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You are on page 1of 166

GAS DYNAMICS

Joseph M. Powers

University of Notre Dame

Notre Dame, Indiana 46556-5637

USA

updated

July 23, 2010

2

Contents

1 Introduction 9

1.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.2 Motivating examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

1.2.1 Re-entry flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

1.2.1.1 bow shock wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

1.2.1.2 rarefaction (expansion) wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1.2.1.3 momentum boundary layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1.2.1.4 thermal boundary layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

1.2.1.5 vibrational relaxation effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

1.2.1.6 dissociation effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

1.2.2 Rocket Nozzle Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

1.2.3 Jet Engine Inlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2 Governing Equations 15

2.1 Mathematical Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.1.1 Vectors and Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.1.2 Gradient, Divergence, and Material Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2.1.3 Conservative and Non-Conservative Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

2.1.3.1 Conservative Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

2.1.3.2 Non-Conservative Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

2.2 Summary of Full Set of Compressible Viscous Equations . . . . . . . . . . . 20

2.3 Conservation Axioms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.3.1 Conservation of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

2.3.1.1 Nonconservative form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

2.3.1.2 Conservative Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

2.3.1.3 Incompressible Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

2.3.2 Conservation of Linear Momenta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

2.3.2.1 Nonconservative form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

2.3.2.2 Conservative Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2.3.3 Conservation of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

2.3.3.1 Nonconservative Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

2.3.3.2 Mechanical Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

3

4 CONTENTS

2.3.3.4 Energy Equation in terms of Entropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

2.3.4 Entropy Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

2.4 Constitutive Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

2.4.1 Stress-strain rate relationship for Newtonian fluids . . . . . . . . . . . 29

2.4.2 Fourier’s Law for heat conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

2.4.3 Variable first coefficient of viscosity, µ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

2.4.3.1 Typical values of µ for air and water . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

2.4.3.2 Common models for µ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

2.4.4 Variable second coefficient of viscosity, λ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

2.4.5 Variable thermal conductivity, k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

2.4.5.1 Typical values of k for air and water . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

2.4.5.2 Common Models for k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

2.4.6 Thermal Equation of State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

2.4.6.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

2.4.6.2 Typical Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

2.4.7 Caloric Equation of State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

2.4.7.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

2.4.7.2 Typical Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

2.5 Special Cases of Governing Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

2.5.1 One-Dimensional Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

2.5.2 Euler Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

2.5.3 Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

3 Thermodynamics Review 39

3.1 Preliminary Mathematical Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

3.2 Summary of Thermodynamic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

3.3 Maxwell Relations and Secondary Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

3.3.1 Internal Energy from Thermal Equation of State . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

3.3.2 Sound Speed from Thermal Equation of State . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

3.4 Canonical Equations of State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

3.5 Isentropic Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

4.1 Generalized One-Dimensional Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

4.1.1 Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

4.1.2 Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

4.1.3 Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

4.1.4 Influence Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

4.2 Flow with Area Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

4.2.1 Isentropic Mach number relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

4.2.2 Sonic Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

CONTENTS 5

4.2.4 Choking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

4.3 Normal Shock Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

4.3.1 Governing Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

4.3.2 Rayleigh Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

4.3.3 Hugoniot Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

4.3.4 Solution Procedure for General Equations of State . . . . . . . . . . 91

4.3.5 Calorically Perfect Ideal Gas Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

4.3.6 Acoustic limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

4.3.7 Non-Ideal Gas Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

4.4 Flow with Area Change and Normal Shocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

4.4.1 Converging Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

4.4.2 Converging-Diverging Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

4.5 Flow with Friction–Fanno Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

4.6 Flow with Heat Transfer–Rayleigh Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

4.7 Numerical Solution of The Shock Tube Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

4.7.1 One-Step Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

4.7.2 Lax-Friedrichs Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

4.7.3 Lax-Wendroff Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

5.1 Two-Dimensional Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

5.1.1 Conservative Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

5.1.2 Non-Conservative Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

5.2 Mach Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

5.3 Oblique Shock Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

5.4 Small Disturbance Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

5.5 Centered Prandtl-Meyer Rarefaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

5.6 Wave Interactions and Reflections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

5.6.1 Oblique Shock Reflected From a Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

5.6.2 Oblique Shock Intersection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

5.6.3 Shock Strengthening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

5.6.4 Shock Weakening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

5.7 Supersonic Flow Over Airfoils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

5.7.1 Flat Plate at Angle of Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

5.7.2 Diamond-Shaped Airfoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

5.7.3 General Curved Airfoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

5.7.4 Transonic Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

6.1 Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

6.2 Subsonic Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

6 CONTENTS

6.2.2 Flow over Wavy Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

6.3 Supersonic Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

6.3.1 D’Alembert’s Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

6.3.2 Flow over Wavy Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

7.1 Governing Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

7.2 Couette Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

7.3 Suddenly Accelerated Flat Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

7.3.1 Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

7.3.2 Velocity Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

7.4 Starting Transient for Plane Couette Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

7.5 Blasius Boundary Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

7.5.1 Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

7.5.2 Wall Shear Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

8 Acoustics 165

8.1 Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

8.2 Planar Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

8.3 Spherical Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

Preface

These are a set of class notes for a gas dynamics/viscous flow course taught to juniors in

Aerospace Engineering at the University of Notre Dame during the mid 1990s. The course

builds upon foundations laid in an earlier course where the emphasis was on subsonic ideal

flows. Consequently, it is expected that the student has some familiarity with many concepts

such as material derivatives, control volume analysis, derivation of governing equations,

etc. Additionally, first courses in thermodynamics and differential equations are probably

necessary. Even a casual reader will find gaps, errors, and inconsistencies. The author

welcomes comments and corrections. It is also noted that these notes have been influenced

by a variety of standard references, which are sporadically and incompletely noted in the

text. Some of the key references which were important in the development of these notes

are the texts of Shapiro, Liepmann and Roshko, Anderson, Courant and Friedrichs, Hughes

and Brighton, White, Sonntag and Van Wylen, and Zucrow and Hoffman.

At this stage, if anyone outside Notre Dame finds these useful, they are free to make

copies. Full information on the course is found at http://www.nd.edu/∼powers/ae.360.

Joseph M. Powers

powers@nd.edu

http://www.nd.edu/∼powers

Notre Dame, Indiana; USA

July 23, 2010

All rights reserved.

7

8 CONTENTS

Chapter 1

Introduction

Suggested Reading:

1.1 Definitions

The topic of this course is the aerodynamics of compressible and viscous flow.

Aerodynamics–a branch of dynamics that deals with the motion of air and other

gaseous fluids and with the forces acting on bodies in motion relative to such fluids (e.g.

airplanes)

Mechanics–a branch of physical science that deals with forces and the motion of bodies

traditionally broken into:

9

10 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

• solid mechanics

• quantum mechanics

• celestial mechanics

• relativistic mechanics

• quantum-electrodynamics (QED)

• magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD)

Recall that solids can, after a small displacement, relax to an equilibrium configuration

when a shear force is applied.

The motion of both liquids and gases can be affected by compressibility and shear forces.

While shear forces are important for both types of fluids, the influence of compressibility in

gases is generally more significant.

The thrust of this class will be to understand how to model the effects of compressibility

and shear forces and how this impacts the design of aerospace vehicles.

The following two examples serve to illustrate why knowledge of compressibility and shear

effects is critical.

A range of phenomena are present in the re-entry of a vehicle into the atmosphere. This is

an example of an external flow. See Figure 1.1.

• suddenly raises density, temperature and pressure of shocked air; consider normal shock

in ideal air

– To = 300 K → Ts = 6, 100 K (hot as the sun’s surface !!)

1.2. MOTIVATING EXAMPLES 11

far-field

acoustic

wave

rarefaction

waves

viscous

and thermal

boundary

layers

Oblique

Shock

Wave

Ambient Air

– sudden transfer of energy from kinetic (ordered) to thermal (random)

• lowers density, temperature, and pressure of air continuously and significantly

• occurs in thin layer near surface where velocity relaxes from freestream to zero to

satisfy the no-slip condition

12 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

• as fluid decelerates in momentum boundary layer kinetic energy is converted to thermal

energy

• temperature rises can be significant (> 1, 000 K)

• energy partitioned into vibrational modes in addition to translational

• lowers temperature that would otherwise be realized

• important for air above 800 K

• unimportant for monatomic gases

• effect which happens when multi-atomic molecules split into constituent atoms

• O2 totally dissociated into O near 4, 000 K

• N2 totally dissociated into N near 9, 000 K

• For T > 9, 000 K, ionized plasmas begin to form

Vibrational relaxation, dissociation, and ionization can be accounted for to some extent by

introducing a temperature-dependent specific heat cv (T )

The same essential ingredients are present in flows through rocket nozzles. This is an example

of an internal flow, see Figure 1.2

boundary layers

possible

normal

shock

Some features:

1.2. MOTIVATING EXAMPLES 13

The same applies for the internal flow inside a jet engine, see Figure 1.3

viscous

and thermal

boundary layers

oblique

shock

combustor

inlet

14 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

Chapter 2

Governing Equations

Suggested Reading:

Liepmann and Roshko, Chapter 7: pp. 178-190, Chapter 13: pp. 305-313, 332-338

Anderson, Chapter 2: pp. 32-44; Chapter 6: pp. 186-205

The equations which govern a wide variety of these flows are the compressible Navier-

Stokes equations. In general they are quite complicated and require numerical solution. We

will only consider small subsets of these equations in practice, but it is instructive to see

them in full glory at the outset.

A few concepts which may be new or need re-emphasis are introduced here.

One way to think of vectors and tensors is as follows:

• first order tensor: vector, associates a scalar with any direction in space, column

matrix

• second order tensor: tensor-associates a vector with any direction in space, two-

dimensional matrix

• third order tensor-associates a second order tensor with any direction in space, three-

dimensional matrix

15

16 CHAPTER 2. GOVERNING EQUATIONS

sum of scalars multiplying orthogonal basis vectors, i.e.:

v = ui + vj + wk (2.1)

The “del” operator, ∇, is as follows:

∂ ∂ ∂

∇≡i +j +k (2.2)

∂x ∂y ∂z

Recall the definition of the material derivative also known as the substantial or total

derivative:

d ∂

≡ +v·∇ (2.3)

dt ∂t

where

Example 2.1

Does v · ∇ = ∇ · v = ∇v?

∂ ∂ ∂

v·∇=u +v +w (2.4)

∂x ∂y ∂z

∂u ∂v ∂w

∇·v= + + (2.5)

∂x ∂y ∂z

∂u ∂v ∂w

∂x ∂x ∂x

∂u ∂v ∂w

∇v = ∂y ∂y ∂y

(2.6)

∂u ∂v ∂w

∂z ∂z ∂z

So, no.

v · ∇ ≡ v div (2.7)

∇ · v ≡ div v (2.8)

∇v ≡ grad v (2.9)

∇φ ≡ grad φ (2.10)

2.1. MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES 17

If hi is a column vector of N variables, e.g. hi = [h1 , h2 , h3 , ...hN ]T , and fi (hi ) gi (hi ) are a

column vectors of N functions of the variables hi , and all variables are functions of x and

t, hi = hi (x, t), fi (hi (x, t)), gi (hi (x, t)) then a system of partial differential equations is in

conservative form iff the system can be written as follows:

∂ ∂

hi + (fi (hi )) = gi (hi ) (2.11)

∂x ∂x

A system not in this form is in non-conservative form

Advantages

Disadvantages

• lengthy

Advantages

• compact

• commonly used

Disadvantages

18 CHAPTER 2. GOVERNING EQUATIONS

Example 2.2

Kinematic wave equation

∂u ∂u

+u =0 (2.12)

∂t ∂x

This equation has the same mathematical form as inviscid equations of gas dynamics which give rise to

discontinuous shock waves. Thus understanding the solution of this simple equation is very useful

in understanding equations with more physical significance.

2

Since u ∂u ∂

∂x = ∂x

u

2 the kinematic wave equation in conservative form is as follows:

u2

∂u ∂

+ =0 (2.13)

∂t ∂x 2

u2

Here hi = u, fi = 2 , gi = 0.

∂

Consider the special case of a steady state ∂t ≡ 0. Then the conservative form of the equation can

be integrated!

d u2

=0 (2.14)

dx 2

u2 u2

= o (2.15)

2 2

u = ±uo (2.16)

Now u = uo satisfies the equation and so does u = −uo . These are both smooth solutions. In

addition, combinations also satisfy, e.g. u = uo , x < 0; u = −uo , x ≥ 0. This is a discontinuous solution.

Also note the solution is not unique. This is a consequence of the u ∂u∂x non-linearity. This is an example

of a type of shock wave. Which solution is achieved generally depends on terms we have neglected,

especially unsteady terms.

Example 2.3

Burger’s equation

∂u ∂u ∂2u

+u =ν 2 (2.17)

∂t ∂x ∂x

2.1. MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES 19

This equation has the same mathematical form as viscous equations of gas dynamics which give rise

to spatially smeared shock waves.

∂u ∂u ∂ ∂u

+u −ν =0 (2.18)

∂t

2 ∂x ∂x

∂x

∂u ∂ u ∂ ∂u

+ − ν =0 (2.19)

∂t ∂x 2 ∂x ∂x

2

∂u ∂ u ∂u

+ −ν =0 (2.20)

∂t ∂x 2 ∂x

∂

Here, this equation is not strictly in conservative form as it still involves derivatives inside the ∂x

operator.

∂

Consider the special case of a steady state ∂t ≡ 0. Then the conservative form of the equation can

be integrated!

d u2

du

−ν =0 (2.21)

dx 2 dx

∂u

Let u → uo as x → −∞ (consequently ∂x → 0 as x → −∞) and u(0) = 0 so

u2 du u2

−ν = o (2.22)

2 dx 2

du 1 2 2

ν = u − uo (2.23)

dx 2

du dx

= (2.24)

u2 − u2o 2ν

du dx

Z Z

=− (2.25)

u2o − u2 2ν

1 u x

tanh−1 =− +C (2.26)

uo u 2ν

ou

o

u(x) = uo tanh − x + Cuo (2.27)

2ν

u(0) = 0 = uo tanh (Cuo ) C=0 (2.28)

u

o

u(x) = uo tanh − x (2.29)

2ν

lim u(x) = uo (2.30)

x→−∞

lim u(x) = −uo (2.31)

x→∞

Note

• same behavior in far field as kinematic wave equation

2ν

• continuous adjustment from uo to −uo in a zone of thickness uo

• zone thickness → 0 as ν → 0

• inviscid shock is limiting case of viscously resolved shock

Figure 2.1 gives a plot of the solution to both the kinematic wave equation and Burger’s equation.

20 CHAPTER 2. GOVERNING EQUATIONS

u u

uo uo

x x

-uo -uo

Discontinuous Shock Wave Smeared Shock Wave

Shock Thickness ~ 2 ν / uo

Figure 2.1: Solutions to the kinematic wave equation and Burger’s equation

tions

A complete set of equations is given below. These are the compressible Navier-Stokes equa-

tions for an isotropic Newtonian fluid with variable properties

dρ

+ ρ∇ · v = 0 [1] (2.32)

dt

dv

ρ = −∇P + ∇ · τ + ρg [3] (2.33)

dt

de

ρ = −∇ · q − P ∇ · v + τ :∇v [1] (2.34)

dt

τ = µ ∇v + ∇vT + λ (∇ · v) I

[6] (2.35)

q = −k∇T [3] (2.36)

µ = µ (ρ, T ) [1] (2.37)

λ = λ (ρ, T ) [1] (2.38)

k = k (ρ, T ) [1] (2.39)

P = P (ρ, T ) [1] (2.40)

e = e (ρ, T ) [1] (2.41)

The numbers in brackets indicate the number of equations. Here the unknowns are

• ρ–density kg/m3 (scalar-1 variable)

2.3. CONSERVATION AXIOMS 21

• τ –viscous stress N/m2 (symmetric tensor - 6 variables)

• q–heat flux vector–W/m2 (vector - 3 variables)

• µ–first coefficient of viscosity Ns/m2 (scalar - 1 variable)

• λ–second coefficient of viscosity Ns/m2 (scalar - 1 variable)

• k–thermal conductivity W/(m2 K) (scalar - 1 variable)

Here g is the constant gravitational acceleration and I is the identity matrix. Total–19

variables

Points of the exercise

• 19 equations; 19 unknowns

• conservation axioms–postulates (first three equations)

• constitutive relations–material dependent (remaining equations)

• review of vector notation and operations

Newtonian fluid, and b) an incompressible Newtonian fluid, in which ∇ · v = 0.

This system of equations must be consistent with the second law of thermodynamics.

Defining the entropy s by the Gibbs relation:

1

T ds = de + P d (2.42)

ρ

ds de d 1

T = +P (2.43)

dt dt dt ρ

the second law states:

ds q

ρ ≥ −∇ · (2.44)

dt T

In practice, this places some simple restrictions on the constitutive relations. It will be

sometimes useful to write this in terms of the specific volume, v ≡ 1/ρ. This can be

confused with the y component of velocity but should be clear in context.

Conservation principles are axioms of mechanics and represent statements that cannot be

proved. In that they provide predictions which are consistent with empirical observations,

they are useful.

22 CHAPTER 2. GOVERNING EQUATIONS

This principle states that in a material volume (a volume which always encompasses the

same fluid particles), the mass is constant.

dρ

+ ρ∇ · v = 0 (2.45)

dt

This can be expanded using the definition of the material derivative to form

∂ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂u ∂v ∂w

+u +v +w +ρ + + =0 (2.46)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂z

Using the product rule gives

+ + + =0 (2.47)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

The equation essentially says that the net accumulation of mass within a control volume is

attributable to the net flux of mass in and out of the control volume. In Gibbs notation this

is

∂ρ

+ ∇ · (ρv) = 0 (2.48)

∂t

Iff the fluid is defined to be incompressible, dρ/dt ≡ 0, the consequence is

∇ · v = 0, or (2.49)

∂u ∂v ∂w

+ + =0 (2.50)

∂x ∂y ∂z

As this course is mainly concerned with compressible flow, this will not be often used.

