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1. THE SURVEY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENGLISH GRAMMATICAL THEORY.

There does not appear to exist a generally accepted periodization of the


history of English grammar, but still two periods of unequal length,
according to the general aims or objectives of the grammars appearing within
these periods can be singled out.
I. THE AGE OF PRESCIENTIFIC GRAMMAR (end of the 16th century – 1900). It
includes two types of grammars which succeeded each other:
1) early prenormative grammars of English, beginning with William
Bullokar's Bref Grammar for English (1585). Until the 17th century the term
"grammar" in English was applied only to the study of Latin. One of the
earliest and most popular Latin grammars written in English, by William
Lily, was published in the first half of the 16th century and went through
many editions. This work was very important for English grammar as it set a
standard for the arrangement of material and thus Latin paradigms
with their English equivalents easily suggested the possibility of
presenting English forms in a similar way, using the same terminology as in
Latin grammar.
2) By the middle of the 18th century, when many of the grammatical
phenomena of English had been described, the early English grammars gave way
a prescriptive (normative) grammar, which stated strict rules of grammatical
usage, condemning those constructions and forms which it considered to be
wrong or "improper", and setting up a certain standard of correctness to be
implicitly followed by learners of English. The grammars of the second type
still constitute the only kind of grammar in use in the practical teaching of
English.
3) By the end of the 19th century, when the prescriptive grammar had
reached its highest level of development, when the system of grammar known in
modern linguistics as traditional had been established, there appeared the
scientific grammar. /both descriptive and explanatory / As Sweet's grammar
appeared in the last decade of the 19th century, we may take 1900 as the
dividing line between the two periods and the beginning of the second period.
II. THE AGE OF THE SCIENTIFIC GRAMMARS OF ENGLISH (including three new
types of grammars). During the first half of the 20th century an intensive
development of this grammar has taken place. Classical scientific grammar has
accepted the traditional grammatical system of prescriptive grammar, but, as
has been mentioned, now we witness the final stage of its existence, for
since the 1950's no new grammars of the scholarly traditional type seem to
have appeared. The new types of English grammars, which appeared since the
fifties are the fourth type of grammar - structural or descriptive (4),
which, in its turn, is becoming obsolete and is being supplanted by the fifth
type of grammar - the transformational generative grammar (5).

2. GRAMMAR AND OTHER LEVELS OF LINGUISTIC STRUCTURE

Linguistics, the study of language, concerns itself with all aspects of how
people use language and what they must know in order to do so.
Linguistics encompasses a number of sub-fields. An important topical division
is between the study of language structure (grammar) and the study of meaning
(semantics and pragmatics).
GRAMMAR encompasses:
*Morphology (the formation and composition of words),
*Syntax (the rules that determine how words combine into phrases and
sentences)
Other sub-disciplines of linguistics include the following:
*semantics - the study of meaning
*pragmatics how meaning is transmitted based on a combination of linguistic
competence, non-linguistic knowledge, and the context of the speech act.
*evolutionary linguistics, which considers the origins of language;
*historical linguistics, which explores language change;
*sociolinguistics, which looks at the relation between linguistic variation
and social structures;
*psycholinguistics, which explores the representation and functioning of
language in the mind;
*neurolinguistics, which looks at the representation of lang. in the brain.

3. NEUTRALIZATION OF GRAMMATICAL OPPOSITIONS.

Grammatical oppositions can be reduced in some contextual circumstances,


when one member of the opposition is used with the meaning of the other
member, or, in other words, substitutes its counter-member. This phenomenon
in the theory of oppositions is treated as “oppositional reduction” or
“oppositional substitution”.
Two types of oppositional reduction can be distinguished in grammar:
neutralization and transposition.
NEUTRALIZATION takes place when the grammatical form, which is used, loses
its own functional meaning and acquires the meaning of its counter-member; in
other words, it becomes functionally equivalent with its oppositional
counter-member. This type of oppositional reduction is stylistically neutral;
in most cases it happens when the weak member of the opposition is used in
the meaning of the strong one,
e.g.: The rose is my favourite flower (=Roses are my favourite flowers) -
the singular, the weak member of the number category opposition, is used
instead of the plural, the strong member.
TRANSPOSITION takes place in cases where one member of the opposition
preserves to a certain extent its original functional meaning alongside the
meaning of its counterpart; the two functional meanings are actually
combined. This type of oppositional reduction is stylistically marked.
Because of the combination of meanings and the additional stylistic colouring
created, transposition can be treated as a grammatical mechanism of
figurativeness, or a grammatical metaphor. In most cases it happens when the
strong member of the opposition is used with the meaning of the weak one.
E.g.: the waters of the ocean, the sands of the desert – the plural, the
strong member of the number category opposition, is used instead of the
singular, the weak member.

4. THE PROBLEM OF CLASSIFICATION INTO PARTS OF SPEECH.

Parts of speech - classes of words, all the members of these classes having
certain characteristics in common which distinguish them from the members of
other classes.
The problem of word classification into parts of speech still remains one of
the most controversial problems in modern linguistics. The attitude of
grammarians with regard to parts of speech and the basis of their
classification varied a good deal at different times. Only in English
grammarians have been diffentiating between 3 and 13 parts of speech.
Traditional classification of words (dating back to ancient times) – 8 parts
of speech: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs, prepositions,
conjunctions, interjections.
Objections:
1. The definitions are largely notional and often extremely quite vague;
e.g. A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun (John came this morning – a
man, someone, you-know-who, the aforementioned).
2. The number of parts of speech in the traditional grammars seems to be
arbitrary. Why 8? Prof. Ilyish – 12 (+ numerals, statives, modal words and
particles), prof. Khaimovich and Rogovskaya – 14 (+ articles and response
words).
H.Sweet: declinables (nouns, adjectives, verbs) and indeclinables (adverbs,
prepositions, conjunctions, interjections).
One more classification (based on syntactic functions of word classes):
noun-words (nouns, noun-numerals, noun-pronouns, Infinitives, Gerunds),
adjective-words (adjectives, adjective-pronouns, adjective-numerals,
Participles), verb-words (verbs, verbals).
O.Jespersen (his theory is between syntax and morphology):
1. substantives (including proper nouns)
2. adjectives ((1) and (2) may be classed together as nouns)
3. pronouns (including numerals and pronominal adverbs)
4. verbs (with doubts as to the inclusion of verbals)
5. particles (adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, interjections),
characterized negatively as made up of all those that cannot find any place
in any of the first 4 classes.

5. THE NOTIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL PARTS OF SPEECH.

Parts of speech - classes of words, all the members of these classes having
certain characteristics in common which distinguish them from the members of
other classes.
Parts of speech are traditionally subdivided into:
NOTIONAL parts of speech have both lexical & grammatical meanings (nouns,
verbs, adjectives, adverbs, numerals, statives, pronouns, modal words).
FUNCTIONAL parts of speech are characterized mainly by the grammatical
meaning while their lexical meaning is either lost completely or has survived
in a very weakened form. (the article, the preposition, the conjunction).
Notional parts of speech are characterized by word-building & word-changing
properties; functional words have no formal features & they should be
memorized as ready-made units (but, since, till, until).
Another most important difference between functional & notional parts of
speech is revealed on the level of sentence. Where every notional word
performs a certain synthetic function while functional words have no
synthetic function at all. They serve as indicators of a certain part of
speech (to + verb; a, the + noun). Prepositions are used to connect 2 words &
conjunctions to connect 2 clauses or sentences.
Ilyish => words should be divided into 2 categories on the principle:
Notional words denote things, actions and other extra-linguistic phenomena
Functional words denote relations and connections between the notional words
This view is shaky, because functional words can also express smth extra-
linguistic:
e.g. The letter is on the table.
The letter is in the table. (diff. prepositions express different
relations between objects)
The match was called off because it was raining. (the conjunction
because denotes the causal connection between two processes).
Some words belonging to a particular part of speech may perform a function
differing from that which characterizes the p/of/sp as a whole.
e.g. I have some money left. (have – a notional word)
I have found a dog. (have – an auxiliary verb used to form a certain
analytical form of the verb to find, i.e. it is a functional verb)

6. THE ADJECTIVE. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES

Adjectives are a class of notional words which:


– describe nouns by answering one of these three questions: What kind is it?
How many are there? Which one is it?;
– have the morphological category of Degrees of Comparison;
– function as the Attribute or the Predicative (Complement) in the sentence.
Adjectives are distinguished by a specific combinability with nouns, which
they modify, usually in pre-position, and occasionally in post-position; by a
combinability with link-verbs and modifying adverbs.
In the sentence the adjective performs the functions of an attribute and a
predicative. To the derivational features of adjectives belong a number of
prefixes and suffixes of which the most important are:
-ful: hopeful; -ive: decorative;
-less: featureless; -ic: basic;
-ish: bluish; -un: unprecedented;
-ous: dangerous; -in: inaccurate;
-pre: premature;
All the adjectives are traditionally divided into two large subclasses:
QUALITATIVE (denote various qualities of substances: a difficult task, a
hearty welcome) and RELATIVE (express such properties of a substance as are
determined by the direct relation of the substance to some other substance:
wood – a wooden hut; color- colored postcards)
Traditionally (Otto Gespersen) the adjectives have 3 degrees of comparison:
1) the positive; 2) the comparative; 3) the superlative.
The positive degree is not marked, it has zero exponent, the comparative and
superlative are expressed in 3 ways:
1 synthetically (with the help of the suffixes –er, -est);
2 analytically (by means of more and most);
3 suppletively (by means of different roots). (good – better – the best)
With regard to the category of comparison English adjectives are classed
into COMPARABLES (qualitative adj, but some of them have no degree of
comparison, they are: 1) those expressing the highest degree: supreme,
extreme; 2) those having the suffix –ish: reddish, yellowish; 3) denoting
incomparable qualities: deaf, dead, lame) and NON- COMPARABLES (derived adj.:
Crimean, wooden, mathematical)

7. CLASSIFICATION OF ENGLISH ADJECTIVES

Adjectives are a class of notional words which:


