
M
= 0.030
bd2fCk
x
= 0.068 < 0.45 OK

Af = 0.035
bdck
=
A 297 mm2/m

Use T12 @ 300 mm crs. (377 mm2/m) T in long span


The span moment is again similar to that over the support and the
same reinforcement may be used in the bottom

Forarrangementsof reinforcementin middle and edge stripsuse BS 8110. The BS 8110


NAD directs the useof BS 8110 where torsion reinforcement is required in the 3.5.3.5
corners of panels NAD 6.5(e)
5.43.2.2

4.1.2.2.6 Shear
4.3.2
Use forces consistent with the analysis moments.
In the 6 m direction:
At internal beam, V. = 0.47 x 1533 x 6 = 42 kN/m
V
mt
At edge, = 031 x 15.33 x 6 = 28.5 kN/m
In the 7.2 m direction:
At internal beam, V1,
= 0.4 x 1533 x 6 = 36.8 kN/m
At edge, V = 0.26 x 15.33 x 6 = 23.9 kN/m

VAd1
= [rRdk(l.2 + 4Op,) + 0.15a] bd 4.3.2.3
Eqn 4.18

TAd
= 0.3 N/mm2 Table 4.8

Assume j 50% of the bottom reinforcement curtailed at edge support. 5.43.2.2

k = 1.6 — 0.169 = 1.431


A
p = —- = 0.00134 0.02
bd
w

Note: Ensuredetailing provides necessary anchorage to A81. See EC2 Figure


4.12 for definition of A81.

aCp =0
Therefore

VAd1
= 91.0 kN/m > Vs = 28.5 kN/m at edge support

It is also clear that VR > = 43.2 kN/m at the internal beam.

No shear reinforcement required 43.2.1P(2)


4.3.2.2(2)
4.1.2.2.7 Serviceability — deflection

Control by limiting span/effective depth ratio based on the shorter span for a 4.43.2
two-way spanning slab. 4.43.2(5)
6000 =
Actual span/effectivedepth ratio = 35.5
169

For a corner panel use structural system 2.

It may be normally assumed that slabs are lightly stressed (p 0.5%). Table 4.14
4.4.3.2(5)
NAD 6.4(e) and (f) allowsthe basic span/effectivedepth ratio to be interpolated,
according to the reinforcement provided, for values in the range 0.15% < p
<0.5%.

Basic span/effective depth ratio (p = 0.5%) = 32 NAD


(p = 0.15%) = 44 Table 7
For the span moment A8req = 441 mm2/m

Aprov
= 452 mm2/m, p = 0.27%

Basic span/effectivedepth ratio (p = 0.27%) = 39.9


Using reinforcement with > 400 N/mm2,this value should be multiplied 4.4.3.2(4)
to reflect the actual servicesteel stress by the factor

_______ x 452
— = 400
250 400
= =0.89
f
yk
x AsjeqIAsprov 460x441

Therefore, permissible span/effective depth ratio


= 0.89 x 39.9 = 35.5 OK

Note 2to NADTable 7 is taken to mean that the resultingspan/effective depth


ratio, afterthe service stress modification, is limited to the value tabulated for
nominally reinforced concrete. In this case the value is 44.

4.1.2.2.8 Serviceability —
cracking

For a slab with h 200 mm no further measures are required to control 4.4.2.3(1)
cracking, providedthe requirements of EC2 Clause 5.4.3have been applied.

4.1.2.2.9 Detailing 5.43

Slab thickness, h = 200 mm > 50 mm OK 5.4.3.1(1)

For theshortspan, use alternatelystaggered bars and anchor50% ofthe mid- 5.43.2.2(1)
span reinforcement at the external support.
Anchorage force (at external support)
a 5.4.2.1.4(2)
F5
= VSd
x + Nsd Eqn 5.15
d
= 0
Nsd

a1
= d 5.4.3.2.1(1)

F5
= VSd
= 28.5 kN/rn

28.5 x
=—=
f
F5
As.req =71mm/rn
400

Aprov = 226 mm2/m OK

Net bond length


Asjeq
= X 5.2.3.4.1(1)
net Clalb 1bmiri
AsprcN Eqn
= 0.7 for curved bars

=
qSxf yd 5.2.2.3
1b
Eqn 53
SLABS

For all bars in slabs with h 250 mm, good bond may be assumed. 5.2.2.1

= 2.7 N/mm2 Table 5.3


bd

l
12 400
= 444mm
1b
=-j-x---
In calculating take Asq as mid-span reinforcement/4. NAD 6.5(c)
5.4.2.1.4(3)
1
= 0.7 x 444 x = 156 mm > OK

Bars to extend into support for a distance


b
— +1 = 256 mm Figure
5.12(b)
giving sufficient end cover in 300 mm wide section OK

at edge beam
4.1.2.2.10 Top reinforcement

Design moment = M8/4 = 7.125 kNm/m 5.43.2.2(2)


M
= 0.01
bd2ck
Af = 0.012
bdfCk

A = 110 mm2/m lz A1
Minimum area of reinforcement 5.43.2.1(3)

0.6b d
A8 z 0.001Sbtd = 254 mm2/m
yk

Use T10 @ 250 mm crs. bars extending 0.21 from inner face of 5.4.3.2.2(2)
supportinto span

The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 4.5.


T10—500 secondary
transverse reinforcement

112— 300 middle Strip


T10—300 edge strip
T10 —250

112—250 aiternately staggered

I Edge strip - Middle strip


—I——

Figure 4.5 Detail at edge beam


4.1.2.2.11 Secondary transverse reinforcement — top

Principal reinforcement, T10 @ 250 mm crs., A5 = 314 mm2/m


Secondary reinforcement,A5 = 0.2 x 314 = 63 mm2/m 5.4.3.2.1(2)
Maximum spacing = 500 mm NAD
Table 3
Use T10 @ 500 mm crs. (157 mm2/m) 5.43.2.1(4)

4.1.2.2.12 Corner reinforcement 5.4.3.2.3

Use the detailing guidance given in BS 8110. NAD 6.5(e)


5.4.3.2.3
4.1.2.2.13 Anchorage of bottom reinforcement at intermediate supports 5.4.2.1.5

Retain not less than aquarterof mid-span reinforcementat support and provide 5.4.2.1.4(1)
not less than 10 anchorage.
Providecontinuity bars lapped with bottom reinforcementas shown in Figure4.6. Figure
5.13(b)
Using alternately staggered bars with continuity for 50% of the mid-span
reinforcement.

Minimum lap, net = 1.4 x 444 x = 310 mm

112— 500

_____

L12250

120
I C 4
1 100 120

Figure 4.6 Detail at interior support


SLABS

4.1.2.2.14 Transverse reinforcement at laps

No requirement for slabs. NAD 6.5(b)


5.2.4.1.2

4.1.3 Ribbed slabs


EC2 permitsribbedslabsto betreated as solid slabs forthe purposesof analysis, 2.5.2.1(5)
provided that the flangeand transverse ribshave sufficient torsional stiffness.

4.1.3.1 Design example of a ribbed slab

Design a ribbed slab spanning between beams as shown in Figure 4.7.


In addition to self-weight, the slab carries a characteristic dead load of
1.0 kN/m2 and an imposed load of 5.0 kNIm2.

Supporting beams

6m 6m
I-
Ai
PLAN

1oo

A- A

Figure 4.7 Ribbed slab spanning between beams


4.1.aL1 Durability

For a dry environment, exposure class is 1. Table 4.1


Minimum concrete strength grade is C25130. ENV 206
Table NA.1
For cement content and wlc ratio, refer to ENV 206 Table 3.

Minimum cover to reinforcement = 15 mm NAD


Assume nominal aggregate size = 20 mm Table 6
Assume maximum bar size = 20 mm
Nominal cover 20 mm NAD 6.4(a)

Use nominal cover = 25 mm

Note: NAD
20 mm nominal cover is sufficientto meet the NAD requirementsin all respects. Table 3
4.133(8)

Check requirements for fire resistance to BS 8110: Part 2. NAD 6.1(a)

4.1.3.1.2 Materials

Type 2 deformed reinforcement, ck = 460 N/mm2

= = = 400N/mm2 2.2.3.2P(1)
1.15 Table 23
C25/30 concrete with 20 mm maximum aggregate size

4.1.3.1.3 Analysismodel
Span 4 x slab depth 2.5.2.1(3)
6m 4 x 0.275 = 1.lm OK

Rib spacing = 600 1500mm OK 2.5.2.1(5)


Rib depth = 175 4 x rib width = 500 mm OK

Flange depth = 100mm


1
x clear spacing between ribs 50 mm ... OK

Transverse ribs (at supportsonly)


Spacing = 6m > 10
x slab depth = 2.75 m
Hence the ribbed slab maynot betreated as a solid slab inthe analysis under 2.5.2.1(5)
the terms of this clause unless intermediate transverse ribs are incorporated.
This is not always desirable.
Themodel adopted in this example uses gross concrete section properties of
I
the shape in sagging regions and a rectangular section, based on the rib
width, in the hogging region.
EC2 Figure 23 has been used initiallyto define the extent of the hogging.This
method can clearly be refined.
SL&BS

4.1.al.4 Effective span 2.5.2.2.2

1eff
= i, + a1 + a2 Eqn 2.15
Assume 300 mm wide supporting beams
= 5700 mm

a1 at edge beam = a1
taken as (---) t = 150 mm Figure 2.4(a)

i a = (-i-) t
= =
a2 at central beam 150 mm Figure 2.4(b)
= 6000 mm
For ratio of adjacent spans between 1 and 1.5

10
= 0.85i = 0.85 x 6000 = 5100 mm 2.5.2.2.1(4)
Figure 23
4.1.3.1.5 Effective width of flanges 2.5.2.2.1

Effective flange width is assumedconstantacrossthe span for continuousbeams 2.5.2.2.1(2)


in buildings.

For a symmetrical T beam 2.5.2.2.1(3)

be = b
+ (*) 10 b Eqn 2.13

= 125 + (*) x 5100 600 mm


Therefore

beff= 600mm

4.1.3.1.6 Loading
= 3.6+ 1.0 = 4.6 kN/m2
= 5.0 kN/m2
= 1.35 Table 2.2

— 15 2.3.2.3P(2)
Table 2.2
Maximum ultimate load = 1.35 x 4.6 + 1.5 x 5.0 = 13.7 kN/m2

Minimum ultimate load = 1.35 x 4.6 6.2 kN/m2

4.tal.7 Flexural design


Design for ultimate limit state using linear elastic method, choosing not to 2.53.2.2
redistribute moments.

Consider the following load combinations: 2.5.1.2

(a) Alternate spans carrying the design variable and permanent load
(ok + Gk)' other spans carrying only the design permanent
load,
(b) Anytwo adjacent spans carryingthe designvariable and permanent
load ('ok + 1GGk). All other spans carrying only the design
permanent load, GGk.
SLABS

-305 (—37-0)

26.7 (24 81 267 (248)

BENDING MOMENT ENVELOPE (kNm)

Notes
1. Values are per rib
2. Values in brackets are
those obtained when I
us taken as uniform
29-8 (30•8)
throughout the span
210 (20-2)

(— 20-2)

SHEAR FORCE ENVELOPE (kN)

Figure 4.8 Results of analysis

The following results are taken from the analysis (see Figure 4.8).

Mspan 26.7 kNm/rib


= — 30.5 kNm/rib
= 59.6 kN/rib
Fsd5UP

Support moment can be reduced by an amount 1Msd 2.5.3.3(4)


where
x =
Msd = 59.6 0.3/8 2.2 kNm/rib Eqn 2.16

Therefore
Msup = — 283 kNmlrib

d = 275 — 25 — 10 — — = 232 mm
2
b = 600 mm (span), 125 mm (support)
M
= 0.033
bd2fk

x
= 0.075 < 0.45 OK 2.53.4.2(5)
d
Neutral axis in flange (x = 17.4 < 100 mm) OK
Afsyk
= 0.039
bdfck

AS = 295 mm2/rib

Use 2T16 (403 mm2lrib) bottom in span

M
—E = 0.168 > lLIim
= 0.167 (Section 13, Table 13.2)
bd2fck

Therefore
x
> 0.45
d

This section may be analyzed to take account of the varying width of the
compression zone, as shown in Figure 4.9.

+ +
195

cd

125

Figure 4.9 Analysis of section


Consider x 0.45d = 94 mm as a trial value

af = 0.85 x -
Using the rectangular stress block diagram with a =

1.5
= 14.2 N/mm2
0.85 gives NAD
Table 3
4.2.1.3.3(12)
Figure 4.4
0.8x = 75 mm

bav = 140mm
z = d—39 = 193mm

F = a8x(dcd)bav = 75 x x 140 = 149.1 kN

MC = 149.1 x (232 — 39) = 28.8 > 28.3 kNm .... OK


io
AS = 28.3 x 106
= 367mm/rib
400x193

Use 4112 (452 mm2/rib) top at interior support

Minimum longitudinal reinforcement with b = 160 mm 5.4.2.1.1(1)

A5 z 0.6 bdIck 1 0.0015 bd = 56 mm2/rib < A8 ... OK


Maximum longitudinal reinforcement 5.4.2.1.1(2)

= 0.04A = 3450 > OK


A mm2
Asprov

4.1.3.1.8 Shear in rib 4.3.2

= 29.8 kN/rib at interior support


VSd

Shear resistance with no axial load

VRd1 TAd k(1.2 + 4Op1) bd 4.3.2.3


Eqn 4.18
TAd
= 0.3 N/mm2 Table 4.8

k = 1.6—d = 1.368 lzl


Based on top reinforcement: Figure 4.12

A = 452 mm2/rib

b = 125mm
A
p, = —1 = 0.0155 0.02
bd
Giving

VRd1
= 21.6 kN/rib < VSd

Therefore shear reinforcement must be provided. 4.a2.2(3)


Use the standard design method for shear: 4.3.2.2(7)
4.3.2.4.3
VRd3 Vgci

VRd3
= VCd + VWd Eqn 4.22
SLABS

where

= = 21.6 kN/rib 43.2.4.3(1)


VCd VRd1

Therefore

VWd
= x 0.9dç 29.8 — 21.6 = 2 kN/rib Eqn 4.23

Check maximum longitudinal spacing of links 5.4.2.2(7)

= (-i-) x 0.9d (1 + cota) Eqn 4.25


VRd2

For vertical stirrups, cota = 0

v = 0.7 — —a = 0.575 0.5 Eqn 4.21


200

VRd2
= 0.5 x 0.575 x 16.7 x 125 x 0.9 x 232 x iO = 125 kN
(i-) VRd2 < "Sd (f) VRd2
Therefore

Sm = 0.6d = 139 1 300 mm Eqn 5.18

Try mild steel links at 125 mm crs.

= 0.0022 Table 5.5


Pw,min

A = 0.0022bs = 35 mm2

-
Use R6 links @ 125 mm cra (A8 = 57 mm2)
I

fywd = = 217N/mm2
1.15

Vwd = -?- x 0.9 x 232 x = 20.7 > 82 kN/rib ... OK


125 iO
Link spacing may be increased where
(-k-) V = 25 kN/rib

= 0.8d 1 300 = 185Thm Eqn 5.17


Sm

Use R6 links @ 175 mm crs. apartfrom region within 0.6 m of


interior support

V = 14.7 > 4 kN/rib OK


4.1.3.1.9 Shear between web and flanges 43.2.5

d Eqn 4.33
=
VSd
a

a = (j-) l = 2550 mm Figure 4.14

Maximum longitudinal force in the flanges

F0
= acd(O.8x)b
x
= 0.075 at mid-span

F = 14.2 x 0.8 x 0.075 x 232 x = 122 kN

Force to one side of web

600 — 195
iFd = 122 x
2x600
= 41.2kN

Therefore
vSd = —
41.2
= 16.2kN/m
2.55

VRd2
= O.2çJhf
= 0.2 x 16.7 x 100 = 334 kN/m > VSd
.. OK Eqn 436
Eqn 434

VRd3
= 2.5TRdhf + Af Eqn 437
Sf

WithA = 0

VRd3
= 2.5 x 03 x 100 = 75 kN/m > VSd
OK Eqn 4.35

No shear reinforcement required

4.12.1.10 Topping reinforcement


No special guidance is given in EC2 regardingthe design ofthe flange spanning
between ribs. The Handbookto BS 8110(13) gives the following guidance.
3.6.1.5 Thickness of topping used to contribute to structural strength
Although a nominalreinforcementof 0.12%is suggested inthetopping (3.6.6.2),
it is not insisted upon, and the topping is therefore expected to transfer load
to the adjacentribswithoutthe assistanceof reinforcement.Themode oftransfer
involvesarching action and this is the reason forthe insistence that the depth
be at least one-tenth of the clear distance between the ribs.
Minimum flange depths are the same in EC2 and BS 8110 and the above is 2.5.2.1(5)
therefore equally applicable. Provide minimum reinforcementtransverselyand
where top bars in rib, which have been spread over width of flange, are curtailed.
SLABS

A i o.6bd,ck iz 0.0015bd Eqn 5.14

c1 <hf=lOOmm
Therefore, conservatively

A 150 mm2/m

Use 18 200 mm crs. (251 mm2/m) or consider fabric

4.1.3.1.11 Deflection 4.43.2


6000
Actual span/effective depth ratio = = 25.9
232

403
Mid-span reinforcement ratio, p = = 0.0029
600 x 232

Therefore section is lightly stressed. 4.43.2.(5)


NAD
Basic span/effective depth ratio (interpolating for p) = 39.2 Table 7

400 x 403
Modification factor for steel stress = = 1.19
460 x 295

Since flange width > 3 x rib width, a 0.8 modification factor is required.
Since span 7 m, no further modification is required.
Permitted span/effective depth ratio = 39.2 x 1.19 x 0.8
= 373 > 25.9 OK

4.1.3.1.12 Cracking

For exposure class 1, crackwidth has no influence on durability and the limit 4.4.2.1(6)
of 0.3 mm could be relaxed. However, the limit of 03 mm is adopted for this
example.

Satisfythe requirementsforcontrol of cracking without calculation.Check section 4.4.23(2)


at mid-span:
=
Minimum reinforcement, A 4.4.2.2(3)
Eqn 4.78
Note:
can be conservativelytaken as thearea below the neutral axis for theplain
concrete section, ignoringthe tension reinforcement,as shown in Figure 4.10.
92j —______ - Neutru! axis -________ 100

175

125 j•_5

Figure 4.10 Tensile zone of plain concrete section

Depth to neutral axis = 92 mm

A= 160 x 175 + 600 (100 — 92) = 32800 mm2

as = 100%fyk = 460 N/mm2

ceff = recommended value 3 N/mm2 4.4.2.2(3)

k = 0.4 for normal bending

k = 0.8

A = 0.4 x 0.8 x 3 x 32800/460 = 69 mm2 <


Apr, OK Eqn 4.78

Check limit on bar size. Table 4.11

Quasi-permanent loads = Gk + °30k = 6.1 kN/m2 4.4.23(3)


2.3.4
Ratio of quasi-permanent/ultimateloads = —-- = 0.45 Eqn 2.9(c)
13.7 NAD
Table 1
Estimate of steel stress
As.req 295
0.45 x x fyd = 0.45 x— x 400 = 132 N/mm2
Asprc 403

Maximum bar size = 32 > 16 mm provided OK Table 4.11

For cracks caused dominantly by loading, crack widths generally will not be 4.4.23(2)
excessive.

4.1.3.1.13 Detailing

Minimum clear distance between bars = 20 mm 5.2.1(3)


Nominal clear distance in rib = 49 mm OK
SLABS

Bond and anchorage lengths: 5.2.2


For h > 250 mm bottom reinforcement is in good bond conditions. 5.2.2.1
Top reinforcement is in poor bond conditions. Figure 5.1(c)
Therefore, ultimate bond stresses are

Bottom reinforcement, bd = 2.7 N/mm2 5.2.2.2(2)


Table 53
Top reinforcement, d = 0.7 x 2.7 = 1.89 N/mm2 5.2.2.2(2)

cbf
Basic anchorage length, 1b = 5.2.2.3
Eqn 53

For top reinforcement, 1b = qx 400 =


4x 1.89

x 400 =
For bottom reinforcement, 'b
4 x 2.7
Anchorage of bottom reinforcement at end support. 5.4.2.1.4

Treatas a solid slab and retain not less than halfof the mid-span reinforcement. 5.4.3.2.2(1)

Use 2T12 L bars bottom at end support

Anchorage force for this reinforcement with zero design axial load
a
F = VSd x 5.4.2.1.4(2)
S
d Eqn 5.15
where
= 21 kN/rib

For vertical shear reinforcement calculated by the standard method 5.4.2.1.3(1)

a1
= z(1 — cota)/2 1z 0
a = 90° and z is taken as 0.9d

Although this ribbedslab falls outside the solid slab classification requirements 5.4.3.2.1(1)
for analysis, treat as a solid slab for detailing and take a1 = d.

Therefore
= 21 kN/rib
F5
21 x iO =53mm2<A
Asreq prov
OK
400

Required anchorage length for bottom reinforcement at support: 5.23.4


5.2.3.4.1(1)

aa lbAs.req Eqn 5.4

bMeL
A mIn
s.prov

= 0.7 for curved bars in tension


aa

= = 11.14 lz 104 or 100 mm Eqn 5.5


lmIn °31b
jI
In calculations of net' As req should be taken iz A55/4 = 101 mm2 NAD 6.5(c)
5.4.2.1.4(3)
= 226 mm2
As,pr,,

1 = 0.7 x 37 x 12 x = 139 mm > 1 OK Eqn 5.4


bnet bmin

Minimum transverse reinforcement (for indirect support): 5.2.a3


ASt = AS/4 = 226/4 = 57 mm2

Use 1T8 bar as transverse reinforcement

Minimum top reinforcement at end support: 5.4.2.1.2(1)

M5 = (--) 26.7 = 6.7 kNm/rib

M = 0.040
bd2fmk

Therefore nominal reinforcement is sufficient.

Use 2112 L bars top as link hangers

The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 4.11. Figure 5.12

2112 per rib

N18 m

2112
per rib
/ !L'
I

L2116 per rib

139 100 • 622

Lb net b13 Is

Figure 4.11 Detail at edge support

Provide full lap-length, i, for bottom bars: 5.2.4.1.3

i =
lb.netal 1smin Eqn 5.7

For 100% of bars lapped and b > 24,, a1 = 1.4 NAD


= 1.0 and = Aspr Table 3
Hence with Areq Figure 5.6
= = 374, = 37 x 12 = 444 mm Eqn 5.4
net
= 03 aaallb = 187 mm 4 154, or 200 mm Eqn 5.8
15mm
SLABS

Therefore

S
= 444 x 1.4 = 622 mm > 1
5mm
OK

Transverse reinforcement at lapped splices should be provided as for a beam


section. Since 4, < 16 mm, nominal shear links provide adequate transverse 5.2.4.1.2(1)
reinforcement.
Anchorage of bottom reinforcement at interior support. 5.4.2.1.5
Treat as a solid slab and continue 50% of mid-span bars into support. 5.4.3.2.2(1)
The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 4.12. Figure
5.13(b)

4112 per rib

R6— 125
links
h LJ1 L116 per rib

L I
1116 per rib

L b, net 160
41

Figure 4.12 Detail at interior support

This detailing prohibitsthe easy use of prefabricated rib cages because of the
intersection of the bottom reinforcement with the supporting beam cage. It is
suggested that providing suitably lapped continuity bars through the support
should obviate the need to continue the main steel into the support.

Thearrangementofthe reinforcementwithinthe sectionincluding theanchorage 5.2.5


of the links is shown in Figure 4.13. NAD
Tables
3&8
4Ø4 50 mm 5.4.2.1.2(2)
T12
18- 200 Figure 5.10

R6

T16

InternaL radius of bend = 2 mm

Figure 4.13 Arrangement of reinforcement


SLABS

4.2 Flat slabs


4.2.1 Flat slabs in braced frames
The same frame is usedin each of the following examples, but columnheads
are introduced in the second case.

4.2.1.1 Design example of a flat slab without column heads

Design the slab shown in Figure 4.14 to support an additional dead load of
1.0 kN/m2 and an imposed load of 5.0 kN/m2.

N A B C D
A
I I.. ii
425m 52m
I. 5•2m

4•25rn

_ I _
SQm

5•2rn

4.25m +
5E— - ___

Figure 4.14 Plan of structure

The area shown is part of a larger structure whichis laterally restrained in two
orthogonal directions by core walls.
The slab is 225 mm thick. All columnsare 300 mm square and along grid 5
there is an edge beam 450 mm deep x 300 mm wide.

4.2.1.1.1 Durability

For a dry environment, exposure class is 1. Table 4.1


ENV 206
Minimum concrete strength grade is C25130. Table NA.1

Since a more humid environment is likely to exist at the edges of the slab,
increase concrete strength grade to C30/37.

For cement content and w/c ratio, refer to ENV 206 Table 3.
Nominal coverto reinforcement = 20 mm NAD
Table 6
Nominal cover to all bars iz bar size
NAD 6.4(a)
z nominal aggregate size = 20 mm .. OK 4.1 .3.3(5)

Use nominal cover = 20 mm

4.2.1.1.2 Materials

Type 2 deformed reinforcement, = 460 N/mm2 NAD 63(a)


C30/37 concrete with 20 mm maximum aggregate size

4.2.1.13 Load cases

It is sufficient to consider the following load cases 2.5.1.2

(a) Alternate spans loaded with 7GGk + and 'yGGk on other


spans.
(b) Any two adjacent spans carrying YGGk + and all other
spans carrying 7GGk.

Gk
= 0.225 x 24 + 1.0 = 6.4 kN/m2

'YGGk
= 1.35 x 6.4 = 8.7 kN/m2 Table 2.2

7GGk + ok = 8.7 + 1.5 x 5.0 = 16.2 kN/m2 Eqn 2.8(a)

4.2.1.1.4 Analysis

Analyses are carried out using idealizations of both the geometry and the 2.5.1.1.P(3)
behaviour of the structure.The idealizationselected shall be appropriate to the and P(4)
problem being considered.
No guidance is given in EC2 on the selection of analysis models for flat slabs,
or on the division of panels into middleand columnstripsand thedistribution
of analysis moments between these strips. This is left to the assessment of
individual engineera Therequirementsset down in BS 8110 forthe above points
are taken as a means of complying with EC2 Clause 2.5.1.1P(3).

EC2 allows analysis of beams and slabs as continuous over pinned supports. 2.533(3)
It then permits a reduction in the supportmoment given by 2.5.33(4)
= F b /8
Sd Sdsup sup

Theanalysisin this example includes framing intocolumns. Thus the reduction


is not taken.

Consider two frames from Figure 4.14 as typical:

(i) Grid 31A—D subframe


(ii) Grid B.
Analysis resuttsfor the frames described above are given in Figure 4.15. The
results for each frame are practically identical as the analysis for Grid B has
an increasedloaded width (5.2 m), sincethis isthe first internalsupportfor frames
in the orthogonal direction.
Member stiffnesses have been based on a plain concrete section in this analysis.
Column moments and reactions are given in Table 4.1.