P

This is really Newton’s Second Law of Motion ma = F

dv

ρ = −∇P + ∇ · τ + ρg (2.51)

dt

• ρ: mass/volume

2.3. CONSERVATION AXIOMS 23

dv

• dt

: acceleration

Example 2.4

Expand the term ∇ · τ

∂τ + ∂ ∂

T

∂y τyx + ∂z τzx

∂ ∂ ∂ τxx τxy τxz ∂x xx

∂τ + ∂ ∂

∇·τ = ∂y τyy + ∂z τzy

∂x ∂y ∂z

τyx τyy τyz = ∂x xy

(2.52)

τzx τzy τzz ∂

τxz + ∂ ∂

∂x ∂y τyz + ∂z τzz

This is a vector equation as there are three components of momenta. Let’s consider the

x momentum equation for example.

ρ =− + + + + ρgx (2.53)

dt ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂z

ρ + ρu + ρv + ρw =− + + + + ρgx (2.54)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂z

ρ + ρu + ρv + ρw =− + + + + ρgy (2.55)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z

ρ + ρu + ρv + ρw =− + + + + ρgz (2.56)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z

Multiply the mass conservation principle by u so that it has the same units as the momentum

equation and add to the x momentum equation:

u +u +u +u =0 (2.57)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

+ρ + ρu + ρv + ρw =− + + + + ρgx (2.58)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂z

24 CHAPTER 2. GOVERNING EQUATIONS

∂ (ρu) ∂ (ρuu) ∂ (ρvu) ∂ (ρwu) ∂P ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx

+ + + =− + + + + ρgx (2.59)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂z

The extension to y and z momenta is straightforward:

∂ (ρv) ∂ (ρuv) ∂ (ρvv) ∂ (ρwv) ∂P ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂τzy

+ + + =− + + + + ρgy (2.60)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂ (ρw) ∂ (ρuw) ∂ (ρvw) ∂ (ρww) ∂P ∂τxz ∂τyz ∂τzz

+ + + =− + + + + ρgz (2.61)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z

In vector form this is written as follows:

∂ (ρv)

+ ∇ · (ρvv) = −∇P + ∇ · τ + ρg (2.62)

∂t

As with the mass equation, the time derivative can be interpreted as the accumulation of

linear momenta within a control volume and the divergence term can be interpreted as

the flux of linear momenta into the control volume. The accumulation and flux terms are

balanced by forces, both surface and body.

This principle really is the first law of thermodynamics, which states the the change in

internal energy of a body is equal to the heat added to the body minus the work done by

the body;

Ê2 − Ê1 = Q12 − W12 (2.63)

The Ê here includes both internal energy and kinetic energy and is written for an extensive

system:

1

Ê = ρV e + v · v (2.64)

2

The equation we started with (which is in non-conservative form)

de

ρ = −∇ · q − P ∇ · v + τ :∇v (2.65)

dt

is simply a careful expression of the simple idea de = dq − dw with attention paid to sign

conventions, etc.

• ρ de

dt

: change in internal energy /volume

• −∇ · q: net heat transfer into fluid/volume

• P ∇ · v: net work done by fluid due to pressure force/volume (force × deformation)

• −τ : ∇v: net work done by fluid due to viscous force/volume (force × deformation)

2.3. CONSERVATION AXIOMS 25

Taking the dot product of the velocity v with the linear momentum principle yields the

mechanical energy equation (here expressed in conservative form):

∂ 1 1

ρ (v · v) + ∇ · ρv (v · v) = −v · ∇P + v · (∇ · τ ) + ρv · g (2.66)

∂t 2 2

This can be interpreted as saying the kinetic energy (or mechanical energy) changes due to

• motion in the direction of a force imbalance

– −v · ∇P

– v · (∇ · τ )

• motion in the direction of a body force

Exercise: Add the product of the mass equation and u2 /2 to the product of u and the one

dimensional linear momentum equation:

∂u ∂u ∂P ∂τxx

u ρ + ρu =u − + + ρgx (2.67)

∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x

to form the conservative form of the one-dimensional mechanical energy equation:

∂ 1 2 ∂ 1 3 ∂P ∂τxx

ρu + ρu = −u +u + ρugx (2.68)

∂t 2 ∂x 2 ∂x ∂x

When we multiply the mass equation by e, we get

∂ρ ∂(ρu) ∂(ρv) ∂(ρw)

e +e +e +e =0 (2.69)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

Adding this to the nonconservative energy equation gives

∂

(ρe) + ∇ · (ρve) = −∇ · q − P ∇ · v + τ :∇v (2.70)

∂t

Adding to this the mechanical energy equation gives the conservative form of the energy

equation:

∂ 1 1

ρ e+ v·v + ∇ · ρv e + v · v = −∇ · q − ∇ · (P v) + ∇ · (τ · v) (2.71)

∂t 2 2

which is often written as

∂ 1 1 P

ρ e+ v·v + ∇ · ρv e + v · v + = −∇ · q + ∇ · (τ · v) (2.72)

∂t 2 2 ρ

26 CHAPTER 2. GOVERNING EQUATIONS

Recall the Gibbs relation which defines entropy s:

ds de d 1 de P dρ

T = +P = − (2.73)

dt dt dt ρ dt ρ2 dt

so

de ds P dρ

ρ = ρT + (2.74)

dt dt ρ dt

also from the conservation of mass

1 dρ

∇·v =− (2.75)

ρ dt

Substitute into nonconservative energy equation:

ds P dρ P dρ

ρT + = −∇ · q + + τ : ∇v (2.76)

dt ρ dt ρ dt

Solve for entropy change:

ds 1 1

ρ = − ∇ · q + τ : ∇v (2.77)

dt T T

Two effects change entropy:

• heat transfer

• viscous work

Note the work of the pressure force does not change entropy; it is reversible work.

If there are no viscous and heat transfer effects, there is no mechanism for entropy change;

ds/dt = 0; the flow is isentropic.

The first law can be used to reduce the second law to a very simple form. Starting with

q 1 q

∇· = ∇ · q − 2 · ∇T (2.78)

T T T

so

1 q q

− ∇ · q = −∇ · − 2 · ∇T (2.79)

T T T

Substitute into the first law:

ds q q 1

ρ = −∇ · − 2 · ∇T + τ : ∇v (2.80)

dt T T T

2.3. CONSERVATION AXIOMS 27

ds q

ρ ≥ −∇ · (2.81)

dt T

Substituting the first law into the second law thus yields:

q 1

− · ∇T + τ : ∇v ≥ 0 (2.82)

T2 T

Our constitutive theory for q and τ must be constructed to be constructed so as not to

violate the second law.

28 CHAPTER 2. GOVERNING EQUATIONS

equations with no body force in conservative form (below), show all steps necessary to

reduce these to the following non-conservative form.

Conservative Form

∂ρ ∂ ∂

+ (ρu) + (ρv) = 0

∂t ∂x ∂y

∂ ∂ ∂

(ρu) + (ρuu + P − τxx ) + (ρuv − τyx ) = 0

∂t ∂x ∂y

∂ ∂ ∂

(ρv) + (ρvu − τxy ) + (ρvv + P − τyy ) = 0

∂t ∂x ∂y

∂ 1 2 2

ρ e+ u +v

∂t 2

∂ 1 2 2

P

+ ρu e + u +v + − (uτxx + vτxy ) + qx

∂x 2 ρ

∂ 1 2 2

P

+ ρv e + u +v + − (uτyx + vτyy ) + qy = 0

∂y 2 ρ

Non-Conservative Form

∂ρ ∂ρ ∂ρ ∂u ∂v

+u +v +ρ + =0

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y

∂u ∂u ∂u ∂P ∂τxx ∂τyx

ρ +u +v =− + +

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y

∂v ∂v ∂v ∂P ∂τxy ∂τyy

ρ +u +v =− + +

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂y

∂e ∂e ∂e

ρ +u +v

∂t ∂x ∂y

∂qx ∂qy

=− +

∂x ∂y

∂u ∂v

−P +

∂x ∂y

∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v

+τxx + τxy + τyx + τyy

∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y

2.4. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS 29

These are determined from experiments and provide sometimes good and sometimes crude

models for microstructurally based phenomena.

Perform the experiment described in Figure 2.2.

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Force=F

Velocity=U

h

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h1 A4

F F

h2 A3

h3 A2

h4

A1

U U

h4>h3>h2>h1 A4>A3>A2>A1

When scaled by h and A, for a single fluid, the curve collapses to a single curve, Figure

2.4:

The viscosity is defined as the ratio of the applied stress τyx = F/A to the strain rate

∂u

∂y

.

30 CHAPTER 2. GOVERNING EQUATIONS

F/A

µ

1

U/h

Figure 2.4: Stress (N/m2 ) vs. strain rate (1/s)

τyx

µ≡ ∂u

(2.83)

∂y

Here the first subscript indicates the face on which the force is acting, here the y face.

The second subscript indicates the direction in which the force takes, here the x direction.

In general viscous stress is a tensor quantity. In full detail it is as follows:

∂u

+ ∂u ∂u ∂v

+ ∂x ∂u

+ ∂w

∂x ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x

∂v

τ = µ ∂x

+ ∂u

∂y

∂v

∂y

+ ∂v

∂y

∂v

∂z

+ ∂w

∂y

∂w

∂x

+ ∂u

∂z

∂w

∂y

+ ∂v

∂z

∂w

∂z

∂w

+ ∂z

∂u ∂v ∂w

+ + 0 0

∂x ∂y ∂z

∂u ∂v ∂w

+λ 0 ∂x

+ ∂y

+ ∂z

0 (2.84)

∂u ∂v ∂w

0 0 ∂x

+ ∂y

+ ∂z

τ = µ ∇v + ∇vT + λ (∇ · v) I

(2.85)

notoriously difficult to measure in compressible flows. It has been the source of controversy

for over 150 years. Commonly, and only for convenience, people take Stokes’ Assumption:

2

λ≡− µ (2.86)

3

It can be shown that this results in the mean mechanical stress being equivalent to the

thermodynamic pressure.

2.4. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS 31

2

µ≥0 and λ≥− µ (2.87)

3

Example 2.5

Couette Flow

Use the linear momentum principle and the constitutive theory to show the velocity profile between

two plates is linear. The lower plate at y = 0 is stationary; the upper plate at y = h is moving at

velocity U . Assume v = u(y)i + 0j + 0k. Assume there is no imposed pressure gradient or body force.

Assume constant viscosity µ. Since u = u(y), v = 0, w = 0, there is no fluid acceleration.

∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u

+u +v +w =0+0+0+0=0 (2.88)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

Since no pressure gradient or body force the linear momentum principle is simply

∂τyx

0= (2.89)

∂y

With the Newtonian fluid

∂ ∂u

0= µ (2.90)

∂y ∂y

With constant µ and u = u(y) we have:

d2 u

µ =0 (2.91)

dx2

Integrating we find

u = Ay + B (2.92)

Use the boundary conditions at y = 0 and y = h to give A and B:

U

A = 0, B= (2.93)

h

so

U

u(y) = y (2.94)

h

Example 2.6

Poiseuille Flow

Consider flow between a slot separated by two plates, the lower at y = 0, the upper at y = h, both

plates stationary. The flow is driven by a pressure difference. At x = 0, P = Po ; at x = L, P = P1 .

The fluid has constant viscosity µ. Assuming the flow is steady, there is no body force, pressure varies

only with x, and that the velocity is only in the x direction and only a function of y; i.e. v = u(y) i,

find the velocity profile u(y) parameterized by Po , P1 , h, and µ.

32 CHAPTER 2. GOVERNING EQUATIONS

∂P ∂2u

0=− +µ 2 (2.95)

∂x ∂y

∂ 2P ∂ ∂2u

0=− + µ (2.96)

∂x2 ∂x ∂y 2

∂2P ∂ 2 ∂u

changing order of differentiation: 0=− 2 +µ 2 (2.97)

∂x ∂y ∂x

2

∂ P d2 P

0=− 2 =− 2 (2.98)

∂x dx

dP

=A (2.99)

dx

P = Ax + B (2.100)

apply boundary conditions : P (0) = Po P (L) = P1 (2.101)

x

P (x) = Po + (P1 − Po ) (2.102)

L

dP (P1 − Po )

so = (2.103)

dx L

(P1 − Po ) d2 u

substitute into momentum: 0=− +µ 2 (2.104)

L dy

d2 u (P1 − Po )

= (2.105)

dy 2 µL

du (P1 − Po )

= y + C1 (2.106)

dy µL

(P1 − Po ) 2

u(y) = y + C1 y + C2 (2.107)

2µL

boundary conditions: u(0) = 0 = C2 (2.108)

(P1 − Po ) 2

u(h) = 0 = h + C1 h + 0 (2.109)

2µL

(P1 − Po )

C1 = − h (2.110)

2µL

(P1 − Po ) 2

u(y) = y − yh (2.111)

2µL

du (P1 − Po )

wall shear: = (2y − h) (2.112)

dy 2µL

du (P1 − Po )

τwall = µ = −h (2.113)

dy y=0 2L

Exercise: Consider flow between a slot separated by two plates, the lower at y = 0, the

upper at y = h, with the bottom plate stationary and the upper plate moving at velocity

2.4. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS 33

U. The flow is driven by a pressure difference and the motion of the upper plate. At x = 0,

P = Po ; at x = L, P = P1 . The fluid has constant viscosity µ. Assuming the flow is

steady, there is no body force, pressure varies only with x, and that the velocity is only in

the x direction and only a function of y; i.e. v = u(y) i, a) find the velocity profile u(y)

parameterized by Po , P1 , h, U and µ; b) Find U such that there is no net mass flux between

the plates.

It is observed in experiment that heat moves from regions of high temperature to low tem-

perature Perform the experiment described in Figure 2.5.

x

T A q To

T > To

Q Q Q

A3 L1

t3

t2 A2 L2

t1 A1 L3

T T T

A3 > A2 > A1 L3 > L2 > L1

t3 > t2 > t1

When scaled by L, t, and A, for a single fluid, the curve collapses to a single curve, Figure

2.7:

34 CHAPTER 2. GOVERNING EQUATIONS

Q/(A t)

k

1

T/L

The thermal conductivity is defined as the ratio of the flux of heat transfer qx ∼ Q/(At)

to the temperature gradient − ∂T

∂x

∼ T /L.

qx

k≡ (2.114)

− ∂T

∂x

so

∂T

qx = −k (2.115)

∂x

or in vector notation:

q = −k∇T (2.116)

Note with this form, the contribution from heat transfer to the entropy production is

guaranteed positive if k ≥ 0.

∇T · ∇T 1

k 2

+ τ : ∇v ≥ 0 (2.117)

T T

In general the first coefficient of viscosity µ is a thermodynamic property which is a strong

function of temperature and a weak function of pressure.

• air at 300 K, 1 atm : 18.46 × 10−6 (Ns)/m2

2.4. CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONS 35

Note

• viscosity of air an order of magnitude less than water

∂µ

• ∂T

> 0 for air, and gases in general

∂µ

• ∂T

< 0 for water, and liquids in general

• constant property: µ = µo

q

T

• kinetic theory estimate for high temperature gas: µ (T ) = µo To

• empirical data

Very little data for any material exists for the second coefficient of viscosity. It only plays a

role in compressible viscous flows, which are typically very high speed. Some estimates:

• Stokes’ hypothesis: λ = − 32 µ, may be correct for monatomic gases

• may be inferred from attenuation rates of sound waves

• perhaps may be inferred from shock wave thicknesses

In general thermal conductivity k is a thermodynamic property which is a strong function

of temperature and a weak function of pressure.

• air at 300 K, 1 atm : 26.3 × 10−3 W/(mK)

• air at 400 K, 1 atm : 33.8 × 10−3 W/(mK)

• liquid water at 300 K, 1 atm : 613 × 10−3 W/(mK)

• liquid water at 400 K, 1 atm : 688 × 10−3 W/(mK) (the liquid here is supersaturated)

Note

• conductivity of air is one order of magnitude less than water

∂k

• ∂T

> 0 for air, and gases in general

∂k

• ∂T

> 0 for water in this range, generalization difficult

36 CHAPTER 2. GOVERNING EQUATIONS

• constant property: k = ko

q

T

• kinetic theory estimate for high temperature gas: k (T ) = ko To

• empirical data

0 m at constant heat flux is applied qx = 10 W/m2 . At x = 1 m, the temperature is held

constant at 300 K. Find T (y), T (0) and qx (1) for

• liquid water with k = 613 × 10−3 W/(mK)

q

T

• air with k = 26.3 × 10−3 300 W/(mK)

2.4.6.1 Description

• determined in static experiments

• ideal gas: P = ρRT

2.4.7.1 Description

• determined in experiments

2.5. SPECIAL CASES OF GOVERNING EQUATIONS 37

!

1 ∂P

de = cv (T ) dT − T − P dρ (2.118)

ρ2 ∂T ρ

RT

– temperature dependent specific heat: e(T ) = To cv (T̂ )dT̂ + eo

RT

• consistent with first virial: e(T ) = To

cv (T̂ )dT̂ + eo

RT

• consistent with van der Waals: e(ρ, T ) = To

cv (T̂ )dT̂ + −a (ρ − ρo ) + eo

The governing equations are often expressed in more simple forms in common limits. Some

are listed here.

Most of the mystery of vector notation is removed in the one-dimensional limit where v =

∂ ∂

w = 0, ∂y = ∂z = 0; additionally we adopt Stokes assumption λ = −(2/3)µ:

∂ρ ∂ρ ∂u

+u +ρ =0 (2.119)

∂t ∂x ∂x

∂u ∂u ∂P ∂ 4 ∂u

ρ +u =− + µ + ρgx (2.120)

∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x 3 ∂x

2

∂e ∂e ∂ ∂T ∂u 4 ∂u

ρ +u = k −P + µ (2.121)

∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x 3 ∂x

µ = µ (ρ, T ) (2.122)

k = k (ρ, T ) (2.123)

P = P (ρ, T ) (2.124)

e = e (ρ, T ) (2.125)

38 CHAPTER 2. GOVERNING EQUATIONS

When viscous stresses and heat conduction neglected, the Euler equations are obtained.

dρ

+ ρ∇ · v = 0 (2.126)

dt

dv

ρ = −∇P (2.127)

dt

de d 1

= −P (2.128)

dt dt ρ

e = e (P, ρ) (2.129)

Note:

• easy to show this is isentropic flow; energy change is all due to reversible P dv work

conservative form. Show all steps which lead from one form to the other.