– describe nouns by answering one of these three questions: What kind is
it? How many are there? Which one is it?;
– have the morphological category of Degrees of Comparison;
– function as the Attribute or the Predicative (Complement) in the
sentence.
According to their way of nomination:
- QUALITATIVE (denote various qualities of substances: a difficult task, a
hearty welcome)
- RELATIVE (express such properties of a substance as are determined by the
direct relation of the substance to some other substance: wood – a wooden
hut; color- colored postcards)
According to their morphological composition:
- Simple adjectives - kind, new, fresh, we cannot always tell whether a
word is an adjective by looking at it in isolation, as the form does not
always indicate its status.
- Derived adjectives are recognizable morphologically. They consist of one
root morpheme and one or more derivational morphemes - suffixes or prefixes:
-able (understandable); -al (musical, governmental)
-ed (beaded, barbed); -en (wooden, silken, shrunken)
-ic (pessimistic, atomic ); -ive (effective, distinctive)
-less (careless, spotless); -like (manlike, warlike)
-ly (kindly, weekly, homely); -some (lonesome, troublesome)
- Compound adjectives consist of at least two stems. They may be of several
patterns:
a) noun + adjective: colour-blind, grass-green;
b) adjective + adjective: deaf-mute;
c) adverb + participle: well-known, newly-repaired, much-praised;
d) noun/pronoun + a verbal: heart-breaking, high-born, man-made;
e) adjective/adverb + a noun + the suffix -ed: blue-eyed, long-legged.
With regard to the category of comparison English adjectives are classed
into COMPARABLES (qualitative adj, but some of them have no degree of
comparison, they are: 1) those expressing the highest degree: supreme,
extreme; 2) those having the suffix –ish: reddish, yellowish; 3) denoting
incomparable qualities: deaf, dead, lame) and NON- COMPARABLES (derived adj.:
Crimean, wooden, mathematical)

9. THE ARTICLE

The article is a form word that serves as a noun determiner. It is one of


the main means of conveying the idea of definiteness and indef-ness.
There are two articles in English: the definite article the and the
indefinite article a. + zero article.
Definiteness suggests that the object presented by the following noun is
individualized and singled out from the other objects of the same kind,
whereas indef. means a more general reference to an object.
The notion of definiteness/indefiniteness determines the important role of
the article in the process of communication. The definite article usually
presents the notion as something already known, whereas the indefinite
article introduces a new item of information.
The use of the INDEFINITE ARTICLE
Functions: classifying (serves to refer an object to the class or group of
objects of the same kind. I am a school teacher.), generic (implies that the
object denoted by the noun is spoken of as a representative of the class. A
horse has four legs. ) and numerical (retains its original meaning of the
cardinal numeral one. Of course I won’t say a word.)
Set expressions with the indefinite article
at a time; It is a pity; It is a shame; in a hurry; to have a good time.
The use of the DEFINITE ARTICLE
The definite article implies that the speaker or the writer presents a
person, a thing or an abstract notion as known to the listener or the reader,
either from his general knowledge, or from the situation, or from the
context.
Functions: specifying (serves to single out an object or a group of objects
from all the other objects of the same kind. We got into the wrong train) and
generic (refers the following noun to the whole class of objects of the same
kind. The lion is the king of the animals.)
Set expressions with the definite article:
all the same; in the evening; to tell the truth; on the whole; in the plural;
ZERO ARTICLE
The absence of any article is as meaningful as its actual use. It is
regularly observed with countable nouns in the plural, with non-counts used
in a general sense, with proper nouns. (Time will show who is right)
Set expressions with zero article:
by car; by plane; in spite of; out of sight; hand in hand; by sight; in time.

10. THE VERB. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES.

Verb - part of speech that usually denotes action (”bring”, “read”),


occurrence (”to decompose” (itself), “to glitter”), or a state of being
(”exist”, “live”, “soak”, “stand”). Depending on the language, a verb may
vary in form according to many factors, possibly including its tense, aspect,
mood and voice.
It may also agree with the person, gender, and/or number of some of its
arguments (what we usually call subject, object, etc.).
The verb is the most complex part of speech which expresses the predicative
function of the sentence - the functions establishing the connection between
the situation (situational event) named in the utterance and reality.
Verbs fall into 2 sets of forms profoundly different from each other: the
FINITE (performs the function of the verb-predicate, expressing the
processual, categorial features of predication in time, aspect, voice and
mood) set and the NON-FINITE (performs different functions according to its
intemediary nature (subject, object, attribute) – infinitive, gerund,
participle) set.
According to their morphological composition verbs can be:
1) Simple - consist of only one root morpheme: to ask, to build, to come.
2) Derivative - are composed of one root morpheme and one or more
derivational morphemes (prefixes and suffixes). The main verb-forming
suffixes are -ize, -fy, -en, -ate, as in: to criticize, to justify, to
enumerate.
3) Compound - consist of at least two stems: to overgrow, to undertake.
4) Phrasal - consist of a verbal stem and an adverbial particle, which is
sometimes referred to as postposition. to come in, to look out, to give up.
GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES OF THE VERB:
Correlation - an action expressed by a perfect form, proceeds some moment
in time. /perfect, non-perf/
Aspect - shows the way or manner in which an action is performed, that is
whether the action is: perfective, imperfective, momentary (однократное),
durative. /common, continuous/
Voice - denoting the relationship between the action expressed by the verb
and the person or non-person denoted by the subject of the sentence. /active,
passive/
Mood - expresses the relation of the action denoted by the verb to reality
from the speaker’s point of view. /indicat, imperat, oblique moods (Subj
I,II; Suppositional)/
Tense - expresses the relationship between the time of the action and the
time of speaking. /past, pres, future/
Number - shows whether the action is performed by one or more than one
persons or non-persons.
For the Pres.Indef. tense of the verb to be there are three contrasting
forms: the 1st person singular, the 3rd person singular and the form for all
persons plural: (I) am - (he) is - (we, you, they) are.
In the Past Indef. tense it is only the verb to be that has one of these
categories - the category of number, formed by the opposition of the sing.
and the plural forms: (I, he) was - (we, you, they) were. All the other verbs
have the same form for all the persons, both singular and plural.
In the future and future in the past tenses there are two opposing forms:
the 1st person sing. and plural and the other persons: (I, we) shall/should
go - (he, you, they) will/would go
Person - expresses the relation of the action and its doer to the speaker,
showing whether the action is performed by the speaker (the 1st person),
someone addressed by the speaker (the 2nd person) or someone/something other
than the speaker or the person addressed (the 3rd person).

11. THE CATEGORY OF MOOD

Verb - part of speech that usually denotes action (”bring”, “read”),


occurrence (”to decompose” (itself), “to glitter”), or a state of being
(”exist”, “live”, “soak”, “stand”). Depending on the language, a verb may
vary in form according to many factors, possibly including its tense, aspect,
mood and voice.
The category of mood in the present English verb has given rise to so many
discussions and has been treated in so many ways, that it seems hardly
possible to arrive at any more or less acceptable conclusion.
The category of Mood - the grammatical category of the verb, which
expresses the relation of the action denoted by the verb to reality from the
speaker’s point of view
The classification system of moods presented by A.I.Smirnitsky. It appears
to be the most consistent because it is meaning-oriented and it also takes
into consideration the difference between an analytical form and a free
syntactic combination. His system of moods includes six moods:
the Indicative - is used in ordinary statements: stating a fact, expressing
an opinion, asking a question. (John eats apples.)
the Imperative - expresses direct commands or requests. It tells you to do
something. It is also used to signal a prohibition, permission. (Stop!)
Subjunctive I - expresses a problematic action. It coincides with the
Infinitive without the particle to. (God save the Queen!)
Subjunctive II - denotes an unreal action and it coincides in the form with
the Past Indefinite Tense (Subjunctive II Present) or Past Perfect
(Subjunctive II Past). (I wish he had told the truth. If only he were here!)
the Conditional Mood - denotes an unreal action and is built by the
auxiliary verb "world" + any Infinitive a non-perfect infinitive expresses
Simultaneousness while a perfect infinitive expresses priority. (But for the
rain we would go for a walk.)
the Suppositional mood - expresses a problematic action and is formed with
the help of the auxiliary verb "should" for all the persons + Infinitive. (It
is necessary that he should…)
SubjI + SubjII + Condit + Supposit = OBLIQUE MOODS
Taking into consideration the fact that the forms of the Obligue Moods
coincide in many cases with the forms of the Indicative Mood, there arises a
problem of homonymy or polysemy.
He lived here. (The indicative Mood, Past Tense, Priority, real action).
If only he lived! (Subjunctive II, simultaneousness, unreal action)

12. THE CATEGORY OF PERSON AND NUMBER OF THE ENGLISH VERB.


Verb - part of speech that usually denotes action (”bring”, “read”),
occurrence (”to decompose” (itself), “to glitter”), or a state of being
(”exist”, “live”, “soak”, “stand”). Depending on the language, a verb may
vary in form according to many factors, possibly including its tense, aspect,
mood and voice.
The English verb has never had full inflections for number and person, as
the classical languages have.
But in ordinary English of the present day there is practically only one
ending for person and number. This is the third person, singular number; as,
"He walks;" and this only in the present tense indicative. This is important
in questions of agreement when we come to syntax.
Person and number /Лицо и число/
The verb “be” is the only verb that can be inflected to show person and
number in its forms: I am, he/she/it is, we/you/they are (present tense);
I/he/she/it was, we/you/they were (past tense).
Main verbs have only one ending that shows person and number - the ending
s/es that is added to the base form of the verb to form the third person
singular in the simple present tense (he works, music plays).
If this ending is absent, person and number should be clear from the
subject with which the verb agrees in person and number: I play, we play, you
play, musicians play.