4250 5200 5200


Id 1 II
— 1/W 'stab
2
3500

3500

'777 77

ANALYSIS MODEL

—198 —199 —201.

123

BENDING MOMENT ENVELOPE (kNm)

Figures 4.15 Analysis of frame


SLABS

Table 4.1 Column moments and reactions

Max. reaction E column Max E column


Suppo moments moments
(kN) (kNm) (kNm)

End 156.4 37.9 37.9

1st interior 444.7 6.8 21.4

4.2.1.1.5 Flexural design — Panel A—B/1—2

EC2 doesnot specificallyaddress the problem ofedge column momenttransfer BS 8110


and the provisions of BS 8110 are adopted hera 3.7.4.2
Mt,max = 0.l5bd2f
e Cu

Column A/2 moment transfer

Assuming 20 mm cover and 20 mm bars in the top NAD


= 225 — 20 — 10 = 195 mm 4.1 3.3(5)
d1

d2
= 195—20 = 175mm
be
= 300 + 300 (say) = 600 mm
ICu
= 37 N/mm2

M = 0.15 x 600 x 1752 x 37 x 106 = 102 kNm

Thisought to be compared with an analysis for a loading of l.4Gk +


which would give approximately 5% higher edge moments than the EC2
analysis results above.

M = 102 > 1.05 x 37.9 = 39.8 kNm OK

Design reinforcement to sustain edge moment on 600 mm width.

Using; = 1.5, a = 0.85 and; = 1.15 Table 2.3

Referring to Section 13, Table 13.1:

Msd
=
37.9 x i0 = 0.069
bd2ck 600 x 1752 x 30
Afsyk
= 0.085
bdfCk

0.085 x 600 x 175 x 30 = 582 mm2 = 970 mm2/m


AS
460

= 0.163 < 0.45 (zero redistribution) OK 2.53.4.2(5)


SLABS

Use T16 @ 150 mm crs. (1340 mm2/m) top at edge column

Place over width = 900 mm (see Figure 4.16)

Note:
This approach gives more reinforcement than is necessary.

:1

I
cII
esi
T 1
•-I--
4_i
1
I I

I—

Figure 4.16 Edge column moment transfer

Check above moment against minimum value required for punching shear. 43.4.5.3

mSd Eqn 4.59

For moments about axis parallel to slab edge Table 4.9

= ±0.l25perm

V = 156.4kN

Therefore
= ± 0.125 x 156.4 = ± 19.6 kNm/m
mSd

Edge moment = = 632 > 19.6 kNm/m OK


0.6

Design for mSd above in region outside edge column momenttransfer zone.

= 19.6 x 106 = 0.021


bd2fCk 1000 x 1752 x 30
Minimum steel sufficient = 0.6b d z 0.OOlSbd 5.4.2.1.1
f yk

= 0.0015 x 1000 x 175 = 263 mm2/m

Use T12 at 300 mm crs. (373 mm2/m) top and bottom (minimum)

Maximum spacing = 3h p 500 = 500 > 300 mm OK NAD


Table 3
5.43.2.1(4)
SLABS

ColumnA/i moment transfer


Assume the design forces for the frame on grid 1 are directlyrelated to those
for grid 3 in proportion to their loaded widths.
Load ratio = (4.25/2) = 0.41
5.2

The ratio of the edge column distribution factors for theframes is 2.0.

= 37.9 x 0.41 x 2.0 = 31.1 kNm


Msd

Using design approach as for column A12:

be
= 300 + (say) = 450 mm

M = 0.15 x 450 x 1752 x 37 x 10-6 = 76 kNm

> 1.05 x 31.1 = 32.7 kNm OK


Design reinforcement to sustain edge moment on 450 mm width

MSd 31.1 x 106


=
— 0.075
bd2ck 450 x 1752 x 30
Af — 0.093
bdck

0.093 x 450 x 175 x 30 =


A —
— 478 mm2 = 1062 mm2/m
460

Use T16 @ 150 mm crs. (1340 mm2/m) top for a width of 600 mm

Check above moment against minimum value required for punching shear. 43.4.53

mJ where , = ± 0.5 per m for corner columns


Eqn 4.59
= ± 0.5 x (0.41 x 156.4) say = ± 32.1 kNm/m Table 4.9

Edge moment = 31.1/0.45 = 69.1 kNm/m > 32.1 OK

In region of slab critical for punching shear:

MSd 321x106
= = 0.035
bd2ck 1000 x 1752 x 30
Af
—-- = 0.042
bdfCk

AS = 0.042 x 1000 x 175 x 30 = 480 mm2/m


460
Use 116 @ 300 mm crs. (670 mm2/m) top and bottom outside 600 mm
wide moment transfer zone and over area determined in punching
calculation

The division of panels intocolumn and middle strips is shown in Figure 4.17. BS 8110
Figure 3.12
Although BS 8110 indicates a 2.36 m wide column strip at column B2, a
2.6 m width has been used in the following calculations. This is considered
reasonable as a loaded width of 5.2 m hasbeen taken in the analysis for grid
B and grid 2.

A B C

Figure4.17 Assumed stripwidths(arrangement symmetrical about diagonal


All—C13)

ColumnB/2 support moments

Analysis moment = 198 kNm in both directions

Column strip Msd = 0.75 x 198 = 149 kNm BS 8110


Table 3.20
b = 1300x2 = 2600mm

MsdS = 149 x 106


= 0.062
bd2fck 2600 x 1752 x 30
Af
—-- = 0.076
bdfCk

AS
0.076 x 2600 x 175 x 30 = 2255mm
460

Use 13116 (2613 mm2) top in column strip. Provide 9T16 @ 150 mm crs. BS 8110
in central 13 m and 2116 @ 300 mm crs. on either side a7.3.1

Checkwhetherminimum moment requiredfor punching shear hasbeen met. 43.4.53

With , = —0.125 Table 4.9

Msd
= tJVsd
= —0.125 x 444.7 = —55.6 kNm Eqn 4.59

Thisis to be carried over a width of 031. Since includes for a loaded width
of 5.2 m, it is assumed that the larger panel width may be used.

0.31 = 0.3 x 5.2 = 1.56 m

By inspection reinforcement (9116 in central 13 m) is sufficient OK


Middle strip (using average panel width)

MSd = 0.25 X 198 X 106


= 0.026
bd2k (4725 — 2600) x 1752 x 30

= 0.059 < 0.45 OK 2.53.4.2(5)


d
Af
—- = 0.031
bdfk

A5
— 0.031 x 1000 x 175 x 30 = 354 mm2/m
=
b 460

Use 116 @ 300 mm crs. (377 mm2/m) top in middle strip


It is noted that EC2 Clause 2.533(5)would allowtheuseofthemoment atthe
face of the support (subject to limits in EC2 Clause 2.53.4.2(7)), but this is
considered more appropriate to beams or solid slabs and the peakmoment
over the support has been used in the above design.

Span moments
No special provisions are required in EC2. Hence the design basis of BS 8110
is adopted forthedivision of moments.The same pattern of reinforcementwill
be provided in all panels.
The column strip moments are given in Table 4.2 where
= 0.55 Msd
Msd
Table 4.2 Column strip span moments

Total MsdS
moment MsdS b
Span Msd (kNm) (m)
b
(kNm) (kN)

End 107 589 2.12 278

1st. interior 123 67.7 236 286

Using the greater value:

!M8 1 28.6 X iO =
0.031
b / 1752 x 30
d2fck

Af x— =

— 0.037 0.071 < 0.45 OK 2.53.4.2(5)
bdfCk
d

A 0.037 x 175 x 30 x io
— — 422 mm2/m
b 460

Use 112 @ 250 mm crs. (452 mm2/m) bottom in column strips

Using the middle strip moment for the first interior span

b = 4.725 — 236 = 2365 m (average panel width)

= 0.45 X 123 X
MSd 106
= 0.026
bd2fk 2365 x 1752 x 30

Afk = X
=
0.031 — 0.059 < 0.45 OK 2.53.4.2(5)
bdfCk
d

A
— = 0.031 x 175 x 30 x iO = 354 mm2/m
b 460

Use T12 @ 300 mm crs. (377 mm2/m) bottom in middle strips

Minimum longitudinal reinforcement, using dmax = 195mm


0.6bd
= iz 0.OOl5bd
fyk
= 0.0015 x 1000 x 195 = 293 mm2/m OK
4.2.1.1.6 Punching 43.4

ColumnB12 (300 mm x 300 mm internal column)


Critical perimeter located at 1.5d from face of column. 4.3.4.1(3)
Figure 4.16
d = 185 mm (average)

For a rectangular column/wall check geometry 43.4.2.1(1)

Perimeter = 4 x 300 = 1200 mm 11d = 2035 mm .. OK

length = 1 2 OK
breadth

Hence

u = 2ir x 1.5 x 185 + 1200 = 2944 mm Figure 4.18

= 444.7 kN
VSd

Note: No reduction in this value has been taken.

The applied shear per unit length: 43.43(4)

VSd
=
v
—--—
u
where internal column = 1.15 Eqn 4.50
Figure 4.21

vSd = 444.7 x iO x 1.15


= 174N/mm
2944

Shear resistance withoutlinks 43.4.5.1

= +
VRd1 rRdk(l.2 4Op1)d Eqn 4.56

= 034 N/mm2 Table 4.8


TAd

k = 1.6 — d = 1.6 — 0.185 = 1.415 1.0

p1
= reinforcement ratio within zone 1.5d from column face
(T16 @ 150 mm crs. top each way gives 1340 mm2/m)

P1
= J x
i1 p, i 0.015

1340
= = 0.0072
1000 x 185

Note:
The amount oftensile reinforcementin two perpendicular directions > 0.5%. 4.3.4.1(9)
= 2 (0.0072) > 0.005
Assume p1 + p OK
Therefore

VAd1
= 0.34 x 1.415 x (1.2 + 40 x 0.0072) x 185 = 133 N/mm

= >
VSd
174 N/mm Vf
Therefore shear reinforcement required such that VRd3 VSd 4.3.4.3(3)

Slab depth 200 mm OK 4.3.4.5.2(5)

Check that applied shear does not exceed the maximum section capacity

VRd2
= 2.0 VRd1
= 2.0 x 133 = 266 > 174 N/mm OK NAD
Table 3

= 4447 x iO = 2.0 N/mm2 4.3.4.5.2(1)


Shear stress around column perimeter
1200 x 185

o.9[ç = 4.9 N/mm2 OK NAD 6.4(d)

Design shear reinforcement using EC2 Eqn 4.58 since

VjVRdl = 174/133 1.6 NAD 6.4(d)


f
EAswyd

Rd3 Rdl
u Eqn 4.58

Using type 2 deformed high yield bars as links

fyd = — = = 400 N/mm2 Table 2.3


1.15

Therefore

E A (174 — 133) = 302 mm2

Minimum reinforcement ratio = 100% x value given in EC2 Table 5.5. NAD
Table 3
= 0.0012 by interpolation 5.4.3.3(2)
Pwmin
Table 5.5

area within critical perimeter — column area 43.4.5.2(4)

Denominator =

(300 + 3 x 185)2 —
(1.5 x 185)2(4 — — 3002 = 575000 mm2

Thus A sw,mun
0.0012 x 575000 = 690 mm2

Maximum spacing of links is determined by the ratio vsd/vRd2 where it is 5.4.3.3(4)


assumed that VRd2 is calculated in accordance with EC2 4.3.2.4.3(4). 5.4.2.2(7)
= 174 N/mm
VSd

VRd2
= (2) vcdbw x 0.9d Eqn 4.25
f
= 0.7— —- = 0.55 4.21
Eqn
200

= -
1.5
= 20 N/mm2 2.3.3.2
Table 2.3
Therefore

VRd2
=
(j-) x 0.55 x 20 x 0.9 x 185 = 916 N/mm

VsdIVRd2
= 174/916 = 0.19 0.2

= 0.8d P 300 mm Eqn 5.17


Smax

Longitudinal spacing b 0.75d = 138 mm NAD 6.5(f)


Transverse spacing p d 5.4.2.2(9)

Placing shear links on 100 mm grid in 700 mm square gives 48 links with 44 4.3.4.5.2(2)
inside the critical perimeter.

By inspection the minimum preferred bar size will govern and mild steel links
could be used.

fyk = 250 N/mm2

EA 0.0022 x 575000 = 1265 mm2 Table 5.5

Use 44 R8 links (2220 mm2)

Where necessary the punching shear resistance outside the shear reinforced 4.3.4.5.2(3)
area should be checked by considering further critical perimeters.

Check where
= = 133 N/mm
VSd VAd1

Hence
u =——=V5d13 444.7 x iO x 1.15
= 3845mm
VRd1 133

Therefore distance from column face


= (3845 1200)/2ir = 420 mm = 2.27d

This would be approximately at the next critical perimeter taken to be at a BS 8110


distance 0.75d beyond the previous one. No further shear reinforcement Figure 3.17
required.

Thetensilereinforcement(p16@ 150mm crs.) should extend for afull anchorage


length beyond the perimeter at 420 mm from the column face.
SLABS

ColumnAll (300 mm x 300 mm corner column)


Critical perimeter located at 1.5d from face of column (see Figure 4.18). 4.3.4.1(3)

Figure 4.18 Critical perimeter at corner column

U = 600 + 277r/2 = 1035 mm


VSd
= 0.41 x 156.4 = 64.1 kN

Applied shear per unit length, with /3 = 1.5 4.3.4.3(4)

vSd == V5j3
u
64.1 x
1035
x 1.5
= 93N/mm
Figure 4.21
Eqn 4.50

Reinforcement within zone 1.5d from column face is T16 @ 150 mm crs. top
each way (see Figure 4.19).

300 277
t.u '1

Figure 4.19 Corner column detail

VAd1
= 133 N/mm (as for column B/2)

VRd1
> VSd

Therefore no shear reinforcement required I 4.3.43(2)


SLABS

ColumnA/2 (300 mm x 300 mm edge column)


Critical perimeter located at 1.5d from face of column.

u = 900 + 277T = 1770 mm

V = 156.4 kN

Appliedshear per unit length, with 3 = 1.4 Figure 4.21

vSd = = 156.4 x iO x 1.4 = 124 N/mm Eqn 4.50


u 1770

= 133 N/mm (as for column 6/2)


VAd1

VAd1
>
Therefore no shear reinforcement required 43.43(2)

4.2.1.1.7 Deflection

Control by limiting span/effective depth ratio using NAD Table 7. 4.43.2

For flatslabs the checkshould be carried out on thebasis ofthelongerspan. 4.43.2(5)(d)

Forspan < 8.5 m, no amendmentto basic span/effectivedepth ratio isrequired. 4.4.3.2(3)

Note 2 to NAD Table 7 states that modifications to the tabulated values for
nominally reinforced concrete should not be carried out to take into account
service stresses in the steel (refer to EC2: Clause 4.4.3.2(4)). However it is
assumed that correction ought to be carried out for 0.15% p < 0.5% but
that the resulting values should not exceed those tabulated in the NAD for
nominally reinforced concrete.

NADTable 7 gives basic span/effectivedepth ratios which are assumed to be 4.4.a2(4)


based on = 400 N/mm2.

when
= 460 N/mm2 and Areq =
Aspr

400 A
Modification factor = — x s,req = 0.87
Aprj
Basic span/effectivedepth ratios for flat slabs are NAD
Table 7
lightly stressed (p = 0.5%) = 30 . (e)
nominally reinforced (p = 0.15%) = 41

Span reinforcement is typicallyT12 @ 250 mm crs. (452 mm2/m)


100A = 100 x 452 = 0.26%
bd 1000 x 175
By interpolation (p = 0.26%), basic span/effectivedepth ratio = 37.5

= 5200 =
max span
29.7 < 37.5 x 0.87 = 32.6 OK
d mm
175

4.2.1.1.8 Crack control

Use method without direct calculation. 4.4.23

Estimateservicestress, a, under quasi-permanent loads as follows: 4.4.23(3)

Gk + = + 03K = 6.4 + 03 x 5 = 7.9 kN/m 23.4


Eqn 2.9(c)
Ratio of quasi-permanent to ultimate design loads = 7.9/16.2 = 0.49 NAD
Table 1
Therefore
A A
a = 0.49 xI x < 200
A Asprov
prov

Limit bar size using EC2 Table 4.11 or bar spacing using EC2 Table 4.12. The
relevant limits are shown in Table 43.

Table 4.3 Crack control limits

1.0 08
Steel stress (N/mm2) 200 160

Bar size (mm) 25 32 Table 4.11


Bar spacing (mm) 250 300 Table 4.12

Maximum bar size used is less than 25 mm throughout OK

Check minimum reinforcement requirement 4.4.23(2)


A2 kkfc•iAcua Eqn 4.78
A
A =—-
2

as = 100% x fyk = 460 N/mm2

1ct,eff
= minimum value suggested, 3 N/mm2

k = 0.4, k= 0.8

Therefore
AC
A 0.4 x 0.8 x 3 x = 0.001 AC
2x460
< 0.0015 bd (minimum flexural steel) OK
SLABS

4.2.1.1.9 Detailing

Considercombined requirementsfor flexure/shearand for punching fortop steel


over supports.

ColumnB/2
For flexure/shearbars should extend for a distance d + 1net z 2d beyond the 5.4.2.1.3
point at which they are no longer needed (a1 = d = shift in moment (1)&(2)
diagram). Figure 5.11

=
- x —5L where f = 400 N/mm2
5.4.3.2.1(1)
Eqn 5.3

For h 250 mm bond conditions are good and Figure 5.1


= 3.0 N/mm2 Table 5.3

Therefore

b
400
=—x— = 33
As.req
5.23.4.1
net Olb
Eqn 5.4
Asreq
For straight bars = 1.0 and if = 1.0
Apr,
= = 534 mm for 116 bars, say 550 mm.
net
Curtail alternate bars as shown in Figure 4.20.

Alternate bars
curtailed at 1
and 2

N, 2

0•5 0

I571 ,,j..5711

Figure 4.20 Curtailment diagram


SIJBS

Check that bars are anchored past relevant critical punching perimeter.
Earlier calculation required column strip reinforcement to extend beyond a
perimeter 420 mm from column face i.e. 570 mm from grid. It is assumed
sufficient to provide an anchorage 1flet beyond this perimeter. Inspection of
Figure 4.20 shows that this is satisfied.

4.2.1.2 Design example of a flat slab with column heads


The previousexamplewill be used with column heads introducedatthe internal
columnsto avoid the need for shear reinforcement.
The rest of the design is unaffected by the change.

4.2.1.2.1 Punching at column B/2 (300 mm x 300 mm internal column)


In the previous example it was found that VSd = VRd1
at 420 mm from the
column face where u = 3845 mm.

Provide a column head such that 1H


= l.5hH (see Figure 4.21). Figure 4.22

dcrjt

V .1

300
IIH

Figure 4.21 Slab with column head

For a circular column head, assumethat EC2 Equation 4.51 applies to the case 4.3.4.4(1)
where 'H = l.ShH.
Note:
It is suggested that EC2 Equation 4.55 should read dcrit = l.5dH + 05lç
which reduces to the same as Equation 4.51 when 'H = l.5hH.
Assume an effective column diameter, 1 = 300 mm
To avoid shear reinforcement:

27rdt 3845 mm
dcrit 612mm
'H 612 — 1.5d —
0.51
= 612 —
1.5(185) — 150 = 185 mm Eqn 4.51
SLABS

hH —
185
= 123 mm say 125 mm
1.5

+ = 670mm
21H

Circular column head 125 mm below slab and 670 mm diameter is


sufficient to avoid shear reinforcement

If a square column head is preferred, 11 = 12


= + 21H

d = 1.5d + 0.561(11 12) 1.5d + 0.691 Eqn 4.52

= 1.5d + 0.561 +

To avoid shear reinforcement

d 612mm

(612 — 1 .5d —
0.56l)
1.12

= —— (612 — 1.5 x 185 — 0.56 x 300) = 149 mm


1.12

hH >—=

149
1.5
100mm

+ 21H
= 600mm

Square column head 100 mm below slab and 600 mm wide is


sufficient to avoid shear reinforcement

4.2.2 Flat slabs in laterally loaded frames


In the following example, the structure used in Section 4.2.1 is considered to
be unbraced in the North—Southdirection.

4.2.2.1 Design example of an unbraced flat slab frame


Thisexample considers only theanalysis of the frame on grid B, consisting of
three upperstoreys plus a lightweight roofstructure,as shown in Figures 4.22
and 4.23.
SLABS

425m 52m

t.2
52 m

3-

Figure 4.22 Plan of structure

3 Sm

3 Sm

3-5m

3 Sm

77 zI,-

Figure 4.23 Frame on grid B

4.2.2.1.1 Design loads

Office floors
Dead load = 6.4 kN/m2
Imposed load = 5.0 kN/m2
Roof imparts load to columnsB/i and B/5
Dead load = 20 kN
Imposed load = 30 kN
SLABS

Assume characteristic wind load = 1.0 kN/m2

This is 90% of the value obtained from CP3: Chapter V: Part 2(11). NAD 4(c)
Note:
The distribution of horizontal load between eachframe is determined by their
relative stiffness.

4.2.2.1.2 Frame classification


Determine whether sway frame or non-swayframe. 43.533
Check slenderness ratio of columns in the frame.
A calculation is required for those columns that resist more than 0.7 of the A.3.2
mean axial load, NSdm at any level. Service loads are used throughout (i.e. A.3.2(3)
= 1.0).
It is also assumed that these are vertical loads without anylateral loads applied. Figure A3.4

7FFV
NSd,m —
n
F = E all vertical loads at given level (under service condition) A.3.2(1)

n = Numberof columns

Consider a simple analytical model of the top floor to determine columns


concerned as shown in Figure 4.24.

SOkN 5OkN

wkN/m 11

P2 P3 P2 R

Figure 4.24 Load arrangement at third floor

w = 11.4 kN/m2 x loaded width


= 11.4 x 5.2 (determined in Section 4.2.1.1) = 593 kN/m
= 3 x 593 x 4.25/8 + 50 = 145 kN
R2
= 5 x 593 x 4.25/8 + (593 x 5.2/2) = 312 kN
R3
= 59.3 x 5.2 = 308 kN

NSd,m =
100 + (18.9 x 59.3) = 244 kN
5

0.7Nsd,m= 171 kN >R = 1


145 kN

Therefore slenderness of internal columns only needs to be checked.


Clearly, this will normally be the case for multi-bay frames unless the edge
columns carry large cladding loads.
X = 101i
where 43.53.5(2)

InnI
=
JII =
A
= 86.6 mm

For a horizontally loaded flat slab framedetermine the stiffnesses of the frame
and thus the effective lengths of the columns using half the slab stiffness.
Consider the centre column from foundation to first floor.
El oI d
C C
= ; Ecm assumed constant 4.3.5.3.5(1)
kA
EOJbIleff Eqn 4.60

ICCI
=
12
= 0.675 x i0 mm4
= 4725 x 225 = 2.24 x iO mm4
2x 12
= 3500 mm
1
eff
= 5200 mm 2.5.2.2.2
a = 1.0

Therefore
kA —
— 2(0.675 x 10/3500) —
— 05
2(2.24 x
10/5200)

kB
= 0° (pinned at foundation)

Assuming that EC2 Figure 4.27(b) is appropriate to determine fi


= = 2.15 x 3500 = 7500 mm
10 f3l Figure 4.27

Hence
X = 7500/86.6 = 87

For non-swayframes A3.2(3)

X = z 25 43.5.3.5(2)

= N5

Ultimate design load for centre column, ignoring self-weight of column.

Nsd
= 3 x 16.2 x 5.22 = 1314 kN

= = — 30 = 20 N/mm2 Eqn 4.4


1.5 Table 2.3
Therefore
1314 x iO =
v = 0.73
3002 x 20
= = 17.6 . 25 4.3.5.3.5(2)

Since X > 25 the structure is classified as è sway frame


SLABS

Theanalysisand designwould need to follow the requirements of EC2 Clause


A3.5 to take into account the sway effects.
EC2 Clause 2.53.4.2(4)does not generally allow redistribution in sway frames.
The method above is included to demonstrate its complexity. However, note
theomission of guidance in EC2 Clause A3.2(3) on which nomogram to use
in EC2 Figure 4.27.
As an alternativemeans ofdetermining the frame classification, it is suggested 43.523(3)
that an analysis as detailed in BS 5950(14) is used to demonstrate thatthe EC2 BS 5950:
requirements are met for non-sway frames. Part 1
5.13
Assuming in the above examplethat the columnsizes are increased suchthat
a non-swayframeresults, the following load cases need to be considered for
design.
These same load cases would also be applicable to sway frames where
amplified horizontal loads are introduced to take account ofthe sway induced
forces, complyingwith EC2 Clause A3.1(7) (b).

4.2.2.1.3 Load cases and combinations 2.5.1.2

With the rigorous approach the design values are given by 23.2.2 P(2)

E7G Gk + O,1k.1 + E Eqn 2.7(a)


I>1

where

0k.1
= primary variable load, 0k2 = secondary variable load
= 0.7 generally NAD
Table 1
The values are given in EC2 Table 2.2.
Load cases with two variable actions (imposed and wind) are:

(a) Imposed load as primary load


l35Gk + tSQk + l.O5Wk
(b) Wind load as primary load
l3SGk ÷ tOSQk + l.5Wk
In addition, load cases with only one variable action are:

(c) Dead load plus wind


l.OGk (favourable) + l.SWk
l3SGk (unfavourable) + l.5Wk
(d) Dead load plus imposed
l3SGk + tSQk

For non-sensitivestructures it is sufficient to consider the load cases (a) and NAD 6.2(e)
(b) above withoutpatterning the imposed loads. 2.5.1.2P(1)
The NADallows the useof EC2 Equation 2.8(b) to give a single imposed and
wind load case:

l.3SGk + 135k (all spans) + l.35Wk


Final load combinations for the example given here
0) 1350k + 1•5k (as Section 4.2.1.13)
(ii) l.OGk + l.5Wk (single load case)
(iii) l.35Gk + l.SWk (single load case)
(iv) l.3SGk + 135k + l.3SWk (single load case)

4.2.2.1.4 Imperfections 2.5.13(4)


Consider the structure to be inclined at angle
1
= 0.005 radians Eqn 2.10
ioop NAD
Table 3
1 = frame height = 10.5 m

= 1-1. i +1-
n
where n = number of columns = 5 Eqn 2.11

= 0.78

= cxp = 0.78 x 0.005 = 0.0039 radians


Vd
Take accountof imperfections using equivalent horizontal force at each floor. 2.5.13(6)
= YVVd
iH1
= total load on frame on floor

Using l.35Gk + on each span gives

Eti
= (18.9 x 5.2) x 16.2 = 1592 kN

Therefore
= 1592 x 0.0039 = 6.2 kN per floor

Assuming the frame by virtue of its relativestiffness picks up 4.725 m width of


wind load:

Wk
= (4.725 x 3.5) x 1.0 = 16.5 kN per floor

Therefore the effects of imperfections are smaller than the effects of 2.5.1.3(8)
design horizontal loads and their influence may be ignored in load
combinations (ii) to (iv).

4.2.2.1.5 Design

The design of the slab will be as described in Section 4.2.1.1.