If we take, ρ, k, µ, cp to be constant for an ideal gas and neglect viscous dissipation which is

usually small in such cases:

∇·v =0 (2.130)

dv

ρ = −∇P + µ∇2 v (2.131)

dt

dT

ρcp = k∇2 T (2.132)

dt

Note:

Chapter 3

Thermodynamics Review

Suggested Reading:

Shapiro, Chapter 2: pp. 23-44

Anderson, Chapter 1: pp. 12-25

As we have seen from the previous chapter, the subject of thermodynamics is a subset of

the topic of viscous compressible flows. It is almost always necessary to consider the thermo-

dynamics as part of a larger coupled system in design. This is in contrast to incompressible

aerodynamics which can determine forces independent of the thermodynamics.

If

z = z(x, y) (3.1)

then

∂z ∂z

dz = dx + dy (3.2)

∂x y ∂y x

which is of the form

dz = Mdx + Ndy (3.3)

Now

∂M ∂ ∂z

= (3.4)

∂y ∂y ∂x

∂N ∂ ∂z

= (3.5)

∂x ∂x ∂y

∂M ∂N

thus = (3.6)

∂y ∂x

so the implication is that if we are given dz, M, N, we can form z only if the above holds.

39

40 CHAPTER 3. THERMODYNAMICS REVIEW

• property: characterizes the thermodynamics state of the system

– intensive: independent of system’s mass, lower case variable e, s, h , (exceptions

T, P )

other intensive thermodynamic properties (for simple systems)

q

– c = γ Pρ : sound speed for calorically perfect ideal gas

• process: moving from one state to another, in general with accompanying heat transfer

and work

R2

• reversible work: w12 = 1 P dv

R2

• reversible heat transfer: q12 = 1 T ds

Figure 3.1 gives a sketch of an isothermal thermodynamic process going from state 1 to

state 2. The figure shows a variety of planes, P − v, T − s, P − T , and v − T . For ideal

gases, 1) isotherms are hyperbolas in the P − v plane: P = (RT )/v, 2) isochores are straight

lines in the P − T plane: P = (R/v)T , with large v giving a small slope, and 3) isobars

are straight lines in the v − T plane: v = (RT )/P , with large P giving a small slope. The

area under the curve in the P − v plane gives the work. The area under the curve in the

T − s plane gives the heat transfer. The energy change is given by the difference in the heat

transfer and the work. The isochores in the T − s plane are non-trivial. For a calorically

perfect ideal gas, they are given by exponential curves.

Figure 3.2 gives a sketch of a thermodynamic cycle. Here we only sketch the P − v and

T − s planes, though others could be included. Since it is a cyclic process, there is no net

energy change for the cycle and the cyclic work equals the cyclic heat transfer. The enclosed

area in the P − v plane, i.e. the net work, equals the enclosed area in the T − s plane, i.e.

the net heat transfer. The sketch has the cycle working in the direction which corresponds

to an engine. A reversal of the direction would correspond to a refrigerator.

3.2. SUMMARY OF THERMODYNAMIC CONCEPTS 41

P T

v1

v2

P1

T1 = T2

P2 T1 = T2

v1 v2 s1 s2 s

v

2 2

w12= ∫1 P dv e 2- e 1= q 12- w12 q12= ∫1 T ds

P v

v1

P2

P1 v2

v2

P1

P2 v1

T1 = T 2 T1 = T 2 T

T

Example 3.1

Consider the following isobaric process for air, modelled as a calorically perfect ideal gas, from state

1 to state 2. P1 = 100 kP a, T1 = 300 K, T2 = 400 K.

Since the process is isobaric P = 100 kP a describes a straight line in P − v and P − T planes and

P2 = P1 = 100 kP a. Since ideal gas, v − T plane:

R

v= T straight lines! (3.7)

P

v1 = RT1 /P1 = = 0.861 m3 /kg (3.8)

100, 000 P a

(287 J/kg/K) (400 K)

v2 = RT2 /P2 = = 1.148 m3 /kg (3.9)

100, 000 P a

Since calorically perfect:

de = cv dT (3.10)

Z e1 Z T1

de = cv dT (3.11)

e2 T2

e2 − e1 = cv (T2 − T1 ) (3.12)

= (716.5 J/kg/K) (400 K − 300 K) (3.13)

= 71, 650 J/kg (3.14)

42 CHAPTER 3. THERMODYNAMICS REVIEW

P T

s

v

q cycle = wcycle

also

T ds = de + P dv (3.15)

T ds = cv dT + P dv (3.16)

RT R RT

from ideal gas : v= : dv = dT − 2 dP (3.17)

P P P

RT

T ds = cv dT + RdT − dP (3.18)

P

dT dP

ds = (cv + R) −R (3.19)

T P

dT dP

ds = (cv + cp − cv ) −R (3.20)

T P

dT dP

ds = cp −R (3.21)

T P

Z s2 Z T2 Z P2

dT dP

ds = cp −R (3.22)

s1 T1 T P1 P

T2 P2

s2 − s1 = cp ln − R ln (3.23)

T1 P1

T P

s − so = cp ln − R ln (3.24)

To Po

T2

s2 − s1 = cp ln (3.26)

T1

400 K

= (1003.5 J/kg/K) ln (3.27)

300 K

= 288.7 J/kg/K (3.28)

Z v2 Z v2

w12 = P dv = P dv (3.29)

v1 v1

= P (v2 − v1 ) (3.30)

3.2. SUMMARY OF THERMODYNAMIC CONCEPTS 43

= 29, 600 J/kg (3.32)

Now

de = dq − dw (3.33)

dq = de + dw (3.34)

q12 = (e2 − e1 ) + w12 (3.35)

q12 = 71, 650 J/kg + 29, 600 J/kg (3.36)

q12 = 101, 250 J/kg (3.37)

Now in this process the gas is heated from 300 K to 400 K. We would expect at a minimum that the

surroundings were at 400 K. Let’s check for second law satisfaction.

q12

?s2 − s1 ≥ (3.38)

Tsurr

101, 250 J/kg

288.7 J/kg/K ≥ ? (3.39)

400 K

288.7 J/kg/K ≥ 253.1 J/kg/K yes (3.40)

P T

v1

v2

P1= P2 = 100 kPa

T2

T2

T1 = 300 K T1

v1 v2 s1 s2 s

v

2 2

w12= ∫1 P dv e 2- e 1= q 12- w12 q12= ∫1 T ds

P v

v1

v1

T1 T2 T1 T2 T

T

44 CHAPTER 3. THERMODYNAMICS REVIEW

Recall

1

de = T ds − P d (3.41)

ρ

Since v ≡ 1/ρ we get

de = T ds − P dv (3.42)

Now we assume e = e(s, v),

∂e ∂e

de = ds + dv (3.43)

∂s v ∂v s

Thus

∂e ∂e

T = P =− (3.44)

∂s v ∂v s

and

∂2e ∂2e

∂T ∂P

= = − (3.45)

∂v s ∂v∂s ∂s v ∂s∂v

Thus we get a Maxwell relation:

∂T ∂P

=− (3.46)

∂v s ∂s v

• enthalpy: h ≡ e + pv

Now with these definitions it is easy to form differential relations using the Gibbs relation

as a root.

h = e + Pv (3.47)

dh = de + P dv + vdP (3.48)

de = dh − P dv − vdP (3.49)

substitute into Gibbs: de = T ds − P dv (3.50)

dh − P dv − vdP = T ds − P dv (3.51)

dh = T ds + vdP (3.52)

3.3. MAXWELL RELATIONS AND SECONDARY PROPERTIES 45

So s and P are natural variables for h. Through a very similar process we get the following

relationships:

∂h ∂h

=T =v (3.53)

∂s P ∂P s

∂a ∂a

= −P = −s (3.54)

∂v T ∂T v

∂g ∂g

=v = −s (3.55)

∂P T ∂T P

∂T ∂v ∂P ∂s ∂v ∂s

= = =− (3.56)

∂P s ∂s P ∂T v ∂v T ∂T P ∂P T

The following thermodynamic properties are also useful and have formal definitions:

∂e

• specific heat at constant volume: cv ≡ ∂T v

∂h

• specific heat at constant pressure: cp ≡ ∂T P

r

• sound speed: c ≡ ∂P

∂ρ

s

• adiabatic compressibility: βs ≡ − v1 ∂v

∂P s

∂P

• adiabatic bulk modulus: Bs ≡ −v ∂v s

Find the internal energy e(T, v) for a general material.

e = e(T, v) (3.57)

∂e

∂e

de = dT + dv (3.58)

∂T v ∂v T

∂e

de = cv dT + dv (3.59)

∂v T

de = T ds − P dv (3.60)

de ds

=T −P (3.61)

dv dv

∂e ∂s

= T −P (3.62)

∂v T ∂v T

46 CHAPTER 3. THERMODYNAMICS REVIEW

∂e ∂P

=T −P (3.63)

∂v T ∂T v

so

∂P

de = cv dT + T − P dv (3.64)

∂T v

!

e T Z v

∂ P̂

Z Z

dê = cv (T̂ )dT̂ + T̂ − P̂ dv̂ (3.65)

eo To vo ∂ T̂ v̂

!

T Z v

∂ P̂

Z

e(T, v) = eo + cv (T̂ )dT̂ + T̂ − P̂ dv̂ (3.66)

To vo ∂ T̂ v̂

Example 3.2

Ideal Gas

RT

P (T, v) = (3.67)

v

Proceed as follows:

∂P

= R/v (3.68)

∂T v

∂P RT

T −P = −P (3.69)

∂T v v

RT RT

= − =0 (3.70)

v v

Thus e is

Z T

e(T ) = eo + cv (T̂ )dT̂ (3.71)

To

We also find

Z T

h = e + P v = eo + cv (T̂ )dT̂ + P v (3.72)

To

Z T

h(T, v) = eo + cv (T̂ )dT̂ + RT (3.73)

To

∂h

cp (T, v) =≡ = cv (T ) + R = cp (T ) (3.74)

∂T P

R = cp (T ) − cv (T ) (3.75)

Iff cv is a constant then

e(T ) = eo + cv (T − To ) (3.76)

h(T ) = (eo + Po vo ) + cp (T − To ) (3.77)

R = cp − cv (3.78)

3.3. MAXWELL RELATIONS AND SECONDARY PROPERTIES 47

Example 3.3

van der Waals gas

RT a

P (T, v) = − (3.79)

v − b v2

Proceed as before:

∂P R

= (3.80)

∂T v v−b

∂P

RT

T −P = −P (3.81)

∂T v v−b

RT RT a a

= − − 2 = 2 (3.82)

v−b v−b v v

Thus e is

T v

a

Z Z

e(T, v) = eo + cv (T̂ )dT̂ + 2

dv̂ (3.83)

To vo v̂

T

1 1

Z

= eo + cv (T̂ )dT̂ + a − (3.84)

To vo v

We also find

T

1 1

Z

h = e + P v = eo + −

cv (T̂ )dT̂ + a + Pv (3.85)

To vo v

T

1 1 RT v a

Z

h(T, v) = eo + cv (T̂ )dT̂ + a − + − (3.86)

To vo v v−b v

(3.87)

Find the sound speed c(T, v) for a general material.

s

∂P

c= (3.88)

∂ρ s

2 ∂P

c = (3.89)

∂ρ s

48 CHAPTER 3. THERMODYNAMICS REVIEW

T ds = de + P dv (3.90)

(3.91)

Substitute earlier relation for de

∂P

T ds = cv dT + T − P dv + P dv (3.92)

∂T v

∂P

T ds = cv dT + T dv (3.93)

∂T v

T ∂P

T ds = cv dT − 2 dρ (3.94)

ρ ∂T ρ

∂P ∂P

dP = dT + dρ (3.95)

∂T ρ ∂ρ T

dP − ∂P dρ

∂ρ

T

dT =

∂P

(3.96)

∂T ρ

dP − ∂P dρ

− T ∂P dρ

∂ρ

T ds = cv T

∂P

(3.97)

∂T ρ

ρ2 ∂T ρ

! ∂P

cv ∂ρ T ∂P

T ds = ∂P dP − cv T

∂P

+ 2 dρ (3.98)

∂T ρ ∂T ρ

ρ ∂T ρ

SO if ds ≡ 0 we obtain

∂P

∂P 1 ∂P T ∂P

∂ρ

= cv + 2T

∂P

(3.99)

∂ρ s cv ∂T ρ

ρ ∂T ρ

∂T ρ

!2

∂P T ∂P

= + (3.100)

∂ρ T cv ρ2 ∂T ρ

So

v

u

u ∂P !2

c(T, ρ) = t + T ∂P

(3.101)

∂ρ T cv ρ2 ∂T ρ

3.3. MAXWELL RELATIONS AND SECONDARY PROPERTIES 49

Example 3.4

Ideal Gas

∂P ∂P

= RT = ρR (3.103)

∂ρ T ∂T ρ

so

s

T 2

c(T, ρ) = RT + (ρR) (3.104)

cv ρ 2

s

R2 T

= RT + (3.105)

cv

s

R

= RT 1 + (3.106)

cv

s

cP − cv

= RT 1 + (3.107)

cv

s

cv + cP − cv

= RT (3.108)

cv

p

= γRT (3.109)

Sound speed depends on temperature alone for the calorically perfect ideal gas.

Example 3.5

Virial Gas

∂P ∂P

= RT + 2b1 ρRT = ρR (1 + b1 ρ) (3.111)

∂ρ T ∂T ρ

50 CHAPTER 3. THERMODYNAMICS REVIEW

so

s

T 2

c(T, ρ) = RT + 2b1 ρRT + (ρR (1 + b1 ρ)) (3.112)

cv ρ 2

s

R

= RT 1 + 2b1 ρ + (1 + b1 ρ)2 (3.113)

cv

Example 3.6

Thermodynamic process with a van der Waals Gas

6 2

a = 150 P a m /kg (3.115)

b = 0.001 m3 /kg (3.116)

cv = [350 + 0.2(T − 300K)] J/kg/K (3.117)

It is then isochorically heated to state 3 where T3 = 1, 000 K. Find w13 , q13 , and s3 − s1 . Assume the

surroundings are at 1, 000 K. Recall

RT a

P = − 2 (3.118)

v−b v

so at state 1

200 × 300 150

100, 000 = − 2 (3.119)

v1 − 0.001 v1

or expanding

3

v1 = 0.00125 − 0.0097i m /kg not physical (3.122)

v1 = 0.00125 + 0.0097i m3 /kg not physical (3.123)

200 × 300 150

1, 000, 000 = − 2 (3.124)

v2 − 0.001 v2

The physical solution is v2 = 0.0585 m3 /kg. Now at state 3 we know v3 = v2 and T3 . Determine P3 :

200 × 1, 000 150

P3 = − = 3, 478, 261 − 43, 831 = 3, 434, 430 P a (3.125)

0.0585 − 0.001 0.05852

3.3. MAXWELL RELATIONS AND SECONDARY PROPERTIES 51

R2 R3 R2

Now w13 = w12 + w23 = 1

P dv + 2

P dv = 1

P dv since 2 − 3 is at constant volume. So

v2

RT a

Z

w13 = − dv (3.126)

v v − b v2

Z v12 Z v2

dv dv

= RT1 −a 2

(3.127)

v1 v − b v1 v

v2 − b 1 1

= RT1 ln +a − (3.128)

v1 − b v2 v1

0.0585 − 0.001 1 1

= 200 × 300 ln + 150 − (3.129)

0.598 − 0.001 0.0585 0.598

= −140, 408 + 2, 313 (3.130)

= −138, 095 J/kg = −138 kJ/kg (3.131)

T3

1 1

Z

e3 − e1 = cv (T )dT + a − (3.132)

T1 v1 v3

Now

1

cv = 350 + 0.2(T − 300) = 290 + T (3.133)

5

so

T3

1 1 1

Z

e3 − e1 = 290 + T dT + a − (3.134)

T1 5 v1 v3

1 1 1

T32 − T12 + a

= 290 (T3 − T1 ) + − (3.135)

10 v1 v3

1 1 1

1, 0002 − 3002 + 150

290 (1, 000 − 300) + − (3.136)

10 0.598 0.0585

= 203, 000 + 91, 000 − 2, 313 (3.137)

= 291, 687 J/kg = 292 kJ/kg (3.138)

q13 = e3 − e1 + w13 (3.140)

q13 = 292 − 138 (3.141)

q13 = 154 kJ/kg (3.142)

T ds = de + P dv (3.143)

1 P

ds = de + dv (3.144)

T T

1 a P

ds = cv (T )dT + 2 dv + dv (3.145)

T v T

52 CHAPTER 3. THERMODYNAMICS REVIEW

1 a 1 RT a

ds = cv (T )dT + 2 dv + − 2 dv (3.146)

T v T v−b v

cv (T ) R

ds = dT + dv (3.147)

T v−b

Z T3

cv (T ) v3 − b

s3 − s1 = dT + R ln (3.148)

T1 T v1 − b

Z 1,000

290 1 v3 − b

= + dT + R ln (3.149)

300 T 5 v1−b

1, 000 1 0.0585 − 0.001

= 290 ln + (1, 000 − 300) + 200 ln (3.150)

300 5 0.598 − 0.001

= 349 + 140 − 468 (3.151)

J kJ

= 21 = 0.021 (3.152)

kg K kg K

Is the second law satisfied for each portion of the process?

First look at 1 → 2

q12 = e2 − e1 + w12 (3.154)

T2 !

1 1 v2 − b 1 1

Z

q12 = cv (T )dT + a − + RT1 ln +a − (3.155)

T1 v1 v2 v1 − b v2 v1

(3.156)

v2 − b 0.0585 − 0.001 J

q12 = RT1 ln = 200 × 300 ln = −140, 408 (3.157)

v1 − b 0.598 − 0.001 kg

Since isothermal

v2 − b

s2 − s1 = R ln (3.158)

v1 − b

0.0585 − 0.001

= 200 ln (3.159)

0.598 − 0.001

J

= −468.0 (3.160)

kg K

Entropy drops because heat was transferred out of the system.