13. LEXICAL MEANS OF EXPRESSING PASSIVE VOICE MEANING

The category of Voice shows whether the subject acts or is subjected to


action. There are two voices in English: the active voice and the passive
voice.
If the subject performs the action, the voice is active, and the verb form
is used in the active voice: His parents built a new house in 1995.
If the subject is subjected to the action, the voice is passive, and the
verb form is used in the passive voice: A new house was built by his parents
in 1995.
All tense forms in the active have corresponding tense forms in the
passive, but the perfect continuous tenses and the future continuous tense
are generally NOT used in the passive. Only transitive verbs (that require
both a direct subject and one or more objects: I ate the pie. ("pie" is an
object of ate)) can be used in the passive.
Personal Passive simply means that the object of the active sentence
becomes the subject of the passive sentence. So every verb that needs an
object (transitive verb) can form a personal passive. Ex.: They build houses.
– Houses are built.
Impersonal Passive is only possible with verbs of perception (e. g. say,
think, know). Ex.: They say that women live longer than men. – It is said
that women live longer than men.

8. THE ADVERB. MORPHOLOGICAL AND SEMANTIC CLASSIFICATIONS

The adverb is a word denoting circumstances or characteristics which attend


or modify an action, state, or quality. It may also intensify a quality or
characteristics.
The meaning of the adv as a PS is hard to define. Some adv indicate time or
place of an action (yesterday, here), others indicate its property (quickly),
others - the degree of a property (very).
Adv are invariable. Some of them have degrees of comparison (fast, faster,
fastest).
Adv combine with a verb (run quickly), with an adj (very long), with a noun
(the then president), with a phrase (so out of things).
Adv can follow a prep (from there). In a sentence they are almost always
adv modifiers, or parts of it, but they may occasionally be attributes.
MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION:
1) simple - after, here, well, now, soon, etc.
2) derived - the most common suffix is -ly, by means of which new adverbs
are coined from adjectives and participles: occasionally, lately,
immediately, constantly, purely, slowly, charmingly.
3) compound - are formed of two stems: sometimes, somewhere, everywhere,
downstairs, etc.
4) composite - consist of two or more word-forms, as a great deal, a little
bit, far enough, now and then, from time to time, sort of, kind of, a hell
of, a lot of, a great deal of.
Also there exist the degrees of comparison. The three grades are called
positive, comparative, and superlative degrees.
SEMANTIC CLASSIFICATION:
According to their meaning adverbs fall into groups:
Adverbs of place: outside, there, in front, etc.
Adverbs of time include those denoting duration (long, continually),
interval (all day), timing (yesterday, today, recently, lately, immediately,
once, at once, now), frequency (often, now and then, occasionally). Several
of them denote an indefinite time - soon, yet, always, already, never, ever.
Adverbs of manner: well, carefully, intentionally, silently, clearly, etc.
Adverbs of degree: thoroughly, very, much, completely, quite, rather, a
lot, a little, a great deal, badly, greatly, hardly, barely, scarcely,
narrowly
The most typical function of the adverb is that of adverbial modifier.
USAGE:
1. To emphasize an object.
2. If your readers don't need to know who's responsible for the action.
Lexical means: worth doing, have smth done, wear out (my shoes are wearing
out)

14. THE CATEGORY OF TENSE AND ASPECT OF THE ENGLISH VERB.

Verb - part of speech that usually denotes action (”bring”, “read”),


occurrence (”to decompose” (itself), “to glitter”), or a state of being
(”exist”, “live”, “soak”, “stand”). Depending on the language, a verb may
vary in form according to many factors, possibly including its tense, aspect,
mood and voice.
TENSE - expresses the relationship between the time of the action and the
time of speaking.
The main tense forms are: past, pres, future. + Besides these three tenses
there is one more tense in English, the so-called future in the past. (the
future is looked from the point of view of some moment in the past).
Each tense is represented by four verb forms involving such categories as
aspect and perfect. Thus there are four present tense forms: the present
indefinite, the present continuous, the present perfect, the present perfect
continuous.
ASPECT - shows the way or manner in which an action is performed, that is
whether the action is: perfective, imperfective, momentary (однократное),
durative:
Continuous aspect: the verbs have a definite meaning: they describe an
action as a concrete process going on continuously at a definite moment of
time, or characteristic of a definite period of time
Common aspect: devoid of any specific aspectual meaning. The verbs denote
the action as such, in a most general way, and can acquire a definite and
more specified aspective meaning due to the lexical meaning of the verb and
specific elements of the context in which they are used

15. THE CATEGORY OF VOICE OF THE ENGLISH VERBS

Verb - part of speech that usually denotes action (”bring”, “read”),


occurrence (”to decompose” (itself), “to glitter”), or a state of being
(”exist”, “live”, “soak”, “stand”). Depending on the language, a verb may
vary in form according to many factors, possibly including its tense, aspect,
mood and voice.
Voice is the grammatical category of the verb denoting the relationship
between the action expressed by the verb and the person or non-person denoted
by the subject of the sentence. There are two main voices in English: the
active voice and the passive voice. There are also other voices which embrace
a very limited number of verbs: reflexive (wash oneself), reciprocal (embrace
one another), medial (the book reads well).
The active voice indicates that the action is directed from the subject or
issues from the subject, thus the subject denotes the doer (agent) of the
action: We help our friends.
The passive voice indicates that the action is directed towards the
subject. We were helped by our friends in our work.
A sentence containing a verb in the passive voice is called a passive
construction, and a sentence containing a verb in the active voice is called
an active construction.
The subject of an active construction denotes the agent (doer) of the
action, which may be a living being, or any source of the action (a thing, a
natural phenomenon, an abstract notion).
The subject of a passive construction has the meaning of the receiver of
the action, that is a person or non-person affected by the action.
The object of an active construction denotes the receiver of the action,
whereas the object of the passive construction is the agent of the action.
The latter is introduced by the preposition by. If it is not the agent but
the instrument, it is introduced by the preposition with.

16. THE NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB

There are four non-finite forms of the verb in English: the infinitive (to
take), the gerund (taking), participle I (taking), participle II (taken).
These forms possess some verbal and some non-verbal features. The main
verbal feature of the infinitive and participles I and II is that it can be
used as part of analytical verbal forms (is standing, is built, have come,
will do, etc.)
Non-finites possess the verb categories of voice, perfect, and aspect. They
lack the categories of person, number, mood, and tense.
Syntactical functions: the infinitive and the gerund perform the main
syntactical functions of the noun, which are those of subject, object and
predicative. Participle I functions as attribute, predicative and adverbial
modifier; participle II as attribute and predicative. They cannot form a
predicate by themselves, although unlike non-verbal parts of speech they can
function as part of a compound verbal predicate.
1) The infinitive is a non-finite form of the verb which names a process in
a most general way. /with/without TO/
for-to-infinitive construction - is used where the doer of the action (or the
bearer of the state), expressed by the infinitive, is different from that of
the finite verb (the predicate): He longed for me to see the truth
2) The gerund is a non-finite form of the verb with some noun features. It
is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb. It has only two
grammatical categories, those of voice and perfect.
3) Participle I - is a non-finite form of the verb with some adjectival and
adverbial features. It is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the
verb. Gram cat: correlation, aspect. Being absent-minded, he went into the
wrong room
4) Participle II – has verbal and adjectival features. Participle II stands
apart from the other non-finites in that it does not possess their
morphological categories. Nevertheless, being a verb form, it possesses the
potential verbal meaning of voice, aspect and correlation. a house built two
years before

17. THE PROBLEM OF THE –ING FORM

-ing form: Gerund, participle /+adjective???/


The distinction between "Participle" and "Gerund" lies in their *use*,
not their form. The Present Active Participle (the "-ing") form is the only
completely regularly inflected verb form in English. Every English verb, even
the canonically irregular 'be', has such a form, produced simply by adding
the -ing suffix to the infinitive root; there are no exceptions (except modal
auxiliaries, which are defective in English)
Some scholars find two different sets of homonymous forms: the gerund and
the participle. They’re complete homonyms. This is one of the questions,
which do not admit of a definite solution (разрешение).
The difference between the gerund and the participle is basically this. The
gerund along with its verbal qualities has substantival qualities as well;
the participle along with its verbal qualities has adjectival qualities. This
of course brings about a corresponding difference in their syntactical
functions: the gerund may be the subject or the object of the sentence and
only rarely an attribute first and foremost.
There are cases when gerund and participle are practically
indistinguishable. In the sentence ‘do u mind her coming?’ the opposition
between them is neutralized because ‘her’ may be regarded both as a
possessive pronoun and a personal pronoun in the objective case.
Functions of the ing-forms
The independent use:
1) Subject. Bathing here is out of the question.
2) Predicative. To read is like dreaming at night.
3) Predicate. What about going to Moscow?
4) Object. Roger insisted on going.
5) Adverbial modifier. While going I met him. The bus passes us without
stopping.
6) Attribute. Singing people filled the street..
7) Parenthesis. Generally speaking u are late.
8) Second action (simultaneous). She was upstairs getting ready.
The dependent use:
1) Part of a compound verbal predicate. She burst out crying.
2) Subjective predicative (after passive). The baby was found sitting on
the floor.
3) Objective predicative. I felt him looking at me.
4) Part of absolute constructions (descriptive circumstances). His study
was a nice room with books lining the walls.

18. THE GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES OF THE ENGLISH NOUN.

The noun denotes thingness in a general sense. Thus nouns name things
(book, table), living beings (man, tiger), places (valley, London, England),
materials (iron, oil), processes (life, laughter), states (sleep,
consciousness), abstract notions (socialism, joy) and qualities (kindness,
courage)
Semantically all nouns fall into proper nouns (geographical names, names of
individual (unique) persons, names of the months and the days of the week,
names of planets, streets, parks, bridges) and common nouns (countables,
uncountables, collective).
According to their morphological composition nouns can be:
Simple nouns consist of only one root-morpheme: dog, room, roof.
Derived nouns (derivatives) are composed of one root-morpheme and one or
more derivational morphemes (prefixes or suffixes). /brotherhood, freedom,
operation/
Compound nouns consist of at least two stems. The meaning of a compound is
not a mere sum of its elements. / bluebell , seaman /
GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES
1) Number - count nouns have singular and plural forms. In Modern English
the singular form of a noun is unmarked (zero). The plural form is marked by
the inflexion -(e)s. Irregular plurals: man, tooth, mouse… Invariable nouns:
tea, sugar, gold, news, proper nouns.
2) Case - shows relation of the noun with other words in a sentence. It is
expressed by the form of the noun.
English nouns have two cases: the common case (unmarked, it has no
inflexion (zero inflexion) and its meaning is very general) and the genitive
case (is marked by ‘s).=possessive
Gender does not find regular morphological expression. The distinction of
male, female, and neuter may correspond to the lexical meaning of the noun:
boy, girl, table.
19. THE NOUN. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES.