I
5 COLUMNS
5.1 Introduction
Thedesign of column sectionsfrom firstprinciples using the strain compatibility
method is covered.
Examples of slender column design are also presented to extend the single
example given in Section 2.

5.2 Capacity check of a section by strain compatibility

5.2.1 Introduction
Two examples are considered:
1. Where the neutral axis at ultimate limit state lies within the section; and
2. Where the neutral axis at ultimate limit state lies outside the section.
The firstof theseis very simple whilethe algebra necessary for the second is
more complex. For convenience, the same section will be used for both
examples. This is shown in Figure 5.1.
Assume
fyk = 460 N/mm2 and fck = 30 N/mm2

350

2Jf
_L
2132
- 500

4125
k 30
tyk 460 "j _k..

Figure 5.1 Column section

5.2.2 Example 1
Calculatethe moment thatthe section can sustainwhencombined with an axial
load of 2750 kN.

5.2.2.1 Basic method

If the neutral axis is within the section, thecompressiveforce generated by the 4.2.133
concrete at ultimate limit state is given by Figure 4.2

=
NRdC O.459fCkbx
and the moment by
= —
0.416x)
MAdC NRdC(h/2

The strain at the more compressed face is taken as 0.0035


The procedure adopted is as follows:

(1) Assume a value for x

(2) Calculate NRdC

(3) Calculate the strain at each steel level


(4) Calculate force generated by reinforcement (NRdS)

(5) NRd
= + NRdS
(6) If NRd is not close enough to 2750 kN, modify the value of x and return
to step (2)
(7) If NRd is approximately 2750 kN, calculate MRdC and MRdS
(8) MRd
= MRdC + MRdS

The design yield strain for the reinforcement


460
= = 0.002
1.15 x 200000

5.2.2.2 First iteration

Assumed value for x is 250 mm

NRdC
= 0.459 x 30 x 350 x 250/1000 = 1205 kN

0.0035
stOp
x 200 = 0.0028
250

Strain > 0.002; therefore f = 400 N/mm2

NRdS1
= 2x 804 x 400/1000 = 643 kN

= 0 and NRdS2 = 0
cmid

€sbot
= — therefore = —400 N/mm2

NRdS3
—2 x 491 x 400/1000 = —393 kN

Hence
= 1205 + 643 — 393 = 1455 kN
NRd

This is considerably less than 2750 kN, hence x must be increased.

= 250 x 2750
Try new valuefor x = 473 mm
1455
COLUIA4S

5.2.2.3 Second iteration

NRdC
= 0.459 x 30 x 350 x 473/1000 = 2289 kN

= 643 kN as before
NRdSI

0.0035
(473 —
250) = 0.00165
smid
473

mid
= 0.00165 x 200000 = 330 N/mm2

NRdS2
= 330 x 2 x 491/1000 = 324 kN

= 0.0035 (473 —
450) = 0.00017
€sbot
473

fS = 0.00017 x 200000 = 34 N/mm2

= 33 kN
NRd = 34 x 2 x 491/1000

Hence

NRd
= 2289 + 643 + 324 + 33 = 3289 kN

This is too large, hence x should be reduced. Linear interpolation gives

= 250 + 2750 —
1455\ = 407 mm
(473 — 250)

(3289 1455)

5.2.2.4 Third iteration

NRdC
= 0.459 x 30 x 350 x 407/1000 = 1961 kN

= 643 kN as before
NAdS1

0.0035
mid = (407 — 250) = 0.00135
407

= 270 N/mm2 and NRd = 265 kN

0.0035
= (407— 450) = —0.00037
407

f = —74 N/mm2 and NRd = —73 kN

Hence
NRd
= 1961 + 643 + 265 — 73 = 2796 kN

This is within 2% of the given axial load of 2750 kN OK


5.2.2.5 Moment

MRdC
= 1961 x (250 — 0.416 x 407)/1000 = 158.2 kNm

MAd
= 643 x 0.2 = 12&6 kNm

= 0
MRdS2

MRd = 73 x 0.2 = 14.6 kNm

158.2 + 128.6 + 14.6 = 301.4 kNm


(

5.2.3 Example 2
Calculate the moment and axial force that can be sustainedby the sectionwhere
the neutral axis depth is 600 mm.

Note:
The example has been given in this way so that repeated iterations are not
necessary.These would not provide any new information to the reader.

5.2.3.1 Basic method


When the neutral axis is outside the section the ultimate compressive strain is
less than 0.0035 and is given by:


0.002x 0.002 x 600 = 0.0031 4.3.1.2(1)
U
x — 3 h/7 600 — 3 x 500/7 (viii) &
Figure 4.11
The conditions in the section are shown in Figure 5.2.

E 0•0031 085 30I15


(4 I.I [.4

• •


600

/
"I
Strain
—/
Stress in concrete

Figure 5.2 Conditions in section for Example 2


COLUIMtS

Thetechnique adopted for the calculation of NRdC and MRdC is to calculate the
effect ofthe stress block on a depth of 600 mm nd then dduct the influence
of the part lying outside the section.

5.2.3.2 Concrete forces and moments


The equations for the full stress block are:
= 05667(1 —
N'RdC 3/3)bxfCk

M'Rd,c = cN'Rd,c

where
c = h/2 — x(j32 — + 4 6); and

12 43

f3 =
O.OO2/E

Note:
It will be found that, if = 0.0035,theseequations give the values used in
the first example.
The equations for the force and moment produced by the part of the stress
block lying outside the section are

= 0.5667a(1 —
a13)(x — h)bfk

where

c' = — x — h12 — (x — h) (8 — 3a)


12 — 4a

a =

= strain at bottom of section

From the strain diagram, b = 0.00051

Hence
a = 0.255 and = 0.645

N'RdC
= 0.5667(1 — 0.645/3) x 350 x 600 x 30/1000 = 2802 kN
c = 250— 600(0.6452
— 4 x 0.645 + 6) = 5.67mm
12 — 4 x 0.645
Hence

M'RdC
= 5.67 x 2802/1000 = 15.9 kNm

= 0.5667 x 0.255(1—0.255/3)(600—500)350 x 30/1000 = 139 kN


— 500)(8 — 3 x 0.255) =
= — 600 — 250 — (600 —284 mm
12 — 4 x 0.255
COLUMNS

MRdC = —139 x 284/1000 = —39.4 kNm

Hence

NRd,c = 2802 — 139 = 2663 kN

MRd,c = 15.9 + 39.4 = 553 kNm

5.2.3.3 Steel forces and moments

Strain in upper layer of bars = x 550 = 0.0028


600

This is > 0.002; hence = 400 N/mm2

NRd,sl = 643kN

MRd.sl = 643 x 0.2 = 128 kNm

0.0031
Strain in middle layer of bars = x 350 = 0.00181
600

Hence
= 362 N/mm2
f8

NRd = 355 kN, MRd = 0


0.0031
Strain in bottom layer of bars = x 150 = 0.000775
600
Hence
= 155 N/mm2

NRd = 152 kN

MRd = —30.4 kNm

NRd
= 2663 + 643 + 355 + 152 = 3813 kN
= 553 + 128 — 30.4 = 153 kNm
MRd

5,3 Biaxial bending capacity of a section


5.3.1 General
To carry out a rigorous check of a section for biaxial bending by hand is
verytedious but possible if the simplified rectangular stress block is used.
It is not suggestedthattheexamplegiven here is a normal design procedure
for commonuse but it could be employed in special circumstances.There
would be no difficultyin developing an interactivecomputer programto carry
out design, in this way, by trial and error.
COLUMNS

5.3.2 Problem
Demonstratethat the section shown in Figure 5.3 can carry ultimate design
moments of 540 and 320 kNm about the two principal axes in combination
with an axial loadof 3000 kN. Thecharacteristic strength of the reinforcement
is 460 N/mm2 and the concrete strength is 30 N/mm2.

500
I
H

2038mm2

500

• •
Ti,I
Figure 5.3 Column section

5.3.3 Basic method 4.2.1.33(12)

The conditions in the section are shown in Figure 5.4.

Stress in concrete

Figure 5.4 Conditions in section

Note: NAD
It is assumed that EC21 Section 4.2.133(12) implies that a should be taken Table 3
as 0.8 for btaxial bending butthe NAD1 would allow 0.85.
It can be seen from the diagram that the axial force provided by the concrete
is given by
NC = 0.8bxf
ccd
The moments about the centroidof the concrete section are given by
Mcx =NR
c

where
h 1 1! btane 1
x = ———'lx — -tane2 + —
2 2XL 2 I btane(x 6 )j

M 0.8fCdb3tane
cy
12

These equations are valid where x' < h. When x' > h, rather simpler
equations can be derived.
The location of the reinforcement is shown in Figure 5.5.

27 d

H
14
— — —— — — —
3

Figure 5.5 Location of 'reinforcement


The stress in a bar is given by

f
S
= (200000 x
0.0035)
. —
— ZP yd

where
z = I—c -+
I (b/2 —
d')tanO — cose
0.8 db}

db
= depth from top faceof section to bar considered. This will be
d' for top bars and h — d' for bottom bars.
The force in each bar is f5A5 and the moments are obtained by multiplying the
forces by the distance of the bars from the centroid of the concrete section.
Dimensions to the right or upwards are taken as positive.
The total moments and forces carried by the section are the sum of thesteel
and concrete contributions.
The correct values of x and e have to be found by iteration.

5.3.4 Initial data

f =—-=-=
1.5 1.5
2ONImm2
COLUIAI4S

Stress over upper 0.8 of the depth of the compression zone


= °8Cd = 16 N/mm2
f
fyd = — = 400N/mm2
1.15

As a first estimate of e, assume that the neutral axis is perpendicular to the


direction of principal bending. This gives

8 = tan-1 = tan1O.59
540

Try 8 = 30° which gives


tan8 = 0.58 and cos8 = 0.87

The limiting value of x is where x' =h


Hence
X = h— (b/2)tane
= 500 — 250 x 0.58 = 355 mm
This gives
355 x500 x 16
N = 2840 kN

The reinforcement will increase this value significantly, hence x0 will be less
= 300 mm.
than 355 mm. Try x
5.3.5 Calculation
The simplest way to carry out the calculation is by writing the equations into
x
a spreadsheet and then adjusting the values of and 0 until the correctaxial
load and ratio MIM is obtained. The resulting output for the final iteration is
given below. It will be seen that the result is satisfactory.

Section breadth (b) 500


Overall depth (h) 500
Embedment (ci') 50
Steel area 8152

Concrete strength 30 Average stress 16


Steel strength 460 Design stress 400

Estimateof angle 34.2°


(radians) 05969026
Estimateof x, 282.5 Neutral axis depth 432.58

Tan (angle) 0.6795993 Lever arm (x) 91.72


Cos (angle) 0.8270806

Barna z f F M
1 1329 22378 456.07 91.21 —91.21
2 363.13 400.00 815.20 1604 16304
3 32.29 52.26 106.50 —21.30 21.30
4 —192.54 —311.57 —634.97 126.99 12699

Steel totals 742.80 356.95 220.12


Concrete 2260.00 207.29 11327
Design resistances N
3002.80
M
567.23
M
333.39
MJM
1.701432
5.4 Braced slender column
5.4.1 General
Thecalculation ofthe effectivelength of columns has been adequately covered
in Section 2. In the following example, the effective length is assumed.

5,4.2 Problem
Calculatethe reinforcementrequired in a400 mm x 400 mm column subjected
toa design axial load of 2500 kN combined with thefirst order bending moments
shown in Figure 5.6.
The effective length has been calculated as 8 m. 43.5.3.5

M02 75 kNm

M01 30 kNm

Figure 5.6 First order moments

Assume
= 460 N/mm2 and Ck = 30 N/mm2

5.4.3 Slenderness ratio 43.53.2

X = =
101i (l0/h).[.

=
(8800I400)J = 76.2

5.4.4 Design requirements for slenderness


Minimum slenderness ratio = greater of 25 or 15IJ 43.5.3.5(2)

= Nsd/(ACfCd)

= 2500 x 10/(400 x 400 x 30/1.5) = 0.78

Hence 15/fr 17.0 < 25


Therefore minimum slenderness ratio = 25

Slenderness ratio>25, therefore column is slender I


COLUMNS

Critical slenderness ratio Xcrjt = 25(2 — 4.3.5.5.3(2)


e01/e02)

e01
= —30 x 106/(2500 x 10) = —12 mm

e2 = 75 x 106/(2500 x 10) = 30 mm
Hence
= 25(2 + 12/30) = 60

Slenderness ratio > therefore design is required for second order


effects

5.4.5 Eccentricities
Additional eccentricity 43.5.4(3)

ea
= lI2
v = 1/200 2.5.12(4)
Eqn 2.10
ea
= 8800/400 = 22 mm

Equivalent first order eccentricity is greater of 4.3.5.6.2

0.6e2 + 0.4e01 = 0.6 x 30 — 0.4 x 12 = 13.2 mm or

0.4e02
= 0.4 x 30 = 12.0 mm

Hence

ee
= 13.2 mm

Ultimate curvature, hr =
2K2€1j0.9d 4.3.5.6.3(5)
= 400 Eqn 4.72
Assume d — 60 = 340 mm
2x 460 x K2
hr = = 13.07K2 x 106 radians
200000 x 1.15 x 0.9 x 340
Second order eccentricity

e2
= 0.1 K1l2(1Ir) Eqn 4.69

1<1
= 1
Eqn 4.71
Hence

e2
= 88002 x 13.07 x iO 1<2
= 101.2 <2 mm

Total eccentricity 43.5.6.2(1)


= C + + = 13.2 + 22 + mm Eqn 4.65
ea 101.21<2
COU)tt4S

5.4.6 Iterative calculation to establish K2 and hence A


Make initial assumption of 1<2 = 1

This gives

= 136.4 mm
ot
N/bhck = 2500 x l0I(400 x 400 x 30) = 0.52

M/bh2fk= 136.4 x 2500 x l0/(400 x 30) = 0.178

d'/h = 60/400 = 0.15

Using chart in Section 13, Figure 13.2(c) gives 1<2


= 0.69

Take this modified value of 1<2 to recalculate ot


Therefore

e0 = 13.2 + 22 + 101.2 x 0.69 = 105.0 mm

Hence
= 0.137
M/bh2fCk

This reducesK2 to 0.62 and M/bh2fck to 0.128

Try reduction of 1<2 to 0.60

Thisgives M/bh2fck = 0.125 which corresponds to 1<2 = 0.60 in the chart.

Hence
Af
—-- = 038
bhfCk

= 3965 mm2
A9

Use 4132 and 2125 (4200 mm2)

5.5 Slender column with biaxial bending


5.5.1 Genera'
This example has bending dominantly about one axis and is designed to
illustrate the application of EC2 Section 4.3.5.6.4.
There is some ambiguityin the drafting of this Section but the interpretation
below seems reasonable.

5.5.2 Problem
Design a 400 mm square column, having an effective length of 8 m in both
directions,to withstandthe design ultimatefirstorder momentsshown in Figures
5.7 and 5.8 combined with adesign axial load of 2000 kN. The concrete strength
class is C30/37 and the reinforcement has a characteristic strength of
460 N/mm2.
COLUMNS

X = (8000/400)
Assume d'Ih =
,j 0.15
= 693 in both directions

1102 53 kNm

7
Figure 5.7 First order moments Figure 5.8 First order moments
in z direction in y direction

5.5.3 Assumptions for design of section


It is assumed that and in EC2 Section 4.3.5.6.4 are the first order
eccentricities at the critical section. They will, therefore, be effective values as
defined by Eqns 4.66 and 4.67 in EC2 Section 4.3.5.6.2.

Since

e01
= 0 43.5.6.2
Eqn 4.66
=
ee 0.6e02

Hence
0.6 x 334 x iO =
e 2000
100mm

e —
0.6x53x 10 =
16mm
2000

(eJb)/(e/h)
= = 0.16 < 0.2 4.3.5.6.4
Eqn 4.75

Hence separate checks for the two axes are permissible


= 100/400 = 0.25 > 0.2
eIh 43.5.6.4(3)

A reducedvalue ofh, therefore, must be used in carrying out acheck for bending
in the y direction.
The additional eccentricity in the z direction is

0.5l/200 = 20 mm

Hence
ez +eaz = 120mm

LJ
It is assumed that the intention of EC2 Section 43.5.6.4(3) is that, using the
reduced section, the applied load should just give zero stress at the least
stressed face, i.e. as shown in Figure 5.9.

!ez+eaz I
z

®h
I
ActuaL section

-I
ELastic stress distribution
I

Reduced section

ELastic stress distribution


on reduced section

Figure 5.9 Assumption for check in the y direction

It will be seen that the point of application of the load must lie on the edge
of the middle third of the reduced section.
Hence
h' = 3(h12 — e — e)
= 3(200 — 120) = 240 mm

5.5.4 Checkfor bending in z direction


This check uses the full section dimensions

1 2x460x106K2
— = = 13.07K2 x 10-6 4.a5.63
r 1.15 x 0.9 x 340 x 0.2
Eqn 4.72
COLUMNS

Hence
= 0.1 x 82 x 106 x 13.07K2 x 10-6 83.7K2 mm Eqn 4.69

(Since X > 35, K = 1 in EC2 Eqn 4.69)

etot
= 100 + 20 + 83.7K2mm 43.5.6.2
Eqn 4.65
As in the previous example, iterate using the design chart in Section 13 Figure
13.2(c) to find the appropriate value for K2 and hence ASç/bhfCk, starting with
= 1. This procedure results in
= 0.8
1<2

= 0.194
M/bh2fck

= 0.417
Nbhfck

Hence
f Ibhfck=
Asyk 0.55

A = 0.55 x 4002 x 30/460 = 5739 mm2

Use 12125 (5890 mm2)

5.5.5 Check for bending in y direction


The assumed section is shown in Figure 5.10.

240
kI y

M0 32 kNm

z_
Figure 5.10 Reduced section for check in y direction

e = 16mm
oy

eay
=
e = 20mm

e2y
= e2 = 83.71(2 mm

Hence

ot = 36 + 83.71(2 mm

= x2000 =
N/bhfck 0.694
240x400x30
COLUMNS

0.694 x (36 + 83.7K)


Mlbh2ck = = 0.0625 + 0.145K2
400

Using the same design chart as before, iterate


f
Asyk/bhfck. This gives
to obtain 2 and hence
= 0.47
1(2

= 0.13
M/bh2fCk

Hence

= 0.57
ASck/bhfCk

AS
= 0.57 x 240 x 400 x 30/460 = 3569 mm2

This is less than required for z direction bending OK


An appropriate arrangement of reinforcement is shown in Figure 5.11.

v.— ri wi

tI LI 1
Figure 5.11 Arrangement of reinforcement

5.6 Classification of structure


5.6.1 Introduction
EC2 provides more detailed rules than BS 8110(2) for decidingwhetheror not
a structure is braced or unbraced, or sway or non-sway. While it will normally
be obvious by inspection how a structure should be classified (for example,
with shear walls it will be braced and non-sway),there may be cases where
direct calculationcouldgive an advantage.Thestructurein the examplefollowing
is chosen to illustratethe workings of EC2 in this area. It is entirely hypothetical
and not necessarily practical.

5.6.2 Problem
Establishan appropriate design strategy forthe columns in the structure shown
in Figures 5.12 and 5.13. The applied vertical loadsin the lowest storey are set
out in Table 5.1.

I.-I
OLM4S

a dD.*—300x300 a

750 x 450
=-—— 400 x 300 400 x 300 —'.-

d D.*— 300 x 300

Figure 5.12 General arrangement of columns

: =: :
35m

: =: :

: =: :
35m

35m

3-5m

_7_7 -; 7 7 // ,? 7 -, / / 7 / / -, _7 7

Figure 5.13 Cross-section of structure

Table 5.1 Columnsizes and loads

column dimension 2nd moment of area


(mm) (mm x 1O) Service Ultimate
Column load load
type y x ) T (kN) (kN)

a 300 400 900 1600 1900 2680


b 300 400 900 1600 2100 2960
c 750 450 15820 5695 3300 4660
d 300 300 675 675 1200 1700

InI
CO%MA%4S

5.6.3 Check if structure can be considered as braced with the


750 x 450 columns forming the bracing elements
To be considered as braced, the bracing elements must be sufficiently stiff to 4.3.53.2(1)
attract90% ofthehorizontal load. Since all columnsare thesame length, this
will be so if

EIb > 0.9

5.6.3.1 y direction
EI,racing 4 X 15820 =

— 0904
Ei0 6x900+4x15820+2x675
Hence the four 750 x 450 columns can be treated as bracing
elements carrying the total horizontal loads and columnstype a, b and
d can be designed as braced in the y direction

5.6.3.2 x direction

Elbracing —
4 X 5695
— —
— 068
6x 1600 + 4 x 5695 + 2 x 675

Structure cannot be considered as braced in x direction

5.6.4 Check if structure can be considered as non-sway


Classificationof structures as sway or non-swayis covered in EC2 Appendix3.

5.6.4.1 y direction
For braced structures of four or more storeys,the frame can be classified as
non-sway if

htotf F/E I 0.6 A3. 2


EqnA3.2
where

h0 = height of frame in metres = 4x 3.5 = 14 m


= sum of atl vertical loads taking 'y, = 1

= 4x1900+2x2100+4x3300+2x1200=27400kN
Ecm I = sum of the stiffnesses of the bracing elements.

Taking Ecm as 32000 N/mm2 3.1.2.5.2


Table 3.2
El = 4x 15820 x 32000 x 106 Nmm2

= 2024960 x io Nmm2
COLUMNS

Hence

F 27400 x io
fEl / /mm = 0.000116 / mm = 0.116 I m
'J 2024960 x iO

Note:
Sincethe height of the building is stated to be in metres, it seems reasonable
to assume that m unitsshould be usedfor the otherfactors, thoughthis is not
stated in EC2.
Hence
IF
__.!. = 14 x = 1.62 >
E cmIc
0.116 0.6

Therefore the bracing structure is a sway frame in the y direction

5.6.4.2 x direction
For frames without bracing elements, if X < greater of 25 or 15IJ for all A.3.2(3)
elements carryingmore than 70% of the mean axial force then the structure
may be considered as non-sway.

Mean axial force = sum of ultimate column loads


no. of columns

= 4x2680+2x2960+4x4660+2x 1700
NSd
12

= 38680/12 = 3223 kN
= 2256 kN
7O%NSd

Columns type d carry less than this and are therefore ignored.
Assume effective length of 400 x 300 columns is 0.8 x 3.5 = 2.8 m
(i.e. value appropriate to a non-sway condition).

X = 24.25<25

Therefore structure is non-sway

5.6.5 Discussion
The results obtained in Sections 5.6.4.1 and 5.6.4.2 above are totally illogical
as the structure has been shown to be a sway structure in thestiffer direction
and non-sway in the less stiff direction.
There are two possible areas where the drafting of EC2 is ambiguous and the
wrong interpretation may have been mada
(1) In Eqn A3.2 it is specifically stated that the height should be in metres.
Nothing is stated about the unitsfor ), Fand E. Since the outputfrom
Eqn A.3.2 is non-dimensional, the statement of the units is unnecessary
unless the units for I, F
and Ec are different to that for
and be in N and mm units while
Should Ji,,F
is in m? If this were so, then the
E
structure would be found to be 'braced' by a large margin.
(2) In A.3.2(3) it doesnot state whetherX should be calculated assuming the
columns to be sway or non-sway.In the calculation, the assumption was
made thatthe X was a non-swayvalue. If a swayvalue had been adopted,
the structure would have proved to be a sway frame by a considerable
margin.

Clearly, clarification is required if A.3.2 is to be of any use at all.


It is possible to take this question slightly further and make some estimate at
what the answer should have been.
Considering the y direction, the ultimate curvature of the section of the 750 x
450 columnsis

2x460xK2
— 6.351<2 x 10-6
r 0.2 x 106 x 1.15 x 0.9 x 700
Inspection of the design charts and levels of loading suggest 1<2 is likely to be
about 0.6. Assumingan effective length under sway conditionsoftwice the actual
height gives a deflection of:

(2 x 3.5)2 x
635 x 0.6 = 19 mm
10

Thisisan overestimateofthe actual deflection. It corresponds to an eccentricity


of 19/750 of the section depth or 2.5%. Thismustbe negligible, hence, in the
y direction, the structure must effectively be non-sway.

5.7 Sway structures


5.7.1 Introduction

Although EC2 gives information on how to identify a swaystructure, it does not


give anysimple approach to theirdesign. However,Clause A.3.5.(2) statesthat
"the simplified methods defined in 4.3.5 may be used instead of a refined
analysis, provided that the safety level required is ensured". Clause A.3.5(3)
amplifies this slightly, saying that "simplified methods may be used which
introduce bending moments whichtake account of second order effects
provided the average slenderness ratio in each storey does not exceed
50 or 20/ji
whichever is the greater".

EC2 Section 4.3.5 gives the 'model column' method which is developed only
for non-swaycases, so it is leftto the user to find a suitable method for sway
frames on the basis of the Model Column Method. BS 8110 doesthis, so it is
suggestedthat the provisionsof3.&a7 and3.83.8 of BS 8110: Part 1 are adopted,
butthat the eccentricities are calculated using the equations in EC2.

5.7.2 Problem
Design columns type c in the structure considered in Section 5.6.2 assuming
sway in the x direction. The column loads may be taken from Table 5.1.
Thedesign ultimatefirstorder moments in the columns are as shown in Figure
5.14.

3 has been assessed from EC2 Figure 4.27(b) as 1.6 for all columns.
COLUMNS

Column H0
type kNm

ci 80
b 110
c 176
d 25

Figure 5.14 First order moments

5.7.3 Average slenderness ratio


The slenderness ratios are shown in Table 5.2.

Table 5.2 Slenderness ratios

Column type No. X

a 4 48.5
b 2 48.5
c 4 43.1
d 2 64.7

Mean value =

Since >m < 50, the simplified method may be used. A.3.5(3)

1 21<2 x 460 0.00441<2


r 200000 x 1.15 x 0.9d d
Hence
= (1.6 x
3.5)2
____________
0.0044K2 x 106 = 138001<2
mm
10 d d
1 1
p = 2.5.1.3
iooI 200 Eqn 2.10

This may be multiplied by a Eqn 2.11

Where, with 12 columns


= + 1/12)/2 = 0.736
1(1

Hence
p = 0.00368

ea
= 0.00368 x 1.6 x 3500/2 = 103 mm Eqn 4.61
= + 13800K2/d = e0 + 10.3
e01
+ ea + 13800K2/d mm Eqn 4.65
The total eccentricities are shown in Table 5.3.
COLUtM4S

Table 5.3 Total eccentricities

Column d M e0 N e1
type (mm) (kNm) (mm) (mm)

a 350 80 30 0.744 40.3 + 391<2


b 350 110 37 0.822 47.3 + 391<2
c 400 176 38 0.460 483 + 351<2
d 250 25 15 0.630 25.3 + 55K2

As in the previousexamples, the design chartscanbeused iterativelytoestablish


1<2
and hence 02• This process gives the values shown in Table 5.4.