Check the second law. Note that in this portion of the process in which the heat is transferred out

of the system, that the surroundings must have Tsurr ≤ 300 K. For this portion of the process let us

take Tsurr = 300 K.

q12

s2 − s1 ≥ ? (3.161)

T

J

J −140, 408 kg

−468.0 ≥ (3.162)

kg K

300 K

J J

−468.0 ≥ −468.0 ok (3.163)

kg K kg K

3.4. CANONICAL EQUATIONS OF STATE 53

Next look at 2 → 3

T3 ! Z v3

1 1

Z

q23 = cv (T )dT + a − + P dv (3.165)

T2 v2 v3 v2

Z T3

since isochoric q23 = cv (T )dT (3.166)

T2

1000

T J

Z

= 290 + dT = 294, 000 (3.167)

300 5 K

Now look at the entropy change for the isochoric process:

Z T3

cv (T )

s3 − s2 = dT (3.168)

T2 T

Z T3

290 1

= + dT (3.169)

T2 T 5

1, 000 1 J

= 290 ln + (1, 000 − 300) = 489 (3.170)

300 5 kg K

Entropy rises because heat transferred into system.

In order to transfer heat into the system we must have a different thermal reservoir. This one must

have Tsurr ≥ 1000 K. Assume here that the heat transfer was from a reservoir held at 1, 000 K to

assess the influence of the second law.

q23

s3 − s2 ≥ ? (3.171)

T

J

J 294, 000 kg

489 ≥ (3.172)

kg K 1, 000 K

J J

489 ≥ 294 ok (3.173)

kg K kg K

If we have a single equation of state in a special canonical form, we can form both thermal

and caloric equations. Since

de = T ds − P dv (3.174)

dh = T ds + vdP (3.175)

it is suggested that the form

e = e(s, v) (3.176)

h = h(s, P ) (3.177)

54 CHAPTER 3. THERMODYNAMICS REVIEW

is useful.

Example 3.7

Canonical Form

If

s

h(s, P ) = Kcp P R/cp exp + (ho − cp To ) (3.178)

cp

derive both thermal and caloric state equations P (v, T ) and e(v, T ).

∂h R/cp s

= KP exp (3.179)

∂s cp

P

∂h s

= KRP R/cp−1 exp (3.180)

∂P

s cp

Now since

∂h

=T (3.181)

∂s P

∂h

=v (3.182)

∂P s

we have

R/cp s

T = KP exp (3.183)

cp

s

v = KRP R/cp −1 exp (3.184)

cp

T P

= (3.185)

v R

RT

P = (3.186)

v

Substituting our expression for T into our canonical equation for h we also get

h = cp T + (ho − cp To ) (3.187)

h = cp (T − To ) + ho (3.188)

P v Po vo

h = cp − + ho (3.189)

R R

Using h ≡ e + P v we get

Pv Po vo

e + P v = cp − + eo + Po vo (3.190)

R R

3.5. ISENTROPIC RELATIONS 55

so

c c

p p

e= − 1 Pv − − 1 Po vo + eo (3.191)

R c R

p

e= − 1 (P v − Po vo ) + eo (3.192)

cR

p

e= − 1 (RT − RTo ) + eo (3.193)

R

e = (cp − R) (T − To ) + eo (3.194)

e = [cp − (cp − cv )] (T − To ) + eo (3.195)

e = cv (T − To ) + eo (3.196)

So one canonical equation gives us all the information we need! Oftentimes, it is difficult to do a

single experiment to get the canonical form.

Exercise: For a calorically perfect ideal gas, write the Helmholtz free energy and Gibbs

free energy in canonical form, i.e. what is a(T, v), g(P, T )?

Of particular importance in thermodynamics in general and compressible flow in particular

are relations that describe an isentropic process, s = constant. Recall the second law.

dq

ds ≥ (3.197)

T

If the process is reversible,

dq

ds = (3.198)

T

If the process is adiabatic

dq ≡ 0 so ds = 0 (3.199)

So an isentropic process is both adiabatic and reversible. We know from the first law written

in terms of entropy that this implies that

q≡0 (3.200)

τ ≡0 (3.201)

In this case the Gibbs relation and the first law reduce to the same expression:

de = −P dv (3.202)

That is the energy change is all due to reversible pressure volume work.

We would like to develop an expression between two variables for an isentropic process.

56 CHAPTER 3. THERMODYNAMICS REVIEW

• form e(T, v)

∂e ∂e

dP + dv = −P dv (3.203)

∂P v ∂v P

∂e ∂e

dP + + P dv = 0 (3.204)

∂P v ∂v P

Example 3.8

Calorically Perfect Ideal Gas

Find the relationship for a calorically perfect ideal gas which undergoes an isentropic process.

Ideal Gas:

P v = RT (3.205)

Calorically Perfect:

e = cv T + e o (3.206)

Thus

Pv cv 1

e = cv + eo = P v + eo = P v + eo (3.207)

R cP − cv γ−1

Thus the necessary derivatives are

∂e 1

= v (3.208)

∂P v γ−1

∂e 1

= P (3.209)

∂v P

γ−1

1 1

vdP + P + P dv = 0 (3.210)

γ−1 γ−1

vdP + γP dv = 0 (3.211)

dP dv

= −γ (3.212)

P v

P v

ln = −γ ln (3.213)

Po vo

P v γ

o

ln = ln (3.214)

Po v

P v γ

o

= (3.215)

Po v

P v γ = Po voγ = constant (3.216)

3.5. ISENTROPIC RELATIONS 57

RT

P v T vo vo γ

= RTo

= = (3.217)

Po vo

To v v

T v γ−1 P γ−1

γ

o

= = (3.218)

To v Po

Z 1

w12 = P dv (3.219)

2

v2

dv

Z

= Po voγ (3.220)

v1 vγ

1−γ

v2

v

= Po voγ (3.221)

1−γ v1

Po voγ 1−γ

= v2 − v11−γ (3.222)

1−γ

P2 v2 − P1 v1

= (3.223)

1−γ

Also

de = dq − dw = 0 − dw so (3.224)

P2 v2 − P1 v1

e2 − e1 = (3.225)

γ −1

Figure 3.4 gives a sketch for the calorically perfect ideal gas undergoing an isentropic

expansion in various planes.

Example 3.9

Virial Gas

Find the relationship between P and v for a virial gas with constant cv which undergoes an isentropic

process.

Virial Gas:

RT

P = (3.226)

v−b

This is van der Waals with a = 0 and cv constant so:

e = cv T + e o (3.227)

Thus

P (v − b)

e = cv + eo (3.228)

R

58 CHAPTER 3. THERMODYNAMICS REVIEW

P T

v1

P1

v2

T1

T1 T2

P2 T2

v1 v2 s1 = s2 s

v

2 2

w12= ∫1 P dv e 2- e 1= q 12- w12 q12= ∫1 T ds

P v

P2

v1

v2

P1

v1 P1

v2

P2

T2 T1 T2 T1 T

T

∂e cv

= (v − b) (3.229)

∂P v R

∂e cv

= P (3.230)

∂v P R

cv c

v

(v − b) dP + P + P dv = 0 (3.231)

R R

R

(v − b) dP + 1 + P dv = 0 (3.232)

cv

R

with γ̂ ≡ 1 + (3.233)

cv

dP γ̂

+ P =0 (3.234)

dv v−b

γ̂ dP γ̂ γ̂

Z Z

exp dv + exp dv P =0 (3.235)

v−b dv v−b v−b

dP γ̂

γ̂ γ̂

exp ln (v − b) + exp ln (v − b) P =0 (3.236)

dv v−b

γ̂ dP γ̂ γ̂

(v − b) + (v − b) P =0 (3.237)

dv v−b

d

(v − b)γ̂ P = 0 (3.238)

dv

3.5. ISENTROPIC RELATIONS 59

γ̂

P vo − b

= (3.240)

Po v−b

Exercise: Find the relationship between T and v for a virial gas in an isentropic process.

Exercise: Find an expression for the work done by a van der Waals gas in an isentropic

process.

J 3

Exercise: A virial gas, m = 3 kg with R = 290 kgK , b = 0.002 m

kg

with constant specific

kJ

heat cv = 0.700 kg K is initially at P = 1.2 bar and T = 320 K. It undergoes a two step

process: 1 → 2 is an isochoric compression to 500 kP a; 2 → 3 is an isentropic expansion to

300 kP a. Find the total work W13 in units of J, the total heat transfer Q13 in units of J,

and the change in entropy S3 − S1 in units of J/K. Include a sketch, roughly to scale, of the

total process in the P − v and T − s planes.

60 CHAPTER 3. THERMODYNAMICS REVIEW

Chapter 4

Liepmann and Roshko, Chapter 2: pp. 39-65,

Hughes and Brighton, Chapter 7: pp. 178-185,

Shapiro, Vol. 1, Chapters 4-8: pp. 73-262,

This chapter will discuss one-dimensional flow of a compressible fluid. Notation can pose

problems, and many common ones are in use. Here a new convention will be adopted. In

this chapter

• The flow is uni-directional in the x− direction with u 6= 0 and with the y− and z−

components of the velocity vector both zero: v ≡ 0, w ≡ 0

61

62 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

∂ ∂ ∂

• Spatial gradients are admitted in x, but not in y or z: ∂x

6= 0, ∂y

≡ 0, ∂z

≡ 0.

Friction and heat transfer will not be modelled rigorously. Instead, they will be modelled

in a fashion which captures the relevant physics and retains analytic tractability.

Flow with area change is illustrated by the following sketch of a control volume:. See Figure

4.1.

ρ ρ

1

u1 2

u2

A1 A2

P1 P2

e1 e2

x1 τw

q x2

x 2 - x1 = ∆ x Perimeter = L

• surface 1 and 2 are open and allow fluxes of mass, momentum, and energy

W

• external heat flux qw (Energy/Area/Time: m2

) through the wall allowed-qw known fixed

parameter

N

• wall shear τw (Force/Area: m2

) allowed–τw known, fixed parameter

4.1. GENERALIZED ONE-DIMENSIONAL EQUATIONS 63

4.1.1 Mass

Take the overbar notation to indicate a volume averaged quantity.

The amount of mass in a control volume after a time increment ∆t is equal to the original

amount of mass plus that which came in minus that which left:

ρ̄Ā∆xt+∆t = ρ̄Ā∆xt + ρ1 A1 (u1 ∆t) − ρ2 A2 (u2 ∆t) (4.1)

ρ̄Āt+∆t − ρ̄Āt ρ2 A2 u2 − ρ1 A1 u1

+ =0 (4.2)

∆t ∆x

(4.3)

∂ ∂

(ρA) + (ρAu) = 0 (4.4)

∂t ∂x

If steady

d

(ρAu) = 0 (4.5)

dx

dρ dA du

Au + ρu + ρA = 0 (4.6)

dx dx dx

1 dρ 1 dA 1 du

+ + = 0 (4.7)

ρ dx A dx u dx

Integrate from x1 to x2 :

x2 Z x2

d

Z

(ρAu)dx = 0dx (4.8)

x1 dx x1

Z 2

d (ρAu) = 0 (4.9)

1

ρ2 u2 A2 − ρ1 u1 A1 = 0 (4.10)

ρ2 u2 A2 = ρ1 u1 A1 ≡ ṁ = C1 (4.11)

4.1.2 Momentum

Newton’s Second Law says the time rate of change of linear momentum of a body equals the

sum of the forces acting on the body. In the x direction this is roughly as follows:

d

(mu) = Fx (4.12)

dt

64 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

mu|t+∆t − mu|t

= Fx (4.13)

∆t

mu|t+∆t = mu|t + Fx ∆t (4.14)

For a control volume containing fluid, one must also account for the momentum which

enters and leaves the control volume. The amount of momentum in a control volume after

a time increment ∆t is equal to the original amount of momentum plus that which came in

minus that which left plus that introduced by the forces acting on the control volume.

• force due to the reaction of the wall to the pressure force pushes fluid if area change

positive

• force due to the reaction of the wall to the shear force restrains fluid

ρ̄Ā∆x ūt+∆t = ρ̄Ā∆x ūt

+ (ρ1 A1 (u1 ∆t)) u1

− (ρ2 A2 (u2 ∆t)) u2

+ (P1 A1 ) ∆t − (P2 A2 ) ∆t

+ P̄ (A2 − A1 ) ∆t

− τw L̄∆x ∆t

ρ̄Āūt+∆t − ρ̄Āūt ρ2 A2 u22 − ρ1 A1 u21

+

∆t ∆x

P2 A2 − P1 A1 A2 − A1

=− + P̄ − τw L̄

∆x ∆x

In the limit ∆x → 0, ∆t → 0 one gets

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂A

ρAu2 = − (P A) + P

(ρAu) + − τw L (4.15)

∂t ∂x ∂x ∂x

In steady state:

d d dA

ρAu2 = − (P A) + P

− τw L (4.16)

dx dx dx

4.1. GENERALIZED ONE-DIMENSIONAL EQUATIONS 65

du d dA dP dA

ρAu + u (ρAu) = −P −A +P − τw L (4.17)

dx dx dx dx dx

du dP L

ρu = − − τw (4.18)

dx dx A

L

ρudu + dP = −τw dx (4.19)

A

1 L

du + dP = −τw dx (4.20)

ρu ṁ

2

u L

ρd + dP = −τw dx (4.21)

2 A

Wall shear lowers the combination of pressure and dynamic head.

If no wall shear:

u2

dP = −ρd (4.22)

2

Increase in velocity magnitude decreases the pressure.

If no area change dA = 0 and no friction τw ≡ 0:

du dP

ρu + = 0 (4.23)

dx dx

d

add u mass u (ρu) = 0 (4.24)

dx

d

ρu2 + P = 0

(4.25)

dx

ρu2 + P = ρo u2o + Po = C2 (4.26)

4.1.3 Energy

The first law of thermodynamics states that the change of total energy of a body equals the

heat transferred to the body minus the work done by the body:

E2 − E1 = Q − W (4.27)

E2 = E1 + Q − W (4.28)

So for the control volume this becomes the following when one also accounts for the energy

flux in and out of the control volume in addition to the work and heat transfer:

ū2 ū2

ρ̄Ā∆x ē + = ρ̄Ā∆x ē +

2 t+∆t 2 t

u21 u22

+ρ1 A1 (u1 ∆t) e1 + − ρ2 A2 (u2 ∆t) e2 +

2 2

+qw L̄∆x ∆t + (P1 A1 ) (u1 ∆t) − (P2 A2 ) (u2 ∆t)

66 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

Note:

• mean pressure times area difference does no work because acting on stationary bound-

ary

1

• work done by shear force not included

Rearrange and divide by ∆t∆x:

ū2 ū2

ρ̄Ā ē + 2 − ρ̄Ā ē +

2

t+∆t t

∆t

u22 P2 u21 P1

ρ2 A2 u2 e2 + 2

+ ρ2

− ρ1 A1 u1 e1 + 2

+ ρ1

+ = qw L̄

∆x

In differential form as ∆x → 0, ∆t → 0

u2 u2 P

∂ ∂

ρA e + + ρAu e + + = qw L

∂t 2 ∂x 2 ρ

In steady state:

u2 P

d

ρAu e + + = qw L (4.29)

dx 2 ρ

2 2

d u P u P d

ρAu e+ + + e+ + (ρAu) = qw L (4.30)

dx 2 ρ 2 ρ dx

u2 P

d qw L

ρu e+ + = (4.31)

dx 2 ρ A

de du 1 dP P dρ qw L

ρu +u + − 2 = (4.32)

dx dx ρ dx ρ dx A

subtract product of momentum and velocity (4.33)

du dP τw Lu

ρu2 +u = − (4.34)

dx dx A

de P u dρ qw L τw Lu

ρu − = + (4.35)

dx ρ dx A A

de P dρ (qw + τw u) L

− 2 = (4.36)

dx ρ dx ṁ

1

In neglecting work done by the wall shear force, I have taken an approach which is nearly universal, but

fundamentally difficult to defend. At this stage of the development of these notes, I am not ready to enter

into a grand battle with all established authors and probably confuse the student; consequently, results for

flow with friction will be consistent with those of other sources. The argument typically used to justify this

is that the real fluid satisfies no-slip at the boundary; thus, the wall shear actually does no work. However,

one can easily argue that within the context of the one-dimensional model which has been posed that the

shear force behaves as an external force which reduces the fluid’s mechanical energy. Moreover, it is possible

to show that neglect of this term results in the loss of frame invariance,

a serious defect indeed. To model

the work of the wall shear, one would include the term τw L̄∆x (ū∆t) in the energy equation.

4.1. GENERALIZED ONE-DIMENSIONAL EQUATIONS 67

Since e = e(P, ρ)

∂e ∂e

de = dρ + dP (4.37)

∂ρ P ∂P ρ

de ∂e dρ ∂e dP

= + (4.38)

dx ∂ρ P dx ∂P ρ dx

so

∂e dρ ∂e dP P dρ (qw + τw u) L

+ − 2 = (4.39)

∂ρ P dx

∂P ρ dx

ρ dx ṁ

∂e P

dP ∂ρ P − ρ2 dρ (qw + τw u) L

+ ∂e

=

∂e

(4.40)

dx

∂P ρ

dx ṁ ∂P ρ

∂e P

∂P ∂ρ − ρ2

c2 =

P

= − ∂e (4.41)

∂ρ s

∂P ρ

so

dP dρ (qw + τw u) L

− c2 =

∂e

(4.42)

dx dx ṁ ∂P ρ

dP dρ (qw + τw u) L

− c2 =

∂e

(4.43)

dx dx ρuA ∂P ρ

Special case of flow with no heat transfer qw ≡ 0. Area change allowed!, wall friction

allowed! (see earlier footnote):

u2 P

d

ρu e+ + = 0 (4.44)

dx 2 ρ

u2 P u 2 Po

e+ + = eo + o + = C3 (4.45)

2 ρ 2 ρo

u2 u2

h+ = ho + o = C3 (4.46)

2 2

Example 4.1

2

Adiabatic Flow of Argon

2

adopted from White’s 9.1, p. 583

68 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

500◦ F, u1 = 250 fst . At section 2 P2 = 40 psia, u2 = 1, 100 fst .