The noun denotes thingness in a general sense. Thus nouns name things
(book, table), living beings (man, tiger), places (valley, London, England),
materials (iron, oil), processes (life, laughter), states (sleep,
consciousness), abstract notions (socialism, joy) and qualities (kindness,
courage)
Semantically all nouns fall into proper nouns (geographical names, names of
individual (unique) persons, names of the months and the days of the week,
names of planets, streets, parks, bridges) and common nouns (countables,
uncountables, collective).
According to their morphological composition nouns can be:
Simple nouns consist of only one root-morpheme: dog, room, roof.
Derived nouns (derivatives) are composed of one root-morpheme and one or
more derivational morphemes (prefixes or suffixes). /brotherhood, freedom,
operation/
Compound nouns consist of at least two stems. The meaning of a compound is
not a mere sum of its elements. / bluebell , seaman /
GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES
1) Number - count nouns have singular and plural forms. In Modern English
the singular form of a noun is unmarked (zero). The plural form is marked by
the inflexion -(e)s. Irregular plurals: man, tooth, mouse… Invariable nouns:
tea, sugar, gold, news, proper nouns.
2) Case - shows relation of the noun with other words in a sentence. It is
expressed by the form of the noun.
English nouns have two cases: the common case (unmarked, it has no
inflexion (zero inflexion) and its meaning is very general) and the genitive
case (is marked by ‘s).=possessive
Gender does not find regular morphological expression. The distinction of
male, female, and neuter may correspond to the lexical meaning of the noun:
boy, girl, table.

20. THE CATEGORY OF NUMBER OF THE ENGLISH NOUN.

The noun denotes thingness in a general sense. Thus nouns name things
(book, table), living beings (man, tiger), places (valley, London, England),
materials (iron, oil), processes (life, laughter), states (sleep,
consciousness), abstract notions (socialism, joy) and qualities (kindness,
courage)
GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES
1) Case - shows relation of the noun with other words in a sentence. It is
expressed by the form of the noun.
English nouns have two cases: the common case (unmarked, it has no inflexion
(zero inflexion) and its meaning is very general) and the genitive case (is
marked by ‘s).=possessive
2) Number - count nouns have singular and plural forms. In Modern English
the singular form of a noun is unmarked (zero). The plural form is marked by
the inflexion -(e)s, sometimes –ves (words ending in -f). Irregular plurals:
man, tooth, mouse… Invariable nouns: tea, sugar, gold, news, proper nouns.

21. THE PROBLEM OF THE CATEGORY OF CASE OF THE ENGLISH NOUN.

The noun denotes thingness in a general sense. Thus nouns name things
(book, table), living beings (man, tiger), places (valley, London, England),
materials (iron, oil), processes (life, laughter), states (sleep,
consciousness), abstract notions (socialism, joy) and qualities (kindness,
courage)
GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES
1) Number - count nouns have singular and plural forms. In Modern English
the singular form of a noun is unmarked (zero). The plural form is marked by
the inflexion -(e)s. Irregular plurals: man, tooth, mouse… Invariable nouns:
tea, sugar, gold, news, proper nouns.
2) Case - shows relation of the noun with other words in a sentence. It is
expressed by the form of the noun.
English nouns have two cases: the common case (unmarked, it has no
inflexion (zero inflexion) and its meaning is very general) and the genitive
case (is marked by ‘s).=possessive
Case is the category of a noun expressing relations between the thing
denoted by the noun and other things, or properties, or actions, and
manifested by some formal sign in the noun itself (e.g. inflection, zero-
morpheme).
The problem of case in E nouns is one of the most disputed problems in
English grammar. The views on the subject differ widely.
Views: The number of approaches is due to a difference in the
interpretation of the category of case.
I.I.Meshchaninov:
+ instrumental case (e.g. with the pen);
+ locative case (e.g. in the pen)
John Lyons:
- Nominative, e.g. Bill died.
- Accusative, e.g. John killed Bill.
- Dative, e.g. John gave the book to Tom. John gave Tom the book.
- Genitive, e.g. It’s Harry’s pencil.
- Instrumental, e.g. John killed Bill with a knife.
- Agentive, e.g. Bill was killed by John with a knife.
- Commitative, e.g. John went to town with Mary.

22. THE PROBLEM OF THE CATEGORY OF GENDER OF THE ENGLISH NOUN.

The noun denotes thingness in a general sense. Thus nouns name things
(book, table), living beings (man, tiger), places (valley, London, England),
materials (iron, oil), processes (life, laughter), states (sleep,
consciousness), abstract notions (socialism, joy) and qualities (kindness,
courage)
GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES
1) Number - count nouns have singular and plural forms.
2) Case - shows relation of the noun with other words in a sentence. It is
expressed by the form of the noun. the common case and the genitive case (is
marked by ‘s).
Gender does not find regular morphological expression. The distinction of
male, female, and neuter may correspond to the lexical meaning of the noun:
boy, girl, table.
The category of gender in English is a highly controversial subject in
grammar.
The fact is, the category of gender in English differs from the category of
gender in many other languages, for example, in Russian, in French or in
German. The category of gender linguistically may be either meaningful -
rendering the actual sex-based features of the referents, or formal.
In English gender is a meaningful category for the whole class of the
nouns, because it reflects the real gender attributes (or their absence/
irrelevance) of the referent denoted. It is realized through obligatory
correspondence of every noun with the 3rd person singular pronouns - he, she,
or it: man – he, woman – she, tree, dog – it. For example: A woman was
standing on the platform. She was wearing a hat. It was decorated with
ribbons and flowers…
PERSONAL PRONOUNS are grammatical gender classifiers in English.
The category of gender is formed by two oppositions organized
hierarchically. The first opposition is general and opposes human/ person
nouns, distinguishing masculine and feminine gender (man – he, woman – she)
and all the other, non-human/ non-person nouns, belonging to the neuter
gender (tree, dog – it). The second opposition is formed by the human nouns
only: on the lower level of the opposition the nouns of masculine gender and
of feminine gender are opposed.

23. THE PRONOUN. CLASSIFICATION AND GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES

Pronouns are words which point to objects, their properties and relations,
their local or temporal reference, or placement without naming them. They
constitute a limited class of words (that is a closed system) with numerous
subclasses. They are generally differentiated into noun-pronouns
(substituting nouns) and adjective-pronouns (substituting adjectives).
Speaking about pronouns, we shall answer 2 questions at least: is the
pronoun a separate PS? Notional or functional? Pronouns are not a separate
PS, they distribute them between nouns and adj: we, he, smb – noun pronouns;
my, some – adj pronouns (Henry Sweet).
Pronouns may be of different structure:
1) Simple pron. comprise only one morpheme - the stem:
I, you, he, we, etc.; this, that, some, who, all, one, etc.
2) Compound pron. comprise more than one stem:
myself, themselves, somebody, everybody, anything, nothing, etc.
3) Composite pron. have the form of a phrase: each other, one another.
SUBCLASSES OF PRONOUNS
1. Personal pron. are noun-pronouns, indicating persons (I, you, he, we,
they) or non-persons (it, they) from the point of view of their relations to
the speaker.
2. Possessive pron. are used to indicate possession or ownership. (my,
your)
3. Demonstrative pron. distinguish the particular objects or people that
are referred to from other possible candidates. (This, that, these, those)
4) Indefinite pron. refer to general categories of people or things. Anyone
5) Relative pron. used to add more inform. to a sentence. (Which, that).
6) Reflexive Pron. refer to another noun or pron. in the sentence. (myself)
7) Reciprocal pron. refer to individual parts of a preceding plural noun.
(each other)
8) Interrogative pron. introduce a question. (who, what)
GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES
Pronouns agree in gender, number, and person with their antecedent.
Grammatical category of case is different, depending on the position pronouns
have within the sentence structure.
Generally, pronouns follow their antecedent nouns within the sentence
structure. However, there are instances when pronouns are positioned ahead of
their antecedent nouns.

24. THE FUNCTIONAL PARTS OF SPEECH

Parts of speech - classes of words, all the members of these classes having
certain characteristics in common which distinguish them from the members of
other classes.
Parts of speech are traditionally subdivided into:
NOTIONAL parts of speech have both lexical & grammatical meanings (nouns,
verbs, adjectives, adverbs, numerals, statives, pronouns, modal words).
FUNCTIONAL parts of speech are characterized mainly by the grammatical
meaning while their lexical meaning is either lost completely or has survived
in a very weakened form. (the article, the preposition, the conjunction).
Notional parts of speech are characterized by word-building & word-changing
properties; functional words have no formal features & they should be
memorized as ready-made units (but, since, till, until).
Another most important difference between functional & notional parts of
speech is revealed on the level of sentence. Where every notional word
performs a certain synthetic function while functional words have no
synthetic function at all. They serve as indicators of a certain part of
speech (to + verb; a, the + noun). Prepositions are used to connect 2 words &
conjunctions to connect 2 clauses or sentences.
Ilyish => words should be divided into 2 categories on the principle:
Notional words denote things, actions and other extra-linguistic phenomena
Functional words denote relations and connections between the notional
words
Here belong:
• the article-expresses the specific limitation of the substantive
functions
• the preposition - expresses the dependencies and interdependencies of
substantive referents
• the conjunction - expresses connections of phenomena
• the particle - unites the functional words of specifying and limiting
meaning. To this series, alongside other specifying words, should be referred
verbal postpositions as functional modifiers of verbs, etc.
• the modal word - expresses the attitude of the speaker to the reflected
situation and its parts. Here belong the functional words of probability
(probably, perhaps, etc.), of qualitative evaluation (fortunately,
unfortunately, luckily, etc.), and also of affirmation and negation
• the interjection - is a signal of emotions.