Table 5.4 Lateral deflections

Column No. of
K2 e2
type (mm) columns

a 0.39 15.2 4
b 0.41 16.0 2
c 0.50 17.5 4
d 0.45 24.8 2

Average deflection = 17.7 mm

All columnswill be assumed to deflect by the average value. The resulting BS 8110
designs are shown in Table 5.5 3.8.3.8

Table 5.5 Summary of designs

Column e M N Vyk A8
type (mTh) bh2ck bh bhfCk (mm2)

a 58.0 0.108 0.744 0.53 4148


b 65.0 0.134 0.822 075 5870
c 66.0 0.067 0.460 0.10 2201
d 43.0 0.090 0.630 0.38 2230
6 WALLS
U
6.1 Introduction
A wall is defined as a vertical load-bearing member with a horizontal length 2.5.2.1(6)
not less than four times its thickness.
Thedesign ofwalls is carried out by considering verticalstrips of thewallacting
as columns.

6.2 Example
Design the lowest level of a 200 mm thick wall in an eight storey building
supporting 250 mm thick solid slabs of 6.0 m spanson each side. The storey
heights of each floor are 35 m, the heightfrom foundation tothefirstfloor being
4.5 m. The wall is fully restrained at foundation level. The buildingis a braced
non-swaystructure.

6.2.1 Design data


Design axial load (Nsd) = 700 kN/m
Design moment at firstfloor = 5 kNm/m
Design moment at foundation = 2.5 kNm/m
Concrete strength class is C30/37. 3.1.2.4
= 30 N/mm2 Table 3.1

6.2.2 Assessment of slenderness


Consider a 1.0 m vertical strip of wall acting as an isolated column.
The effective height of a column = 3l 43.5.3.5(1)
where
= actual height of the column between centres of restraint

9 is a factor depending upon the coefficients kA and kB relating to the


rigidity of restraint at the column ends.

=
I
E °'Ii°'
kA 43.53.5(1)
E 'slab'1eff,slab Eqn 4.60

Assuming a constant modulus of elasticity for the concrete:


JCCI = 1 X 02 = 6.67 x iO m4
12

ab
= 1 x 0.25
12
= 13 x i0 m4

kA = 6.67 x iO +
6.67 x iO I 2x 1.3 x iO =0.78
3.5 I 6

Base of wall is fully restrained.


Therefore 43.5.35(1)
kB = 0.40 which is the minimum value to be used for kA or k.B Figure
4.27(a)
Hence

13
= 0.7

Icol = 4500mm
Therefore

10
= 0.7 x 4500 = 3150 mm

The slenderness ratio X = Ic/I 43.5.3.5(2)


where
I = radius of gyration

x 200
= fY
JA
=
1000
J12x1000x200
= 57.7 mm

Therefore

X =3i5o= 54.6
57.7

Isolated columnsare considered slender where X exceeds the greater of 25


or 15IJi

where
N
= 4.3.53.5(2)

= 700kN

= 1000 x 200 = 200 x i0 mm2


-
A0

= = = 20N/mm
1.5

Therefore
=
x io
700 = 0.175
200 x 10 x 20
Hence
15 15
= =
J0.175

Therefore the wall is slender

6.2.3 Design
The wall may now be designed as an isolated column in accordance with
EC21 Clause 43.5.6 and as illustrated in the example in Section 5.
Although the column or wall has been classifiedas slender, second ordereffects
need not be considered if the slenderness ratio X is less than the critical
slenderness ratio X•.
WALLS

= 25 (2 — 43.5.5.3(2)
e011e02)
Eqn 4.62
where

e1 and e2 are the first order eccentricities at the ends of the member
relating to the axial load.

01
= —
M
ande02 = —
M

'Sd IvSd

Msdl and Msd2 are the first order applied moments.

Therefore

>crit
= 25 (2 —
Msdl/Msd2)

where
<MSd2
MSdl —

These moments must be given their correct algebraic signs in the equation.

In this example:

Xcrit = 25 2 — = 62.5 > 54.6


.

(_-)
5.0

The column or wall should therefore be designed for the following 43.5.53(2)
minimum conditions:

Design axial resistance (NAd) = Eqn 4.63


Nsd

Design resistance moment (MAd) =


Nsd x Eqn 4.64

For this example

MRd = 700 x —-- = 7.0 > 5.0 kNm


20

6.2.4 Reinforcement
The vertical reinforcement should not be less than 0.004A0 or greater than 5.4.7.2(1)
0.04A0.
Half of this reinforcement should be located at each face. 5.4.7.2(2)
The maximum spacing for the vertical bars should not exceed twice the wall 5.4.7.2(3)
thickness or 300 mm.
The area of horizontal reinforcement should be at least 50% of the vertical 5.4.7.3
reinforcement.The bar size should not be less than one quarterofthe vertical (1)—(3)
bar size and the spacing should not exceed 300 mm. The horizontal
reinforcementshould be placed betweenthevertical reinforcementand the wall
face.

=
Link reinforcement is required in walls where the design vertical reinforcement 5.4.7.4(1)
exceeds O.O2A.
In normal buildings it is unlikely that walls will be classified as slender. For
practical considerations they will generally not be lessthan 175 mm thick and
the vertical load intensity will normally be relatively low. Thus the limiting
slenderness ratio given by 15I[ will be high.
In cases where the wall is slender,only slenderness about theminor axis need
be considered. Even in this case it is likely that only the minimum conditions
given in EC2 Clause 4.3.5.5.3(2) Eqns 4.63 and 4.64 will apply.
7 FOUNDATIONS
U
7.1 Ground bearing footings
7.1.1 Pad footing

Designa square padfooting fora400 mm x 400 mm column carrying aservice


load of 1100 kN, 50% of this being imposed load with appropriate live load
reduction. The allowable bearing pressure of the soil is 200 kN/m2.

7.1.1.1 Base size


With 500 mm deep base, resultant bearing pressure
= 200 — 0.5 x 24 = 188 kN/m2
1100
Area of base required = = 5.85 m2
188

Use 2.5 m x 2.5 m x 0.5 m deep base

7.1.1.2 Durability

For components in non-aggressive soil and/or water, exposure class is 2(a). Table 4.1
ENV 206
Minimum concrete strength grade is C30/37. Table NA.1
For cement content and w/c ratio refer to ENV 206 Table 3(6)
Minimum cover to reinforcement is 30 mm. NAD
Table 6
For concrete cast against blinding layer, minimum cover > 40 mm. 4.1 33(9)

Use 75 mm nominal cover bottom and sides

7.1.1.3 Materials

Type 2 deformed reinforcement with = 460 N/mm2 NAD 6.3(a)


Concrete strength grade C30/37 with maximum aggregate size 20 mm

7.1.1.4 Loading
Eqn 2.8(a)
Table 2.2
Ultimate column load = l.3SGk + 15k = 1570 kN

7.1.1.5 Flexural design

Critical section taken at face of column 2.533(5)



Msd
= 1570 (2.5 0.4)2 = 346 kNm
8 x 2.5
Assuming 20 mm bars
d = 500 — 75 — 20 = 405 mm

Using rectangular concrete stress diagram Figure 4.4


fck 30

— —
— —
— 20 N/mm2
C
Eqn 4.4
Table 23
= 0.85 x 20 = 17 N/mm2
For reinforcement
f 460
= = = 400 N/mm2 2.23.2P(1)
7s 1.15 Table 23

For the design of C30/37 concrete members without any redistribution of 2.53.4.2(5)
moments, neutral axis depth factor

0.45
d
Using the design tables for singly reinforced beams

Msd 346 X 106


= = 0.028
bd2fCk 2500 x 4052 x 30
x— = 0.063 < 0.45 OK
d

Af
—- = 0.033
bdfCk

Hence
x—
30
AS = 0.033 x 2500 x 405 = 2179 mm2
460

Minimum longitudinal reinforcement 5.42.2.1


5.4.2.1.1
0.6btd
= = 0.OOl3bd iz 0.OOl5bd
460

= 0.0015 x 2500 x 405 = 1519 mm2

7120 gives 2198 > 2179 mm2 OK

2500 —
2(75) — 20
Bar crs. = 388 mm
6

Maximum spacing = 3h i 500 = 500 > 388 mm OK NAD


Table 3
7T20(EW) are sufficientfor flexural design. Additional checks for punching and 5.4.a2.1(4)
crack control require 9T20 (EW) — refer to Sections 7.1.1.7 and 7.1.1.8.

Use 9120 (EW)

7.1.1.6 Shear

Minimum shear reinforcement may be omitted in slabs having adequate 43.2.IP(2)


provision for the transverse distribullon of loads. Treating the pad as a slab,
therefore, no shear reinforcement is required if VSd VRd1. 4.3.2.2(2)
cu1ooxIoI4s

Shear force at critical section, distance d from face of column 4.3.2.2(10)

— — 0.405 = 405 kN
VSd (a5 )

4.3.23
Shear resistance, VAd1, with zero axial load

= + Eqn 4.18
VRd1 TRdk(l.2 4Op1) bd
= Table 4.8
TAd
034 N/mm2

k = 1.6—d = 1.195z1.0

To calculate A1, area of tension reinforcement extending d + 1fleI beyond


critical section, determine

net = aalb
(a) i
prov
Eqn 5.4

For curved bars with concrete side cover of at least 3 5.23.4.1(1)

= 0.7



Eqn5.3
b
4 f

For bars in the bottom half of a pour, good bond maybe assumed. Hence for 5.2.2.1(2)
4, 32mm

= ao N/mm2 Table 5.3

=
-
4,
x 400
—-
= 33.34,

For anchorage in tension

min = 03 x 1b z 104, 100 mm Eqn 5.5


= 104, = 200mm

Actual distance from critical section to end of bar

2500 400
= — — — 405 — 75 = 570 mm
2 2
<d+ = 405 + 200 = 605 mm
Therefore
= 0
A,
VRd1
= 0.34 x 1.2 x 1.195 x 2500 x 405 x iO-3 = 493 kN

> VSd
405kN

No shear reinforcement required

Ch,eck that VSd VRd2


to avoid crushing of compression struts.

u = 0.7 — = 0.55 iz 0.5 N/mm2 Eqn 4.20


200

= cd'w°9°' = 0.55 x 20 x 2500 x 0.9 x 405 x 10


VRd2 Eqn 4.19
2 2

= 5012 > 405kN OK

7.1.1.7 Punching

Length of base from face of column


a = 1050mm

a

h
=—>2 1050
400
Figure 4.16

By definition the foundation should be considered as a slab.

Critical perimeter at 1.5d from faceofcolumn shouldbe checked for punching. 4.3.4.1P(4)
& 43.4.2.2
U = 2ir (1.5 x 405) + 4 x 400 = 5417 mm

In foundations the applied shear may be reduced to allowfor the soil reaction 4.3.4.1(5)
within the critical perimeter.
Enclosed area
Total width = (3 x 405) + 400 = 1615 mm
Corner radius = 1.5 x 405 = 608 mm
Area = 1.6152 — (4 — ir) 0.6082 = 2.29 m2

= 1570 — = 995 kN
(1

The applied shear per unit length 43.4.3(4)

v=Y Sd
u
= 1.0 for pads with no eccentricity of load
FOUNO&TIONS

Therefore
vSd = 995 x i0 = 184N/mm
5417

Theamount oftensile reinforcementin two perpendicular directions should be 4.3.4.1(9)


greater than 0.5%. This is assumed to require p1 + p1, > 0.5%.

=
Using 9120 (EW), A 2830 mm2 (EW)

For Bi
dx = 415mm

1OOA
S = 0.27%
bd
For B2
dy = 395mm

1OOA
S = 0.28%
bdy

0.27% ÷ 0.28% = 0.55% > 0.5% OK

Punching resistance for a slab withoutshear reinforcement


= + 4.a4.5
VRd1 TRdk(l.2 40p1)d

The equation produces similar values to the shear check performed above
= 034 x 1.195 x 1.2 x 405 = 197 > 184 N/mm
VAd1

No shear reinforcement required

Checkthe stress at the perimeter of the column NAD 6.4(d)


VSd/ud 0.90f = 0.90fö = 4.9 N/mm2

d = 405mm

u = 4x400 = 1600mm

1570 x i0
Stress =
405 x 1600
= 2.4 < 4.9 N/mm2 .... .... OK

7.1.1.8 Crack control

Use method without direct calculation. 4.4.2.3


Estimate service stress in reinforcement under quasi-permanent loads using
the following approximation 44 23(3)
22.2 3P(2)
Gk + '2°k = + °•3k = 550 + 0.3 x 550 = 715 kN 23.4
Eqn 2.9(c)
& NAD
Table 1
FOUNDTOHS

Hence quasi-permanent load/factored load = 715/1570 = 0.46


and estimated service stress

A
= 0.46 x x = 0.46 x 400 x = 142 N/mm2
A prov 2830

Either limit bar size using EC2 Table 4.11(1) or bar spacing using EC2 Table 4.4.23(2)
4.12.

4) = 20 < 32mm OK

This has been chosen to comply with Table 4.12 as well.

Using 9T20 (EW) bar spacing = 290 < 300 mm OK

Check minimum reinforcement requirement 4.4.2.3(2)

kA/a 4.4.2.2
Eqn 4.78
For A it is considered conservative to use (h/2)b
= 100% x = 460 N/mm2

For c.eff use minimum tensile strength suggested by EC2 — 3 N/mm2

k = 0.4 for bending

For k interpolate a value for h = 50 cm from values given


k = 0.5 + 03(80 — 50)/(80 — 30) = 0.68

Therefore

As req
= 0.4 x 0.68 x 3 x 250 x 2500/460 = 1109 mm2

= 2830 > 1109 mm2 OK

7.1.1.9 Reinforcement detailing

Checkthat flexural reinforcement extends beyond critical section for bending 5.43.2.1(1)
for a distance d + net & 5.4.2.13
= 3334) = 667 mm
1b

Assuming straight bar without end hook

1 = 1.0 x 667 x = 514 mm Eqn 5.4


2830

d + net = 405 + 514 = 919 mm

Actual distance =
2500 — —
400 — 75 = 975 > 919 mm OK
2 2

The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 7.1.


POUNDATIONS

I I

lIi. S S U S U
U) 111500

75 cover 9120— 300EW


2500
I-.'

Figure 7.1 Detail of reinforcement in pad footing

7.1.2 Combined footing


Design a combined footing supporting one exterior and one interior column.
An exterior column, 600 mm x 450 mm, with serviceloadsof 760 kN (dead)
and 580 kN (imposed)and an interior column, 600 mm x 600 mm, with service
loads of 1110 kN (dead) and 890 kN (imposed) are to be supported on a
rectangular footing that cannot protrudebeyond the outerfaceof the exterior
column. The columns are spaced at 5.5 m centres and positioned as shown
in Figure 7.2.
The allowable bearing pressure is 175 kN/m2, and because of site constraints,
the depth of the footing is limited to 750 mm.

--I
— 600

Figure 7.2 Plan of combined footing

7.1.2.1 Base size

Service loads = Gk +
Column A: 1340 kN and Co!mn B: 2000 kN
Distance to centroid of loads from LH end

= 2000 x 5.5 =
0.3 + 3.593m
3340
For uniform distribution of bad under base
Length of base = 2 x 3.593 say 7.2 m
With 750 mm deep base, resultant bearing pressure
= 175 — 0.75 x 24 = 157 kN/m2

3340
Width of base required = = 2.96 say 3.0 m
7.2 x 157

Use 7.2 m x 3.0 m x 0.75 m deep base


7.1.2.2 Durability

For ground conditions otherthan non-aggressive soils, particular attention is


needed to the provisions in ENV 206 and the National Foreword and Annex
to that document for thecountry in which the concrete is required. In the UK
it should be noted that theuse of ISO 9690 and ENV 206 may not comply
with the current British Standard, BS 8110: Part 1: 1985 Table 6.1(2) where
sulphates are present.
Class 2(a) has been adopted for this design. Table 4.1
ENV 206
Minimum concrete strength grade is C30/37. Table NA.1
For cement content and wlc ratio refer to ENV 206 Table 3.
Minimum coverto reinforcement is 30 mm.
Tab 6
For concrete cast against blinding layer, minimum cover > 40 mm. 4.1.33(9)
However, it is suggestedthat nominalcover> 40 mm is asufficientinterpretation
of the above clause
Use 75 mm nominal cover bottom and sides and 35 mm top

7.1.2.3 Materials

Type 2 deformed reinforcement with = 460 N/mm2 NAD 6.3(a)


Concrete strength grade C30/37 with maximum aggregate size 20 mm

7.1.2.4 Loading

Ultimate column loads = l.35Gk + 150k Eqn 2.8(a)


Column A: 1896 kN and Column B: 2834 kN Table 2.2

Distance to centroid of loads from LH end

= 03 + 2834 x 5.5
= 3.595m
4730

i.e virtually at centre of 7.2 m long base


4730
Assume uniform net pressure = = 657 kN/m = 219 kNIm2
7.2

See Figures 72, 7.4 and 7.5 for loading, shear force and bending moment
diagrams respectively.
1896 kN 2834 kN

kN/m 4723 kN/m

uJT316O

t tt f 657 kN/m t ft t ft
'I
kO•6m 49m 06m
+' 1•lm -I

Figure 7.3 Loading diagram

1717 kN

957 kN

I 289m

Figure 7.4 Shear force diagram

2167 kNm

600 2290 2610 600! 1100_I


I I - I

Figure 7.5 Bending moment diagram


7.12.5 Flexural design
7.1.2.5.1 Longitudinal direction —
top steel
Mid-span
= 2167 kNm
Msd
d = 750 — 35 — 20 — 32/2 = 679 say 675 mm

Using the design tablesfor singly reinforced beams


Msd 2167 x 106
= = 0.053
bd2f< 3000 x 6752 x 30

x
— = 0.123 < 0.45 limit with zero redistribution OK 2.5.3.4.2(5)
d
Af = 0.064
bdfck

A = 0.064 x 3000 x 675 x -


460
= 8452 mm2 = 2818 mm2/m

Use 12T32 @ 250 mm crs. (3217 mm2lm)

Continue bars to RH end of baseto act as hangers for links.

Particular attention is drawn to the clauses for bar sizes larger than 5.2.6.3P(1)
32 mm. These clauses are restrictive about laps and anchorages, such that & P(2)
designers may need to resort to groups of smaller bars instead.

Maximum spacing = 3h p 500 = 500 > 250 mm OK NAD


Table 3
7.1.2.5.2 Longitudinal direction — bottom steel 5.4.3.2.1(4)

At column face
= 398 kNm
Msd

d = 750 — 75 — 10 = 665 mm

Msd 398 x 106


= = 0.010
bd2ç 3000 x 6652 x 30

Af = 0.012
bdfck
30
AS = 0.012 x 3000 x 665 x — = 1561 mm2 = 520 mm2/m
460

For minimum steel Asmin = 0.0015bd = 998 mm2/m 5.4.2.1.1

Use 12T20 @ 250 mm crs. (1258 mm2/m)


cou.4oxIo4s

7.1.2.5.3 Transverse direction — bottom steel


2
0.45 219
= 1.5 — x = 178 kNm/m
Msd

Minimum steel governs.

Use T20 @ 250 mm crs. (1258 mm2/m) I

7.1.2.6 Shear

Critical shear section at distance d from face of column 4.3.2.2(10)


Column B interior side

VSd
= 1717 — 0.675 x 657 = 1273 kN

VRd1
= TRd k(1.2
+ 40p,)bd
4.3.23
= 0.34 N/mm2 Eqn 4.18
TRd
Table 4.8
k = 1.6—d .z1.0 = 1.0

= 0.00476
p,
Ensure bars are continued sufficiently.
= 957 kN
VRd1

VSd
> VAd1

Therefore shear reinforcement required.

Shear capacity with links

VRd3
= VCd
+ = VRd1 + VWd 4.3.2.43
Eqn 4.22
Therefore
1273 — 957 = 316 kN

A
V = — x O.9dfd Eqn 4.23
S

= 400 N/mm2, d = 675 mm


cWd

A 316x103 = 1.30 mm2/mm


s 0.9x675x400

Where shear reinforcement is required, the minimum amount is 100% of the NAD
EC2 Table 5.5 value. Table 3
5.4.3.3(2)
With = 460, wmIfl = 0.0012 by interpolation Table 5.5
For links

pW = ASWIsb W Eqn 5.16

Therefore
A
= 0.0012 x 3000 = 3.6 > 1.30 mm2/mm
mm

Therefore minimum links govern.


Determine link spacing, using EC2 Eqn 5.17—19.

= Eqn 4.25
VRd2 ufcd b(0.9 d)12
= 0.55 x 20 x 3000 x 0.9 x 675 x 10I2 = 10020 kN

Vsd/VRd2
= 1273/10020 = 0.13 < 0.2
Use EC2 Eqn 5.17 to determine link spacing.

= 0.8d (Note: 300 mm limit in Eqn 5.17 5.4.33(4)


Sm
does not apply to slabs)

1 O.75d = 506 mm NAD 6.5(f)

Transverse spacing of legs across section 5.4.2.2(9)


dor800mm = 675mm
Use 12 legs T10 @ 250 mm crs. in each direction where V> VRd1

A5
— 12 x 78.5
S
= = 3.77 > 3.6 mm2/mm OK
250

Check diagonal crack control 5.4.2.2(10)


= = 957 kN
VCd VAd1

= 1273 kN (max.)
VSd

VSd
< 3Vc

No further check required. 4.4.2.3(5)


Distancesto where VSd
= VRd1 from face of columns A and B

= 1502 957
xa = 0.830m
657

Xb
= 1.157 m

Check shear in areas where bottom steel is in tension and


p1
= 0.0015 (mm. steel)
FOUNDATIONS

VRd1
= 034(1.2 + 0.06)3000 x 665 x 10 = 854> 723 kN .. OK

No links required at RH end of base

In orthogonal direction, shear at d from column face

= 219(0
— 0.45 — 0.6 x 2) = 148 kN/m
2
From above

VAdi = = 284 > 148 kN/m OK


3.0

No links required in orthogonal direction

7.1.2.7 Punching

Length of one side of critical perimeter at 1.5d from face of column 4.3.4.1P(4) &
= 3 x
690 + 600 = 2670 mm 4.3.4.2.2

This extends almost the full width of the base = 3000 mm


Hence it is sufficient Just to check line shear as above and shear around
perimeter of column face, where

VsdIud 0.90 J7 = 0.90 x = 4.9 N/mm2 NAD 6.4(d)

The shear stress at the column face perimeter with d = 675 mm is less than
4.9 N/mm2 in both cases (see Table 7.1) OK

Table 7.1 Punching shear at column face


column Perimeter Load Stress
(mm) (kN) (N/mm2)

A 1650 1896 1.7

B 2400 2834 1.75

7.1.2.8 Crack control

Use method without direct calculation. 4.4.2.3

Estimateservice stress in reinforcement under quasi-permanent loads, using


the following approximation: 4.4.2.3(3)
+ '2k =
Gk +
The relevant loads are shown in Table 7.2.

Table 7.2 Column loads for cracking check


Load columnA column B

Gk .i- 03k(kN) 934 1377

l.35Gk + 1•5k (kN) 1896 2834

Ratio 0.49 0.48


A
Estimated steel stress = 0.49 x f x —-
Aprov

8452
= 0.49 x 400 x = 172 N/mm2
12 x 804
Either limit bar size using EC2 Table 4.11 or bar spacing using Table 4.12. 4.4.2.3(2)
In Table 4.11 bar size 25 mm > 32 mm used.
In Table 4.12 spacing 285 mm in pure flexure > 250 mm used. . OK
Check minimum reinforcement requirement 4.4.2.3(2)
4.4.2.2(3)
A kckfcteffActhYs Eqn 4.78
For it is considered conservative to use (h12)b.
aS = 100% x f = 460 N/mm2
yk

For eff use minimum tensile strength suggested in EC2, 3 N/mm2.

= 0.4 for bending

For k interpolate a value for h = 75 cm, which gives k = 0.53.


Therefore

A5 0.4 x 0.53 x 3 x 750 x 3000/(2 x 460) = 1555 mm2

12T32 gives A5 > 1555 mm2 OK

7.1.2.9 Detailing

Check bar achorage detail at LH end.


The anchorage should be capable of resisting a tensile force 5.4.2.1.4(2)
=
F5 VSda,/d
with

a1
5.43.2.1(1)
=
F5 VSd

V = column reaction = 1896 kN

The bond strength for poor conditions in the top of the pour 5.2.2.1 &
5.2.2.2
= x Table 5.3 value
0.7
= 0.7 x 3 = 2.1 N/mm2
bd

(4)(ycI'd) = 47'.6q5 = 1524 mm


= Eqn 53

Continuing all T32 bars to end


A prov = 9650 mm2
Asreq = VSd/fyd = 1896 x 10/400 = 4740 mm2
FOUND&TIONS

Hence required anchorage, (+)1net at a direct support Figure 5.12


=
(--)lb x 4740/9650 = 500 mm > °31b OK

Anchorage up to faceof column = 600 — 75 = 525 mm ... OK


Theanchorage may be increased to 'bnet' if preferred, by providing a bend at
the end of the bar.
Therequirementfortransversereinforcementalongthe anchorage length does 5.2.3.3
not apply at a direct support.
Secondary reinforcement ratio for top steel 5.43.2.1

p2 O.2p1
= 0.2 x 0.00476 = 0.00095

d = 750 — 35 — 10 = 705 mm

AS 670 mm2/m

Use 116 @ 250 mm crs. (804 mm2/m) transversely in top

Spacing 500 mm OK
The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 7.6.

12132 — 250

12T20 — 250

T20 —250EW

LL1 120—250
Hill 1—H.J

Figure 7.6 Detail of reinforcement in combined footing

72 Pilecap design
7.2.1 Pilecap design example using truss analogy
Afour-pile groupsupports a 500 mm squarecolumn which carries a factored
load of 2800 kN. The piles are 450 mm in diameter and spaced at 1350 mm
centres.

7.2.1.1 Pilecap size


Assumea pilecap depth of 800 mm. Allowthe pilecap toextend 150 mm beyond
the edge of the piles, to give a base 2.1 m square as shown in Figure 7.7.

Use 2.1 m x 2.1 m x 0.8 m deep pilecap


375

1350

375

Figure 7.7 Pilecap layout

7.2.1.2 Durability

For components in non-aggressive soil and/or water, exposure class is 2(a). Table 4.1
• . . ENV 206
Minimum concrete strength grade is C30137.
Table NA.1
For cement content and w/c ratio refer to ENV 206 Table 3.
Minimum cover to reinforcement is 30 mm. NAD
Table 6
Use 100 mm nominal bottom cover over piles and 50 mm sides

7.2.1.3 Materials

Type 2 deformed reinforcement with = 460 N/mm2 NAD 6.3(a)


Concrete strength grade C30/37 with maximum aggregate size 20 mm.

7.2.1.4 Element classification

A beam whose span is less than twice its overall depth is considered a deep 2.5.2.1(2)
beam.
With the effective span, l, taken to the centre of the piles: 2.5.2.2.2

1eff

h
=—=1.7<2
1350
800
Therefore treat as deep beam for analysis.