Btu

Find: T2 in ◦ F and s2 − s1 in lbm◦ R

f t lbf Btu

Assume: Ar is a calorically perfect ideal gas, tables give R = 38.68 lbmR , cp = 0.1253 lbmR

f t2

Btu f t lbf lbm f t

cp = 0.1253 779 32.17 = 3, 140 2 (4.48)

lbm R Btu lbf s2 s R

f t2

f t lbf lbm f t

R = 38.68 32.17 = 1, 244 2 (4.49)

lbm R lbf s2 s R

f t lbf 1 Btu Btu

R = 38.68 = 0.04965 (4.50)

lbm R 779 f t lbf lbm R

Now consider an energy balance:

u22 u21

h2 + = h1 + (4.51)

2 2

u22 u21

cp T 2 + h o + = cp T 1 + h o + (4.52)

2 2

1

u2 − u22

T2 = T1 + (4.53)

2cp 1

2 !2

1 1 ft ft

T2 = 960 R + f t2

250 − 1, 100 = 777 R (4.54)

2 3, 140 s s

s2 R

T2 = 777 − 460 = 317◦ F (4.55)

The flow sped up; temperature went down. Thermal energy was converted into kinetic energy

Calculate the entropy change. For the calorically perfect ideal gas:

T2 P2

s2 − s1 = cp ln − R ln (4.56)

T1 P1

Btu 777 R Btu 40 psia

= 0.1253 ln − 0.04965 ln (4.57)

lbm R 960 R lbm R 200 psia

Btu

= −0.0265 − (−.0799) = 0.0534 (4.58)

lbm R

Entropy change positive. Since adiabatic, there must have been irreversible friction which gave rise to

this.

Example 4.2

3

Adiabatic Flow of Steam

3

adopted from White’s 9.2, p. 583

4.1. GENERALIZED ONE-DIMENSIONAL EQUATIONS 69

Same problem now with steam Given: Steam flows adiabatically through a duct. At section 1,

P1 = 200 psia, T1 = 500◦F, u1 = 250 fst . At section 2 P2 = 40 psia, u2 = 1, 100 fst .

Btu

Find: T2 in ◦ F and s2 − s1 in lbm◦ R

Analysis:

Use steam tables for property values.

Energy balance:

u22 u21

h2 + = h1 + (4.59)

2 2

1 2

u1 − u22

h2 = h1 + (4.60)

2

2 2 !

1 lbf s2

Btu 1 1 Btu ft ft

h2 = 1269 + 250 − 1, 100 (4.61)

lbm 2 779 f t lbf 32.17 lbm f t s s

Btu

h2 = 1, 246 (4.62)

lbm

Btu

Interpolate steam tables at P2 = 40 psia, h2 = h2 = 1, 246 lbm and find

T2 = 420◦ F (4.63)

Btu

s2 = 1.7720 (4.64)

lbm R

Btu

Tables give s1 = 1.6239 lbm R so the entropy change is

Btu

s2 − s1 = 1.7720 − 1.6239 = 0.148 (4.65)

lbm R

Example 4.3

Flow of Air with Heat Addition

The duct has a constant circular cross sectional area of A = 0.02 m2 and is isobarically heated with

a constant heat flux qw along the entire surface of the duct. At the end of the duct the flow has

P2 = 100 kP a, T2 = 500 K

Find: the mass flow rate ṁ, the wall heat flux qw and the entropy change s2 − s1 ; check for

satisfaction of the second law.

kJ kJ

Assume: Calorically perfect ideal gas, R = 0.287 kg K , cp = 1.0035 kg K

Analysis:

70 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

Geometry:

A = πr2 (4.66)

r

A

r = (4.67)

π

√ p

L = 2πr = 2 πA = 2 π (0.02 m2 ) = 0.501 m (4.68)

P1 = ρ1 RT1 (4.69)

P1 100 kP a

ρ1 = = (4.70)

RT1 0.287 kgkJK (300 K)

kg

= 1.161 (4.71)

m3

So

kg m kg

0.02 m2 = 0.2322

ṁ = ρ1 u1 A1 = 1.161 3 10 (4.72)

m s s

P2 100 kP a

ρ2 = = (4.73)

RT2 0.287 kJ

kg K (500 K)

kg

= 0.6969 (4.74)

m3

ρ2 u2 A2 = ρ1 u1 A1 (4.75)

ρ1 u1 A1 ρ1 u 1

u2 = = (4.76)

ρ A ρ2

2 2

kg

1.161 m3 10 m s m

= kg

= 16.67 (4.77)

0.6969 m3

s

u2

d P qw L

ρu e+ + = (4.78)

dx 2 ρ A

u2

d qw L

h+ = (4.79)

dx 2 ṁ

Z L 2

Z L

d u qw L

h+ dx = dx (4.80)

0 dx 2 0 ṁ

u2 u2 qw LL

h2 + 2 − h1 − 1 = (4.81)

2 2 ṁ

u22 u21 qw LL

cp (T2 − T1 ) + − = (4.82)

2 2 ṁ

u2 u2

ṁ

qw = cp (T2 − T1 ) + 2 − 1 (4.83)

LL 2 2

(4.84)

4.1. GENERALIZED ONE-DIMENSIONAL EQUATIONS 71

m 2 m 2

! !

0.2322 kg

s J 16.67 s 10 s

qw = 1, 003.5 (500 K − 300 K) + − (4.85)

(100 m) (0.501 m) kg K 2 2

m2

kg J

qw = 0.004635 2 200, 700 − 88.9 2 (4.86)

m s kg s

kg J J

qw = 0.004635 2 200, 700 − 88.9 (4.87)

m s kg kg

W

qw = 930 2 (4.88)

m

Heat flux positive, denoting heat into the air.

T2 P2

s2 − s1 = cp ln − R ln (4.89)

T1 P1

J 500 K J 100 kP a

s2 − s1 = 1, 003.5 ln − 287 ln (4.90)

kg K 300 K kg K 100 kP a

J

s2 − s1 = 512.6 − 0 = 512.6 (4.91)

kg K

Is the second law satisfied? Assume the heat transfer takes place from a reservoir held at 500 K. The

reservoir would have to be at least at 500 K in order to bring the fluid to its final state of 500 K. It

could be greater than 500 K and still satisfy the second law.

Q12

S2 − S1 ≥ (4.92)

T

Q̇12

Ṡ2 − Ṡ1 ≥ (4.93)

T

Q̇12

ṁ (s2 − s1 ) ≥ (4.94)

T

qw Atot

ṁ (s2 − s1 ) ≥ (4.95)

T

qw LL

ṁ (s2 − s1 ) ≥ (4.96)

T

qw LL

s2 − s1 ≥ (4.97)

ṁT

930 s Jm2 (100 m) (0.501 m)

J

512.6 ≥ (4.98)

kg K 0.2322 kg (500 K)

s

J J

512.6 ≥ 401.3 (4.99)

kg K kg K

72 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

Now, uncouple these equations. First, summarize:

dρ du ρu dA

u +ρ = − (4.100)

dx dx A dx

du dP τw L

ρu + = − (4.101)

dx dx A

dP dρ (qw + τw u) L

− c2 =

∂e

(4.102)

dx dx ρuA ∂P ρ

dρ − ρu dA

u ρ 0 dx

A dx

0 du − τw L

ρu 1

dx

= A (4.103)

dP (qw +τw u)L

−c2 0 1 dx ρuA ∂e

| ∂P ρ

Use Cramer’s Rule to solve for the derivatives. First calculate the determinant of the coef-

ficient matrix:

u ((ρu)(1) − (1)(0)) − ρ (0)(1) − (−c2 )(1) = ρ u2 − c2

(4.104)

Implementing Cramer’s Rule:

(qw +τw u)L

− ρu dA

− τwAL

ρu −ρ +ρ

dρ A dx ∂e

ρuA ∂P | ρ

= (4.105)

dx ρ (u2 − c2 )

(qw +τw u)L

− ρu dA

− τwAL

2

−c +u −u

du A dx ∂e

ρuA ∂P | ρ

= (4.106)

dx ρ (u2 − c2 )

(qw +τw u)L

2

− ρu dA 2

− τwAL 2

ρuc − ρc + ρu

dP A dx ∂e

ρuA ∂P | ρ

= (4.107)

dx ρ (u2 − c2 )

Simplify

(qw +τw u)L

−ρu2 dA + τw L +

dρ 1 dx ∂e

ρu ∂P | ρ

= (4.108)

dx A (u2 − c2 )

(qw +τw u)L

c2 ρu dA − uτw L −

du 1 dx ∂e

ρ ∂P | ρ

= (4.109)

dx A ρ (u2 − c2 )

(qw +τw u)Lu

−c2 ρu2 dA + c2 τw L +

dP 1 dx ∂e

ρ ∂P | ρ

= (4.110)

dx A (u2 − c2 )

Note:

4.2. FLOW WITH AREA CHANGE 73

du

• in standard form for dynamic system analysis: dx

= f(u)

This section will consider flow with area change with an emphasis on isentropic flow. Some

problems will involve non-isentropic flow but a detailed discussion of such flows will be

delayed.

Take special case of

• τw = 0

• qw = 0

Then

d

(ρuA) = 0 (4.111)

dx

d

ρu2 + P = 0

(4.112)

dx 2

d u P

e+ + = 0 (4.113)

dx 2 ρ

u2 u2

h+ = ho + o (4.114)

2 2

If one defines the “o” condition to be a condition of rest, then uo ≡ 0. This is a stagnation

condition. So

u2

h+ = ho (4.115)

2

u2

(h − ho ) + = 0 (4.116)

2

74 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

Since CPIG,

u2

cp (T − To ) + = 0 (4.117)

2

u2

T − To + = 0 (4.118)

2cp

To u2

1− + = 0 (4.119)

T 2cp T

cp − cv cp cp − cv γR

cp = cp = cp = (4.120)

cp − cv cv c v − 1 γ−1

so

To γ − 1 u2

1− + = 0 (4.121)

T 2 γRT

To γ − 1 u2

= 1+ (4.122)

T 2 γRT

Recall the sound speed and Mach number for a CPIG:

u 2

M2 ≡ (4.124)

c

thus,

To γ−1 2

= 1+ M (4.125)

T 2

−1

T γ−1 2

= 1+ M (4.126)

To 2

γ−1 γ−1

T ρ P γ

= = (4.127)

To ρo Po

Thus

1

− γ−1

ρ γ−1 2

= 1+ M (4.128)

ρo 2

γ

− γ−1

P γ−1 2

= 1+ M (4.129)

Po 2

4.2. FLOW WITH AREA CHANGE 75

−1

T 1

= 1 + M2 (4.130)

To 5

− 25

ρ 1

= 1 + M2 (4.131)

ρo 5

− 27

P 1

= 1 + M2 (4.132)

Po 5

Figures 4.2, 4.3 4.4 show the variation of T , ρ and P with M 2 for isentropic flow.

Other thermodynamic properties can be determined from these, e.g. sound speed:

s r −1/2

c γRT T γ −1 2

= = = 1+ M (4.133)

co γRTo To 2

T(K)

300

Calorically Perfect

250

Ideal Gas

200 R = 0.287 kJ/(kg K)

γ = 7/5

150

Stagnation Temp = 300 K

100

50

M2

0 2 4 6 8 10

P(bar)

1

Ideal Gas

0.6 R = 0.287 kJ/(kg K)

γ = 7/5

0.4

Stagnation Pressure = 1 bar

0.2

M2

0 2 4 6 8 10

Example 4.4

Airplane problem

76 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

rho(m3/kg)

1 Ideal Gas

0.8 R = 0.287 kJ/(kg K)

γ = 7/5

0.6

Stagnation Density = 1.16 kg/m3

0.4

0.2

M2

0 2 4 6 8 10

Given: An airplane is flying into still air at u = 200 m/s. The ambient air is at 288 K and

101.3 kP a.

Find: Temperature, pressure, and density at nose of airplane

Assume: Steady isentropic flow of CPIG

Analysis: In the steady wave frame, the ambient conditions are static while the nose conditions are

stagnation.

u u 200 m/s

M= =√ =r = 0.588 (4.134)

c γRT 7 J

5 287 kgK 288 K

so

1 2

To = T 1+ M , (4.135)

5

1 2

= (288 K) 1 + 0.588 , (4.136)

5

= 307.9 K (4.137)

5

1 2 2

ρo = ρ 1+ M (4.138)

5

52

101.3 kP a 1 2

= kJ

1 + 0.588 , (4.139)

0.287 kgK 288 K 5

= 1.45 kg/m3 (4.140)

7

1 2 2

Po = P 1+ M , (4.141)

5

27

1 2

= (101.3 kP a) 1 + 0.588 (4.142)

5

= 128 kP a (4.143)

Note the temperature, pressure, and density all rise in the isentropic process. In this wave frame, the

kinetic energy of the flow is being converted isentropically to thermal energy.

4.2. FLOW WITH AREA CHANGE 77

Example 4.5

4

Pressure measurement in compressible flows

Air at

100 F

z g

Static

State "1"

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ft

Given: Air at u = 750 s , Mercury manometer which reads a change in height of 8 inches.

Analysis:

First consider the manometer which is governed by fluid statics. In fluid statics, there is no motion,

thus there are no viscous forces or fluid inertia; one thus has a balance between surface and body forces.

Consider the linear momentum equation:

dv

ρ = −∇P + ρHg g + ∇ · τ (4.144)

dt

0 = −∇P + ρHg g (4.145)

dP

= ρHg gz (4.146)

dz

P1 − Po = ρHg gz (z1 − zo ) (4.147)

1 lbf s2

lbm ft 1 ft

P1 − Po = 845.9 −32.2 2 (0 in − (−8 in)) (4.148)

f t3 32.2 f t lbm s 12 in

lbf

P1 − Po = −563.9 2 (4.149)

ft

lbf

Po − P1 = 563.9 2 (4.150)

ft

lbf

Po = P1 + 563.9 2 (4.151)

ft

4

adopted from White, 9.26, p. 584

78 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

u1

M1 = √ (4.153)

γRT1

750 fst

M1 = r (4.154)

2

(1.4) 1, 717 sf2 t R (560 R)

M1 = 0.646 (4.155)

3.5

1 2

Po = P1 1 + M1 (4.156)

5

3.5

1

Po = P1 1 + (0.646)2 (4.157)

5

Po = 1.324P1 (4.158)

lbf

P1 + 563.9 = 1.324P1 (4.159)

f t2

lbf

−0.324P1 = −563.9 (4.160)

f t2

lbf

−563.9 f t2

P1 = (4.161)

−0.324

lbf

P1 = 1, 740 2 (4.162)

ft

lbf lbf

Po = (1.324) 1, 740 2 = 2, 304 2 (4.163)

ft ft

2

lbf 1 ft

P1 = 1, 740 2 = 12.1 psia (4.164)

ft 12 in

2

lbf 1 ft

Po = 2, 304 2 = 16.0 psia (4.165)

ft 12 in

What might one estimate if one did not account for compressibility effects? Assume one had the

same static pressure and calculate what velocity one would predict.

P1

ρ1 = (4.166)

RT1

1, 740 flbf

2 f t lbm

ρ1 = t 32.2 (4.167)

lbf s2

2

1, 717 sf2 t R (560 R)

lbm

ρ1 = 0.05827 (4.168)

f t3

4.2. FLOW WITH AREA CHANGE 79

2

ρ (0) ρ1 u21

Po + = P1 + (4.169)

2 s 2

2 (Po − P1 )

u1 = (4.170)

ρ1

v

u

u 2 563.9 lbf

u f t2 f t lbm

u1 = t 32.2 (4.171)

0.05827 lbm

f t3

lbf s2

ft

u1 = 789.4 (4.172)

s

So the relative error in using the incompressible approximation would be

789.4 − 750

Error = = 5.3% (4.173)

750

Example 4.6

5

Adiabatic Duct Flow

ft

Given: Air flowing adiabatically through a duct. At section 1, u1 = 400 s , T1 = 200◦ F, P1 =

35 psia. Downstream u2 = 1, 100 fst , P2 = 18 psia.

Po1

Analysis:

Some preliminaries:

f t2

Btu f t lbf lbm f t

cp = 0.240 779 32.17 = 6, 015 2 (4.175)

lbm R Btu lbf s2 s R

f t2

f t lbf lbm f t

R = 53.34 32.17 = 1, 716 2 (4.176)

lbm R lbf s2 s R

(4.177)

u21

h1 + = ho1 (4.178)

2

5

adopted from White’s 9.30, p. 585

80 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

u21

cp T 1 + = cp To1 (4.179)

2

u21

To1 = T1 + (4.180)

2cp

2

400 fst

To1 = 660 R + 2

(4.181)

2 6, 015 sf2 t R

To1 = 673 R (4.182)

Note since in adiabatic flow ho is a constant, ho2 = ho1 and since ideal gas To2 = To1 So

u2

T2 = To2 − 2 (4.184)

2cp

2

ft

1, 100 s

T2 = 673 R − (4.185)

f t2

2 6, 015 s2 R

T2 = 572 R (4.186)

p

c1 = γRT1 (4.187)

s

f t2

ft

c1 = 1.4 1, 716 2 (660 R) = 1, 259 (4.188)

s R s

u1 400 fst

M1 = = = 0.318 (4.189)

c1 1, 259 fst

p

c2 = γRT2 (4.190)

s

f t2

ft

c2 = 1.4 1, 716 2 (572 R) = 1, 173 (4.191)

s R s

ft

u2 1, 100 s

M2 = = ft

= 0.938 (4.192)

c2 1, 173 s

− 72

P 1

= 1 + M2 (4.193)

Po 5

27

1

Po = P 1 + M2 (4.194)

5

27

1 2

Po1 = (35 psia) 1 + 0.318 = 37.54 psia (4.195)

5

27

1 2

Po2 = (18 psia) 1 + 0.938 = 31.74 psia (4.196)

5

Po2 31.74 psia

= = 0.845 (4.197)

Po1 37.54 psia

4.2. FLOW WITH AREA CHANGE 81

Stagnation pressure drop indicates that friction was present. If one computed an entropy change one

would see an increase in entropy.