1. SYNTAX AS A PART OF GRAMMAR. SYNTACTIC UNITS (PHRASE, SENTENCE)

The grammatical structure of language comprises two major parts –


morphology (deals with morphemes and words) and syntax. Syntax deals with the
way words are combined. Syntax studies the way in which the units and their
meanings are combined. It also deals with peculiarities of syntactic units,
their behaviour in different contexts. Смирницкий: The analysis of the
sentence structure must be regarded as the main problem of syntax; while the
word-groups is secondary. Joining the words into phrases is only the 1st step
which precedes the formation of a sentence. A phrase is not complete either
structurally or semantically, it can’t be used as a unit of communication. A
sent. can function as an independent utterance, but a word-group (phrase)
functions only as an element of a sent.
Therefore, sent-s are units of speech, while phrases are bricks in a
sentence structure.
The fundamental feature that distinguishes a sent. from a phrase is that
sent. is always associated with a certain intonation pattern (it’s either a
statement, or request, etc.) A sent. without intonation can’t function as a
unit of speech; it remains a mere combination of words.
When the noun and the verb in the finite form follow each other in the
sent., they become the subject and the predicate – the 2 main parts of which
basic sent-s are built. They can accompanied by other words, and usually are,
but this doesn’t change their status as the main parts of the sent.
In most general terms, a phrase is a logical and grammatical combination
of 2 or more notional words which do not form a sent, its the dependent
syntactic unit. The phrase is a combination of two or more notional words
which is a grammatical unit but is not an analytical form of some word. The
main difference between the phrase and the sentence is in their linguistic
function. The phrase is a nominative unit, the sentence is a predicative one.
A sentence may be defined as the central syntactical construction used as
the minimal communicative unit, that has its primary predication, actualizes
a definite structural scheme (Почепцов). The most universal means of
expressing predication is intonation; under certain circumstances (a broader
context) any word-gr. may become a sent. But in most cases predication is
conveyed through the finite form of the verb (expresses person, numb, mood,
tense, aspect, time correlat, voice).
The sentence and the word group (phrase)
1) Neither words no word groups can express communication. Cf. the arrival
of the delegation is expected next week (a sentence). It is a structure in
which words are grouped (arranged) according to definite rules (patterns).
2) Another difference between the sentence and the phrase is predicativity.
Predicativity comprises tense and mood components. The sentence together with
predicativity expresses a fact, while a phrase gives a nomination without
time reference:
e.g. The doctor arrived. The doctor’s arrival.
Predication is a word or combination of words expressing predicativity.
Thus the essential property of sentence is predicativity and intonation.

2. CLASSIFICATION OF PREDICATES

The Predicate is the part of the sentence which expresses a predicative


feature attributed to the subject of the sentence. Like the subject, the
predicate also carries out a triple function in the sentence: structural,
semantic and communicative. Its structural function consists in establishing
the syntactic relations with the subject and other parts of the sentence. The
semantic function of the predicate finds its expression in attributing
certain features to the subject. Its communicative function is manifested in
the fact that through the predicate and the expression of predication the
sentence becomes a minimal unit of communication. The predicate is 'the
structural and semantic centre of the sentence’. In the structure of a
simple, two-member sentence the predicate usually carries out the function of
the rheme, e.g. He disappeared.
- According to the form of expression predicates are divided into verbal
and nominal: The moon rose. The moon was pale.
- There exists a phraseological predicate (presents a combination of such
verbs as have, get, give, take and a verbal noun (give a look, take a bath,
have a smoke). From the grammatical point of view the most important
characteristic of this type of predicate is not so much its phraseological
but its analytical character. The verb expresses the grammatical meaning and
the verbal noun expresses a lexical meaning.
- The two formal types of the predicate correspond to the two main semantic
types: process predicate which expresses the action, the state or the
existence of the subject and qualification predicate which expresses the
quality (property) of the subject. The process predicate can be further
subdivided into several types in accordance with the semantic types of verbs:
existential (There was a tavern in the town), statal (He slept), locative
(The elephant lives in India), relational (He had a small ranch) and actional
(The car broke down). The qualification predicate has three subtypes:
identifying (So you are the man we have been looking for), classifying (My
friend is a student) and characterizing (My wife is a bit of an actress).
Structurally the predicate may be divided into simple and compound. We said
good- bye - a simple verbal predicate; It was a lovely place -simple nominal
predicate. The predicate is compounded by the introduction of modal or
aspective components. We started saying good-bye - a compound verbal
predicate; It must be a lovely place - a compound nominal predicate.

3. CLASSIFICATION OF PHRASES

The phrase is a group unit formed by any combination of 2 or more notional


words which doesn’t constitute a sentence (Barkhudarov).
The phrase is a group unit formed by any combination of 2 or more words in
which neither of the elements can be transformed or substituted in its
position by a word of another class or subclass (Ilyish, Burlakova).
The second definition is much wider, because it includes not only phrases
consisting of notional words, but also prepositional phrases, predicative
phrases with finite verbs.
The main types of phrases
According to the type of syntactic bond existing between immediate
constituents, the main types are:
1. Subordinate. Usually consist of the head, which is an independent
element, and an adjunct, which is a dependent constituent. E.g. fond of
reading; writing a letter
2. Coordinate. They are the relations of independence: E.g. you and me;
sooner or later; brother and sisters
3. Predicative. Are the relations of interdependence: primary and secondary
predication.E.g. for you to go; for time permitting.

4. COORDINATE PHRASES

The phrase is a group unit formed by any combination of 2 or more notional


words which doesn’t constitute a sentence (Barkhudarov).
PHRASE - a combination of syntactically connected words
Phrases are not characterized by sentence stress or any intonation pattern,
are of no communicative value.
The main feature is the same syntactic function of their immediate
constituents. It may be tested by the ability of any constituent to
substitute the whole phrase.
e.g. They drove slowly in silence.
The means of expressing of syntactic bonds of coordinate phrase are 3 in
number.
1. coordinate conjunctions
2. word order
3. intonation
Accordingly coordinate phrases are subdivided into the following
subclasses:
Syndetic phrases, which fall into 2 subclasses:
- simple phrases with continuous conjunctions (and, but, or, as well as,
along with) E.g. She refused everything but a piece of bread.
- correlative phrases with discontinuous conjunctions (both, either or,
neither nor, not only but) E.g. We both like swimming.
Asyndetic coordinate phrases fall into 2 subclasses.
- copulative – when conjunctions can be inserted between the immediate
constituents. E.g. He was hot (and) hungry (and) tired.
appositive phrases. Immediate constituents of appositive phrases refer to
the same person or object, that’s why they do not allow insertion of any
construction. Appositive phrases are made up of two elements which may be:
nouns, noun-pronouns and substantivised groups.
E.g. king Lear, the river Thames

5. HEADED AND NON-HEADED PHRASES

The phrase is a group unit formed by any combination of 2 or more notional


words which doesn’t constitute a sentence (Barkhudarov).
PHRASE - a combination of syntactically connected words
Phrases are not characterized by sentence stress or any intonation pattern,
are of no communicative value.
According to the ways in which phrases are used and constituted, two main
types of English phrases can be distinguished: headed (endocentric) and non-
headed (exocentric). The terms "endocentric" and "exocentric" for syntactic
constructions were introduced by L. Bloomfield.
Headed phrases have the peculiarity: all the grammatical functions open to
them as phrases can also be exercised by one expression within them. They may
be regarded as expansions of this expression, called the head of the group
and it is possible to substitute the head for the group or the group for the
head within the same grammatical phrase (in the same context) without causing
any formal dislocation of the overall gram. struct.
For ex, in fresh fruit is good the headed word-group fresh fruit serves as
subject; in I like fresh fruit, it serves as objective complement. If we
substitute the head expression fruit for fresh fruit in either case, the
grammatical frame subject, verb, complement will remain formally undisturbed.
Syntactic relations may be signalled by the following devices:
a) Word-order, i. e. the position of words relative to each other in the
utterance.
b) Prosody-combinations of patterns of pitch, stress and juncture. Patterns
of stresses and internal junctures are often referred to as super- fixes.
c) Function words — words with little or no lexical meaning which are used
in combining words into larger structures (prepositions, con-
junctions,relative pronouns).
d) Inflections which adapt words to fit varying structural positions
without changing their lexical meaning or part of speech.
e) Punctuation in writing.
Optional non-head elements:
a) determiner D; E.g. the
b) adjective phrase; e.g. very spicy
c) relative clause; e.g. the man who knew too much
d) complementizer clause; e.g. the fact that he knew too much

6. NOUN PHRASES

The phrase is a group unit formed by any combination of 2 or more notional


words which doesn’t constitute a sentence (Barkhudarov).
PHRASE - a combination of syntactically connected words
Phrases are not characterized by sentence stress or any intonation pattern,
are of no communicative value.
Noun phrases are widely spread in English. This may be explained by a
potential ability of the noun to go into combinations with practically all
parts of speech. The NP consists of a noun-head and an adjunct (придаток,
дополнение) or adjuncts with relations of modification between them. Three
types of modification are distinguished here:
a) Premodification that comprises all the units placed before the head: two
smart hard-working students. Adjuncts used in pre-head position are called
pre-posed adjuncts.
b) Postmodification that comprises all the units placed after the head:
students from Boston. Adjuncts used in post-head position are called post-
posed adjuncts.
c) Mixed modification that comprises all the units in both pre-head and
post-head position: two smart hard-working students from Boston.
Noun-phrases with pre-posed adjuncts
Here we generally find adjectives, pronouns, numerals, participles,
gerunds, nouns. According to their position all pre-posed adjuncts may be
divided into pre-adjectivals and adjectiavals. The position of adjectivals is
usually right before the noun-head. Pre-adjectivals occupy the position
before adjectivals. They fall into two groups: a) limiters (to this group
belong mostly particles): just, only, even, etc. and b) determiners
(articles, possessive pronouns, quantifiers – the first, the last).
Premodification of nouns by nouns (N+N) is one of the most striking
features about the grammatical organization of English. It is one of devices
to make our speech both laconic and expressive. Noun-adjunct groups result
from different kinds of transformational shifts. NPs with pre-posed adjuncts
can signal a striking variety of meanings: world peace – peace all over the
world silver box – a box made of silver
The grammatical relations observed in NPs with pre-posed adjuncts may
convey the following meanings:
1) subject-predicate relations: weather change;
2) object relations: health service, women hater;
3) adverbial relations:
a) of time: morning star,
b) place: world peace, country house,
c) comparison: button eyes,
d) purpose: tooth brush.
Noun-phrases with post-posed adjuncts
Postposition of adjectives occurs in some fixed phrases, e. g.:mother dear
the university proper.
Postpositive position is often natural for adjectival units which
themselves contain postpositive modifiers of their own and even for some
which contain only postpositive modifiers. E. g. applicants desirous of
personal interviews a wall six feet high rooms large enough.