7.2.1.5 Loading

Ultimate column load = 2800 kN


Pilecap (self-weight) = x 25 = 20 kN/m2
0.8

Ultimate pilecap load = 1.35 x 20 = 27 kN/m2 Eqn 2.8(a)

7.2.1.6 Design

Deep beams under a concentrated load may be designed using a strut and 2.5.3.72
tie model.
cOU.DLQ&T(OKS

Use a model with a node at the centre of the loaded area and lower nodes BS 8110
over thecentrelines ofthe piles at the level ofthe tension reinforcementtogether 3.11.4.1
with an effectivecolumn load to account forthe pilecap weight of, forexample:

Nsd
= 2800 + 1352 x 27 = 2850 kN
d = 800 — 100 — 25 = 675 mm

The total tensile force in each direction

Nsd X 1eff 2850 x 1350


= = = 1425 kN
FSd
4d 4x 675

For reinforcement

= = 460 = 400 N/mm2 2.23.2P(1)


cd 1.15 Table 23

= 1425 x iO =
A 3563 mm2
400

There are no specific requirements within EC2 for the distribution of the
calculated reinforcement.Theprovisionsof BS 8110: Part 1: Clause 3.11.4.2 are
adopted in this example.
With piles spaced at 3timesthe diameter,the reinforcement may be uniformly
distributed.

Use 8T25 at 275 mm crs. (3928 mm2)

Maximum spacing = 3h p 500 = 500 > 275 mm OK NAD


Table 3
0.6bd 5.43.2.1(4)
Minimum AS = z a0015 btd = 0.0015 x 2100 x 675 = 2127 mm2.. OK 5.4.2.1.1(1)
yk

The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 7.8.

4Ti6

I I

800F I•

IJL 6125EW
L4J

Figure 7.8 Details of pilecap reinforcement


7.2.1.7 Shear

Only in elements such as slabs may shear reinforcement be omitted where 43.2.1P(2)
calculations justify.
Despitethe classification for the pilecapgiven above, in line with commonUK
practice, it is not intended to provide shear reinforcementwhen VSd VRd1. 43.2.2(2)
Takethe critical section for shear to be located at20% ofthe pile diameter into BS 8110
the piles, extending the full width of the pilecap. Figure 3.23
Distance from centre of loaded area
x = 1350/2 — 0.3 x 450 = 540 mm

Shear resistance
= + 40p)bd
TAd k(1 .2
VRd1
4.3.2.3
Eqn 4.18
TAd
= 034 N/mm2 Table 4.8

k = 1.6—d #zl.0 = 1.0

3928
= = 0.00277
2100 x 675
All of tension steel is to continue sufficiently pastcritical section; check when
detailing.
VRd1
= 034(1.2 + 40 x 0.00277) 2100 x 675 x iO = 632 kN
Consider enhanced resistance close to the supports 43.2.2(5)


2.5d 2.5 x 675 =
= = 3.125
x 540 43.2.2(9)

1.0 5.0 OK

Shear force
2850
VSd =—=1425kN
2
< = 3.125 x 632 = 1975 kN

No shear reinforcement required

Having taken into account the increased shear strength close to the supports, 43.2.2(11)
it is necessary to ensure that the reinforcement is properly anchored.
In this caseall reinforcement will extend to centre line of pile and be anchored
beyond that position OK

7.2.1.8 Punching
Piles fall within 1.5d perimeter from column face, it is thus only necessary to 43.4.2.2(1)
check shear around column perimeter, where
Stress 0.9 = 0.9 x = 4.9 N/mm2 NAD 6.4(d)

No enhancement of this value is permitted. 4.3.2.2(5)


Stress =

7.2.1.9 Crack control


2800x iO
4 x 500 x 675
=

Use method without direct calculation.


2.1 < 4.9 N/mm2 . OK

4.4.2.3

Estimateservice stress in reinforcement under quasi-permanent loads using


following method 4.4.2.3(3)

Gk + '2°k = +

For this example the column loads, Gk 1200 kN and = 785 kN


1200 + 03 x 785 =
Hence the quasi-permanent load/factored load = 0.51
2800
Estimated steel stress
A
0.51 x fyd x — = 0.51 x 400 x = 185 N/mm2
Aprov 3928

Either limit bar size to EC2 Table 4.11 value or bar spacing to EC2 Table 4.12 4.4.23(2)
value.

From Table 4.11 bar size 25 mm = 25 mm used OK


From Table 4.12 bar spacing 270 mm < 275 mm used
Check minimum reinforcement requirement 4.4.2.3(2)
4.4.2.2(3)
As kC Idct,eff A/a
Ct S Eqn4.78

For A it is considered conservative to use (h/2)b.

as = 100% x fyk = 460 N/mm2

For use minimum tensile strength suggested by EC2, 3 N/mm2.


= 0.4 for bending
k
k = 0.5forh 80cm
Therefore

A5 1096 mm2

AS,prov = 3928mm2 OK

7.2.1.10 Detailing

The reinforcement corresponding to the ties in the model should be fully 5.4.5(1)
anchored beyond the nodes, i.e., past the centres of piles.



5.2.2.3(2)
b
bd
For bars in bottom half of a pour, good bond may be assumed. 5.2.2.1

Hence
= 3.0 N/mm2 (4, 32 mm) Table 5.3

Ib = 25 x 400 = 834mm
4x3
Areq >

b,net A b.min
prov

Using bobbed reinforcement, aa = 0.7

x 834 x —
3563
Ibnet = 0.7 = 530 mm
3928

Length beyond centre of pile allowing for end cover


= 375 — 50 = 325 < 530 mm

Bars cannot be anchored in manner shown in EC2 Figure 5.2. Use bent-up
bars with large radius bend and anchorage length

x — = 756mm
prov

Diameter of bends can be obtained from NAD Table 8(1). Assumethat the limits NAD
given for minimum cer
in the table are equallyapplicableto bar centres Table 8
For 125 @ 275 mm crs., bend diameter = 134,,
bend radius = (13/2) x 25 = 165 mm

Theuse of NADTable8 is conservative,as it is based on full stress in thebars


at the bend. The values given appear to be consistent with BS 8110: Part 1:
Clause 3.12.8.25 using = 30 N/mm2.
For concrete placed in the UK, it should be possible to demonstrate,compliance
with EC2 Clause 5.2.1.2P(1) by usingthe BS 8110Clause above, with the result
that smaller diameter bends may be used.
For the edge bars, which have a minimum cover > 34, = 75 mm, NAD
Table 8 gives 200 mm radius bend (see Figure 7.9).
Therequirementfortransversereinforcementalong the anchorage length does
not apply at a direct support.

Provide bars to act as horizontal links, such as 4116 @ 150 mm crs.


FOUNDATIONS

3 785

Figure 7.9 Detail of bent-up bars

7.2.2 Pilecap design example using bending theory


Take the pilecap from the preceding example but use bending theory to
determine the bottom reinforcement. The shear force diagram is shown in
Figure 7.10.

1425 kN

1425 kN
425 500

1350

Figure 7.10 Shear force diagram


7.2.2.1 Flexural reinforcement

= 1425 + = 784 kNm


Msd
(0.425 .2)
z = 0.975d = 658 mm

A6
= 2979 mm2

Because of the difference in modelling, this is less reinforcement than the


previous example.

7.2.2.2 Detailing
At an end support, the anchorage of bottom reinforcementneeds to becapable 5.4.2.1.4(2)
of resisting a force:
= + Eqn 5.15
F6 VSdal/d Nsd

N = 0 in this case

with

a1
5.43.2.1(1)

F6
= VSd
= 1425 kN

A = 1425 x 10/400 = 3563 mm2

This is identical to the area of steel required in the previous example.

Use 8T25 as before (3928 mm2)

Using the same detail of bobbed bars


= 530 mm
net
EC2 Figure 5.12(a) applies and is taken to require an anchorage length,
= 353 mm past the line of contact between the beam and its
(213)1flet
support.
Using a position 20% into the pile to represent the line of contact, the length
available for anchorage
= 0.3 x pile dia. + 375 — cover
= 0.3 x 450 + 375 — 50 = 460 > 353 mm .... OK
.
B SPECIAL DETAILS
8.1 Corbels

8.1.1 Introduction 2.5.3.7.2

Consider a corbel designed to carry a vertical ultimate designload of 400 kN


with the line of action of the load 200 mm from the face of the support (wall,
column etc), as shown in Figure 8.1.

Fv 400 kN

ac 200
b 300
d = 465
hc 500

Figure 8.1 Corbel dimensions

8.1.2 Materials
= 30 N/mm2 (concrete strength class C30/37)
= 460 N/mm2 (characteristic yield strength)

8.1.3 Design
8.1.3.1 Check overall depth of corbel
Conservatively, the maximum shear in the corbel should not exceed VRd1. The 2.53.7.2(5)
depth of the corbel could be reduced by putting VRd2 F
butthis would give
an increased tie force and consequent detailing problems. Thevalueof TAd in
43.23

the expression for VRd1 (EC2 Eqn 4.18(1)) may be modified by the factor
defined in EC2 Clause 43.2.2(9).
f
By inspection 6 will be a minimum when x = in EC2 Eqn 4.17. Hence
VHdl will also be a minimum.
Now
= + 4Op1) + 0.15a]bd Eqn 4.18
VRd1 [9rRdk(1.2

= 2.5d/x with 1.0 f3 5.0 Eqn 4.17

= 2.5 x 465 = 5.81 5.0


200

TAd
= 0.34 N/mm2 Table 4.8

k = 1.6—d lzl = 1.14m

p1 is assumed to be 0.006 (4T16)


SPECIALDETAILS

No provision hasbeen made to limit horizontalforces at the support; therefore 2.5.3.7.2(4)


a minimum horizontal force (He) acting at the bearing area should be
assumed. This is given by

HC = 0.2F V
= ±8OkN

= —
A/Sd
where = —80 kN
C

Therefore

= —80 x i0 =
a —0.6 N/mm2
C 465 x 300
Hence

VAd1
= [5 x 0.34 x 1.23 (1.2 + 40 x 0.006) — 0.15 x 0.6]
x 465 x 300 = 407 kN
Therefore
> = = 400 kN OK
VRd1 VSd F 2.5.3.7.2(5)

8.1.3.2 Determine main reinforcement requirement

Now 0.4h a, therefore a simple strut and tie model may be assumed, as 2.5.3.7.2(1)
shown in Figure 8.2.

Figure 8.2 Strut and tie model

Under the vertical load


Fa
= —- ;and
z
0.85fck
FC (0.8x)b cosf3

The determination of x will be an iterative procedure


Choose x such that ç = 0.002 and f = 400 N/mm2

Therefore
0.0035
x = x 465 = 296 mm
0.0035 + 0.002
SC(&L DrMLs

Now z = d — 0.8x12 = 347 mm and cosf3 = 0.5

Therefore, from above,

F = 400 x 200 = 231 kNand


347

FC 0.85 x 30 x 0.8 x 296 x 300 x 0.52


= 301 kN
1.5

=
For equilibrium F F and further refinement gives
x = 235 mm, z = 371 mm, F = 216 kN

In addition, EC2 Clause 2.5.3.7.2(4) requires a horizontal force of H to be 2.53.7.2(4)


applied at the bearing area.

HC 0.2FV = 0.2 x 400 = 80 kN

= 296kN

As.req = 296
x io = 740mm2
460/1.15

Use 4T16 bars

8.1.3.3 Check crushing of compression strut


This has been checked directlyby the calculation of F above. However, an
indirect check may also be made

= [(j-) vf]b0.9d Eqn 4.19


VRd2

I =
p = 0.7 — —- 0.55 0.5 Eqn 4.20
200

Therefore

VRd2
= (j-) x 0.55 x 20 x 300 x 0.9 x 465 = 690 kN

Hence

VRd2
> F, = 400 kN OK

8.1.3.4 Check link reinforcement requirements 5.4.4(2)


Links are required if:

0.4 ACICd/cd Eqn 5.21

A = 500 x 300 = x iO mm2


-
150

fcd = = 20 N/mm2 f = = 400 N/mm2


1.5 1.15
5PC1M. DTA1LS

Hence, links are required if

A5 0.4 x 150 x i0 x 20/400 = 3000 mm2

Now
= 804 < 3000 mm2
Apr
Therefore links are not required

Nevertheless,in practice some linksshould be provided to assist in fixing the


main reinforcement.

A5 O4Aspr
= 0.4 x 804 322 mm2 5.4.4(2)

Use 4T8 links (8 legs)

8.1.3.5 Check bearing area of corbel

Allowable design ultimate bearing stress °•8cd for bearing bedded in EC2,
concrete. Part lB
Therefore area required = 400x103 25000 mm 2
0.8 x 20
Assume transverse bearing = 250mm
Therefore length of bearing = 100mm

8.1.4 Detailing
The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 8.3.

30 cover to
main bars

4T16 welded to
T20 cross—bar
2110

Figure 8.3 Corbel reinforcement details

L
EC(M. DETMLS

8.1.4.1 Anchorage of main bars at front edge of corbel


AnchorT16 ties by means of a cross bar running horizontally and welded to
the ties.
= 296kN

An allowable bearing stress under the cross bar can be obtained from EC2 5.4.81
Eqn 5.22 as

= Eqn 5.22
Rdu
(mod)
Note:
Use ofthis stress requires that the concrete be confined by means of links etc.
In areas where the cover is small, the designer may wish to use a modified
version of Eqn 50 in BS 8110(2).

296x103 =
Therefore area of bar required = 4485 mm 2
3.3 x 20
For a T20 bar, length required is 225 mm.

Use T20 cross bar 240 mm long weldedto T16 ties

8.1.4.2 Anchorage of main bars into support

Required anchorage length

As.req
1 = aaib > Eqn 5.4
Lnet bmrn
Aprov

Now
= (I4) Eqn 5.3
1b (cd bd

fyd = 400 N/mm2

Bond conditions may be considered good as the T16 bars will be anchored 5.2.2.1(2)(b)
into a substantial support(column or wall).

= 3 N/mm2 Table 5.3

= (16/4) x (400/3) = 533 mm

Now
= 740 mm2 = 804 mm2 = 1 5.2.3.4.1(1)
Asq Asprov aa

Therefore
1
net
= 1x533xZ9 = 490mm
804

=
°31b 10 or 100 mm
Provide = 490 mm (see Figure 8.3)
SPECIALDETAILS

The detail at the front edge of the corbel is shown in Figure 8.4

100 20 40 30
I—
lI4

Figure 8.4 Detail at front edge of corbel

The inside face of the T20 bar is positioned not less than the cover beyond
the edge of the bearing area.
This is an interpretation of BS 8110 as no guidance is given in EC2

8.2 Nibs
8.2.1 Introduction
Considera nib designed to carry a precastconcretefloor slab imposing a vertical
ultimate design load of 25 kNIm.

8.2.2 Materials
fck = 30 N/mm2 (concrete strength class C30137)
fyk = 460 N/mm2 (characteristic yield strength)

8.2.3 Design
Provide a 15 mm chamfer to the outside edge of the nib and assume the line
of action of the load occurs at the upper edge of the chamfer
Permissible design ultimate bearing stress = 0•6d for dry bearing EC2 Part lB
25 x 10
Therefore minimum width of bearing = = 2.1 mm
0.6 x 20 x 1000
Minimum width of bearing for non-isolated member = 40 mm BS 8110
5.2.3.2
Allowance for nib spalling = 20 mm BS 8110
Table 5.1
Allowance for inaccuracies = 25 mm BS 8110
52.4
Nominal bearing width = 40 + 20 + 25 = 85 mm
Allow an additional 25 mm for chamfer on supported member.

Width of nib projection = 85 + 25 = 110 mm

ini
SEC%M. QETMLS

The distance of the line of action of the load from the face of the beam
= 110—15 = 95mm
Assuming 20 mm coverto the 110 links in the beam

a = 95 + 20 + 5 = 120 mm
Check minimum depth of nib.
Assuming T8 bars, minimum internal diameter of loop is 6. NAD
Table 8
Therefore minimum depth of nib = 20 + 8 8 + 20 = x 104 mm

Depth of nib = 105 mm

M = 25 x 0.12 = 3 kNm/m

Effective depth (d) = 105 — 20 — 4 = 81 mm


M
= 3x106 = 0.015
bd2ck 1000 X 812 x 30
Afsyk = 0.018 (Section 13, Table 13.1)
bdfCk

A$ = O.OlBbdfCk = 0.018 x 1000 x 81 x 30 = 95mm2


fyk 460

Check minimum area of reinforcement 5.4.2.1.1(1)

= 0.6
A5 (r') 0.0015bd Eqn 5.14

=
0.6 x 1000 x 81 = 106mm2
460

0.0015 x 1000 x 81 = 122 mm2


Check minimum area of reinforcement for crack control 4.4.2.2

= Eqn 4.78
kckfcteffAciOs

k = 0.4 for bending

k = 0.8forh 300 mm

Ct5ff
= 3.0 N/mm2

A = bh = 1000 x 105 = 52.5 x i0 mm2


2 2
= 460 N/mm2
cr
Therefore
A = 0.4 x 0.8 x 3.0 x 52.5 x 10/460 = 110 mm2
bPEt'kM.DETAiLS

No further checkfor crack control is necessary as h = 105 200 mm. 4.4.23.(1)


Maximum bar spacing = 3h = 315 500 mm NAD
Table 3
Use T8 @ 300 mm crs. (168 mm2/m) 5.43.2.1(4)

The reinforcement details are shown in Figure &5.

2T8 (acer bars


to anchor U—bars

Figure 8.5 Nib reinforcement details

Check shear in nib, takingintoaccountthe proximity of the concentrated load 4.3.23


to the support.

VAd1
=
[!3rAdk(1.2 + '40p1) + o.i&i] bd Eqn 4.18

= 2.5d/x ___
= 2.5 x
120
81
= 1.69 Eqn 4.17

= 034 N/mm2
TAd

k = 1.6—dlzl = 1.52

A
p = —- = 168
= 0.0021
bd 1000 x 81
N
C
A
Therefore

VAd1
= 1.69 x 034 x 1.52(1.2 +40 x 0.0021)x 1000 x 81 = 90.8 kN/m
= 25 kN/m
VSd

Therefore

VRdl
> 1"Sd
OK

Check anchorage of T8 bars.

net = aa 1b
(j 1tmin
Eqn 5.4
SPECIAL DETAILS

Now
= (I'I4) Eqn 53
(d'bd)
= 400 N/mm2

Bond conditions may be considered good as the bars are anchored at least 5.2.2.1(2)(b)
300 mm from the top of the member.
= 3 N/mm2 Table 5.3

= (8/4) x (400/3) = 267 mm

NowA5req = 122 mm2 Apr = 168 mm2 aa


= 1

Therefore
1
b.net
= 122
1x267x—
168
= 194mm 4l mm

For bars in tension

1bmin
= 10 or 100 mm
Therefore
= 100 mm
1b.min

= 194 mm (see Figure 8.5)


1b.net

For bars in compression


=
1b.min °•61b 104; or 100 mm

Therefore
= 160 mm
1mmn

= 160 mm (see Figure 8.5)

8.3 Simply supported ends


8.3.1 Directly supported ends
Reinforcement anchorage requirements are shown in Figure 8.6.

f tb,net Iw(b) '2 I


tb,net
"I
(a) Straight bar Ib) Hook

Figure 8.6 Anchorage at a direct support


SPECM DETMLS

Figure 8.6(a) shows anchorage of tensile reinforcement beingachieved using 5.4.2.1.4(3)


a straight bar. It should be noted that EC2 does not permit straight anchorage Figure 5.12(a)
or bends for smooth bars of morethan 8 mm diameter. 5.23.2(2)
Note:
TheCEB—FIP Model Code16 gives a factor of 1.0 for net as opposedto 2/3
in EC2. Designers may wish to consider using the higther value.
Typical values for anchorage length and support width, w, can be obtained
for (a) and (b) in Figure 8.6.
Assume
Ick
= 30 N/mm2, f yk = 460 N/mm2

= 1.0

Note: NAD 6.5


Areq maybe taken as one quarter of the reinforcement required at mid-span 5.4.2.1.4(3)
but not less than that required to resistthe tensile force givenby EC2 Eqn 5.15. 5.4.2.1.4(2)

'bnet
=
0alb
() s.prov
iz lmIfl Eqn 5.4

= (I4 (ci1bd) Eqn 53

= 3 N/mm2 Table 53

= 400 N/mm2

Therefore

1b
= (cb/4) x (400/3) = 3334

4min
=
°31b lz 10 or 100 mm Eqn 5.5

= 1 for straight bars; or


aa

= 0.7 for curved bars with 3c/ transversecover 5.2.3.4.1(1)


aa

Therefore

1b,net (a)=
1 x 333 = 3334.

net (b)= 0.7 x 33 = 23.3q5

Therefore width of support required in Figure 8.6(a), assuming 20 mm cover


and 15 mm chamfer

w (a) = (j-) x 333çb + 35 = 22.2 + 35 mm


and width of support required in Figure 8.6(b), assuming as above
w (b) =
(+) x 23.3q + 35 = 15.5 + 35 mm
SPECIAL DETAILS

The minimum supportwidth is given by


W = (+) x 10 + 35 = 6.7'qS + 35 mm
where, in Figure 8.6(a), A8req O•3As,pr,
arid, in Figure 8.6(b), As req 0.43A
As noted above, a= 0.7 can only be used if the concrete cover
perpendicular to the plane of curvature is at least 3
This is clearly difficult
to achieve in beams without end diaphrams for bar sizes in excess of 12 mm.
The requirements for the various types of hooks, loops and bends are given
in EC2 Figure 5.2. The minimum diameters of mandrels are given in NAD'
Table a The required support widths are given in Table 8.1.

Table 8.i Width of support (mm)

A
A (mm)
10 12 16 20 25 32

1.0 w(a) 257 302 391 479 590 746


0.3 wmn 102 116 143 169 203 250

1.0 wb) 190 221 283 345 423 531


0.43 wmm 102 116 143 169 203 250

8.3.2 Indirectly supported ends


Reinforcement anchorage requirements are shown in Figure a7.

{I
tb,net ,net J b(b)L
I

(a) Straight bar (b) Hook

Figure 8.7 Anchorage at an indirect support

As in Section 83.1 above, anchorage lengths and support widths can be


obtained for both straight bars and hooked bars.
Theanchorage lengths are as Section 8.31 but the required supportwidths
are increased.

Assuming 20 mm cover
b(a) = (333cb + 20) x 1.5 = 50q5 + 30 mm
b(b) = (23.3q + 20) x 1.5 = 354 + 30 mm
SPECL DETMLS

The minimum supportbeam width is given by


= (lOqS + 20) x 1.5 = lScb + 30 mm
bmin
where the same conditions apply as in Section 83.1.

In these cases, as the beam is indirectly supported, i.e., by another beam, 3


cover perpendicular to the plane of the curvature can be achieved moreeasily
and = 0.7 can be readily used in EC2 Eqn 5.4.

The required supportbeam widths are given in Table 8.2.

Table 8.2 Width of support beam (mm)

,
AspraY '
mm'/ 10 12 16 20 25 32

1.0 b(a) 530 630 830 1030 1280 1630


0.3 b mm
180 210 270 330 405 510

1.0 b(b) 380 450 590 730 905 1150


0.43 bmm 180 210 270 330 405 510

8.4 Surface reinforcement 5.4.2.4

In certain circumstancesitmaybe necessaryto provide surface reinforcement


located outside the links.

Surface reinforcementis provided to resistspalling fromfire and where bundled 5.4.2.4(3)


bars or bar sizes greaterthan 32 mm are used.

EC2 also refers to the use of skin reinforcement located inside the links. Skin 4.4.2.3(4)
reinforcement is provided to control cracking in the side facesof beams 1 m
or more in depth.

8.4.1 Design data


A beam section requiring surface reinforcement is shown in Figure 8.8.

ioooL fll
400 I
A5t=4825mm2 (6132)
Coverto Links 50mm

Figure 8.8 Beam section showing main reinforcement

=1
SPECIAL DETAILS

8.4.2 Area of longitudinal surface reinforcement


Af = 0.01A 5.4.2.4(5)

From EC2 Figure 5.15


= 2x50x(1000—360)+50 x300 = 79x 103mm2

Therefore
A ssuri = 0.01 x 79 x iO = 790 mm2

Length of internal perimeter = 490 x 2 + 300 = 1280 mm

Hence
790 =
AS,SU1/m= 617 mm2/m
1.280

Use B785 fabric

This comprises 10 mm wires @ 100 mm crs. horizontally and 8 mm wires @


200 mm crs. vertically.
Note: 5.23.43
EC2 does not directly coverthe use of plain wire fabric.

Surface reinforcementmayalso be used as longitudinal bending reinforcement 5.4.2.4(6)


in the horizontal direction and as shear reinforcement in the vertical direction
in some cases.
If surface reinforcement is being used to resist shear, EC2 Clause 5.4.2.2(4) 5.4.2.2(4)
should be noted. Itstatesthat a minimum of50% of shear reinforcementshould
be in the form of links.
The reinforcement detail is shown in Figure 8.9.

r n -l

— 1 r
B785 surface
reinforcement
1 f d-x=54O
Ifl S — —. _' I
<600

i(
8-132 — .1. I.

5L150 -'1.-I

Figure 8.9 Beam section showing surface reinforcement.


9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
9.1 Introduction
Design of a prestressed band beam with bonded post-tensionedtendons, to
support a ribbed floor slab, is set out.
Thisexample is similar to Examp'e 2 in theConcrete Society's Post tensioned
concrete floors: Design handbook.

9.2 Design data


Thefloor plan and section for the structure are shown in Figure 9.1. The band
beams run alongthe column lines in the longitudinal direction. Thefloor slab
contains unbonded tendons, and is not designed here.

7200

7200

j
7200

7200

PLAN

3900

3900

A—A

Figure 9.1 Floor plan and section

=
PRSTRESSEO CONCRETE

9.2.1 Beam section


Theeffectiveflangewidth of the beam for calculation of stiffnessesor stresses
is taken as
bff = b + (*) 10
= 2508 mm <b 2.5.2.2.1P(2)
Eqn 2.13
The beam section is shown in Figure 9.2.

2508
•1

110

I 60
750 750

Figure 9.2 Beam section

9.2.2 Durability
For components in dry environment, exposure class is 1. Table 4.1
Minimum concretestrength grade for post-tensioned members is C25/30. 4.2.a5.2
Minimum coverto—reinforcement is 15 mm. 4.1.3.3
NAD
Use 25 mm nominal cover to reinforcement Table 6

Minimum cover to duct is given asthesmaller cross-sectionaldimension of the 4.133(11)


duct but not less than half the greatercross-sectionaldimension.