The maximum velocity is found by converting all the thermal energy to kinetic energy. Taking

zero thermal energy to correspond to absolute zero (despite the fact that air would not be a gas at this

point) one could estimate

u2max

ho = (4.198)

2

u2max

cp T o = (4.199)

p2

umax = 2cp To (4.200)

s

f t2

ft

umax = 2 6, 015 2 (673 R) = 2, 845 (4.201)

s R s

Let “*” denote a property at the sonic state M 2 ≡ 1

−1

T∗ γ−1 2 2

= 1+ 1 = (4.202)

To 2 γ+1

− 1 1

γ−1

ρ∗ γ − 1 2 γ−1 2

= 1+ 1 = (4.203)

ρo 2 γ+1

− γ γ

γ−1

P∗ γ − 1 2 γ−1 2

= 1+ 1 = (4.204)

Po 2 γ+1

−1/2 r

c∗ γ−1 2 2

= 1+ 1 = (4.205)

co 2 γ+1

r

p 2γ

u∗ = c∗ = γRT∗ = RTo (4.206)

γ+1

If air γ = 7/5 and

T∗

= 0.8333 (4.207)

To

ρ∗

= 0.6339 (4.208)

ρo

P∗

= 0.5283 (4.209)

Po

c∗

= 0.9123 (4.210)

co

82 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

Influence of mass equation must be considered. So far only looked at energy has been

examined. In the isentropic limit the mass, momentum, and energy equation for a CPIG

reduce to

dρ du dA

+ + = 0 (4.211)

ρ u A

ρudu + dP = 0 (4.212)

dP dρ

= γ (4.213)

P ρ

Substitute energy then mass into momentum:

P

ρudu + γ dρ = 0 (4.214)

ρ

P ρ ρ

ρudu + γ − du − dA = 0 (4.215)

ρ u A

P 1 1

du + γ − 2 du − dA = 0 (4.216)

ρ u uA

γP/ρ P dA

du 1 − = γ (4.217)

u2 ρ uA

du γP/ρ γP/ρ dA

1− = (4.218)

u u2 u2 A

du 1 1 dA

1− 2 = (4.219)

u M M2 A

du dA

M2 − 1

= (4.220)

u A

du 1 dA

= 2

(4.221)

u M −1 A

Figure 4.6 gives show the performance of a fluid in a variable area duct.

It is noted that

• equation singular when M 2 = 1

• if M 2 = 1, one needs dA = 0

Consider A at a sonic state. From the mass equation:

ρuA = ρ∗ u∗ A∗ (4.222)

4.2. FLOW WITH AREA CHANGE 83

Consider u > 0

Subsonic Subsonic

Diffuser Nozzle

2

dA >0, M <1 so

du < 0, flow slows down 2

dA <0, M <1 so

dp >0 du > 0, flow speeds up

dp < 0

Supersonic Supersonic

Nozzle Diffuser

2 2

dA >0, M >1 so dA < 0, M > 1 so

du > 0, flow speeds up du < 0, flow slows down

dp < 0 dp >0

Figure 4.6: Behavior of fluid in sub- and supersonic nozzles and diffusers

ρuA = ρ∗ c∗ A∗ (4.223)

A ρ∗ 1

= c∗ , (4.224)

A∗ ρ u

ρ∗ p 1

= γRT∗ , (4.225)

ρ u

√ √

ρ∗ γRT∗ γRT

= √ (4.226)

ρ γRT u

r

ρ∗ T∗ 1

= , (4.227)

ρ T M

r

ρ∗ ρo T∗ To 1

= (4.228)

ρo ρ To T M

γ+1

12 γ−1

A 1 2 γ−1 2

= 1+ M (4.229)

A∗ M γ+1 2

Note:

84 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

A/A*

6

4

Calorically Perfect

Ideal Gas

3 R = 0.287 kJ/(kg K)

2 γ = 7/5

M

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Figure 4.7: Area versus Mach number for a calorically perfect ideal gas

A

• A∗

has a minimum value of 1 at M = 1

A

• For each A∗

> 1, there exist two values of M

A

• A∗

→ ∞ as M → 0 or M → ∞

4.2.4 Choking

Consider mass flow rate variation with pressure difference

• can be proven rigorously that sonic condition gives maximum mass flow rate

ṁmax = ρ∗ u∗ A∗ (4.230)

γ−11 r

2 2γ

if ideal gas: = ρo RTo A∗ (4.231)

γ+1 γ+1

γ−11 1/2

2 2 p

= ρo γRTo A∗ (4.232)

γ+1 γ+1

21 γ+1

2 γ−1 p

= ρo γRTo A∗ (4.233)

γ+1

A flow which has a maximum mass flow rate is known as choked flow. Flows will choke

at area minima in a duct.

4.2. FLOW WITH AREA CHANGE 85

Example 4.7

6

Isentropic area change problem with choking

Given: Air with stagnation conditions Po = 200 kP a To = 500 K flows through a throat to an exit

Mach number of 2.5. The desired mass flow is 3.0 kg/s,

Find: a) throat area, b) exit pressure, c) exit temperature, d) exit velocity, and e) exit area.

Analysis:

Po 200 kP a

ρo = = = 1.394 kg/m3 (4.234)

RTo (0.287 kJ/kg) (500 K)

Since it necessarily flows through a sonic throat:

21 γ−1

γ+1

2 p

ṁmax = ρo γRTo A∗ (4.235)

γ+1

ṁmax

A∗ = 12 γ−1 (4.236)

2

γ+1

√

ρo γ+1 γRTo

3 kg/s

= r , (4.237)

kg J

1.394 m3 (0.5787) 1.4 287 kg K (500 K)

= 0.008297 m2 (4.238)

Since Me is known, use the isentropic relations to find other exit conditions.

γ

− γ−1

γ−1 2

Pe = Po 1 + Me , (4.239)

2

−3.5

1

= (200 kP a) 1 + 2.52 , (4.240)

5

= 11.71 kP a (4.241)

−1

γ−1 2

Te = To 1 + Me , (4.242)

2

−1

1 2

= (500 K) 1 + 2.5 , (4.243)

5

= 222.2 K (4.244)

Note

Pe

ρe = , (4.245)

RTe

11.71 kP a

= , (4.246)

kJ

0.287 kgK (222.2 K)

kg

= 0.1834 (4.247)

m3

6

adopted from White, Fluid Mechanics McGraw-Hill: New York, 1986, p. 529, Ex. 9.5

86 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

s

p J m

ue = Me ce = Me γRTe = 2.5 1.4 287 (222.2 K) = 747.0 (4.248)

kg K s

Now determine the exit area:

12 γ−1

γ+1

A∗ 2 γ−1 2

A = 1+ Me (4.249)

Me γ+1 2

3

0.008297 m2 5

1 2

= 1 + 2.5 , (4.250)

2.5 6 5

= 70.0219 m2 (4.251)

Example 4.8

7

Discharge Problem

Given: Air in tank, Po = 700 kP a, To = 20◦ C, V = 1.5 m3 . Throat area in converging nozzle of

0.65 cm2 , exhausting to 1 atm environment

Assume: CPIG, stagnation temperature constant (so small heat transfer to tank in time of opera-

tion)

Analysis:

First, To = 20 + 273 = 293 K

Patm 101.3 kP a

= = 0.145 (4.252)

Po 700 kP a

But for air PP∗o = 0.5283, so the flow must be choked at the exit and the mass flow is restricted.

(Further expansion takes place outside the nozzle)

21 γ−1

γ+1

2 p

ṁe = ρo γRToA∗ (4.253)

γ+1

12 γ−1

γ+1

Po 2 p

= γRTo A∗ (4.254)

RTo γ+1

s 2

P o J 2

1 m

= 0.5787 1.4 287 (293 K) 0.65 cm (4.255)

287 kgJ K (293 K) kg K 100 cm

7

from White, 9.33,35

4.3. NORMAL SHOCK WAVES 87

d

mcv = −ṁe (4.257)

dt

d

(ρo V ) = −ṁe (4.258)

dt

d Po

V = −ṁe (4.259)

dt RTo

dPo RTo

= − ṁe (4.260)

dt V

J

dPo 287 kg K (293 K)

= − 1.5348 × 10−7 Po (4.261)

dt 1.5 m3

dPo

= −0.008604Po (4.262)

dt

Po = A exp (−0.008604t) (4.263)

500

500 = 700 exp (−0.008604t) ln = −0.008604t (4.265)

700

1 500

t=− ln = 39.1 s (4.266)

0.008604 700

This section will develop relations for normal shock waves in fluids with general equations of

state. It will be specialized to calorically perfect ideal gases to illustrate the general features

of the waves.

• one-dimensional flow

• steady flow

• no area change

• viscous effects and wall friction do not have time to influence flow

• heat conduction and wall heat transfer do not have time to influence flow

88 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

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x* x

u = v - D; v=u+D

x = x* - D t; x* = x + D t

Physical problem:

• Drive piston with known velocity vp into fluid at rest (v1 = 0) with known properties,

P1 , ρ1 in the x∗ laboratory frame

Transformed Problem:

• use Galilean transformation x = x∗ − Dt, u = v − D to transform to the frame in which

the wave is at rest, therefore rending the problem steady in this frame

• solve as though D is known to get downstream “2” conditions: u2 (D), P2(D), ...

• back transform to get all variables as function of v2 , the laboratory piston velocity:

D(v2 ), P2 (v2 ), ρ2 (v2 ), ...

Under these assumptions the conservation principles in conservative form and equation of

state are in the steady frame as follows:

d

(ρu) = 0 (4.267)

dx

d

ρu2 + P = 0

(4.268)

dx

4.3. NORMAL SHOCK WAVES 89

u2

d

ρu h + = 0 (4.269)

dx 2

h = h(P, ρ) (4.270)

state, one gets h = h1 . Integrating the equations from upstream to state “2” gives:

ρ2 u2 = −ρ1 D (4.271)

ρ2 u22

+ P2 = ρ1 D 2 + P1 (4.272)

u2 D2

h2 + 2 = h1 + (4.273)

2 2

h2 = h(P2 , ρ2 ) (4.274)

Work on the momentum equation:

P2 = P1 + ρ1 D 2 − ρ2 u22 (4.275)

ρ2 D 2 ρ22 u22

P2 = P1 + 1 − (4.276)

ρ1 ρ2

Since mass gives ρ22 u22 = ρ21 D 2 one gets an equation for the Rayleigh Line, a line in (P, ρ1 )

space:

1 1

P2 = P1 + ρ21 D 2 − (4.277)

ρ1 ρ2

Note:

Operate on the energy equation, using both mass and momentum to eliminate velocity. First

eliminate u2 via the mass equation:

90 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

u2 D2

h2 + 2 = h1 + (4.278)

2 2

2

D2

1 ρ1 D

h2 + = h1 + (4.279)

2 ρ2 2

!

2

D2

ρ1

h2 − h1 + −1 = 0 (4.280)

2 ρ2

D 2 ρ21 − ρ22

h2 − h1 + = 0 (4.281)

2 ρ22

D 2 (ρ1 − ρ2 ) (ρ1 + ρ2 )

h2 − h1 + = 0 (4.282)

2 ρ22

Now use the Rayleigh line to eliminate D 2 :

−1

2 1 1 1

D = (P2 − P1 ) 2 − (4.283)

ρ1 ρ1 ρ2

−1

2 1 ρ2 − ρ1

D = (P2 − P1 ) 2 (4.284)

ρ ρρ

1 1 2

1 ρ1 ρ2

D 2 = (P2 − P1 ) 2 (4.285)

ρ1 ρ2 − ρ1

so the energy equation becomes

1 1 ρ1 ρ2 (ρ1 − ρ2 ) (ρ1 + ρ2 )

h2 − h1 + (P2 − P1 ) = 0 (4.286)

2 ρ21 ρ2 − ρ1 ρ22

1 1 ρ1 + ρ2

h2 − h1 − (P2 − P1 ) = 0 (4.287)

2 ρ1 ρ2

1 1 1

h2 − h1 − (P2 − P1 ) + = 0 (4.288)

2 ρ2 ρ1

(4.289)

Solving finally for the enthalpy difference, one finds

1 1 1

h2 − h1 = (P2 − P1 ) + (4.290)

2 ρ2 ρ1

This equation is the Hugoniot equation.

• enthalpy change equals pressure difference times mean volume

• independent of wave speed D and velocity u2

• independent of equation of state

4.3. NORMAL SHOCK WAVES 91

The shocked state can be determined by the following procedure:

• substitute the equation of state into the Hugoniot to get a second relation between P2

and ρ2 .

• use the Rayleigh line to eliminate P2 in the Hugoniot so that the Hugoniot is a single

equation in ρ2

• invert to find D as function of “1” state and u2

• back transform to laboratory frame to get D as function of “1” state and piston velocity

v2 = vp

Follow this procedure for the special case of a calorically perfect ideal gas.

h = cp (T − To ) + ho (4.291)

P = ρRT (4.292)

so

P Po

h = cp − + ho (4.293)

Rρ Rρo

cp P Po

h = − + ho (4.294)

R ρ ρo

cp P Po

h = − + ho (4.295)

cp − cv ρ ρo

γ P Po

h = − + ho (4.296)

γ −1 ρ ρo

Evaluate at states 1 and 2 and substitute into Hugoniot:

γ P2 Po γ P1 Po

− + ho − − + ho

γ − 1 ρ2 ρo γ − 1 ρ1 ρo

1 1 1

= (P2 − P1 ) +

2 ρ2 ρ1

92 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

γ P2 P1 1 1 1

− − (P2 − P1 ) + = 0

γ − 1 ρ2 ρ1 2 ρ2 ρ1

γ 1 1 1 γ 1 1 1

P2 − − − P1 − − = 0

γ − 1 ρ2 2ρ2 2ρ1 γ − 1 ρ1 2ρ2 2ρ1

γ+1 1 1 γ+1 1 1

P2 − − P1 − = 0

2 (γ − 1) ρ2 2ρ1 2 (γ − 1) ρ1 2ρ2

γ+1 1 1 γ+1 1 1

P2 − − P1 − = 0

γ − 1 ρ2 ρ1 γ − 1 ρ1 ρ2

γ+1 1 1

γ−1 ρ1

− ρ2

P2 = P1 γ+1 1 1

γ−1 ρ2

− ρ1

1 γ−1 1

• ρ2

→ γ+1 ρ1

causes P2 → ∞, note = γ = 1.4, ρ2 → 6 for infinite pressure

• as 1

ρ2

→ ∞, P2 → −P1 γ−1

γ+1

, note negative pressure, not physical here

The Rayleigh line and Hugoniot curves are sketched in Figure 4.9.

P (kPa)

500

Shocked State

P2

400

Excluded Zone

Slope of Rayleigh Line < 0

Excluded

300 2

Zone, Rayleigh Line, slope ~ D

1/ρ < 1/ρmin from mass and momentum

200

Hugoniot,

initial state from energy

100

P1

Excluded Zone, 2nd Law Violation

-(γ-1) P1

γ+1 Excluded Zone, negative pressure

1/ρmin = (γ-1) 1

(γ+1) ρ1

Note:

• intersections of the two curves are solutions to the equations

• the ambient state “1” is one solution

4.3. NORMAL SHOCK WAVES 93

– occurs for very small pressure changes

– corresponds to a sonic wave speed

– disturbances are acoustic

• if pressure decreases (wave speed less than sonic), entropy decreases; this is non-

physical

Substitute Rayleigh line into Hugoniot to get single equation for ρ2

γ+1 1

− ρ12

2 2 1 1 γ−1 ρ1

P1 + ρ1 D − = P1 γ+1 1 (4.297)

ρ1 ρ2 γ−1 ρ

− ρ1

2 1

This equation is quadratic in ρ12 and factorizable. Use computer algebra to solve and get

two solutions, one ambient ρ12 = ρ11 and one shocked solution:

1 1 γ−1 2γ P1

= 1+ 2

(4.298)

ρ2 ρ1 γ + 1 (γ − 1) D ρ1

The shocked density ρ2 is plotted against wave speed D for CPIG air in Figure 4.10.

Note

• density solution allows allows all wave speeds 0 < D < ∞

γ+1

• strong shock limit: D 2 → ∞, ρ2 → γ−1

• non-physical limit: D 2 → 0, ρ2 → 0

94 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

Strong

Shock

rho2 (kg/m^3) Limit

7

6 Calorically perfect

5 ideal air

4 Exact γ = 7/5

3 Solution R = 287 kJ/(kg K)

2

1

D (m/s)

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

D = Dmin = c1

Figure 4.10: Shock density vs. shock wave speed for calorically perfect ideal air

Back substitute into Rayleigh line and mass conservation to solve for the shocked pressure

and the fluid velocity in the shocked wave frame:

2 γ −1

P2 = ρ1 D 2 − P1 (4.299)

γ+1 γ+1

γ−1 2γ P1

u2 = −D 1+ (4.300)

γ+1 (γ − 1) D 2 ρ1

The shocked pressure P2 is plotted against wave speed D for CPIG air in Figure 4.11

including both the exact solution and the solution in the strong shock limit. Note for these

parameters, the results are indistinguishable.

P2 (Pa)

6

8. 10

Calorically perfect

6 ideal air

6. 10

Ambient = γ = 7/5

6

4. 10 100,000 Pa R = 287 kJ/(kg K)

Exact

6 Solution and

2. 10

Strong Shock Limit

D (m/s)

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

D = Dmin = c1

Figure 4.11: Shock pressure vs. shock wave speed for calorically perfect ideal air

The shocked wave frame fluid particle velocity u2 is plotted against wave speed D for

CPIG air in Figure 4.12.

4.3. NORMAL SHOCK WAVES 95

u2 (m/s)

D (m/s)

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

-100

-200 ideal air

Shock

-300 Limit γ = 7/5

R = 287 kJ/(kg K)

-400

Exact

-500 Solution

u1 = - co

D = Dmin = c1

Figure 4.12: Shock wave frame fluid particle velocity vs. shock wave speed for calorically

perfect ideal air

ρ2 u22

The shocked wave frame fluid particle velocity M22 = γP2

is plotted against wave speed

D for CPIG air in Figure 4.13.

M2^2

Calorically perfect

1 ideal air

γ = 7/5

0.8 Exact

R = 287 kJ/(kg K)

Solution

0.6

Strong

Shock 0.4

Limit

0.2

D (m/s)

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

D = Dmin = c1

M2^2 = 1

Figure 4.13: Mach number squared of shocked fluid particle vs. shock wave speed for calor-

ically perfect ideal air

Exercise: For the conditions shown in the plot of M22 vs. D do the detailed calculations

to demonstrate the plot is correct.