7. PREMODIFICATION OF NOUN BY NOUN

The use of nouns as adjuncts may be well illustrated by premodification of


nouns by nouns. Examples are numerous: stone wall, iron bridge, silver spoon,
space flight, morning star, etc. In general, premodifiers can be replaced
with postmodifying clauses introduced by of or for.
Noun premodification is where one or more words (normally either
adjectives, or other nouns) are placed in front of a noun, to further
describe (adjectivize) or define the noun. A simple example would be:
"...a left-handed driver..." The noun is driver, and the premodifier (an
adjective, in this case) is left-handed.
Premodification of nouns by nouns (N+N) is one of the most striking
features about the grammatical organization of English. It is one of devices
to make our speech both laconic and expressive at the same time. Noun-adjunct
groups result from different kinds of transformational shifts. NPs with pre-
posed adjuncts can signal a striking variety of meanings:
world peace – peace all over the world
silver box – a box made of silver
table lamp – lamp for tables
table legs – the legs of the table
river sand – sand from the river
school child – a child who goes to school

8. PROGRESSIVE AND REGRESSIVE PHRASES

The phrase is a group unit formed by any combination of 2 or more notional


words which doesn’t constitute a sentence (Barkhudarov).
PHRASE - a combination of syntactically connected words.
Phrases are not characterized by sentence stress or any intonation pattern,
are of no communicative value.
Subordinate phrases (the leading element and the rest depending on it):
e.g. oral quiz awfully glad ran quickly
Subordinate phrases can be also classified according to the position of the
dependent element into REGRESSIVE and PROGRESSIVE phrases.
In regressive phrases the dependent elements are placed before the leading
word (left-handed dependent elements): e.g. a difficult exam
If the dependent elements follow the leading word (right-handed dependent
elements) the phrase is progressive: e.g. stories by Maugham

9. SUBORDINATE PHRASES

The phrase is a group unit formed by any combination of 2 or more notional


words which doesn’t constitute a sentence (Barkhudarov).
Subordinate phrases usually consist of the head, which is an independent
element, and an adjunct, which is a dependent constituent.
Subordinate phrases are subdivided into several groups into:
1. Noun phrases. E.g. a sleepless night.
2. Verb phrases. E.g. worked hard.
3. Adjective phrases. E.g. rich in oil.
4. Pronominal phrases. E.g. some more weak students.
5. Adverbial phrases. E.g. very well.
6. Participial & gerundial phrases. E.g. wasting the time.
According to their structure phrases are divided into:
- simple or unextended, which usually consist of 2 notional words.
E.g. cold water, quite near
- complex or extended, consisting of more than 2 notional words.
E.g. He ran hastily downstairs. – parental extension.
very cold water – continuing extension.
According to the place of the elements phrases can be continuous and
discontinuous.E.g. very warm wind – continuous.
“I’m ready”, said the boy cheerfully. – discontinuous.
Subordinate verb phrases occupy some specific place in the syntactic
structure in modern English due to wide valency of the verb. There are 3
subclasses of the verb phrases.
1. The head of which can be expressed by transitive words. Adjuncts in such
phrases are called objective compliments.
E.g. To read a good book was pleasure.
2. The head of which can be expressed only by intransitive verbs. Adjuncts
in such phrases are called qualifying compliments.
E.g. She remained silent.
3. The head of which can be expressed by transitive and intransitive words.
Adjuncts in such phrases are called extensions.
E.g. She regarded him fixedly

10. SYNTACTIC CONNECTIONS IN ENGLISH PHRARES

The phrase is the syntactic unit used as a notional part of a sentence.


Traditionally coordination and subordination are viewed upon as the basic
types of syntactic relations.
Coordination is the connection of equal and relatively independent parts,
words, sentences, or sentence parts. It can be realized with or without
conjunctions, i.e. syndetically and asyndetically. e.g.: 1) desks and chairs
(syn), 2) cars ,buses, lorries (asyn)
As for subordination it was defined by all linguists as syntactically
unequal connection of parts, words, sentences, sentence parts. M.Y. Bloch
terms syntactically equal connection of words as equipotent
(равнопотенциальный) type of syntactical relation and syntactically unequal
connection as a dominational type of syntactical relation.
Dominational (or subordinational) connection is effected in such a way
that one element of the dominational or subordinational phrase is principal
(dominating) and the other is subordinate (dominated). The principal element
is also called “kernel” or “head word”, the subordinate element – the
“adjunct” or “expansion”.
Subordination (or domination) can be of two main types: bilateral (or two-
way or reciprocal – двусторонняя или взаимная) and monolateral (or one-way –
односторонняя).
Two-way subordination is realized in predicative connection of words,
uniting the subject and the predicate. The reciprocal nature of this
connection consists in the fact that the subject dominates the predicate,
determining the person of predication.
One-way subordination is realized in the attributive, objective and
adverbial connections.
Objective connection reflects the relation of the object to the process, and
subdivided into non-prepositional (actualized by word-order) and
prepositional, e.g.:
1) He regretted the event;
2) I forget about the event.
Attributive connection unites a substance with its attribute expressed by
an adjective or a noun, e.g.: a nice picture, a woman of means, a man of his
word.
Adverbial connection can be of two types: primary and secondary. Primary
connection is established between the verb and its adverbial modifiers, e.g.:
to come late; to do (smth.) with enthusiasm. Secondary adverbial connection
is established between the non-verbal head word expressing a quality and its
adverbial modifiers, e.g.: no longer attractive (head word).

11. THE EXISTENT PHRASES

Verb phr. with link verb


Link verbs are so-called nominal predicatives have no indep. meaning &
function to connect the subject with predicative, expressing categ. of finite
verb (pers. Number, tense, aspect, voice, modality)
The most common link verb is “to be”. A large number of other linking verbs
don’t have semantic decline, that’s why they are called semi-copulative. When
a verb is a link verb, it weakens its primary lex. Meaning and requires the
abstract meaning of being in a certain state (is happy) of remaining in a
certain state (continue fine) of passing in a certain state (become a
teacher)
And correspondingly there are 3 main CNP:
- CNP of being
- CNP of becoming
- CNP of remaining

12. VERB PHRASES

The phrase is a group unit formed by any combination of 2 or more notional


words which doesn’t constitute a sentence (Barkhudarov).
The VERB PHRASE is a definite kind of the subordinate phrase with the verb
as the head. The verb is considered to be the semantic and structural centre
not only of the VP but of the whole sentence as the verb plays an important
role in making up primary predication that serves the basis for the sentence.
VPs are more complex than NOUN PHRASES as there are a lot of ways in which
verbs may be combined in actual usage. Valent properties of different verbs
and their semantics make it possible to divide all the verbs into several
groups depending on the nature of their complements:
Classification of verb-phrases.
VPs can be classified according to the nature of their complements – verb
complements may be nominal (to see a house) and adverbial (to behave well).
Consequently, we distinguish nominal, adverbial and mixed complementation.
Nominal complementation takes place when one or more nominal complements
(nouns or pronouns) are obligatory for the realization of potential valency
of the verb: to give smth. to smb., to phone smb., to hear smth.(smb.), etc.
Adverbial complementation occurs when the verb takes one or more adverbial
elements obligatory for the realization of its potential valency: He behaved
well, I live …in Kyiv (here).
Mixed complementation – both nominal and adverbial elements are obligatory:
He put his hat on he table (nominal-adverbial).
According to the structure VPs may be basic or simple (to take a book) –
all elements are obligatory; expanded (to read and translate the text, to
read books and newspapers) and extended (to read an English book).

13. PREDICATIVE PHRASES (RELATIONS)

The phrase is a group unit formed by any combination of 2 or more notional


words which doesn’t constitute a sentence (Barkhudarov).
Consist of 2 parts: subjectival and predicatival.
E.g. subjectival predicatival She didn’t expect me to come up to her.
The relations between subjectival and predicatival are similar to those of
the subject and the predicate, but predicatival can never be expressed by a
finite verb. That’s why predicative phrases can’t function as independent
units. The person or thing expressed by the subject of the sentence and the
subjectival are different.
All predicative phrases are subdivided into bound and absolute.
Bound predicative phrases are grammatically connected with the verb
predicate of the sentence. These phrases are not isolated. They function as
extended adjuncts. They may be expressed by the following constructions:
1. Objective with the infinitive. E.g. Nobody saw him leave the room.
2. Objective participial construction. E.g. Nobody saw him leaving the
house.
3. Subjective infinitive construction. E.g. He is known to have been a
talented writer.
4. Subjective participial construction. E.g. They were heard quarrelling.
5. For + to infinitive construction. E.g. For me to go back would be to
admit I was afraid.
6. Gerundial and half-gerundial construction. E.g. Barbara(‘s) coming
tonight meant a lot.
Independent absolute predicative phrase may be expressed by nominative
absolute construction:
E.g. She began to go downstairs, the boy following her.
And prepositional absolute constructions:
E.g. He stood there, with his mouth open.