Use nominal cover to duct z 50 mm BS 8110


4.12.3.2
9.2.3 Materials
9.2.3.1 Reinforcement

Type 2 deformed bars, characteristicstrength, ck = 460 N/mm2 having high NAD 63(a)
ductility

9.2.3.2 Prestressing steel


15.7 mm diameter superstrand, grouped in oval ducts 20 x 75 mm
Characteristic strength, = 1770 N/mm2 BS 5896

= 150 mm2
A
E8
= 190 kN/mm2 3.3.4.4

9.2.3.3 Concrete
In order that this example can be compared with that given in Example 2 of
the Posttensioned concrete floors: Design handbook, a non-standardconcrete
strength grade has been chosen of C32/40.
psEssc. CGIICRrE

= 32 N/mm2

= 20 N/mm2 strength at transfer

Ecm
= 9.5 x (32 + 8)' = 32.4 say 32 kNImm2 3.1.2.5.2(3)

E1
= 9.5 x (20 + 8)T = 28.8 say 29 kN/mm2

9.2.4 Loading 4.2.3.5.4P(2)


Imposed loading = 5.0 kN/m2

Effective width of slab = 10.22 m

Self-weight of slab and beam = 35.60 + 12.60 = 48.20 kN/m

9.3 Serviceability limit state


9.3.1 Tendon details
The tendon profile is shown in Figure 9.3.

4 i4 14—I

7200 7200

Figure 9.3 Tendon profile


Initial prestressing force is taken as

P0
= 0.75 x xA = 199.1 kN per tendon 4.23.5.4P(3)

Losses are assumed to be


15% of P0 at transfer
30% of P0 at service

Hence prestressing force


At transfer, mQ = 169.3 kN per tendon
At service, m' = 139.4 kN per tendon

9.3.2 Maximum drape


Span 1—2

y = kx(s — x) where s is the distance between inflexion points

InI
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Using AppendixC of Post tensioned concrete floors: Design handbook


k = 1.70 x iO- and s = 5760mm
At mid-span
y = 1.70 x i0 x 28802 = 141 mm

Span 2—3 at mid-span


y = 350 — 62.5 — 45 — 62.5 = 180 mm

9.3.3 Prestress required


Take an equivalent balanced load equal to the self-weight.
Span 1—2

= 48.2 x 57602 = 1418 kN


req
8x 141 < 1000

Span 2—3

= x 57602 =
48.2
1111 kN
req
8x180x1000
Number of tendons required = 1418/139.4 10.17

Use 11 tendons throughout beam

9.3.4 Equivalent loads from prestress


The equivalent loads from thelongitudinal tendons, given by q = 8(nPa)aIs2
where n = 11, are calculated in Tables 9.1 and 9.2.

Table 9.1 Calculation of equivalent loads fromlongitudinal tendons attransfer,


for the full slab width

Span 1 2 2 3

nP (kN) 1861.6 1861.6 1861 6 1861.6 1861.6 1861.6

a (mm) 30 —141 40 45 —180 45

s(mm) 1440 5760 1440 1440 5760 1440

q (kN/m) 216.9 —633 289.4 3232 —80.8 3232

Table 9.2 Calculation of equivalent loadsfrom longitudinal tendons after all


losses, for the full slab width

Span 1 2 2 3

nP (kN) 15334 1533.4 15334 15334 1533.4 15334

a (mm) 30 —141 40 —180 45


45__-
s(mm) 1440 5760 1440 1440 5760 1440

q (kN/m) 1787 —521 23&4 266.2 —66.6 266.2

InI
PRE5ThESSEDCOt4CETE

9.3.5 Load cases

For continuous beams, the following arrangements of imposed loads should 2.5.1.2(4)
be considered:
(a) alternate spans loaded; -

(b) any two adjacent spans loaded.


The rare, frequent and quasi-permanent load combinations should be 2.3.4P(2)
considered where the values of and '2 are taken from NAD Table 1(1) For NAD
imposed loads in offices = 0.6 and
2 = 0.3. Table 1

Rare combination, Gk + P + Eqn 2.9(a)

k
Frequent combination, +P+
Quasi-permanent combination, Gk
0•6k
+ ' +
Eqn 2.9(b)
Eqn 2.9(c)

9.3.6 Maximum concrete stresses


As the beam is a T-section, the values of W and Wb are not equal. By
I
calculation it can be shown that = 6.79 x 1O mm4 and that the centroid
of the section is at a height of 196 mm from the soffit.
A = 635.9 x iO mm2

Therefore
= 44.1 x 106 mm3

Wb
= 34.6 x 106 mm3

Thecalculation ofthestressesunder eachtoad combination is not shown here.


The method follows that given in the Post tensioned concretefloors: Design
handbook. Thetop and bottom concrete stressfor transferconditions are given
in Table 93 and those after all losses are given in Table 9.4.

Table 9.3 Stresses at transfer

Zone Top stresses, I Bottom stresses, 1b


(N/mm2) (N/mm2)

max. mm. max. mm.

(support)
42 — — 1.83

1—2
15 2.21 40 2.20
(span)
2 &81 — — 134
(support)
2 — —
4.10 0.97
(support)

2—3
3.07 1.23 4.66 2.29
(span)

3 4.45 — — 0.53
(support)

'f
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Table 9.4 Stresses after all losses

Rare loading

Top stresses, f Bottom stresses, fb


zone (N/mm2) (N/mm2)

max. mm. max. mm.


1
—2.53 &75
(support)
1—2
5.64 1.91 305 —1.73
(span)
2 —4.19 108
(support)
2 —331 9.82
(support)
2—3 4.68 093 4.31 —050
(span)
3 —2.95 9.30
(support)

Frequent loading

Top stresses, 1 f
Bottom stresses, b
Zone (N/mm2) (N/mm2)

max mm. max. mm

1
—087 6.62
(support)
1—2
437 2.19 269 —010
(span)
2 —1.96 a02
(support)
2 —1.17 700
(support)
2—3
344 1.19 398 1.09
(span)
3 —0.77 648
(support)

Quasi-permanentloading
lopstresses, 1 Bottom stresses, fb
Zone (N/mm2) (N/mm2)

max. mm max. mm.


1
038 5.02
(support)
1—2
341 2.19 269 1.13
(span)
2 —029 5.87
(support)
2 0.48 4.89
(support)
2—3
2.81 138 373 1.89
(span)
3 —0.87 438
(support)
PESTESSED COCRErE

9.3.7 Allowable compressive stresses 4.4.1

To prevent longitudinal cracks the compressive stress under rare load


combinations should not exceed

°•6Ck
= 0.6 x 32 = 19.2 N/mm2 4.4.1.1(2)
The maximum stress from Table 9.4 is 10.8 N/mm2 OK
To control creep thecompressivestress under quasi-permanentloading should
not exceed
= 0.45 x 32 = 14.4 N/mm2 4.4.1.1(3)
The maximum stress from Table 9.4 is 5.87 N/mm2 OK

9.3.8 Limit state of cracking


No check is required at transfer since beam is totally in compression.
Design crack width for post-tensioned member under frequent load
combinations

= 0.2 mm 4.4.2.1
Wk
Table 4.10
The method adopted to determine the minimum reinforcement required is to 4.4.1.2.(5)
carry out arigorous calculationofthe crackwidth where theflexuraltensilestress 4.4.1.2(7)
under rare loads exceeds 3 N/mm2. If the calculated crack width under 4.4.2.4
frequent loads does not exceed 0.2 mm then furtherbonded reinforcementis
not required.
From Table 9.4 the stress at support 2 under the rare load combination is
—4.19 N/mm2 and hence a more detailed calculation is required. As this
example is a beam, at leasttwo longitudinal bars at the top and bottom are
required to hold the links in place.
For this analysis include 2116s in the top of the beam.

Wk
= /3Srmsm Eqn 4.80

/3 = 1.7 for load induced cracking 4.4.2.4(2)

The value of Srm can be conservatively calculated as

S = h — x 4.4.2.4(8)

The value of sm can be conservatively calculated as

= ._! Eqn 4.81

The values of a9 and x, the neutral axis depth, for this example were
determined from computer analysis assuming linear stress/strainrelationships
and no tension from the concrete.
Applied moment = —377.6 kNm (frequent load case)

x = 213mm
= —95.8 N/mm2
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

95.8
Hence wk = 1.7 x (350 — 213) x = 0.11 < 0.2 mm . . OK
200x103

9.3.9 Calculation of prestress losses per tendon


Pm,t = P0 - C
- iP (x) - SI
- P(t) 2.5.4.2
Eqn 2.19
P = P — - XP (x) - 4.2.3.5.4
C SI
Eqn 4.8
9.3.9.1 Short term losses 4.2.3.5.5
(5—8)
9.3.9.1.1 Loss due to elastic deformation 4.2.3.5.5(6)

E5 190
Modular ratio = = = 6.55
E.CI 29

Maximum stress in concreteadjacent to tendons at transfer occurs at middle


of span 2—3.
From Table 9.3, stress at level of tendons

= 4.66 —
(4.66 —
1.23) = 4.05 N/mm2
350

Average loss of force due to elastic deformation of concrete

C
= 0.5 x 4.05 x 6.55 x 150 x iO = 1.99 kN

Theloss, which hasbeen conservativelybased on the maximum concrete stress


rather than the stress averaged along the length of the tendon, is only 1% of
the jacking force and will be neglected.

9.3.9.1.2 Loss due to friction 4.2.3.5.5(8)

P(x) = P (1 — e lL(O+kx)) Eqn 4.9

P0
= jacking force = 199.1 kN

= 0.19 (recommended for strand)

k = 0.0085 (from Posttensioned concrete floors: Design handbook)

8a
0 = for each span

x = 7.2 m for each span

Span 1—2
0 = 4x30 +
8x141
+
4x40 =0.392
1440 5760 1440

= 199.1(1
— e°19°392 + 0.0085 x 7.2)) = 16.4 kN

Therefore

P2
= 199.1 — 16.4 = 182.7 kN
STSSED C0t4CRErE

Span 2—3
8 = 8x45 +
8x180 = 0.500
1440 5760

= 199.1(1 — e°19892 + 00085 x 144)) = 34.9 kN

Therefore

P3
= 199.1 — 34.9 = 164.2 kN

93.9.1.3 Loss due to wedge set (/, = 6 mm)


= 2p'l'

where
199.1 — 164.2
p' = = 242 kN/m

I
14.4

ii =
J
E
isis
p'
Ap
=
J
0.006 x 190 x 150
______________
2.4
= 4m
si
= 2 x 2.42 x 8.4 = 40.7 kN

The resulting force profile is shown in Figure 9.4.

8400
I
Jacking 2
199

158 4 Trn
1312
—— — 47'2 I352
inaI C ALL forces in kN

Figure 9.4 Force profiles

9.3.9.1.4 Percentage losses at transfer

199.1 — 158.4
At 1: x 100 = 20.4%
199.1

199.1 — 175.8
At2: x 100 = 11.7%
199.1

199.1 — 164.2
At3: x 100 = 17.5%
199.1

Average loss = 16.5% (15% assumed) OK


PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

9.3.9.2 Long term losses

93.9.2.1 Creep and shrinkage data al.2.5.5


Notional size of section from Figure 9.2,

2A
— = 2(2508 x 110 + 1500 x 240) = 230mm
u 2(2508 + 240)
For inside conditions and transfer at 7 days,

= 3.0 Table 33
(oo,t0)
e(oo) = 0.00058 Table 4
9.3.9.2.2 Relaxation data 4.23.4.1(2)
Table 4.8
Long term class 2 relaxation loss for initial stress of 0•67pk immediately after NAD
transfer Table 3
= 1.5 x 0.02a0 =
O.O3a

9.3.9.2.3 Loss due to creep, shrinkage and relaxation

ç(t,t0) E8 ÷ + a(t,t0)(o +
= 4.2.3.5.5(9)
"rc+8+r
1 +c
A
—- 1 +
Az2 CP + 0.8(t,t0)1 Eqn 410
[1
A0

E 190
a
Ecm 32

= 0
At1:z0
Therefore
= 0
0cg

=
11 x 158.4 x iO = 2.74 N/mm2
CO
635880

At 2: = 287.5 — 196 = 91.5 mm

= 6.79 X 10
wC = = 74.2 x 106 mm3
91.5

M P
1
cg
+ocpa = —+—
w0 A
Using moment and force at transfer
(6.17 + 3038) x 106 11 x 175.8 x
a-I-a = +
cg cpo
74.2 x 106 635880
= 0.49 + 3.04 = 3.53 N/mm2
= 91.5mm
At3:z
= 74.2x 106 mm3
W,
49.36 x 106 11 x 164.2 x iO
0+0 = +
cg CO
74.2 x 106 635880

= 0.67 + 2.84 = 3.51 N/mm2

Losses of prestress
0.00058 x 190 x iO + 31.7 + 5.94 x 3 x 2.74
____________________________
Atl:Aa p.c+s+r =
1+ 5.94 x 1650 1 + 635880 x 02 (1 +0.8x3)
635880 6.79 x iO


110.2+ 31.7 + 48.8
1 + 5.24 x 10-2(1 + 9.36 x 1O x 02)
190.7 =
= 181.2 N/mm2
1.052

IP(t) = 181.2 x 150 x iO = 27.2 kN

110.2 + 35.2 + 5.94 x 3 x 3.53


At2:a =
1 + 5.24 x 10_2 (1 + 9.36 x x 91.52) i0
= 20&3 = 190.6 N/mm2
1.093

P(t) = 190.6 x 150 x 1O = 28.6 kN

At3:ap,c+s+r = 110.2 + 32.8 + 5.94 x 3 x 3.81


1.093

210.9
= = 193.0 N/mm2
1.093

P(t) = 193.0 x 150 x iO = 29.0 kN

Final forces at service (see Figure 9.4)


At 1: = 15a4 — 27.2 = 131.2 kN

At 2: P = 175.8 — 28.6 = 147.2 kN

At 3: P 164.2 — 29.0 = 135.2 kN

9.3.9.2.4 Percentage losses at service

199.1 — 131.2
At 1: x 100 = 34.1%
199.1

199.1 — 147.2
At2: x 100 = 26.1%
199.1
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

199.1 — 135.2
At 3: x 100 = 32.1%
199.1

Average loss = 30.8% (30% assumed) OK

9.4 Ultimate limit state


9.4.1 Calculation of applied moments 4.3.1.1 P(2),
P(4) & P(6)
Partial safety factors 2.33.1
= = = Table 2.2
1.35, 1.5, 1.0
2.5.4.4.1(2)
Load cases — as for serviceability 2.5.1.2

9.4.2 Calculation of resistance moments 4.3.1.2P(1)

The section may be analysed as shown in Figure 9.5.


Rectangular stress block for concrete in compression with

-
4.3.1.2(4)
4.2.1.3.3(12)
a = 0.85, fCd = 21.3 N/mm2 Figure 4.4
1.5

F5 pd A

—O•4 xl
d

I 08x1
cd

Figure 9.5 Analysis of section at ultimate limit state

Horizontal top branch to stress-strain curve for prestressing steel with

-
4.2.3.3.3
Figure 4.6
fpd = og = 0.9 x 1770
= 1385 N/mm2
1.15

For stress to reach maximum design value

1385
Minimum strain, = 0.0073
E3 190x103

=1
SSE COI4CRETE

139.4
Prestrain = 0.0049
pm
AE 150 x 190
Increment, = 0.0073 — 0.0049 = 0.0024

Maximum neutral axis/effectivedepth ratio

0.0035 = 0.593
d 0.0035 + 0.0024

For values of x 0.593d

FS = fpdA p
= 1385 x 11 x 150 x i0 = 2285 kN

MRd
= F(d — 0.4x) = 2.285(d — 0.4x) kNm

where

=
afCdb(O.8x
= 0.85 x 213 x 0.8bx = 14.Sbx

=
F F5 gives

x iO =
x= 2285
14.5b
157600
b
mm

At support 1: b = 1500 mm, d = 196 mm


157600
x = = 105mm
1500

= = 0.536 < 0.593 OK


d 196

MRd =
— 0.4
2.285(196 x 105) = 351.9 kNm

At supports 2 and 3: b = 1500mm, d = 287.5 mm



MRd= 2.285(287.5 0.4 x 105) = 561.0 kNm

In spans: b = 2508 mm, d = 287.5 mm

157600
x = = 63 mm <h = 110 mm OK
2508

MAd
= 2.285(287.5 — 0.4 x 63) = 599.4 kNm

9.4.3 Comparison of moments


Thecalculation of the moments due to the applied loads (y = 135, vo = 1.5)
is notshown here.These moments are combined withthe secondary moments
due to prestressing (;
= 1.0) and compared with theresistance moments at
each position. The results are summarized in Table 9.5.
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Table 9.5 Moments at ultimate limit state

Zone Secondary Moments from Applied Resistance


moments ultimate loads moments moments, MRd
(kNm) (kNm) (kNm) (kNm)
1
122.0 —461.1 —339.1 —351.9
(support)
1—2
836 350.8 434.4 599.4
(span)
2
45.1 —673.9 —628.8 —561.0
(support)
2
62.6 —628.1 —565.5 —561.0
(support)
2—3
67.4 309.4 376.8 599.4
(span)
3
72.2 —604.4 —532.2 —561.0
(support)

The resistancemoment is inadequate at support 2 and additionalreinforcement


is required.
Since

M = F(d — 0.4x) = 14.5bx(d — 0.4x),

x2_2.5dx+2.5M = 0
14.5b

Hence
M
x = 1.25 1_Il— 9.06bd d
4

x 106
= 1.25 1 —
j i —
628.8
9.06 x 1500 x 287.52 287.5 = 121 mm

x = 121
d 287.5
= 0.421 < 0.593 OK

= M 628.8 x iO = 2630 kN
F
d — 0.4x 287.5 — 0.4 x 121
Additional area of reinforcement required

AS = F —
A. = (2630

2285)10 = 863 mm2
400

2116 and 2T20 gives 1030 > 863 mm2 OK

Use 2116 top and bottom throughout beam with additional 2120 top at
support2
SThESSD cot4cRErE

9.5 Minimum and maximum areas of reinforcement 5.4.2.1.1

Although it is not clear whatshould be assumed from EC21, the total area of
steel has been taken as the sum of the untensioned and tensioned steel.
As+p = AS -i-Ap
= (2 x 201) + (11 x 150) = 2052 mm2

9.5.1 Minimum
Minimum area of total tension reinforcement

0.6bd Eqn 5.14


1 0.0015bd

At support, b = 2508 mm

= 0.6 x 2508 x 290 = 948 mm2


Minimum area
460

0.00.15 x 2508 x 290 = 1090 mm2

Area provided = 2052 > 1090 mm2 OK

9.5.2 Maximum
Maximum area of total tension and compression reinforcement

= 0.04A = 0.04 x 635880 = 25435 > 2052 mm2 .... OK

9.6 Reinforcement summary

tendons throughout beam


11

2116stop and bottom throughout beam.Additional 2120stop at support 2

These areas are within maximum and minimum limita


j
U
SERV(CEBIL1TY CHECKS BY CALCULATION

10.1 Deflection
Calculatethe longtermdeflectionor a 7.0 m span simply supported beam whose
section is shown in Figure 10.1. The beam supports the interior floor spans of
an office building.

1650 d': 50
___
I'S
I I

_1_

Figure 10.1 Beam section

Deflections will be calculated using the rigorous and simplified methods given
in EC21, together with an alternative simplified method. The results will then
be compared with the limiting span/effective depth ratios given in EC2.

10.1.1 Design data

Span = 7.0 m
= 19.7 kN/m
= 19.5 kNIm
A'9 = 402 mm2
= 2410 mm2
A9
= 30 N/mm2 (concrete strength class C30/37) a-i.2.4
Table 3.-i

10.t2 Calculation method


The requirements for the calculation of deflections are given in Section 4.4.3
and Appendix4 of EC2.
Two limiting conditions are assumed to exist for the deformation of concrete A4.3(1)
sections

(1) Uncracked
(2) Cracked.
Members which are not expected to be loaded above the level which would A4.3(2)
causethe tensile strength of the concrete to be exceeded, anywhere in the
membe will be considered to be uncracked. Members which are expected
to crackwill behave in a manner intermediatebetween the uncracked and fully
cracked conditions.
For memberssubjecteddominantlytoflexure, the Codegives ageneral equation
for obtaining the intermediate value of any parameter between the limiting
conditions

InI
SCE&BUTY CIBCKS BY CALCULATION

a = + (1

a1 A43(2)
Eqn A.4.1
where
a is the parameter being considered
a1 and a are the values of the parameter calculated for the uncracked
and fully cracked conditions respectively
is a distribution coeffient given by

= —
a 2
1 ,a2 A43(2)
Eqn A.4.2
Theeffectsof creep are catered forby the useof an effective modulus ofelasticity
for the concretegiven by
Ecm
E = A43.(2)
1 + Eqn A.43
Bond and deterioration of bond undersustained or repeated loading is taken
account of by coefficients and in Eqn A.4.2
Curvatures due to shrinkage may be assessed from
caS
r
1
— 0 CS
=
I A4.3(2)
Eqn A.4.4
Shrinkage curvatures should becalculated forthe uncracked and fully cracked
conditions and the final curvature assessed by use of Eqn A.4.1.
In accordance with theCode, the rigorous method of assessing deflections is
to calculatethe curvaturesatfrequent sectionsalong the member and calculate
the deflections by numerical integration.
Thesimplified approach, suggested by theCode, is to calculate the deflection
assuming firstly the whole member to be uncracked and secondly the whole
member to be cracked. Eqn A.4.1 is used to assess the final deflection.

10.1.3 Rigorous assessment


The procedure is, at frequent intervals along the member, to calculate
(1) Moments
(2) Curvatures
(3) Deflections.
Here, calculations will be carried out atthe mid-span position only, to illustrate
this procedure, with values at other positions alongthe span being tabulated.

10.1.3.1 Calculation of moments


For buildings, it will normally be satisfactory to consider the deflections under A4.2(5)
thequasi-permanentcombination of loading, assuming this loadto be of long
duration.
Thequasi-permanentcombinationof loading is given,forone variableaction, by

Gk + 2.3.4 P(2)
Eqn 2.9(c)
SWJ1CEABLTY CHECKS BY CALCULATION

= 0.3 NAD
1'2
Table 1
Therefore

Loading = 19.7 + (03 x 19.5) = 25.6 kN/m

Mid-span bending moment (M) = 25.6 x 72/8 = 156.8 kNm

10.1.3.2 Calculation of curvatures


In order to calculatethe curvaturesit is first necessaryto calculate the properties
of the uncracked and cracked sections and determine the moment at which
cracking will occur.

10.1.3.2.1 Flexural curvature


Ecm
The effective modulus of elasticity (Eeff) A43(2)
1 + çb Eqn A.43
For concrete strength class C30/37, Ecm = 32 kN/mm2 3.1.2.5.2
Table 3.2

= 2 [(1650 x 150) + (250 x 300)1 = 165 mm


U 2(1650 + 300)

For internal conditions and age at loading of 7 days 3.1.2.5.5


Table 33
= 3.1

Therefore
32
ECff = = 7.8 kN/mm2
1+3.1
E
Effective modularratio (cx)
e
= —a-
Eeff

Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement (E = 200 kN/mm2 3.2.43(1)

==
Therefore

a 25.64
7.8

AS 2410
= = 3.75x103
bd 1650 x 390

A' 402
p' = — = = 6.25x 10
bd 1650 x 390
For the uncracked section, the depth to the neutral axis is given by

bh2/2— (b — b)(h — h
('iLf +hf) + (ae 1) (A'd' +Ad) = 165.2mm

x = ______________________________
bhf + b(h h + (cxe (A's +
— — 1)
bEWV1CEAB1UTI CHECKSBY CALCULATION

The second moment of the area of the uncracked section is given by

=
bh3 b(h—h)3 +
+
12 bh (x — h/2)2 + b(h — hf)

2
h+h — x + (Oe_1) A'8(x—d')2+ (ae1) A(d—x)2 = 7535 x lO mm4
2
For the cracked section the depth to the neutral axis is given by

÷ (ae — l)p'] +
+j[aeP + (ae 1)p']2 2[aep+(a
— — —
1)p']
x = 0.345d = 134.6 mm

The second moment of area of the cracked section is given by


r 3 x2 2
— = —
1 x—
+apl—— +(ae ,x d'
—1)p--——
bcP 3d e
d d d
= 0.0556bc13 = 5448 x 106 mm4

The moment which will cause crackingof the section is given by

Mcr
yt
= h — x = 450 — 165.2 = 284.8 mm

For concrete strength grade C30137, ç = 2.9 N/mm2 3.1.2.4


Table 3.1
Therefore

Mcr = 2.9 x 7535 x 106 x 10-6 = 76.7 kNm


284.8

The section is considered to be cracked, since


Mcr < M = 156.8 kNm

Curvature of the uncracked section is given by

1
— M
____ = 156.8 x 106
= 2.668 x 10- rad./mm
, EI1 7.8 x x 7535 x 106

Curvature of the cracked section is given by


1
— = M
= 156.8 x 106 = 3.690 x 10-6 rad./mm
r. E6In 7.8 x x 5448 x 106

Having obtained the values for the two limiting conditions Eqn A.4.1 is used
to assess the intermediate va'ue.
Hence

= + —
3 (1 3I A43(2)
Eqn A.4.1
SE%CEAB%UTY CHECKSBY CALCULATION

= 1

For high bond bars, ?3


= 1.0
For sustained loading, = 0.5
is the stress in the tension steel calculated on the basis of a cracked section

Therefore

— aeM (d
— x)


x x
25.64 156.8 106 (390 — 134.6) = 188.5 N/mm2
S
5448x106
a is the stress in the tension steel calculated on the basis of a cracked section
underthe loading which will just cause cracking at the section considered.

Therefore

= aM.(d — x)
sr

= 25.64 x 76.7 x 106(390 — 134.6) = 92.2 N/mm2


5448 x 106

Therefore
= 92.2 2 =
1 — 0.5 0.88
188.5

Note:
a— M
may be replaced by .— in the above calculation
M
1 = [(0.88 x 69) + (1—a88) x 2.668] x 10-6 = 567 x 10-6 rad./mm

10.1.3.2.2 Shrinkagecurvature
The shrinkage curvature is given by

= A.43.2
'cs Eqn A.4.4
where
is the free shrinkage strain

For internal conditions and 2.401u = 165 mm 3.1.2.5.5


= 0.60 i0- Table 3.4

S is the firstmoment of area ofthereinforcementaboutthecentroid ofthe


section.
I is the second moment of area of the section.
SandIshould becalculatedfor both the uncrackedandfullycracked conditions
Curvature of the uncracked section

S1
= A(d — x) —
A'5(x

d') = 495.5 x iO mm3
SERVICEABU.VTYChECKS WI CALCULATION

1
— = 0.60 x iO x 25.64 x 495.5 x i0 = 1.0 x 10-6 rad./mm
r1 7535 x 106
Curvature of the cracked section

S11
= A(d — x) A' (x d') = 581.5 x iO mm3

0.60 x iO x 25.64 x 581.5 x io



1
= = 1.64 x 10 6rad./mm
rcsrl 5448 x 106
Therefore
1
— = -x— 1
+ (1 —
)x —
1

= [(0.88 x 1.64) + (1 — 0.88) x 1.0] x 10_6 = 1.563 x 10_6 rad./mm


Thetotal curvature at mid-span
1. = .1 ÷ 1 = (3.567 + 1.563) x 10-6 = 5.130 x lO6rad./mm
r

Theflexural, shrinkage and total curvatures at positions xli along thespan are
given in Table 10.1.