• The Mach number of the undisturbed flow is (and must be) > 1: supersonic

• The Mach number of the shocked flow is (and must be) < 1: subsonic

96 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

γ−1 2γ P1

v2 − D = −D 1+ (4.301)

γ+1 (γ − 1) D 2 ρ1

γ−1 2γ P1

v2 = D − D 1+ (4.302)

γ+1 (γ − 1) D 2 ρ1

Manipulate the above equation and solve the resulting quadratic equation for D and get

s 2

γ+1 γP1 γ + 1

D= v2 ± + v22 (4.303)

4 ρ1 4

Now if v2 > 0, one expects D > 0 so take positive root, also set velocity equal piston

velocity v2 = vp

s 2

γ+1 γP1 γ + 1

D= vp + + vp2 (4.304)

4 ρ1 4

Note:

γ+1

• strong shock limit: as vp → ∞, D → 2

vp

The shock speed D is plotted against piston velocity vp for CPIG air in Figure 4.14. Both

the exact solution and strong shock limit are shown.

Calorically perfect

D (m/s)

ideal air

Exact

γ = 7/5

1200 Solution

R = 287 kJ/(kg K)

1000

800

Strong

600 Shock

Acoustic

400 Limit

Limit,

D -> c1 200

vp (m/s)

200 400 600 800 1000

Figure 4.14: Shock speed vs. piston velocity for calorically perfect ideal air

D

Ms ≡ (4.305)

c1

4.3. NORMAL SHOCK WAVES 97

one gets

s 2

vp2

γ + 1 vp γ+1

Ms = √ + 1+ (4.306)

4 γRT1 γRT1 4

The shock Mach number Ms is plotted against piston velocity vp for CPIG air in Figure

4.15. Both the exact solution and strong shock limit are shown.

Ms

Exact Calorically perfect

3.5 Solution ideal air

3 γ = 7/5

2.5 R = 287 kJ/(kg K)

2 Strong

Shock

1.5

Acoustic Limit

Limit, 1

Ms -> 1 0.5

vp (m/s)

200 400 600 800 1000

Figure 4.15: Shock Mach number vs. piston velocity for calorically perfect ideal air

Example 4.9

8

Normal shock problem

m

Given: Air flowing through normal shock. Upstream u1 = 600 s , To1 = 500 K, Po1 = 700 kP a.

Analysis:

First get all local unshocked conditions.

u21

To1 = T1 + (4.307)

2cp

u21

T1 = To1 − (4.308)

2cp

m 2

600

s

T1 = 500 K − , (4.309)

2 1004.5 kgJ K

= 320.81 K (4.310)

p

c1 = γRT1 , (4.311)

s

J

= 1.4 287 (320.81 K), (4.312)

kg K

m

= 359.0 (4.313)

s

8

adopted from White’s 9.46, p. 586

98 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

u1

M1 = , (4.314)

c1

600 m s

= , (4.315)

359.0 m s

= 1.671 (4.316)

−3.5

1

P1 = Po1 1 + M12 , (4.317)

5

−3.5

1 2

= (700 kP a) 1 + (1.671) , (4.318)

5

= 148.1 kP a (4.319)

P1

ρ1 = , (4.320)

RT1

148.1 kP a

= , (4.321)

0.287 kgkJK (320.81 K)

kg

= 1.609 (4.322)

m3

21 γ−1

γ+1

A1 1 2 γ−1 2

= 1+ M1 (4.323)

A1∗ M1 γ+1 2

1.4+1

21 1.4−1

1 2 1.4 − 1

= 1+ 1.6712 , (4.324)

1.671 1.4 + 1 2

= 1.311 (4.325)

Now in this case it is fortunate because the incoming velocity D = 600 ms is known. Note that the

shock density only depends on D2 , so one can be a little sloppy here with sign. Solve for the shocked

state:

1 1 γ−1 2γ P1

= 1+ 2

(4.326)

ρ2 ρ1 γ + 1 (γ − 1) D ρ1

!

1 1 1.4 − 1 2 (1.4) 148, 100 P a

= 1+ (4.327)

ρ2 1.609 kg 1.4 + 1 m 2 1.609 kg

m3 (1.4 − 1) 600 s m3

m3

= 0.2890 (4.328)

kg

1

ρ2 = m3

, (4.329)

0.2890 kg

kg

= 3.461 (4.330)

m3

Now a variety of equations can be used to determine the remaining state variables. Mass gives u2 :

ρ2 u 2 = ρ1 u 1 (4.331)

ρ1 u 1

u2 = , (4.332)

ρ2

kg m

1.609 m 3 600 s

= kg

, (4.333)

3.461 m 3

4.3. NORMAL SHOCK WAVES 99

m

= 278.9 . (4.334)

s

Momentum gives P2

P2 + ρ2 u22 = P1 + ρ1 u21 (4.335)

P2 = P1 + ρ1 u21 − ρ2 u22 (4.336)

kg m 2 kg m 2

P2 = 148, 100 P a + 1.609 3 600 − 3.461 3 278.9 (4.337)

m s m s

P2 = 458, 125 P a = 458 kP a (4.338)

Remaining assorted variables are straightforward:

P2

T2 = (4.339)

ρ2 R

458, 125 P a

= , (4.340)

kg

3.461 m 3 287 kgJ K

= 461.2 K (4.341)

p

c2 = γRT2 , (4.342)

s

J

= 1.4 287 (461.2 K), (4.343)

kg K

m

= 430.5 (4.344)

s

u2

M2 = , (4.345)

c2

278.9 m s

= , (4.346)

430.5 m s

= 0.648 (4.347)

1 2

To2 = T2 1 + M2 , (4.348)

5

1 2

= 461.2 K 1 + 0.648 (4.349)

5

= 500 K unchanged as required (4.350)

3.5

1 2

Po2 = P2 1 + M2 , (4.351)

5

3.5

1

= 458 kP a 1 + 0.6482 (4.352)

5

= 607.4 kP a dropped from unshocked state (4.353)

T2 P2

s2 − s1 = cp ln − R ln (4.354)

T1 P1

J 461.2 K J 458 kP a

= 1004.5 ln − 287 ln (4.355)

kg K 320.81 K kg K 148.1 kP a

= 364.6 − 324.0, (4.356)

J

= 40.6 (4.357)

kg K

12 γ−1

γ+1

A2 1 2 γ−1 2

= 1+ M2 (4.358)

A2∗ M2 γ + 1 2

100 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

1.4+1

21 1.4−1

1 2 1.4 − 1 2

= 1+ 0.648 , (4.359)

0.648 1.4 + 1 2

= 1.966. (4.360)

Since A2 = A1 = A,

A

A2 A1∗ 1.311

= A

= = 0.667 (4.361)

A2∗ A2∗

1.966

Note the entropy increased despite not including any entropy-generating mechanisms in this model.

Why? First, the differential equations themselves required the assumption of continuous differentiable

functions. Our shock violates this. When one returns to the more fundamental control volume forms,

it can be shown that the entropy-generating mechanism returns. From a continuum point of view, one

can also show that the neglected terms, that momentum and energy diffusion, actually give rise to a

smeared shock. These mechanisms generate just enough entropy to satisfy the entropy jump which was

just calculated. Just as with Burger’s equation and the kinematic wave equation, the jumps are the

same, diffusion simply gives a wave thickness.

Example 4.10

Piston Problem

Given: A piston moving at vp = 1, 000 m s is driven into Helium which is at rest in the ambient

state at a pressure of P1 = 10 kP a, T1 = 50 K.

γ = 1.667 (4.362)

J

R = 2077 (4.363)

kg K

γR

cp = , (4.364)

γ−1

1.667 2, 077 kgJ K

= , (4.365)

1.667 − 1

J

= 5, 192.5 . (4.366)

kg K

Ambient density

P1

ρ1 = , (4.367)

RT1

10, 000 P a

= , (4.368)

2, 077 kgJ K (50 K)

4.3. NORMAL SHOCK WAVES 101

kg

= 0.0963 3 (4.369)

p m

c1 = γRT1 , (4.370)

s

J

= 1.667 2, 077 (50 K), (4.371)

kg K

m

= 416.0 (4.372)

s

Now the wave speed D one gets from

s 2

γ+1 γP1 2

γ+1

D = vp + + vp (4.373)

4 ρ1 4

v

u 2

1.667 + 1 m u 1.667 (10, 000 P a) m 2 1.667 + 1

= 1, 000 + t

kg

+ 1, 000 (4.374)

4 s 0.0963 m 3

s 4

= 666.7 + 785.8, (4.375)

m

= 1, 452.5 (4.376)

s

Strong shock limit is appropriate here as a quick check:

γ+1 1.667 + 1 m m

D∼ vp = 1, 000 = 1, 333.3 (4.377)

2 2 s s

2 γ−1

P2 = ρ1 D 2 − P1 (4.378)

γ +1 γ+1

2 kg m 2 1.667 − 1

= 0.0963 3 1, 452.5 − (10, 000 P a) (4.379)

1.667 + 1 m s 1.667 + 1

= 152, 377 − 2, 500, (4.380)

= 149, 877 P a = 150 kP a (4.381)

ρ2 u 2 = ρ1 u 1 (4.382)

ρ2 (v2 − D) = ρ1 (v1 − D) (4.383)

ρ2 (vp − D) = ρ1 (0 − D) (4.384)

−ρ1 D

ρ2 = (4.385)

vp − D

kg m

− 0.0963 m3 1, 452.5 s

= m , (4.386)

1, 000 s − 1, 452.5 ms

kg

= 0.309 3 (4.387)

m

P2

T2 = (4.388)

ρ2 R

149, 877 P a

= , (4.389)

kg J

0.309 m 3 2, 077 kg K

= 233.5 K (4.390)

102 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

Consider that state 2 is a small perturbation of state 1 so that

ρ2 = ρ1 + ∆ρ (4.391)

u2 = u1 + ∆u1 (4.392)

P2 = P1 + ∆P (4.393)

(ρ1 + ∆ρ) (u1 + ∆u)2 + (P1 + ∆P ) = ρ1 u1 2 + P1 (4.395)

γ P1 + ∆P 1 γ P1 1 2

+ (u1 + ∆u)2 = + u1 (4.396)

γ − 1 ρ1 + ∆ρ 2 γ − 1 ρ1 2

Expanding, one gets

2

+ 2ρ1 u1 (∆u) + u1 (∆ρ) + ρ1 (∆u)2 + 2u1 (∆u) (∆ρ) + (∆ρ) (∆u)2

2

ρ1 u1

+ (P1 + ∆P ) = ρ1 u12 + P1

γ P1 1 P1 1

u1 2 + 2u1 (∆u) + (∆u)2

+ ∆P − 2 ∆ρ + ... +

γ − 1 ρ1 ρ1 ρ1 2

γ P1 1 2

= + u1

γ − 1 ρ1 2

Subtracting the base state and eliminating products of small quantities yields

2ρ u (∆u) + u1 2 (∆ρ) + ∆P = 0 (4.398)

1 1

γ 1 P1

∆P − 2 ∆ρ + u1 (∆u) = 0 (4.399)

γ − 1 ρ1 ρ1

In matrix form this is

u1 ρ1 0 ∆ρ 0

u1 2 2ρ1 u1 1 ∆u = 0 (4.400)

γ P1 γ 1

− γ−1 ρ21

u1 γ−1 ρ1 ∆P 0

As the right hand side is zero, the determinant must be zero and there must be a linear

dependency of the solution. First check the determinant:

4.3. NORMAL SHOCK WAVES 103

γ u1 2

2γ γ P1

u1 u1 − u1 − ρ1 + = 0 (4.401)

γ−1 γ − 1 ρ1 γ−1 ρ21

2

u1 1 P1

(2γ − (γ − 1)) − γ u1 2 + γ = 0 (4.402)

γ−1 γ−1 ρ1

P1

u1 (γ + 1) − γ u1 2 + γ

2

= 0 (4.403)

ρ1

P1

u1 2 =γ = c21 (4.404)

ρ1

u1 0 ∆ρ −ρ1 ∆u

γ P1 γ 1 = (4.405)

− γ−1 ρ21 γ−1 ρ1 ∆P −u1 ∆u

Solving yields

ρ1 ∆u

∆ρ = − q (4.406)

γ Pρ11

s

P1

∆P = −ρ1 γ ∆u (4.407)

ρ1

Non-ideal effects are important

104 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

Example 4.11

Shock in van der Waals gas

m

Given: Shock wave D = 500 s propagating into N2 at rest at T1 = 125 K, P1 = 2 M P a.

Assume: van der Waals equation of state accurately models gas behavior, specific heat constant.

Analysis:

First, some data for N2 are needed. At P1 = 2 M P a, N2 has a boiling point of 115.5 K, so

the material is in the gas phase but very near the vapor dome. R = 296.8 kgJ K , cv = 744.8 kgJ K ,

Tc = 126.2 K, Pc = 3, 390, 000 P a.

Since the material is near the vapor dome, the van der Waals equation may give a good first

correction for non-ideal effects.

RT a

P = − (4.408)

v − b v2

RT

P = 1 − aρ2 (4.409)

ρ − b

ρRT

P = − aρ2 (4.410)

1 − bρ

T

1 1

Z

e(T, v) = eo + cv (T̂ )dT̂ + a − (4.411)

To vo v

!

P + aρ2 (1 − bρ)

e(P, ρ) = eo + cv − To + a (ρo − ρ) (4.413)

ρR

!

P + aρ2 (1 − bρ)

P

h(P, ρ) = eo + cv − To + a (ρo − ρ) + (4.414)

ρR ρ

!

P2 + aρ22 (1 − bρ2 ) P1 + aρ21 (1 − bρ1 )

P2 P1

h 2 − h 1 = cv − − a (ρ2 − ρ1 ) + − (4.415)

ρ2 R ρ1 R ρ2 ρ1

4.3. NORMAL SHOCK WAVES 105

isotherm passing through the critical point, P = Pc , T =

∂P ∂2P

Tc , passes through with ∂v T = 0 and ∂v2 = 0 A standard analysis 9 yields

T

27 R2 Tc2

a = , (4.416)

64 Pc

2

J 2

27 296.8 kg K (126.2 K)

= , (4.417)

64 3, 390, 000 P a

P a m6

= 174.6 (4.418)

kg 2

RTc

b = , (4.419)

8P

c

296.8 kgJ K (126.2 K)

= , (4.420)

8 (3, 390, 000 P a)

m3

= 0.00138 (4.421)

kg

Find the ambient density.

ρ1 296.8 kgJ K (125 K) P a m6

2, 000, 000 P a = − 174.6 2

ρ21 (4.422)

m3

1 − 0.00138 kg ρ1 kg

kg

ρ1 = 69.0926 physical (4.423)

m3

kg

ρ1 = (327.773 + 112.702 i) non-physical (4.424)

m3

kg

ρ1 = (327.773 + 112.702 i) 3 non-physical (4.425)

m

kg

Tabular data from experiments gives ρ1 = 71.28 m 3 , error = (71.28−69.09)/71.28 = 3%, so it seems the

first root is the physical root. Note that the van der Waals prediction is a significant improvement over

P1 2,000,000 kg

the ideal gas law which gives ρ1 = RT 1

= 296.8×125 = 53.91 m 3 , error = (71.28 − 53.91)/71.28 = 21.4%!

Even with this improvement there are much better (and more complicated!) equations of state for

materials near the vapor dome.

Now use the Rayleigh line and Hugoniot equations to solve for the shocked density:

1 1

P2 = P1 + ρ21 D2 −

ρ1 ρ2

! !

P2 + aρ22 (1 − bρ2 ) P1 + aρ21 (1 − bρ1 )

P2 P1

cv − − a (ρ2 − ρ1 ) + −

ρ2 R ρ1 R ρ2 ρ1

1 1 1

− (P2 − P1 ) + = 0

2 ρ2 ρ1

9

Sonntag and Van Wylen, 1991, Introduction to Thermodynamics: Classical and Statistical, John Wiley:

New York, p. 392.

106 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

Plugging in all the numbers into a computer algebra program yields the following solutions for ρ2 :

kg

ρ2 = 195.309 shocked solution (4.426)

m3

kg

ρ2 = 69.0926 3 inert solution (4.427)

m

kg

ρ2 = (85.74 + 657.9 i) non-physical solution (4.428)

m3

kg

ρ2 = (85.74 − 657.9 i) 3 non-physical solution (4.429)

m

The Rayleigh line then gives the pressure:

2 !

kg m 2 1 1

P2 = 2, 000, 000 P a + 69.0926 3 500 kg

− kg

(4.430)

m s 69.0926 m3 195.309 m3

P2 = 13, 162, 593 P a = 13.2 M P a (4.431)

P2 + aρ22 (1 − bρ2 )

T2 = (4.432)

ρ2 R

2

P a m6 kg m3 kg

13, 162, 593 P a + 174.6 kg2 195.3 m3 1 − 0.00138 kg 195.3 m3

= (4.433)

kg

195.3 m 3 296.8 kgJ K

= 249.8 K (4.434)

Note the temperature is still quite low relative to standard atmospheric conditions; it is unlikely at

these low temperatures that any effects due to vibrational relaxation or dissociation will be important.

Our assumption of constant specific heat is probably pretty good.

ρ2 u 2 = ρ1 u 1 (4.435)

ρ1 u 1

u2 = (4.436)

ρ

2

kg m

69.0926 m 3 500 s

= kg

(4.437)

195.3 m 3

m

= 176.89 (4.438)

s

An ideal gas approximation (γN2 = 1.4) would have yielded

1 1 γ −1 2γ P1

= 1+ (4.439)

ρ2 ρ1 γ + 1 (γ − 1) D2 ρ1

! !

1 1 1.4 − 1 2 (1.4) 2, 000, 000 P a

= 1+ (4.440)

ρ2 kg

53.91 m3 1.4 + 1 m 2 53.91 mkg

(1.4 − 1) 500 s 3

kg

ρ2 = 158.65 ideal gas approximation (4.441)

m3

195.3 − 158.65

relative error = = 18.8% (4.442)

195.3

4.4. FLOW WITH AREA CHANGE AND NORMAL SHOCKS 107

2 !

kg m 2 1 1

P2 = 2, 000, 000 P a + 53.91 3 500 kg

− kg

(4.443)

m s 53.91 m3 158.65 m3

P2 = 10, 897, 783 P a = 10.90 M P a (4.444)

13.2 − 10.9

relative error = = 17.4% (4.445)

13.2

This section will consider flow from a reservoir with the fluid at stagnation conditions to a

constant pressure environment. The pressure of the environment is commonly known as the

back pressure: Pb .