14. SENTENCE AS A SYNTACTIC UNIT

When we write, we convey our thoughts through sentences. A sentence is the


only unit of language which is capable of expressing a communication
containing some kind of information.
One of the definitions is ‘the sentence is the smallest communication unit
expressing a more or less complete thought and having a definite grammatical
structure and intonation’. Почепцов Sentence is the central syntactical
construction used as the minimal communicative unit, that has its primary
predication, actializes a definite structural scheme and possesses definite
intonation characteristics.
The most essential features of the sentence as a linguistic unit are:
- subject/predicate relations, which express primary predication (are
obligatory) e.g. It is hot autumn;
- semantic chatacteristics (the sentence refers to some fact/state of
affairs in objective reality, which is represented in the language through
conceptual reality).
To sum it up, the sentence can be:
1) independent syntactical unit aimed at communication, A sentence is able
to complete an idea standing alone;
2) sentence is a syntactical level unit which being a language unit is a
lingual representation of predicative thought;
3) the sentence has its own system of formal means of expressing time
relations and objective modal meaning concerning the reality or unreality of
what is expressed in predication.
Classification of Sentences
Sentences are classified 1) according to the types of communication and 2)
according to their structure.
In accordance with the types of communication sentences are divided into:
1) Declarative (giving information). E.g. the book is interesting
(statement).
2) Interrogative (asking for information). E.g. is the book interesting?
(question).
3) Imperative (asking for action). E.g. give me the book! (command,
request).
Each of these 3 kinds of sentences may be in the affirmative and negative
form, exclamatory and non- exclamatory.

15. SYNTACTIC RELATIONS

The syntactic units can go into three types of syntactic relations.


Coordination (SR1) – syntagmatic relations of independence. SR1 can be
observed on the phrase, sentence and text levels. Coordination may be
symmetric and asymmetric. Symmetric coordination is characterized by complete
interchangeability of its elements – pens and pencils. Asymmetric
coordination occurs when the position of elements is fixed: ladies and
gentlemen. Forms of connection within SR1 may be copulative (you and me),
disjunctive (you or me), adversative (strict but just) and causative-
consecutive (sentence and text level only).
Subordination (SR2) – syntagmatic relations of dependence. SR2 are
established between the constituents of different linguistic rank. They are
observed on the phrase and sentence level. Subordination may be of three
different kinds – adverbial (to speak slowly), objective (to see a house) and
attributive (a beautiful flower). Forms of subordination may also be
different – agreement (this book – these books), government (help us),
adjournment (the use of modifying particles just, only, even, etc.) and
enclosure (the use of modal words and their equivalents really, after all,
etc.).
Predication (SR3) – syntagmatic relations of interdependence. Predication
may be of two kinds – primary (sentence level) and secondary (phrase level).
Primary predication is observed between the subject and the predicate of the
sentence while secondary predication is observed between non-finite forms of
the verb and nominal elements within the sentence. Secondary predication
serves the basis for gerundial, infinitive and participial word-groups
(predicative complexes.

16. THE ACTUAL DIVISION OF THE SENTENCE

The actual division of the sent. exposes its informative perspective


showing what immediate semantic contribution the sent. parts make to total
information conveyed by the sent.
From the point of view of the actual division the sent. can be divided into
2 sections: thematic (theme) & rhematic (rheme). The theme expresses the
starting point of communication; it means that it denotes an object or a
phenomenon about which smth is reported. The rheme expresses the basic
informative part of the com¬munication, emphasizing its contextually relevant
centre. Between the theme & the rheme transitional parts of the actual
division can be placed, also known under the term "transition". Transitional
parts of the sent. are characterized by diff. de¬grees of their informative
value. The theory of actual division has proved fruitful in the study of the
comm-tive properties of sent.s. In particular, it has been demonstrated that
each comm-tive type is distinguished by features which are revealed first &
foremost in the nature of the rheme. As a declarative sent. immediately
expresses a proposition, its actual division pattern has a complete form, its
rheme making up the centre of some statement. As an imperative sent. does not
directly express a proposi¬tion, its rheme represents the informative nucleus
not of an explicit proposition, but of an inducement in which the thematic
subject is usually zeroed. If the inducement is emphatically addressed to the
listener, or to the speaker himself, or to the third person, thematic
subjects have an explicit form.
The function of the rheme in an interrogative sent. consists in marking the
rhematic position in a response sent., thus programming its content.
Different types of questions are characterized by different types of rhemes.
The analysis of the actual division of comm-tive sent. types gives an
additional proof of the "non-comm-tive" nature of the so-called purely
exclamatory sentences (e.g. "Oh, I say!"): it shows that interjectional
utterances of the type don't make up grammatically predicated sentences with
their own informative per¬spective; in other words, they remain mere signals
of emotions.

17. THE COMPLEX SENTENCE

The complex sentence is a polypredicative construction built up on the


principle of subordination. The complex sentence of minimal composition
includes two clauses — a principal one and a subordinate one. Although the
principal clause positionally dominates the subordinate clause, the two form
a semantico-syntactic unity within the framework of which they are in fact
interconnected, so that the very existence of either of them is supported by
the existence of the other.
The subordinate clause is joined to the principal clause either by a
subordinating connector (subordinator), or, with some types of clauses,
asyndetically.
The minimal, two-clause complex sentence is the main volume type of complex
sentences. It is the most important type, first, in terms of frequency, since
its textual occurrence by far exceeds that of multi-clause complex sentences;
second, in terms of its paradigmatic status, because a complex sentence of
any volume is analysable into a combination of two-clause complex sentence
units.
A complex sentence has a base of a complete sentence with a subject, verb,
and words to complete the thought. A complex sentence adds additional
information in separate phrases. The information in the phrases depends
upon the information in the complete sentence base; it cannot stand alone.
The phrases in the following sentences add information to the base sentence
but cannot stand alone:
E.g. The kids need to go to bed, [whether or not they want to], no later
than 8:00 p.m.
Certain words traditionally start off the subordinate, or dependent, parts
of the complex sentence:
before.....while.....if.....where
after.....because.....whether.....whereas
though.....since.....unless.....as
although.....when.....because.....as if
The complex sentence is an effective way to show that one idea takes
precedence over another. The idea in the complete sentence base is more
important than the idea in the dependent phrase.
Types of complex sentences: The notions of declarative, interrogative,
imperative, and exclamatory sentence appear to be applicable to some types of
complex sentences as well.
Classification:
According to the functional principle we distinguish object, attributive,
adverbial clauses, etc.
According to the categorial principle subordinate clauses are divided into
3 categorial semantic groups: substantive-nominal, qualification-nominal and
adverbial.
e.g. That they were justified in this she could not but admit. – That fact
she could not but admit.
e.g. Ann had become aware of the fact that she was talking loudly. – Ann
had become aware of that fact.
e.g. I’ll deserve your confidence if you give me another chance. – I’ll
deserve your confidence on condition that you give me another chance.

18. THE COMPOSITE SENTENCE

Traditional grammar defines the SENTENCE as a word or a group of words


capable of expressing a complete thought.
Main features of the composite sentence:
1) a polypredicative unit;
2) is characterized by a communicative wholeness; has 1 communicative
intention (смысл, значение),
3) is characterized by intonational wholeness, all are interconnected, 4)
characteristic of literary written style, rarely used in oral speech, in
conversations.
Types of composite sentences: According to the type of connection of
clauses we can distinguish between complex & compound sentences. In compound
sent-s the type of connection of clauses is coordination-сочинит. (i.e.
syntactically the clauses are of equal rank). In complex sent-s the type of
connection of clauses is subordination- подчинит. & clauses are of unequal
rank (principal and subordinate).
The means of combining clauses: syndetic (союзн.) & asyndetic (бессоюзн.).
Syndetic => conj-s, relative pron-s (who, which), relative adv-s (where, how,
when, why), phrases (as long as, in order that). Asyndetic => there are no
connectives between the clauses. Some grammarians say, “the zero connector”.
Classification of subord. clauses: 2 approaches:
1. Shows correlation of clauses with parts of the sentence => a) the
subject clause, b) the predicative, c) object, d) adverbial, e) attributive.
2) Correlates clauses with parts of speech & distinguishes: a) substantive
clause – corresponding to subj., predic. & object clauses, b) adverbial
clauses, c) adjectival clauses – corresponding to attribute clause. These 2
classifications correlate.

19. THE CONSTITUENT ANALYSES OF THE SENTENCE

In linguistics Immediate constituent analysis or IC Analysis is a method


of sentence analysis first explicitly introduced by American linguist Leonard
Bloomfield in his book Language in 1933. It is a major feature of
Bloomfieldian structuralist linguistics.
In IC analysis, a sentence is divided up into major divisions or "immediate
constituents", and these constituents are in turn divided into further
immediate constituents, and this process continues until irreducible
constituents are reached, i.e., until each constituent consists of only a
word or meaningful part of a word. The end result of IC analysis is often
presented in a visual diagrammatic form that reveals the hierarchical
immediate constituent structure of a sentence. For sentences whose structures
are unusual, this diagramming may become excessively complex; in such cases
verbal description is used.
For example, the sentence "The girl is happy" can be divided into immediate
constituents "The girl" and "is happy". These in turn can be analyzed into
immediate constituents (the+girl) and (is+happy), and so on. Bloomfield
doesn't give any special technique to detect immediate constituents, rather
appeals to the native speaker's intuition.
For example “incredibly" modifies "intelligent”, so the sequence
[incredibly intelligent] is a phrasal constituent of the sentence. Also,
following the analysis, 'this" modifies "pupil", so the sequence [that pupil]
forms a single structural unit, a constituent of the sentence. The same
happens in the sequence [that teacher]. But furthermore also the sequence [to
that teacher] is another constituent.