Table 10.1 Curvatures x 106 (rad./mm)


xli
Moment
(kNm)
1 1
7
1
-r i
1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 1.000 1000
0.1 56.4 0960 — — 0.960 1.000 1.960

0.2 100.4 1.708 0.708 2.171 1 453 3.624

0.3 131.7 2.241 3.100 0830 '2.954 1.531 4485


0.4 150.5 2.561 3.542 0870 3.414 1 557 4.971

0.5 156.8 2.668 3.690 0.880 3.567 1 563 5.130


06 150.5 2.561 3.542 0.870 3.414 1.557 4971
0.7 131.7 2.241 3.100 0.830 2954 1.531 4.485
0.8 100.4 1.708 2.363 0708 2.171 1.453 3624
0.9 56.4 0.960 — — 0.960 1.000 1.960

1.0 0 0 0 0 0 1.000 1.000

10.1.3.3 Calculation of deflections

Having calculated the total curvatures, the deflections may be calculated by


numerical integration using the trapezoidal rule.

by
= e1 +
1
7+7
2
1

'
Theuncorrected rotation at anypoint may be obtained by thefirstintegralgiven

InI
SERVICEABIUTYCHECKSBY CALCULATION

Having calculated the uncorrected rotations,the uncorrected deflections may


be obtained by the second integral given by

aX =ax1 +e÷e1
2
I
n
where the subscript x denotes the values of the parameters at the fraction of
the span being considered, and the subscript x—1 denotes the values of the
parameters at the preceding fraction of the span.
l is the span
n is the number of span divisions considered.
Hence the uncorrected rotation at 0.11

_1__
+ r0 1
e = e0 + r0.11
0.11
2 n

= 0+ 1.96 + 1.0 10-6 x = 1.036 x iO rad.


2 10

and the uncorrected deflection at 0.11

= +
a0.11 a0
(e0.11+ e)i
= a ÷
(1.036+ 0)
io x 7000 =
0363 mm

Theuncorrecteddeflectionsmaythen becorrectedtocomplywiththe boundary


conditions of zero deflection at both supports. Thisis done by subtracting from
theuncorrected deflectionsthe valueof the uncorrected deflection at the right
hand support multiplied bythe fractionofthe span at thepointbeing considered.
Thevalues of the uncorrected rotations, uncorrected and corrected deflections
at positions xli along the span are given in Table 10.2.

Table 10.2 Deflections (mm)

1x106 1st 2nd


xli r integral integral Correction Deflection
x108
0 1.000 0 0 0 0
0.1 1.960 1.036 0.363 8.871 — 8.508

0.2 3.624 2.990 1.772 17.742 —15.970

0.3 4.485 5.828 4.858 26.613 —21.755


0.4 4.971 9.138 10.096 35.484 —25.388
0.5 5.130 12.673 17.730 44.356 —26.626
0.6 4.971 16.208 27.838 53.227 —25.388
0.7 4.485 19.518 40.342 62.098 —21.755

0.8 3.624 22.356 54.998 70.969 —15.970


0.9 1.960 24.310 71.331 79.840 — 8.508

1.0 1.000 25.346 88.711 88.711 0


5EWUCIkBfl.%TYCHECKSBY CALCULATiON

Maximum deflection at mid-span


.
= 26.6 mm = span < .imitof span = 28mm
atot
263 250

10.1.4 Simplified approach

The procedure for this approach is to


(1) Calculate the maximum bending moment and the moment causing
cracking
(2) Calculate the maximum deflections for the uncracked and fully cracked
conditions, and use Eqn A.4.1 to assess the final maximum deflection.

From Section 10.1.3.2.1the maximum bending moment M = 156.8 kNm, and


the moment causing cracking Mcr = 76.7 kNm.

The maximum deflection of the uncracked sectiondue to flexure


5w14
=
81 384Eeff I I
w = 25.6 kN/m

1 = 7.Om

E = 7.8 kN/mm2

= 7535 x 106 mm4

Therefore

a = 5x 25.6 x 74 x 1012 = 13.6mm


384 x 7.8 x i0 x 7535 x 106

The maximum deflection of the cracked section due to flexure

5w14
aII =
384Eeff II I
I = 5448 x 106 mm4
Therefore
a = 5x 25.6 x 74 x 1012 = 18.8mm
384 x 7.8 x x 5448 x 106

Final maximum deflection due to flexure

a = rail + (1

)a1 A4.3(2)
Eqn A.4.1
=
M
SEVICEABILITYCHECKS BY CALCULATION

= 1.0
= 0.5

Therefore
= 1 — 0.5 = 0.88
(7• )2
Therefore
a = (0.88 x 18.8) + (1 —
0.88) x 13.6 18.2 mm

It must be appreciated that the deflection calculated above is due to flexure


only. The additional deflection due to shrinkage must also be assessed. The
shrinkage curvature at mid-span from Section 10.1.3.2

= 1.563 x 10-6 rad./mm

aCs =——1
1 1 2 = 1.563x106x72x106 = 9.6mm
8 r5 8

a0 = a + a5 = 182 + 9.6 = 27.8 mm

This figure is close to the rigorously assessed value of 26.6 mm.

10.1.5 Alternative simplified approach


An alternative simplified approach, which directlytakes account of shrinkage, BS 8110:
is given in BS 8110(2). Part 2
Section 3
The procedure here is to calculate the total curvature at one point, generally
the point of maximum moment. Then, assuming the shape of the curvature
diagram to be the same as the shape of the bending momentdiagram, the

I
deflection is given by

a = K12 BS 8110:
rtot Part 2
where 3.7.2
Eqn 11
K is a factor dependent upon the shape of the being moment diagram.
For a simply supported beam with uniformly distributed load
K = 0.104 BS 8110:
Part 2
Total curvature at mid-span, from Section lOi.3.2

1 Table ai
= 5.130 x 10- 6 rad./mm
rtot

Therefore maximum deflection at mid-span

= 0.104 x 72 x 5.130 = 26.2 mm

Again this is close to the rigorously assessed value.


S'JCE.V1UTY C1ECK5 BY CALCULATiON

10.1.6 Comparison with span/effective depth ratio

The procedure for limiting deflections by use of span/effectivedepth ratios is


set out in EC2 Section 4.4.3.
For the example considered

A8req = 2392 mm2 = 2410 mm2


Aspr
lOOAprov 100 X 2410 =
= = 027%
bd 1650 x 390

Therefore the concrete is lightly stressed, p 0.5% 4.43.2(5)(c)

The NAD1 introduces a category of nominally reinforced concrete NAD 6.4(e)


corresponding to p = 0.15%

Basic span/effectivedepth ratio for a simply supported beam, interpolating for


p = 0.37%
1 NAD
= 28
d Table7

For flanged beams where b/b > 3.0 the basic span/effective depth ratio 4.43.2(3)
should be multiplied by a factor of 0.8
Thespan/effectivedepth ratios givenin NADTable7 are based on a maximum
service stress in the reinforcement in a cracked section of 250 N/mm2. The
tabulated values should be multiplied by the factor of 250/as for other stress
levels, where is the service stress at the cracked section underthe frequent
load combination. Asa conservativeassumptionthe Codestates that thefactor
may be taken as

250 -

fg 400
A
yk A
s,prov

Therefore, for this example, allowable span/effective depth ratio

- = 28 x 0.8
(460 x 2392/2410)
= 19.6

(allowable) = 19.6 > (actual) = 7000 = 180


390

If the span/effective depth ratio is modified using the service stress in the
reinforcementas calculated in Section 10.1.3.2.1 but adjusted for the frequent
load combination

= 188.5 x 31.4/25.6 = 231 N/mm2

(allowable) = 28 x 0.8 x 250 = 21.6 > 18.0 (actual)


I
--.-
SERVICEABILITYCHECKS BY CALCULATION

It canbe seen from this examplethat whilstthe span/effectivedepth ratio based


on the calculated steel service stress suggests that the deflection should be
wellwithin the prescribed limits, the deflection fromthe rigorous and simplified
analysis proves to be much nearer to the limit of span/250.
Thisis due to the contribution to the deflection from shrinkage, which in this
example is approximately a third of the total deflection.
Thevalues of shrinkage strain given in EC2 Table 3.4 relateto concrete having 3.1.2.5.5(4)
a plastic consistence of classes S2 and S3 as specified in ENV 206(6). For ENV 206
concrete of class Si and class S4 the values given in the Table should be 7.2.1
multiplied by 0.7 and 1.2 respectively.
Table 4 of ENV 206 categorises the class in relation to slump as given in
Table 10.3.

Table 10.3 Slump classes ENV 206


7.2.1
Class Slump (mm) Table 4
Si 10— 40
S2 50— 90
S3 100 — 150
34 160

Thus forclasses S2 and S3 the slumpmayvarybetween 50 mm and 150 mm.


It is not logical that mixes withthis variationofslump, and hence w/c ratio,should
have a standard value of shrinkage strain.
If thevalues in EC2 Table 3.4are assumed to relate to the median slumpfor
classes 82 and S3 of 100 mm, then the values for slumps of 40 mm to
100 mm should be multiplied by afactor between 0.7 and 1.0 and values for
slumps of 100 mm to 160 mm should be multiplied by a factor between 1.0
and 1.2.
As most normal mixes will have a slump in the order of 50 mm the values of
shrinkage strain for the example considered would be:

0.60 x iO 0.7 + < 10


(1 0.7)
= (0.60 x 10 x 0.75 = 0.45 x iO
Thisfigure relates more closely to thevalue whichwould be given in BS 8110, BS 8110:
for the same example, of 0.4 x iO. Part 2
7.4
For the example considered, thecalculated deflection due to shrinkage from
Figure 7.2
the rigorous assessment would be
9.1 x 0.75 = 6.8 mm

and the total deflection from the rigorous assessment would be

= 26.6 — 9.1 + 6.8 = 24.3 mm

This is well within the limit of span = 28 mm


250
MCfABUTY C1BCIS BY CALCULATION

10.2 Cracking
Check by calculation that the longitudinal reinforcement in the reinforced
concrete wall section shown in Figure 10.2 is sufficient to control crackingdue
to restraint of intrinsic deformation resulting in pure tension.

T16— 200

T12— 125

Figure 10.2 WaIl section

10.2.1 Design data


Concrete strength class is C30/37.
Cover to reinforcement = 35 mm NAD
= Table 6
High bond bars with 460 N/mm2
Exposure class 2(a)

10.2.2 Calculation method


Requirementsfor the control ofcrackingare given in EC2 Section 4.4.2.Crack
control is normally achieved by the application of simple detailing rules.
Theprocedure forthe calculation of crack widths isfirstto calculate the stress
and hence the strain in the reinforcement, taking into account the bond
properties ofthe bars and theduration of loading. Next, the averagefinal crack
spacingdependent on the type, size and disposition of the reinforcement and
the form of strain distribution is established.
Thedesign crackwidth maythen be obtained and compared with thelimiting
design crack width. In the absence of specific requirements, a limiting crack 4.4.2.1(6)
width of 0.3 mm will generally be satisfactoryfor reinforced concrete members
in buildings with respect to both appearance and durability.

10.2.3 Checkby calculation


10.2.3.1 Calculation of steel stress and strain
Steel stress:

= kkfcffAt 4.4.2.2(3)
A S Eqn 4.78
where
= area of reinforcement within the tensile zone
= 905 x 2 = 1810 mm2/m
SERV(CEABIUTYCHECKS BY CALCULATION

A0 = area of concrete within tensile zone


= 1000 x 200 = 200 x iO mm2

k = a coefficient taking account of stress distribution


= 1.0 for pure tension
k = a coefficientallowing fortheeffect of non-uniformself-equilibrating
stresses
= 0.8 for tensile stresses due to restraint of intrinsic deformations
(h 300 mm)
= tensile strength of concrete effective at first cracking
ct,eff
= 3.8 N/mm2 (taking but see Section 10.2.3.4) 3.1 .2.4(3)
095
Table 3.1
Therefore

a$ = 1.0 x 0.8 x 8
x 200 x iO
_____________________ = 336 N/mm2
1810

Mean strain:

sm = _ 1
fl1f2 4.4.2.4(2)
E (a)2
a Eqn 4.81

where

E modulus of elasticity of steel


= 200 kN/mm2 3.2.4.3(1)
= a coefficient taking account of bond properties of the bars
= 1.0 for high bond bars
= a coefficient taking account of load duration
= 0.5
= the stressin the reinforcementbased on a cracked section under
asr
the load causing first cracking
= a for intrinsic imposed deformation
Therefore

200
336
x io
1 — 0.5 = 8.4 x i0
10.2.3.2 Calculation of crack spacing

The average final crack spacing

srm = 50 + 0.25 k12


k 4.4.2.4(3)
Eqn4.82
where

Ic
= a coefficient taking account of the bond properties of the bar
= 0.8 for high bond bars
MUTYCCKS Y CALCULATION
In the caseof imposed deformations,k1 should be multiplied by k, with k being
in accordance with EC2 Section 4.4.2.2.(3).

k2
= a coefficient taking account of the form of strain distribution
= 1.0 for pure tension
A
= the effective reinforcement ratio = —f--
ceff
= the effective tension area.
The effective tension area is generally the area of concrete surrounding the
tension reinforcementto a depth of2.5timesthe distancefromthetension face
to thecontroid ofthereinforcement or, for members in tension, halfthe actual
member thickness, whichever is the lesser. This is calculated as:

2.5 x (35 + 12/2) = 103 h/2 = 100 mm

Therefore

Aff= 1000 x 100 = 100 x iO mm2


1810
= = 0.009
2x 100 x io
= 50+ (0.25 x 0.8 x 0.8 x 1.0 x 12) =
srm 263mm
0.009

10.2.3.3 Calculation of crack width


The design crack width

Wk
= 13S€ 4.4.2.4
Eqn 4.80
where
= a coefficient relating the average crack width to the design value
= 1.3 for restraint cracking in members with a minimum dimension
of 300 mm or less.
Therefore

Wk
= 1.3 x 263 x 8.4 x iO = 0.29 < 03 mm (limit)

10.2.3.4 Concluding remark


The Code suggests a minimum value of 3 N/mm2 be taken when the time of
cracking cannot be confidently predictedas being less than 28 days.
Whilst the values given for seem high, it is difficult at the design stage to
assessaccurately the as pladed concrete strength because this often exceeds
theclass specified. Consequently,unlessstrictsite control is exercised,it would
be prudent to adopt the apparentlyconservativefigures givenin EC2 Table3.1.
j
U
DEEP BEAMS

11,1 Introduction
The design of deep beams may be based on analyses applying:

(a) linear elastic analysis; 2.5.1.1(5)


2.5.3.7.3
(b) an equivalent truss consisting of concrete struts and arches with
reinforcement, all preferably following the elastic field;
(c) non-linear analysis.

In EC21 details of theanalysis model and, therefore, much of the design are
notgiven and it is leftfor the Engineerto satisfythe principal Code requirements.
This can be achieved using CIRIA Guide 2, The design of deep beams in
reinforced concrete18, which also provides recommendations on the detailed
analysisand design. TheGuide was written for usewith the then current British
Standard CP 110(19).
Here it has been assumed that a complete design to the CIRIA Guidewould
be carried out and then checks made to demonstrate compliance with the
specific clauses for deep beams in EC2.
To highlight some of the differences between EC2 and design to the CIRIA
Guide, the example in Appendix B of the Guide has been used.
A small number of EC2 clauses have been identified as relating specifically to
deep beams:

(a) 2.5.2.1(2) — definition of deep beams



(b) 2.5.3.7.3 analysis modelling
(c) 4.4.23(4) — skin reinforcement

(d) 5.4.5 reinforcement detailing

11.2 Example
A proposed arrangementof walls and columns is shown in Figure 11.1. Loading
details are presented in Figure 11.2. It is intended to justify a design using the
Simple Rules of Section 2 of the CIRIA Guide.
Thebeam is aflat vertical plate and thethickness is small compared with other CIRIA
dimensions. Guide 2
Cl.2.1.1(1)
There are two loads which may be defined as concentrated and no indirect Cl.2.1.1(4)
loads or supports. Cl.2.1.1(5)
In EC2 a beam is classified as a deep beam if the span is less than twice the 2.5.2.1(2)
depth.

CIRIA Guide2 classifies deep beams as 'Beams with span/depth ratios of less
than2 for single spanbeams or less than 2.5 for multi span beams',thusgiving
an extended range of elements to be designed as deep beams in comparison
with EC2.
DRIP BEMAS

1800
I 900
k—..1
200L
300
14220
1120 It
+ 300— d-

10 80
V
300
T 1

I
I
I

Iv 7140 300

300k
I I
I
-E
I
I
I
I -0
300
I-
30O iv
I 3600

iL
I

1
L2SO
1—1
25o.....:j1! 5000 00O 1O0O
I I I

ELEVATION

Figure 11.1 Structural arrangement

=
DEEP BEAMS

11e220
576 kNIm dead load
÷ 440 kNIm live load
475 kN
1' dead load 'I 475 kN
dead load

I kN/m dead load +440 kM/rn I live load


10680

Load bet ween faces of supports


-m
included in bending moment

I 57.6 kN/m dead load+ 440 kN/rn live load


7140
4,4,4,

786 kN/m self weight + I


(57.6 kNlm dead toad -F 440 kM/rn I live toad
4600 _+r 4r 4, 4,4,4, 4,4, 4,4,4,
4,f
'N
Figure 11.2 Loading details

11.2.1 Durability
For dry environment, exposure class is 1. Table 4.1
Minimum concretestrength class is C25/30. ENV 206
= 30 N/mm2 Table NA.1
The CIRIA Guide example uses
Use C25130 for design to EC2 to keep examples broadly consistent.
Minimum cement content and water cement ratio ENV 206
= 15 mm Table 3
Minimum coverto reinforcement NAD
Assume nominal aggregate size = 20 mm Table 6
Assume maximum bar size 20 mm
Nominal cover 20 mm NAD 6.4(a)

EU
'DEEP BEAWIS

Use 25 mm nominal cover

Check requirements for fire resistance to BS 8110: Part 2(2). NAD 6.1(a)

11.2.2 Materials

Type 2 deformed reinforcement with = 460 N/mm2 NAD 6.3(a)


Concrete strength class C25/30, nominal aggregate size 20 mm

11.2.3 Effective dimensions of beam CIRIA


Guide 2
Effective span (1) = 1 + (c112 0.1l) + (c2/2 0.1l) Cl.2.2.1

= 5000 + + 0.1 x 5000 = 5750 mm


2

Note that EC2 effective spans typicallycome to the mid-point of the supports. Figure 2.4

= lesser of h and I
Active height (ha)
h = 10920 > 1 = 5750 mm
Therefore
h = 5750 mm
Thickness of beam = 300 mm
This thickness is used to be consistent with the CIRIA Guide2 example. It will
be necessary under EC2 to demonstrate that the required reinforcement can
be accommodated within thiswidth. Theeffectivedimensions ofthebeam are
shown in Figure 113

Height of beam
h 10920

Effective span I 5750

Ii
Clear span 15000
.1502j

Figure 11.3 Effective dimensions of beam

=
DEEP BEAMS

11.2.4 Elastic stability — slenderness limits


The CIRIA Guide Simple Rules assume no reduction of capacity due to the
slenderness of the section or to lack of adequate restraint.Thisis valid if every
panel can be defined as braced and not slender.
In the examination of this condition, the CIRIA Guide states that the effective
height of each panel is taken to be 1.2 x the shortest distance betweencentres
of parallel lateral restraints(where there are effective lateral restraintsat all four
edges of the panel) or as 1.5 x the distance betweenthe centres of the parallel
lateral restraints(where one or two opposite edges of the panel are free). When
both rotational and lateral movements are restrained the effective height may
be taken as the clear distance between restraints.

In EC2 the demonstration is not quite as straightforward.

The floors are assumed to be held in position horizontally by an adequate 4.3.5.3.2


bracing system and are 'braced' in accordance with EC2.

The floor slabs are monolithic with the wall so the effective height, 10, is 4.3.5.a5
calculated fromthe relevant clauses in EC2 referring to columns. However the Eqn 4.60
design example does not give anyinformation on the adjacent structure so kA
cannot be calculated but =
ljl cannot exceed 1.0 and therefore
Figure 4.27

1 1.0 x 3540 = 3540 mm 43.53.5(1)

The wall is considered slender if X exceeds the greater of 25 or 15/j 4.3.5.3.5(2)

= radius of gyration = = 86 mm
300/f
X = l/l = 3540/86 = 41.2
=
NSIACfCd

Nsd say in lower storey (bottom loads not considered)

= 57.6x3x135+44x3x1.5+2x475x1.35/5.75
= 654 kN/m

= 654x io = 0.13
U
1000 x 300 x 25/1.5

15/f = 41.6 >X = 41.2

The wall is not slender

11.2.5 Loading
Loading details are shown in Figure 11.2 and evaluated in Tables 11.1 and 11.2.
DEEP BEAMS

Table 11.1 Characteristic loads

CIRIA
Total loads
(kN)m) (kNPm) Guide 2
Cl.2.3
Slab at level
14.220 44.0* 57.6* CI.2.a1
10.680 44.0* 57.6*
7.140 44.0 57.6
3.600 44.0 57.6
Self-weight 0.3 x 10.92 x 24 — 78.6

176.0 309.0

Point loads at level 14.220; 2 @ 475 kN*, which are considered as dead loads CIRIA
Vertical forces applied above a level of 3.30 + 0.75 x 5.75 = 7.620 are Guide 2
considered as top loading and loads below as hanging loads 01.23.1(1)
considered as top loads

In EC2 differing 'F values produce slightly different design forces to those in
CIRIA Guide 2
= 135, = 1.5

Ultimate distributed top load

Gk + = 1.5 x 88 + 1.35 x 115.2 = 288 kN/m

Table 11.2 Hanging loads

Loads applied within the depth of the beam


(kN!m) (kNPm)

Slab at level 7.140 44.0 57.6


— 76.6
Self-weight

44.0 136.2

Loads applied to the bottom ofthe beam

Slab at level 600 44.0 57.6

Total hanging load 86.0 198

The CIRIA Guide Simple Rules apply where the intenstty of any load is less CIRIA
than 0.2f0 and the load is applied over a length which exceeds 0.21. More Guide 2
intense loads and those applied over shorter lengths are considered to be 01.23.1(5)
'concentrated', in which case reference should be made to the Supplementary
Rules in the Guide.
To allow for design to EC2 where different values and concrete strength
classesare used, the check for load intensitymight reasonablybe made against
0.2

= 0.2x I
x ratio of

1.4
values

25 ck
x (u'k) x
= 0.23fck

Ultimate concentrated top load = 135


= 641 kN x 475
Allowing for 450 spread of load through thickness of slab
Load intensity = 641 x 10/(800 x 300) = 2.67 N/mm2

=
BEM4S

This loading is well below°23ck but, because the length of the loaded area
is lessthan 0.21 = 0.2 x 5750 = 1150mm, some additional reinforcement
may be required and must be calculated using the Supplementary Rules in
the CIRIA Guide.

11.2.6 Moment and shears CIRIA


Guide 2
11.2.6.1 Reactions due to loads on clear span 23.2
CI.

Thearrangementof loading and supports assumed for calculating the bending


moments is shown in Figure 11.4. These loads are for the fully loadedsystem.

1•35x 475 kN

kN
RBZlO3

Figure 11.4 Total loads at ultimate limit state

Reactions from total loads are

RA
= 1944 kN, R8
= 2103 kN

Shear forces must be considered for top- and bottom-load cases separately.
Consider the bottom-loaded case shown in Figure 11.5.
Total bottom load = 135 x 193.8 + 1.5 x 88 = 393.6 kN/m
Reactions from bottom applied loads are
= 1027 kN, = 941 kN
RAb RBb

15x 86 kN/m I

I 135x 1938 kN!m


RA1O27 i 3R8941 kM
250 5000 I 500 I

Figure11.5 Hanging loads at ultimate limit state

Reactions from top loads are thus

RAt
= 1944 — 1027 = 917 kN
= 2103 — 941 = 1162 kN
RBt

11.2.6.2 Additional shear forces due to loads over supports

Loads acting over the effective support width apply an additional shear force CIRIA
to the critical section of the beam (i.e., at the support face). In this example, Guide 2
one ofthe pointloads acts atthe centreline ofthe actual support, B, as shown CI. 23.2
in Figure 11.6.

Innnl
641 kN

2000

Active height
of beam
h0= 5750

Support Support

support
. 0
500 5000 2000
4

Figure 11.6 Additional load at support B

Since the effective support width is halfthe actual width, the additional shear
force
= 0.5 x 641 x (h —
0.210)Ih

= 320.5(5.75 — 0.2 x 5.0)15.75 265 kN

11.2.6.3 Total shear forces

At support A
Top loading (VAt)
= 917 kN
Bottom loading = 1027 kN
(VAb)
Total (VA)
= 1944 kN

At support B
Top loading = 1162 + 265 = 1427 kN
(VBt)
Bottom loading (VBb)
= 941 kN
Total = 2368 kN
(VB)

11.2.6.4 Maximum bending moment


Position of zero shear (where x is distance from face of supportA) is given by
1944 — (1.5 x 176 + 135 x 309)x = 0

Therefore x = 2.85 m

2852
M = 1944 (2.85 + 0.25) — 681 x —--— = 3261 kNm
2
DEEP REAMS

11.2.7 Strength design CIRIA


Guide 2
Bending capacity check in accordance with CIRIA Guide 2 01.2.4 &
= 1 < 1.5 2.4.1
i/ha

Hence thereis no need tocheckthecompression in the concrete and the area


of steel required may be calculated from a lever arm given as
z = 0.21 + 0.4h = 3450 mm

For the reinforcement area there is no difference in using EC2 equations.

fyd
= -. = 1.15
= 400 N/mm2 Table 2.3

= 3261 x 106
I A8 = = 2363 mm2 I
400 x 3450

This is 15% less than CIRIA Guide 2, predominantly due to a higher yield
strength reinforcementused in this example, but also in part because of lower
values used in EC2.

11.2.8 Detailing of principal bending moment reinforcement

CIRIA Guide2 states 'Reinforcementis notto becurtailed inthe span and may CIRIA
be distributed over a depth of 0•2ha A minimum steel percentage in relation Guide 2
to the local area of concrete in which it is embedded is given in 01.2.4.1
Table 1'. 01.2.6.2

Minimum steel percentage = 0.71%


A maximum bar spacing for a maximum crack width of 03 mm is given in
Table 2 of the CIR(A Guide.
Spacing 165 mm, for b = 300 mm
Reinforcementmay be distributed over depth = 0.2 x 5750 = 1150 mm

i.e. minimum number of bars in face = = 7


165

Use 14T16 for main tension reinforcement

A = 2814 mm2 > 2363 mm2 required OK

EC2 requires for beams a maximum bar size or a maximum bar spacingto 4.4.2.3
limit cracking under quasi-permanent loading.

Gk +
Quasi-permanent loading = °3k 4.4.2.3(3)
Ratio to ultimate loading = 0.56

Estimate of steel stress = 0.56f x = 188 N/mm2


yd As.prov
DEEP EMS

Maximum bar size is 25 > 16 mm . OK Table 4.11


Maximum bar spacing is 250 (pure flexure) > 165 mm OK Table 4.12
Note that only one of these conditions needs to be met.

