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FORCES IN PLANE TRUSS

EXPERIMENT 4
DKA 5A

OBJECTIVE :

To determine the forces in members of a plane truss.

APPARATUS :

1) A Warren truss with members having a force gauge fixed to it.

2) A screw jack for applying load to the truss.

Dial gauge readings : 1 Division = 5N

POLITEKNIK SULTAN SALAHUDDIN ABDUL AZIZ SHAH | C4003 CIVIL ENGINEERING


LAB
FORCES IN PLANE TRUSS
EXPERIMENT 4
DKA 5A

PROCEDURE :

1) Place one end of the plane truss on the roller support and the
other on the pin support (please ensure that the centre of th
joint is located on the knife edge and at the centre of the
roller).

2) Loosen the screw jack so that the truss is free from the applied
load.

3) Zerro the force gauge readings on the members and the screw
jack.

4) Turn the screw jack handle to apply loads in the downward


direction.

5) Record the magnitude of the applied load and the force gauge
readings.

6) Increase the magnitude of the applied load and for each load
increment records the force gauge readings.

7) Measure the horizontal and vertical length of the frame in


order to calculate the theoretical forces.

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LAB
FORCES IN PLANE TRUSS
EXPERIMENT 4
DKA 5A

Force in Member AB Force in Member BE

Applied Dial Force Force Dial Force Force


Load gauge (Exp.) (Theor gauge (Exp.) (Theor
(N) readin y) readin y)
g (div) (N) g (div) (N)
(N) (N)

1 5.50 0.28 -0.58 11.0 0.55 0.58

2 17.50 0.88 -1.15 22.0 1.10 1.15

3 29.00 1.45 -1.73 34.0 1.70 1.73

4 42.00 2.10 -2.31 45.0 2.25 2.31

5 54.00 2.70 -2.89 57.0 2.85 2.89

Force in Member CE Force in Member CD


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LAB
FORCES IN PLANE TRUSS
EXPERIMENT 4
DKA 5A

Applied Dial Force Force Dial Force Force


Load gauge (Exp.) (Theor gauge (Exp.) (Theor
readin y) readin y)
(N) g (div) (N) g (div) (N)
(N) (N)

1 11.00 0.55 0.32 12.50 0.63 -0.58

2 22.00 1.10 0.64 25.00 1.25 -1.15

3 32.00 1.60 0.92 37.50 1.88 -1.73

4 43.00 2.15 1.24 50.00 2.50 -2.31

5 46.00 2.30 1.33 62.00 3.10 -2.89

Force in Member EA Force in Member ED

Applied Dial Force Force Dial Force Force


Load gauge (Exp.) (Theor gauge (Exp.) (Theor
(N) readin y) readin y)
g (div) (N) g (div) (N)
(N) (N)

1 5.00 0.25 0.07 6.00 0.30 0.07

2 10.00 0.50 0.14 12.00 0.60 0.14

3 14.00 0.70 0.20 18.00 0.90 0.20

4 20.00 1.00 0.29 25.00 1.25 0.29 1

5 25.00 1.25 0.36 30.00 1.50 0.36

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LAB
FORCES IN PLANE TRUSS
EXPERIMENT 4
DKA 5A

Force in Member CB

Applied Dial Force Force


Load gauge (Exp.) (Theor FAB = -w
readin y) 2 sin
(N) (N)
g (div) 60
(N)
FAE = w cos
1 11.00 0.55 -0.58
60
2 23.00 1.15 -1.15 2 sin
60
3 35.00 1.75 -1.73
FBE = w
4 47.00 2.35 -2.31 2 sin
60
5 59.00 2.95 -2.89
FBC = -w cos
60
2
sin 60

1) Using the data in the table above, plot the graph of force in the
members verses the applied load for the experimental and
theoretical case.

2) Determine the percentage error.

Percentage Error = Theoretical Slope – Experiment Slope


x 100

Theoretical Slope
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LAB
FORCES IN PLANE TRUSS
EXPERIMENT 4
DKA 5A

Memb Theoretical Experiment Percentage


er Slope (N) Slope (N) Error (%)

AB 8.66 7.41 14

BE 8.66 8.45 2

CE 4.45 7.70 73

CD 8.66 9.36 8

EA 1.06 3.70 25

ED 1.06 4.55 30

CB 8.66 8.75 1

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LAB
FORCES IN PLANE TRUSS
EXPERIMENT 4
DKA 5A

DISCUSSION :

1) State the relationship between the applied load and the force in
the members.

Figure
5.3

When the truss is loaded with a force W Newton, as in


the Figure 5.3, the truss will adjust itself to achive a more stable
situation balanced. When this condition is reached, the frame is
said to be in equilibrium. Equilibrium is obtained as a whole
means that each member is in a state of balance. If not, it would
have been members of the moves kesatu a more stable position.
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LAB
FORCES IN PLANE TRUSS
EXPERIMENT 4
DKA 5A

Assume that one of the members, the members of the


DE, is in equilibrium. External force of magnitude P acting at
point D in the DE must be balanced by a force with a magnitude
equal to P, but in the ED at the point E, as shown in the Figure
5.4(a). In this way the members of DE can be balanced.

Figure
5.4

Because members of the DE is in equilibrium, the point D


itself is also in equilibrium. Therefore, if the split between the
point D to point E, as shown in Figure 5.4 (b) force at every point
has a magnitude P in the direction opposite to the direction of
external forces earlier. Thus, the force in the member acting
against the direction of DE external force is applied,

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LAB
FORCES IN PLANE TRUSS
EXPERIMENT 4
DKA 5A

Figure
5.5

and must have the same magnitude as the external force, see
Figure 5.4 (c). For members who have this compressive force,
the internal force to the point of connection.

At the same time, if we look at the members of the CD,


an external force which suffered a tensile force, as shown in
Figure 5.5 (a), while the internal forces are shown in Figure 5.5
(b). Thus, for members who experience a tensile force, the
internal forces from the point of connection.

2) State the possible factors that might have influenced your result
and means of overcoming it.
1

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LAB
FORCES IN PLANE TRUSS
EXPERIMENT 4
DKA 5A

• The reading for the apparatus in the experiment is not


accuracy.

• The person that held for the experiment is not enough


experience and knowlange obout the experiment.

• Reading error when taking data because the eyeposition..

• Area condition and surrounding factor such as heavy wind,


in accurate measurement..

CONCLUSION :

State the conclusion obtained from the experiment

When the load is applied to the truss, the foce in each of members of
a plan truss will have a different reading of force.

REFERENCES

1) Zulkifli Md. Salleh and Saiful Anuar A. Rahim 1991. Pengenalan


Analisis Struktur, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. *86

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