20. THE CONSTRUCTIVE ANALYSES OF THE SENTENCE


Shows the rules accord. To which sentences are being constr. The sent. Can
include obligatory (compulsory) elem., the omission of which will destroy the
structural completeness of the sent., and optional elem., the omission of
which doesn’t ruin the completeness of the sent.
e. g. He is a smart student.
Prof. Potsheptsov investing. the struct. types of Engl. sentences and
proposed his classification of structural schemes of the Engl. sent-es. we
should differentiate the centr. struct. of the sent., which is minimal as for
the member of constituents and the simplest one as to its gram. construction.
It is called the structural scheme of the sent. Prof. Pocheptsov
differentiates 6 types ofstr. schemes of the Engl. sent. the sent. built
accord. To these str. schemes are known as elementary sentences:
1. Subj. + predicate of non-directed action in the active voice
The car stopped. I came in.
2. Subj.+ predicate of non-prepositional direction+ direct object verb>
act. voice.
I enjoyed the film. He likes music.
3. Subj.+ predicate requiring 2 objects (object-recipient &obj.-non-
preposit.) V> act. voice,
I gave him a pen.
4. Subj.+ predicate of space direction+ AM of place. V>act.voice
He is in the room.
5. Subj.+pred. of time direction+ AM of time. V> act. Voice.
That was last year.
6. Subj.+pred in the passive voice.
Accord. To prof. Pocheptsov elementary sent. Are unexetended. The sent-s
the constit. of which are not limited by the str. schemes are extended.
Extension results from syntactic processes
1) Expansion – edding to some unit of the sent. some other unit of the same
status
e.g. He spoke. > He spoke and laughed.
2) Expansion is often accompanied by compression.
e.g. I’ll go to London and see its places of interest.
I will go and will see> expansion
I will go and see> compression
3) Specification – one element specifies the other one, makes it more
exact.
e.g. I live in England, in London.
He is arriving tomorrow, at 7 o’clock.
4) Complication – the structure is changing into a more complex one.
e.g. I read English. I can read English.
I can read English books
5) Contamination which results in double predicates
e.g. She returned happy. < She returned, she was happy.
He died a hero.< He died, he was a hero.
6) Development – results in modification on the basis of subordination.
e.g. I like roses> I like red roses.
7) Replacement
8) Representation ( a part of the synt. unit repres. the whole unit)
9) Ellipsis.

21. THE PRAGMATIC ASPECT OF THE SENTENCE

Traditional grammar defines the SENTENCE as a word or a group of words


capable of expressing a complete thought.
An important place among the pragmatic means belongs to pronouns and
articles, which help to point out some thing in the sentence. The indefinite
article and adverbs are used as intensifiers and are rhematic in character.
E.g.Even Peter didn’t notice the difference. Peter didn’t even notice the
difference.
Special constructions can signal theme-rheme relations.
1. There is. This construction usually introduces new information.
E.g. There was a cold, bitter taste in the air.
2. Sentences with emphatic it.
E.g. It was yesterday that I saw her.
3. Three-member passive constructions.
E.g. The door was opened by Alice.
Word order
A certain role is played by syntactic word order. It is believed that in
neutral style the rheme usually follows the theme. Thus the communicative
dynamism increases towards the end of the sentence.
E.g. Came a beautiful autumn day.

22. THE QUASI SENTENCES

“Quasi-sentences are clumsy and insufficient instruments of thought, being


intricate, capricious and difficult. But from the beginning the tendency has
been one of progress, slow and fitful progress, but still progress towards
greater and greater clearness, regularity, ease and pliancy.” /Otto
Jespersen/
What is a one-word sentence (quasi???) called?
An imperative sentence can be as short as one word, such as: "Go."
Technically, a sentence must contain at least a subject and a verb, but in
this case, the subject (you) is assumed and understood.
Just remember that not every one-word phrase is really a sentence. Let's
look at an example: "She was unable to sleep. Again." Here, "Again" is
technically not a sentence since it's missing a subject (or a presumed
subject like the imperative) and a verb. You can certainly write like this as
you have the poetic and literary license, but the simple act of putting a
period after a word does not a sentence make.
One-word sentences - when carefully crafted - can create: impact like
nothing else - and that's where the real value lies.
Really?
Yes really; an entire "sentence" can be made up of only a single word - if
you want to achieve a particular effect or make a powerful, dramatic
statement.

23. THE SEMANTIC ASPECT OF THE SENTENCE

In the middle of the 20th century, new approaches to the analysis of the
sentence were developed. In particular, the American linguist Noam Chomsky
proposed the distinction between the level of the deep, semantic, or
conceptual structure of the sentence and the level of its surface, or
syntactic structure, different types of construction being connected by
various transformations. Chomsky’s transformational grammar theory in the
sphere of the nominative division of the sentence was further developed by C.
J. Fillmore, who formulated the theory of case grammar: its central idea is
that each notional part of the sentence correlates with one element of the
underlying semantic level and possesses a ‘semantic case’, which represents
its semantic role. In traditional linguistics, only adverbial modifiers enjoy
a detailed semantic sub-classification into adverbial modifiers of time,
place, manner, attendant circumstances, etc. In the classification of
semantic roles, all semantic components of the situation are taken into
consideration.
For example, the “Agent” is the personal doer of the action, the “Power”
the impersonal doer of the action, the “Patient” the direct object of the
action, the “Instrument” the object with the help of which the action is
fulfilled, the “Locative” some point or location in space, etc. The
classification of semantic roles is complementary to the classification of
notional parts of the sentence, and the two classifications can be employed
together to better describe the nominative aspect of the sentence. For
instance, the subject can be described as subject-agent, e.g.: I opened the
door; as subject-patient, e.g.: The door was opened; subject-power, e.g.: The
wind opened the door; subject-instrument, e.g.: The key opened the door;
subject-locative, e.g.: Moscow hosted a summit, etc.

24. THE STRUCTURAL ASPECT OF THE SENTENCE


The structural aspect of the sentence deals with the structural
organization of the sentence, it reveals the mechanisms of deriving sentences
and structural types of sentences.
According to their structure sentences are classified into simple
(monopredicative structures) and composite (polypredicative structures) which
are further subdivided into complex (based on subordination) and compound
(based on coordination).
Clauses within the structure of a composite sentence may be connected with
the help of formal markers (conjunctions and connectives: relative pronouns
and relative adverbs - syndetically) and without any formal markers
-asyndetically. Thus we should differentiate between two structural varieties
of composite sentences: syndetic and asyndetic types.
Sentences may have formal markers of subordination but the semantic
relations between the clauses appear to be more coordinate than subordinate.
The meaning of subordination is largely weakened in attributive continuative
clauses introduced by the relative pronoun 'which', e.g. She said 'no' which
was exactly what I had expected to hear. The relations between the two
clauses are closer to coordinate, as we can replace the subordinate
connective ''which' by the coordinate conjunction 'and' without changing
essentially the meaning of the sentence.
Besides there are also peripheral types: semicomplex and semicompound
sentences which contain structures of secondary predication: infinitival,
participial and gerundial constructions, absolute constructions with or
without a participle and structures with the so-called double predicate. E.g.
There is so much work to be done — There is so much work that has to be done.
STRUCTURAL CATEGORIES
1) Integration (целостность)
- use certain logical connections and connectors, a certain composition, a
certain word order.
2) Cohesion (связь)
- necessary property of any text which differentiates it from disconnected
utterances. There are various means of text cohesion (когезия): syntactic,
semantic, stylistic.
BLOCH: gram. connectives.
1) Conjunction-like connectives – coordinative, subordinative conjunctions
and adverbial and parenthetical sentence connectors such as: yet, then,
however, moreover.
2) Substitutional connection – use of substitutes: pronouns.
3) Retrospection & Prospection
- (means of text cohesion). Retrospection refers the reader to the
preceding events, prospection – to the following events
4) Continuum
- the text should continue without breaking, it shouldn’t be abrupt.
Deictic (связующие) elements, tense forms, number forms, mood forms
5) Polyphony
- a good text usually has more than one line of thinking, of reasoning,
which is most of all important for fiction

25. THE WAYS OF EXPRESSING MODALITY

The category of modality is one of the most complicated linguistic


categories which has various forms of its expression in the language. In the
Linguistic Encyclopedic Dictionary modality is defined as a functional-
semantic category which expresses different types of relations between the
utterance and reality as well as dif. types of subjective evaluation of the
information contained in the utterance.
MODALITY CAN BE EXPRESSED:
1) PHONETICALLY – through the change of intonation patterns;
2) LEXICALLY – through the use of modal verb;
3) LEXICO-GRAMATICALLY – (modal verbs + constructions);
4) GRAMATICALLY – mood;
5) SYNTACTICALLY – word structure of the sentence.
That’s why the linguists usually differentiate between 2 types of modality:
objective (or primary) and subjective (or secondary). Ch.Bally considered
that each utterance consists of two parts, the part which presents
information (he called it 'dictum') and the part which presents the speaker's
evaluation of this information (he called it 'modus').
The primary modality expresses the relation of the contents of the sentence
to reality as established by the speaker who, choosing the appropriate form
of the mood presents the event as real, unreal or desirable. It is expressed
by the grammatical form of mood and thus it is a component of predicativity
and as such it always finds a grammatical expression in the sentence. E.g.
You are my wife. Be my wife. I wish you were my wife. Thus, primary modality
as a component of predicativity is an obligatory feature of the sentence - we
cannot make a sentence without expressing primary modality.
Secondary modality presents another layer of modality, built over the
primary modality. Secondary modality is not homogeneous. It contains two
layers and we can differentiate between two types of secondary modality. The
first type expresses the relations between the subject of the sentence and
the action. The action may be presented as possible, permissive, obligatory,
necessary, desirable or unnecessary for the subject. It is expressed by the
modal verbs in their verb-oriented meanings: ability, possibility,
permission, necessity, obligation etc. E.g. Children must be seen but not
heard. I can jump puddles. You may be free for today. The second type of
secondary modality expresses the attitude of the speaker to the contents of
the utterance or the speaker's evaluation of the event presented in the
utterance. This type of modality can be expressed by: 1)modal words and modal
adverbs and modal particles: maybe, probably, certainly, of course, perhaps,
sure, evidently, supposedly, luckily, fortunately etc. ( E.g. This is
probably the best chance you have ever had); 2) by modal verbs in their
sentence-oriented meanings: probability, doubt, supposition, certainty,
disbelief (E.g. She couldn't have done it alone); 3) by special syntactic
structures like 'tag questions' (This is true, isn't it?), as well as 6) by
intonation and word order. As we can see the modal verbs participate in the
expression of two kinds of secondary modality.