In CIRIA Guide2, the bars must be anchored to develop 80% ofthe maximum CIRIA
ultimateforce beyondthefaceofthe support and 20% ofthe maximum ultimate Guide 2
force at or beyond a point 0.21from theface of thesupport, or at or beyond C.2.4.1
the farface of the support, whichever is less. The main reinforcement must be
anchored so thatthe concrete within theareaof support relied upon for bearing
is adequately confined.

EC2 for deep beams requires thatthe reinforcement,corresponding to theties 5.4.5(1)


considered in the design model, should be fully anchored beyond the nodes
by bending up the bars, by using U-hoops or by anchorage devices, unless
a sufficient length is available between the node and the end of the beam
permitting an anchorage length of 1flet
The EC2 requirements are clearly more onerous.
Support A anchorage

alA
ab sjeq
net
= A min 5.23.4.1
"s.prov Eqn 5.4

where

= 0.7 for curved bars with side cover 3q


= 2.7 N/mm2 for good bond in bottom half of pour Table 53

i
b
= = = 37q Eqn53
42.7

A5req = 2363 mm2, = 2814 mm2


As.prov

Therefore
2363
1
b.net
= 0.7 x (37 x 16) x = 348 mm
2814

There isinsufficientdistanceto accommodatesuch an anchorage length beyond


the centre-line of the column.

If U-barsor loopsare provided,the minimum internaldiameterofthe bend needs


to satisfy the requirement for curved bars. This is an indirect check on the
crushing of the concrete inside the bend and the tabulated value could be NAD
multiplied by AreqIAprov• Table 8

Minimum internal diameter of bend = 13 = 208 mm


Notethat it is necessary to checkthat sufficient space is available in the final
detailing.
At support B a straightanchorage will be sufficientto meet both CIRIA Guide 2
and EC2 requirements.
QE.P E&AS

11.2.9 Minimum longitudinalsteel


CIRIA Guide 2 refers to the British Standard CP 110, and EC2 will be slightly
more onerous.
For beams generally

A i O.6bd/ck z 0.0015bd 5.4.2.1.1

Basing the flexural steel on the active height assumed for the beam design

A = 0.0015 x 300 x 5750 = 2588 mm2

Deep beams should normallybe provided with a distributed reinforcementnear 5.4.5(2)


both sides, the effect of each being equivalent to that of an orthogonal mesh
with a reinforcement ratio of at least 0.15% in both directions.

A = 0.003 x 300 x 1000 = 900 mm2/m


Thisreinforcement should also satisfy therequirement that beams with atotal 4.4.2.3(4)
depth of 1.0 m or more, where the main reinforcement is concentrated in only
a small proportion of the depth, should be provided with additional skin
reinforcement to control cracking on the side faces of the beam. This
reinforcementshould be evenlydistributed betweenthe level of thetension steel
and the neutral axis, and should be located within the links.

A = kckfceIas 4.4.2.2(3)
Eqn 4.78

where

k = 0.4 assuming value for bending is to be used


k = 0.5 4.4.2.3(4)
= 3 N/mm2 using suggested value
'cteff
= = 460 N/mm2 4.4.23(4)

Hence

A
—s = 0.4 x 0.5 x 3/460 = 0.0013
ACt

The requirements of either Table 4.11 or Table 4.12 of EC2 should be met.

Assume steel stress = (--) x value for main bars = 94 N/mm2 4.4.23(4)
Table 4.11
Maximum bar size
= 32 mm
9max

Maximum bar spacing in 'pure tension' condition Table 4.12


S = 200 mm 4.4.23(4)

Use 110 @ 150 mm crs (EF) above level of main reinforcement


DEEP MAS

A5
= 1048 > 900 mm2/m . OK

11.2.10 Shear design


CIRIA Guide 2 separates top and bottom loads and deals with the design of CIRIA
these in different ways. Guide 2
Cl.2.4.2
In principle the bottom loads require vertical tension hangers to suspend the
loads above the active beam height, ha with horizontal web reinforcement
needed in the area of the supports.
Thetop-load shear calculationsincludetaking intoaccount anyadditional shear
force induced by top loads over the supports.
Under the simple design rules the top-load shear capacity is not improved by
web reinforcement.
A nominal, orthogonal pattern of web reinforcementnot lessthanthe minimum
required for walls in BS 8110 is intended. This is augmented for bottom loads
and in the area of the supports.
The detail of the CIRIA Guide calculation is not repeated here and reference CIRIA
should be made to the original document. The reinforcementdetailsare shown Guide 2
in Figures 11.7 and 11.8. Figures 93
& 13

o 1
.0 IL 0
.0
I UJ

o
In
— 0
U'
I
• 0
-.
0 I-

!
If. IL
Lu
.
I.,

I-
Lfl
C.,'.-
-
I
.-
'Q
I-
..t
Cl
I

'.4

10 — 50T16 — 15OEF
-'1
I I

36T16-150
U-bar L — Bars continued
II — 10
I

I. through from
column and tied
to verticaL
reinforcement
I
l00J.. —
5000 2000

Figure 11.7 Arrangement of reinforcement


DtEP BEAMS

Hanger bar given a full


tension anchorage length
above ha

jIJ__
h0
Full tension lap

J'
Figure 11.8 Detail at bottom of wall
______ Hanger bar anchored as
a link around main bars

Using the standard method in EC2 4.3.2.2(7)


= 2368 kN maximum at support B
VSd

= rRdk(l.2 + 40p1)bd Eqn 4.18


VAd1

= 0.30 N/mm2 Table 4.8


TAd

A = 0.15%A0, therefore p1 = 0.0015

k = lasd>0.6m
d = h — 0.2h, say
= 10920 — 0.2 x 5750 = 9770 mm

b = 300mm

Therefore

VAd1
= 03 (1.2 + 40 x 0.0015)300 x 9770 x i0 = 1108 kN

VSd > V, therefore shear reinforcement needed


= + where = Eqn 4.22
VRd3 VCd VRd1

Therefore

2368 — 1108 = 1260 kN

A 1260 x with f = 400 N/mm2 Eqn 4.23


s O.9dfd
036 mm2/mm
Where the load is not acting at the top of a beam, suspension reinforcement 4.3.2.4.1P(3)
should be provided to transfer the load to the top.
The bottom load identified previously = 393.6 kN/m
Area of hanger steel needed with f = 400 N/mm2


ASh = 393.6 2
=0.99mm/mm
s 400

Use T16 @ 150 mm crs. (EF) when hangers are needed I

A 2x201 =
—a = 2.68 > 036 + 0.99 = 135 mm2/mm . . . OK
s 150

Use T10 @ 150 mm2(EF) elsewhere

A5
— 2x78 =
= _____ 1.04 > 036 mm2/mm OK
s 150

Minimum shear reinforcement with = 460 N/mm2

= 0.0012 by interpolation Table 5.5

SW
= 0.0012b = 036 mm2/mm OK
S
For heavily loaded deep beams it may prove morecomplicated to justifythe
shear.

11.2.11 Further guidance


CIRIA Guide2 has further guidance for reinforcementin support regions, under CIRIA
concentrated loads and around holes in beams. Guide 2
Supplementary design rules are also provided for deep beams that include
arrangements excluded by the simplified method.
Itis because ofthe extentofthis informationthatthe initialsuggestionwas made,
that a complete design to the CIRIA Guide is undertaken and then a parallel
designto EC2 is performed as appropriate, to demonstrate compliance with
the individual clauses.
ULOAD COMBINATIONS
12.1 Introduction
EC21 considers all loadsas variables in time and space and applies statistical
principles to arrive at the loads for design. There is an underlying assumption
that the basicloadsthemselves are described in statisticalterms Thus, when
variable loads of different origins, for example superimposed loads on floors
and wind loadson thefacesof buildings, haveto be considered acting together
in a load case,the probability of both loadsnot beingattheir full characteristic
valuesis allowedfor by multiplierscalled factors.Thesefactorstoo are derived
statistically and values are given in EC1(20) and the NAD to EC21.
Thus when a number of variable loadshave to be considered simultaneously
in anyload case, each load is treated in turn as the primaryload and others
are consideredsecondaryTheprimary load is applied at its characteristicvalue
multiplied by the partial safety factor. All secondary loadsare applied at their
characteristicvalues multiplied by the partial safety factor and further multiplied
by a f. factor. These factors varydepending upon the limit state and the type
of loading being considered.

Mathematically the design loadfor ultimate limit state may be represented as:

E 7GJGkJ + O.1k,1 + Ei1 Q1


primary load secondary load

Whiletheabove procedure isthegeneral approach, EC2 also providessimplified


rules:

(a) where only one variable load occurs the design load
= E +
7G.JGkJ

(b) when more than one variable load occurs the design load
= E +
It is importantto note thatthis Codepermitsthe useof eitherapproach although
in some circumstances the general method may result in higher loading.
In practice the simplified procedure will be perfectly satisfactory for most
situations and could be used.

The following examples are givento illustratethethinking behind the general


approach and indicate where the general approach may be required.

Usually, when dead loads produce a favourable effect, 1G can be taken as


unity. However, if the variation of the magnitude of the dead load is likely to
prove sensitivethen should be taken as 0.9.

For the particular case of continuous beams without cantilevers, the Code
permits the use of = 135 for all the spans
When caFâulating the loads on vertical elements of multi-storey structures the
vertical loads may be based on either:

(a) loads from beams multiplied by suitable 4' and 'y values; or

(b) loads on beams multiplied by 'y values and a global reduction in loading
applied using the proceduregiven in BS 6399(21). This is the approach in
the NAD.
12.2 Example 1 — frame
For the frameshown in Figure 12.1 identifythe various load arrangements, to
check the overall stability. Assume office use for this building.
Note that the loadarrangements forthe design of elements could be different.

77/7 7-7/7

Figure 12.1 Frame configuration example 1

12.2.1 Notation
Characteristic loads/m
= dead — roof
Gkr
= dead — floor
Gkf

kr = imposed — roof
= imposed — floor

Characteristic load/frame

= wind — roof or floor

12.2.2 Load cases —


example 1
Fundamental load combination to be used is 2.3.2.2P(2)

YGJGk.J
+ Q,1kj + Eqn 2.7(a)

As the stability will be sensitiveto a possible variation of dead loads, it will be


necessary to allowfor this as given in EC2 Section 2.3.23(P3).
Take
= 0.9, = 135 Table 2.2
7Ginf 7G,sup
= 1.5 NAD
= 0.7 for imposed loads (offices) Table 1
LO&O COMBIN&TIONS

12.2.2.1 Load case 1 — example 1


Treat the wind load as the primary load (see Figure 12.2).

O9Gkr l3S6kr ÷ O7(i5Q.kr)


I
lSWk .- .-

1355kf + 0.7 (15kf


1 5Wk f/'//////j
09Gkf
II

09Gkf 135tikf + 0.7 (15akf


I
l5Wk

7_7 7_7 77 7

Figure 12.2 Load case 1 example 1

12.2.2.2 Load case 2 —


example 1
Treat the imposed load on the roof as the primary load (see Figure 123).

09Gkr 1356kr + i•sa


07 (lSWk)

09Gkf l35Gkf ÷ o•7 (1•5kf)


I
'/7 /77/7/
0.7 (1.SWk) —-

0•9tkf F3SGkf ÷ 07 (l5Qkf)

O•7(l5WkJ
//////////
7-7-

Figure 12.3 Load case 2 — example 1

InI
COWfl4AT1O%4S

12.2.2.3 Load case 3 — example 1


Treat the imposed load on the floors as the primary load (see Figure 12.4).

O9Gkr 135Gkr + 0.7 (l5akr)

0.7 (1•5Wk
/ VV 'Y
I
___________

096 kf 135G kf + l5akf


07(15Wk)
I
/1// / / / /j
1356kf ÷ 1.sakf
O•l(l•5Wk) f///,///,,
096.kf
I!

7_7 /_7

Figure 12.4 Load case 3 —


example 1

12.2.2.4 Load case 4 — example 1


Consider the casewithout wind loading treating the imposed floor loads as the
primary load (see Figure 12.5).

O96kr
/
r 135Gkr
'/
+ 07 (150.kr)

135Gkf +
/7/////// II
096 kf
I 1•Sakf

l35Gkf ÷ 15kf
/ / / / 7/
O•9Gkf
I
'A/

r_7 7_7 7_7 ?_r

Figure 12.5 Load case 4 — example 1


LOA.D COMBINATIONS

12.2.2.5 Load case 5 — example 1


Consider the case without wind loading treating the imposed roof load as the
primary load (see Figure 12.6).

0.96 kr 1 35G kr 4- 1 .5ak,


_________________________ /

Y

,//////// /
0.96 kf 1356kf ÷ 07 (1•50.)

I
/1/ // / ///
O9G kf 135Gkf ÷ 07 c15akf)

7_7 1_7 7_7 rr


Figure 12.6 Load case 5 — example 1

Note:
When the wind loading is reversed, another set of arrangements will need to
be considered. However, in problems ofthistype, thecritical arrangementsare
likely to be found intuitively rather than by directly searching through all the
theoretical possibilities.

12.3 Example 2 — continuous beam 1


Identify the various load arrangements forthe ultimate limit state forthe design
of the four-span continuous beam shown in Figure 12.7.
Assume that spans 1—2 and 2—3 are subjectto domestic useand spans 3—4
and 4—5 are subjectto parking use.

k1 IUo05)

Figure 12.7 Beam configuration example 2
12.3.1 Notation
= characteristic dead load/rn
= characteristic irnposed load/rn (domestic use)
= characteristic imposed load/rn (parking use)

12.3.2 Load cases —


example 2
Fundamental load combination to be used is 2.3.2.2P(2)

+ 'YQlkl + Eqn 2.7(a)


17Q.uaI0ki
For beams withoutcantilevers the same value of self-weight may be applied 2.3.2.3(4)
to all spans, i.e., l.35Gk.
The load cases to be considered for the imposed loads are 2.5.1.2(4)

(a) alternate spans loaded; and

(b) adjacent spans loaded.


LOAD COMBINATIONS

The various load arrangements are shown in Figure 12.8.

135Gk

A V N'V
Note
f1c\cfhl\rf
Load case A above should be combined with cases B —J
below as necessary

15ak1 O7 15k2)
B

{4}
Max. -I-ye moment in 1- 2 and max. col. moment at 1

15ak2

Max. +ve moment in 3—4 and max. coL. moments at 3 and 4

f1
O7 (l-5a2

Max. +ve moment in 2-3 and max. col. moment at 2 and 3

05 (l.5Q ) 15Qk2

v1
Max. -I-ye moment

Mox. —ye moment


in

at
4—5

2
and max. col. moment

150k1
at

O7 (15Q k2 )
S

H _____
Max. —ye moment

Max. —ye moment


at

at 3
3 ( see case H also I
(.5Q
0.5 I 1-SQk2

(see case B also)


1 5ak2

F
Max. —ye moment at 4


Figure 12.8 Load cases example 2
LOAD COMBINATIONS

12.4 Example 3 — continuous beam 2


For the continuous beam shown in Figure 12.9, identify the critical load
arrangements for the ultimate limit state. Assume that the beam is subjectto
distributeddead and imposed loads, and a point load atthe end ofthecantilever
arising from the dead load of the external wall.


Figure 12.9 Beam configuration example 3

12.4.1 Notation
= characteristic dead load/rn
= characteristic imposed load/rn
P = characteristic point load (dead)

12.4.2 Load cases — example 3


The fundamental combinations given in EC2 Section 23.2.2 should be used.
Notethat the presence of the cantilever prohibits the use of thesame design
values of dead loads in all spans. 2.3.23(4)

The various load arrangements are shown in Figures 12.10 to 12.13.

135P
O9 Gk

I
\ 13SGk +l•SO.k
N Jr

ti 12
Max.—ve moment and anchorage of top bars at 3
Also max. cot. moment at 3 C see F.g. 12.13 also

Figure 12.10 Load case 1 —


example 3
LO&O COMBIK&TIONS

O9P

l.3SGk+ 50k

2 3

Max.—ve moment at 2

Figure 12.11 Load case 2 —


example 3

135P

l35Gk+lSO.k 096k 35Gk+5Qk


V#VTh(Th YN // VvVJ
1' 12
Max. +ve moment in 1- 2
max. cot. moment at 1 cnd
possibly max. cot. moment at 2 (see Fig. 12.13 aLso)

Figure 12.12 Load case 3 —


example 3

O9P

135Gk ÷ 1 5Qk
O9Gk
IO9G k

I
/ rv'vyN I

11 2
Max.+ve moment in 2-3, max. cot. moment at 2
(see Fig. 12.12 also) and, possibly, max. cot. moment
at 3 (see Fig. 12.10 also)

Figure 12.13 Load case 4 —


example 3
125 Example 4 — tank

:f
Awatertank, as shown in Figure 12.14, ofdepth H (in metres)hasan operating
depth of water h (in metres). Calculate the designlateral loadsfor the ultimate
limit state.

Figure 12.14 Tank configuration —


example 4

According to the draft EC1, earth loads are permanent loads. The same
reasoning can be applied to lateral pressurescaused by water. The NAD for
EC2 confirms this.

Design canthereforebe based onthe pressurediagram shown in Figure 12.15.


NAD 6.2(c)

density
h water

1 35ph
Figure 12.15 Design load based on operating water depth —
example 4

Consideration shouldalso be given to the worstcredible water load, which in


this casewill correspond to a depth of H, i.e., water up to thetop of the tank.
EC2 permits the variation of the partial safety factor depending on the
knowledge of the load Gk,.
However, the method of establishing is not given. The basis adopted in
BS 8110: Part 2(2) could be used and a factor of 1.15 applied instead of 1.35.
In this case the alternative design loading will be as shown in Figure 12.16.

Hj p

1 15pH
density

Figure 12.16 Design loadbased on worstcredible water depth —


example 4
(3DESIGN OF BEAM AND COLUMN SECTIONS

13.1 Concrete grades 3.1.2.4

EC21 uses the cylinderstrength,


the cube
k'to define the concrete strength in design
equations, although strength may be used for control purposes. The
grade designations specify both cylinder and cube strengths in the form
C cylinderstrength/cube strength, for example C25/30.
It mayoccasionally be necessary to use cube strengths which do not exactly
correspond to one of the specified grades. In such instances a relationship is
required betweencylinderandcube strength in orderto obtain an appropriate
value for The relationship implicit in EC2 and ENV 206(6) is given in
Figure 13.1.

50

40

C'1

E
5 30

1-
0
U

20
C

10

Cube strength (N/mm2)

Figure i3.i Relationship between cube and cylinder strength of concrete

13.2 Singly reinforced rectangular beam sections


The following equations and design tables have been derived from the 4.3.1
assumptions given in 43.1 and 4.2.133(b) of the Code combined with the 4.2.1.3.3
redistribution limitsgiven in 2.53.4.2.They are entirely in accordance with EC2. 2.5.3.4.2
M4D SOLUIM4 SEcroNs

13.2.1 Equations for singly reinforced rectangular beam sections

= ASck = 0.652 — To.425 — 1.5


bdck
xld = 1.918w

where
= M
bd2fck

Table 13.1 gives w and xldas a function of i.

Table i3.i Flexural reinforcement in singly reinforced rectangular sections.


M ASck I M zid
xld zid ABck x/d
ck bdfck 'Ck bdfck

0.010 0.012 0.022 0.991 0.090 0.113 0.217 0913


0.012 0.014 0.027 0.989 0.092 0.116 0223 0.911
0.014 0.016 0.031 0.987 0.094 0.119 0.228 0.909
0.016 0.019 0.036 0.986 0.096 0.122 0.234 0.907
0.018 0.021 0.040 0.984 0.098 0.125 0.239 0904
0.020 0.023 0.045 0.982 0.100 0.127 0.245 0902
0.022 0.026 0.050 0.980 0.102 0.130 0.250 0.900
0.024 0.028 0.054 0.978 0.104 0.133 0.256 0.898
0.026 0.031 0.059 0.977 0.106 0.136 0.261 0.896
0.028 0.033 0.063 0.975 0.108 0.139 0.267 0.893
0.030 0.035 0.068 0.973 0.110 0.142 0.272 0.891
0.032 0.038 0.073 0.971 0.112 0.145 0.278 0.889
0.034 0.040 0.077 0.969 0.114 0.148 0.284 0.887
0.036 0.043 0.082 0.967 0.116 0.151 0.289 0.884
0.038 0.045 0.087 0.965 0.118 0.154 0.295 0.882
0.040 0.048 0.092 0.963 0.120 0.157 0301 0.880
0.042 0.050 0.096 0.961 0.122 0.160 0207 0.877
0.044 0.053 0.101 0.960 0.124 0.163 0.313 0.875
0.046 0.055 0.106 0.958 0.126 0.166 0219 0.873
0.048 0.058 0.111 0.956 0.128 0.169 0.324 0.870
0.050 0.060 0.116 0.954 0.130 0.172 0.330 0.868
0.052 0.063 0.121 0.952 0.132 0.175 0336 0.865
0.054 0.065 0.125 0.950 0.134 0.179 0343 0.863
0.056 0.068 0.130 0948 0.136 0.182 0349 0.861
0.058 0.071 0.135 0.946 0.138 0.185 0.355 0.858
0.060 0.073 0.140 0.944 0.140 0.188 0361 0.856
0.062 0.076 0.145 0.942 0.142 0.191 0267 0.853
0.064 0.078 0.150 0.940 0.144 0.195 0.373 0.851
0.066 0.081 0.155 0938 0.146 0.198 0380 0.848
0.068 0.084 0.160 0936 0.148 0.201 0.386 0.846
0.070 0.086 0.165 0.934 0.150 0.205 0393 0.843
0.072 0.089 0.170 0.932 0.152 0.208 0399 0.840
0.074 0.092 0.176 0230 0.154 0.211 0.405 0.838
0.076 0.094 0.181 0.928 0.156 0.215 0.412 0.835
0.078 0.097 0.186 0926 0.158 0.218 0.419 0.833
0.080 0.100 0.191 0.924 0.160 0.222 0.425 0.830
0.082 0.102 0.196 0921 0.162 0.225 0.432 0.827
0084 0.105 0.202 0919 0.164 0.229 0.439 0.824
0.086 0.108 0.207 0917 0.166 0.232 0.446 0822
0.088 0.111 0.212 0915
OtS%OI( O EMA M4D COLUMN SECTIONS

13.2.2 Limits to use of singly reinforced beam sections


Limitsto x/d as afunction ofthe amount of re-distributioncarried outare given 2.5.3.4.2
in EC2. These can be re-written as
For concrete grades C35145

— 0.44
(xld). rn =
1.25

For concrete grades > C35145

o — 0.56
(x/d).urn =
1.25

Equationscan be derived for and ILIim for rectangular sectionsas a function


of (X1c01 . These are
= 0•4533(X/d)im[1

O.4(XId)i]

Wi.
= (X/d).Il .918

Table 13.2 gives values of (XId)Jim' 'hum and WIim as a function of the amount of
re-distributioncarriedout. EC2 states that plastic design, for exampleyield line 2.5.3.5.5
analysis,canbe used where xld 0.25.Thelimits corresponding tothisvalue
are also included in the table.

Table 13.2 Limiting values


% ô (xId) 1im 0i,m
redistribution
k>35 k35 Ck>35 >5
0 1.00 0.448 0.352 0.1667 137l 0.2336 0.1835
5 0.95 0.408 0.312 0.1548 0.1238 0.2127 0.1627
10 0.90 0.368 0.272 0.1423 aio 0.1919 0.1418
15 0.85 0328 0232 0.1292 00954 0.1710 0.1210
20 0.80 0.288 0.192 0.1155 00803 0.1502 o.iooi
25 0.75 0.248 0.152 1013 0.0647 0.1293 00792
30 0.70 0.208 0.112 0.0864 0.0485 0.1084 0.0584

Plastic design 0.25 0.1020 0.1303

13.3 Compression reinforcement

Compression reinforcement is required in any section where'h > 1iim The


amount can be calculated from

C., = 'h'hIIm
0.87(1 — d'/d)
where
mechanical ratio of compression steel

=x-
=

bd 'ck

InnI
DESIGN OP BEAM AND COLUMN SECTiONS

d' = depth from compression face to centroidof compression


reinforcement

A'8
= area of compression reinforcement

The area of tension reinforcement can now be obtained from

Equations above for cd and c are valid for d'Ix 1 —


1)805.

13.4 Flanged beams


For beams with flanges on the compression side of the section, the formulae
for rectangular sections may be applied provided

xld hf/d
where
= thickness of the flange
hf
For beams where the neutral axis lies below the flange, it will normally be
sufficientlyaccurate to assume that the centre of compression is located at mid-
depth of the flange. Thus, for singly reinforced beams, approximately

M = 0.87 —
ASck(d hI2)
The neutral axis depth is given approximately by

xld = 1.918 (blb)w — 1:25 (b/b —


1)h/d
where br is the rib width and the definition of o, is identical to that for a
rectangular section.

13.5 Symmetrically reinforced rectangular columns


Figures 13.2(a) to (e) give non-dimensional design charts for symmetrically
reinforcedcolumns where the reinforcementcanbeassumedto beconcentrated
in the corners. The broken lines give values of '<2 in Eqn 4.73 of EC2. Eqn 4.73
Where the reinforcement is not concentrated in the corners, a conservative
approach is to calculate an effective value of d' as illustrated in Figure 13.
DE51O O EMJI kND COLUMNSECTIONS

a
In

U)
0
ci

CI)

E
0
0
0)
0
a)

C' C4 -
,-.
a
a a
C
Q
'0
a
II
a a a
("4
a a
CM

1
C)

1
0)
C)
U-

Figure 13.2(a) Rectangular columns (d'/h = 0.05)


DE5GN OP BEAM AND COLUMN SECTIONS

(t1

0
0

(I,
C
E
0
0

0)
C
0

_ '9 1
a C'1
a -;
Q a
c'J
1
cv,

a) .0
I-
0)
Li-

Figure 13.2(b) Rectangular columns (d'Ih = 0.10)


DE.S(GM OF BE&M KD COLUMN SECTIONS

LC)

CI,
C
E
0
C)

0)
C
c'j
C)
ci

C%1

z 'I
0)
I-
0)
U-
-
Figure 13.2(c) Rectangular columns (d'Ih = 0.15)
DESiGN OF BEAM AND COLUMN SECTIONS

UI
6

UI
m

U
UI
C4
6

UI
0
C" a
o

Cl)

E
0
0 UI
I- 8
Ca

C)

0
w

c'j
1
C)
a)
I-
0)
U-

Figure 13.2(d) Rectangular columns (d'Ih = 0.20)

lnnI
DESiGN OP BEAM AND COLUMN SECTIONS

'I
4-

U)
c'J
d

a,
C
E
0
0
C',

C
C',
0
a,

-
'-.
m
'—
c'i —

q u'
Q
— ' L - Cl

1C) 'I

C)
LL

Figure 13.2(e) Rectangular columns (d'Ih = 0.25)

tAI
DS1ON OF BEAM AND COLUMN SET1ONS

0 0
h12

7__of
Centroid
.
bars in half section
.1
Figure 133 Method of assessing an effective value for d'
Worked examples for the design of concrete bui'dings Cl/SfB

UDC
BRITISH OEMENT ASSOCIATIONPUBLICATION 43.505 6240124006.77