Generic problem: Given A(x), stagnation conditions and Pb , find the pressure, tempera-

ture, density at all points in the duct and the mass flow rate.

A converging nozzle operating at several different values of Pb is sketched in Figure 4.16.

The flow through the duct can be solved using the following procedure

• check if Pb ≥ P∗

• if so, set Pe = Pb

A

• determine A∗ from A∗

relation

A A

• at any point in the flow where A is known, compute A∗

and then invert A∗

relation to

find local M

Note:

• These flows are subsonic throughout and correspond to points a and b in Figure 4.16.

• If Pb = P∗ then the flow is sonic at the exit and just choked. This corresponds to point

c in Figure 4.16.

• If Pb < P∗ , then the flow chokes, is sonic at the exit, and continues to expand outside

of the nozzle. This corresponds to points d and e in Figure 4.16.

108 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

. .

m/mmax

e d c

Pb

1

b

Po Pe

0 Pb/Po

P*/Po 1

P(x)/Po

1

a--subsonic exit

b--subsonic exit

P*/Po c--sonic exit

d--choked, external expansion

e--choked, external expansion

x

xe

A converging-diverging nozzle operating at several different values of Pb is sketched in Figure

4.17.

The flow through the duct can be solved using the a very similar following procedure

• set At = A∗

Ae

• with this assumption, calculate A∗

A

• determine Mesub , Mesup , both supersonic and subsonic, from A∗

relation

• determine Pesub , Pesup, from Mesub , Mesup ; these are the supersonic and subsonic design

pressures

• if Pb > Pesub , the flow is subsonic throughout and the throat is not sonic. Use same

procedure as for converging duct: Determine Me by setting Pe = Pb and using isentropic

relations

– estimate the pressure with a normal shock at the end of the duct, Pesh

– If Pb ≥ Pesh , there is a normal shock inside the duct

– If Pb < Pesh , the duct flow is shockless, and there may be compression outside the

duct

4.4. FLOW WITH AREA CHANGE AND NORMAL SHOCKS 109

Pb

Po Pt Pe

possible

normal

shock

P(x)/Po

1 a--subsonic exit

b--subsonic exit

c--subsonic design

d--shock in duct

P*/Po e-shock at end of duct

Sonic f--external compression

Throat

g--supersonic design

h--external expansion

x

xt xe

. .

m/mmax

hg f e d c

1

0

P*/Po 1 Pb/Po

• if Pesup = Pb the flow is at supersonic design conditions and the flow is shockless

• if Pb < Pesup, the flow in the duct is isentropic and there is expansion outside the duct

Example 4.12

10

Nozzle Problem

kg

ṁ = 148.5 hr . Pitot tube at exit plane gives Poe = 200 kP a, Pe = 191.5 kP a.

Find: exit velocity, location of possible normal shock in duct, Mach number just upstream of normal

shock

10

adopted from White’s 9.69, p. 588

110 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

Analysis:

kg hr kg

ṁ = 148.5 = 0.04125 (4.446)

hr 3600 s s

Now if there is no shock, the stagnation pressure would be constant in the duct; one can use the choked

flow formula to compare to the actual mass flow rate:

12 γ−1

γ+1

Po 2 p

ṁe = γRTo A∗ (4.447)

RTo γ + 1

1.4+1

21 1.4−1 s 2

200, 000 P a 2 J 1m

(600 K) 1 cm2

= 1.4 287 (4.448)

287 kgJ K (600 K) 1.4 + 1 kg K 100 cm

kg

= 200, 000 × 165 × 10−9 = 0.033 (4.449)

s

Now the actual mass flow is higher than this, so the stagnation pressure upstream must also be higher;

therefore, there must be a shock in the duct which lowers the stagnation pressure. Use this equation

to determine what the upstream stagnation pressure must be.

kg −9 kg 1

0.04125 = Po1 × 165 × 10 (4.450)

s s Pa

Po1 = 250 kP a (4.451)

So

Po2 200 kP a

= = 0.800 (4.452)

Po1 250 kP a

The flow conditions could be deduced from this; one can also utilize the normal shock tables for

air. These are valid only for a calorically perfect ideal air. Interpolating this table yields

M1 ∼ 1.83 (4.453)

M2 ∼ 0.61 (4.454)

The area ratio is determined from the isentropic flow tables. Recall that A∗ changes through a

shock, so in this case one wants to use conditions upstream of the shock. From the tables at M1 = 1.83

A1

one finds A ∗

= 1.4723 so,

Get the exit velocity. Even if there is a shock, the stagnation temperature is constant; thus, one

has from energy conservation:

4.5. FLOW WITH FRICTION–FANNO FLOW 111

u2e

he + = ho (4.456)

2 p

ue = 2 (ho − he ) (4.457)

q

= 2cp (To − Te ) (4.458)

s

Te

= 2cp To 1 − (4.459)

To

v !

u γ−1

u Pe γ

= t 2cp To 1 − (4.460)

Poe

v

u 1.4−1 !

u J 191.5 kP a 1.4

= t 2 1004.5 (600 K) 1 − (4.461)

kg K 200 kP a

m

= 121.9 (4.462)

s

Wall friction is typically considered by modelling the wall shear as a constant. Wall friction

is usually correlated with what is known as the Darcy friction factor: f , where

8τw

f≡ (4.463)

ρu2

Now in practice f is related to the local flow Reynolds number based on pipe diameter

D: ReD

ρuD

ReD ≡ (4.464)

µ

ǫ

and roughness of the duct D

, where ǫ is the average surface roughness.

ǫ

f = f ReD , (4.465)

D

For steady laminar duct flow, the friction factor is independent of ǫ. It turns out the

Poiseuille flow solution gives the friction factor, which turns out to be

64

f= (4.466)

ReD

112 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

If the flow is steady and turbulent, the friction factor is described by the following em-

pirical formula known as the Colebrook equation:

1 ǫ/D 2.51

= −2.0 log10 + (4.467)

f 1/2 3.7 ReD f 1/2

Often one needs to iterate to find f for turbulent flows. Alternatively, one can use the

Moody chart to estimate f . This is simply a graphical representation of the Colebrook

formula. Most fluid texts will contain a Moody chart. While in principle f varies with a

host of variables, in practice in a particular problem, it is often estimated as a constant.

To get a grasp on the effects of wall friction, consider a special case of generalized one-

dimensional flow:

• steady

• one-dimensional

• adiabatic

• constant area duct

• Darcy friction model

• calorically perfect ideal gas

Our equations from the section on influence coefficients

(qw +τw u)L

−ρu2 dA + τw L +

dρ 1 dx ∂e

ρu ∂P |

ρ

= (4.468)

dx A (u2 − c2 )

(qw +τw u)L

c2 ρu dA − uτw L −

du 1 dx ∂e

ρ ∂P |

ρ

= (4.469)

dx A ρ (u2 − c2 )

(qw +τw u)Lu

−c2 ρu2 dA + c2 τw L +

dP 1 dx ∂e

ρ ∂P | ρ

= (4.470)

dx A (u2 − c2 )

reduce to

1 + ρ ∂e1

dρ τw L ∂P |ρ

= (4.471)

dx A (u − c2 )

2

1 + ρ ∂e1

du uτw L ∂P |ρ

= − (4.472)

dx A ρ (u2 − c2 )

u2

c2 +

dP τw L ρ | ∂e

∂P ρ

= 2 2

(4.473)

dx A (u − c )

4.5. FLOW WITH FRICTION–FANNO FLOW 113

L = 2πr (4.474)

A = πr 2 (4.475)

L 2πr 2 4

= 2 = = (4.476)

A πr r D

For a calorically perfect ideal gas

1 P

e = (4.477)

γ−1 ρ

∂e 1 1

= (4.478)

∂P ρ γ −1ρ

∂e 1

ρ = (4.479)

∂P ρ γ−1

1

= γ−1

∂e

(4.480)

ρ ∂P ρ

1

1+ ∂e

= γ (4.481)

ρ ∂P ρ

dρ 4τw γ

= (4.482)

dx D (u2 − c2 )

du 4uτw γ

= − (4.483)

dx D ρ (u2 − c2 )

dP 4τw c2 + u2 (γ − 1)

= (4.484)

dx D (u2 − c2 )

dρ f ρu2 γ

= (4.485)

dx 2D (u − c2 )

2

du f ρu2 u γ

= − (4.486)

dx 2D ρ (u − c2 )

2

dP f ρu2 c2 + u2 (γ − 1)

= (4.487)

dx 2D (u2 − c2 )

dρ f ρM 2 γ

= 2

(4.488)

dx 2D (M − 1)

114 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

du f M 2u γ

= − 2

(4.489)

dx 2D (M − 1)

dP f ρu2 1 + M 2 (γ − 1)

= (4.490)

dx 2D (M 2 − 1)

Now with the definition of M 2 for the calorically perfect ideal gas, one gets

ρu2

M2 =

γP

dM 2 u2 dρ 2ρu du ρu2 dP

= + −

dx γP dx γP dx γP 2 dx

u2 f ρM 2 f M 2u ρu2 f ρu2 1 + M 2 (γ − 1)

γ 2ρu γ

= + − −

γP 2D (M 2 − 1) γP 2D (M 2 − 1) γP 2 2D (M 2 − 1)

fM4 γ 2f M 4 γ γf M 4 1 + M 2 (γ − 1)

= − −

2D (M 2 − 1) 2D (M 2 − 1) 2D (M 2 − 1)

4

γf M 2

= 1 − 2 − 1 − M (γ − 1)

2D (M 2 − 1)

γf M 4

2 γ−1

= 1+M

D (1 − M 2 ) 2

So rearranging gives

(1 − M 2 ) dM 2 dx

2 γ−1

= f (4.491)

γ (M 2 ) 1 + M 2 2 D

the flow becomes sonic, so M 2 = 1 at x = L∗ .

Z 1 1 − M̂ 2 dM̂ 2 Z L∗

dx

2 = f (4.492)

D

γ−1

M 2 γ M̂ 2 1 + M̂ 2 0

2

1 − M2 1 + γ (1 + γ) M 2 f L∗

2

+ ln 2

= (4.493)

γM 2γ 2 + M (γ − 1) D

Example 4.13

11

Flow in a duct with friction

11

from White, 9.82, p. 589

4.5. FLOW WITH FRICTION–FANNO FLOW 115

ft

Given: Air flowing in pipe D = 1 in, L = 20 f t, P1 = 40 psia, u1 = 200 s , T1 = 520 R.

Assume: calorically perfect ideal gas, Darcy friction factor models wall shear, constant viscosity

P1

ρ1 = (4.494)

RT1

2

lbf

40 in 2 144 in

f t2

ρ1 = (4.495)

f t lbf

53.34 lbm R (520 R)

lbm

ρ1 = 0.2077 (4.496)

f t3

ṁ = ρ1 u1 A1 , (4.497)

2 !

D

= ρ1 u 1 π (4.498)

2

2 !

lbm ft 1 in 1 f t

= 0.2077 200 π (4.499)

f t3 s 2 12 in

lbm

= 0.2266 (4.500)

s

Now compute the friction factor. First for cast iron pipes, one has surface roughness ǫ = 0.00085 f t, so

ǫ 0.00085 f t 12 in

= = 0.0102 (4.501)

D 1 in 1 ft

lbf s

The Reynolds number is needed, which involves the viscosity. For air at 520 R, µ ∼ 4.08×10−7 f t2

so

lbm

200 fst 12

1

ρ1 u 1 D 0.2077 f t3 ft

ReD = = = 263, 739 (4.502)

µ 4.08 × 10−7 lbf s

32.17 lbm ft

f t2 lbf s2

Since ReD >> 2, 300, the flow is turbulent and one needs to use the Colebrook formula to estimate the

Darcy friction factor:

1 ǫ/D 2.51

= −2.0 log10 + (4.503)

f 1/2 3.7 ReD f 1/2

0.0102 2.51

= −2.0 log10 + (4.504)

3.7 263, 739f 1/2

Now reading the Moody chart gives f = 0.04. A numerical trial and error solution of the Colebrook

equation gives

f = 0.0384 (4.505)

116 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

Now find M1 .

u1

M1 = √ , (4.506)

γRT1

200 fst

= r , (4.507)

f t lbf lbm f t

1.4 53.34 lbm R 32.17 lbf s2 (520 R)

= 0.1789 (4.508)

Now

f L1∗ 1 − M12 1+γ (1 + γ) M12

= + ln (4.509)

D γM12 2γ 2 + M12 (γ − 1)

1 − 0.17892 1 + 1.4 (1 + 1.4) 0.17892

= 2 + 2 (1.4) ln 2 + 0.17892 (1.4 − 1) (4.510)

1.4 (0.1789)

= 18.804 (4.511)

1

18.804 12 ft

L1∗ = , (4.512)

0.0384

= 40.81 f t (4.513)

so at a distance 40.81 f t from station 1, the flow will go sonic. It is needed to find M2 at a station

20 f t from station 1. So

= 20.81 f t (4.515)

f L2∗ 0.0384 (20.81 f t)

= 1 , (4.516)

D 12 f t

= 9.589 (4.517)

1 − M22 1 + 1.4 (1 + 1.4) M22

9.589 = 2 + ln (4.518)

1.4M2 2 (1.4) 2 + M22 (1.4 − 1)

M2 = 0.237925 (4.519)

u22 u21

h2 + = h1 + (4.520)

2 2

u22 u21

T2 + = T1 + (4.521)

2cp 2cp

2

ft

u22 200 s

T2 + = 520 R + (4.522)

2cp 2 6, 015 f t2

s2 R

u22

T2 + = 523.33 R (4.523)

2cp

M22 γRT2

T2 + = 523.33 R (4.524)

2cp

4.6. FLOW WITH HEAT TRANSFER–RAYLEIGH FLOW 117

(γ − 1) 2

T2 1 + M2 = 523.33 R (4.525)

2

523.33 R

T2 = (γ−1)

(4.526)

1+ 2

2 M2

523.33 R

= (1.4−1)

(4.527)

1+ 2 0.2379252

= 517.47 R (4.528)

p

u2 = M2 γRT2 , (4.529)

s

f t2

= 0.237925 1.4 1, 715 2 (517.47 R) (4.530)

s R

ft

= 265.2 (4.531)

s

ρ2 u 2 = ρ1 u 1 (4.532)

u1

ρ2 = ρ1 , (4.533)

u2

!

ft

200

lbm s

= 0.2077 3 , (4.534)

ft 265.2 fst

lbm

= 0.1566 (4.535)

f t3

P2 = ρ2 RT2 , (4.536)

f t2

lbm f t lbf

= 0.1566 3 53.34 (517.47 R) (4.537)

ft lbm R 144 in2

= 30.02 psia (4.538)

T2 P2

s2 − s1 = cp ln − R ln (4.539)

T1 P1

f t2 f t2

517.47 R 30.02 psia

= 6, 015 2 ln − 1, 715 2 ln (4.540)

s R 520 R s R 40 psia

2

ft

= 462.9 2 (4.541)

s R

Flow with heat transfer is commonly known as Rayleigh flow. To isolate the effect of heat

transfer, the following assumptions will be adopted:

• no wall friction

118 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

• heating drives both subsonic and supersonic flows towards sonic states

• cooling drives both subsonic and supersonic flows away from sonic state

ρ2 u2 = ρ1 u1 (4.542)

ρ2 u22

+ P2 = ρ1 D 2 + P1 (4.543)

u22 u21

ρ2 u2A h2 + = ρ1 u1 A h1 + + qw LL (4.544)

2 2

γ P Po

h = − + ho (4.545)

γ −1 ρ ρo

Note that these are a more general case of the equations for a normal shock. One could

get equivalents of Rayleigh lines and Hugoniots. The Rayleigh line would be the same as the

equations are the same; the Hugoniot would be modified because of the heat transfer term.

If one defines the heat transfer per unit mass of flow q in terms of the wall heat flux qw :

qw LL

q≡ (4.546)

ρ1 u1 A

u22 u21

h2 + = h1 + +q (4.547)

2 2

ho2 = ho1 + q (4.548)

q = ho2 − ho1 (4.549)

q

= To2 − To1 (4.550)

cp

With lots of effort very similar to that used for the normal shock equations, expressions can

be developed relating the “2” state to the “1” state. If one takes the final “2” state to be

sonic 2 → ∗ and the initial “1” state to be unsubscripted, it is found for the calorically

perfect ideal gas that

4.6. FLOW WITH HEAT TRANSFER–RAYLEIGH FLOW 119

To (γ + 1) M 2 (2 + (γ − 1) M 2 )

= (4.551)

To∗ (1 + γM 2 )2

Example 4.14

12

Heat Addition Problem

ft

Given: Fuel air mixture enters combustion chamber at u1 = 250 s , P1 = 20 psia, T1 = 70◦ F . The

mixture releases 400 Btu

lbm

Assume: Fuel air mixture behaves just like calorically perfect ideal air

Analysis:

Initial state

T1 = 70 + 460, (4.552)

= 530 R (4.553)

p

c1 = γRT1 , (4.554)

s

f t2

= 1.4 1, 716 2 (530 R), (4.555)

s R

ft

= 1, 128.4 (4.556)

s

u1

M1 = , (4.557)

c1

ft

250 s

= , (4.558)

1, 128.4 fst

= 0.2216 (4.559)

P1

ρ1 = , (4.560)

RT1

lbf f t2 2

20 in 2 32.17 lbm lbf s2 144 in

f t2

= 2

, (4.561)

1, 716 sf2 t R (530 R)

lbm

= 0.1019 3 (4.562)

ft

1

To1 = T1 1 + M12 , (4.563)

5

1

= (530 R) 1 + 0.22162 , (4.564)

5

= 535.2 R (4.565)

3.5

1

Po1 = P1 1 + M12 , (4.566)

5

12

adopted from White, pp. 557-558

120 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

3.5

1 2

= (20 psia) 1 + 0.2216 , (4.567)

5

= 20.70 psia (4.568)

(γ + 1) M12 2 + (γ − 1) M12

To1

= 2 (4.569)

To∗ (1 + γM12 )

(1.4 + 1) 0.22162 2 + (1.4 − 1) 0.22162

To1

= 2 , (4.570)

To∗ (1 + (1.4) (0.22162))

= 0.2084 (4.571)

To1

To∗ = , (4.572)

0.2084

535.2 R

= , (4.573)

0.2084

= 2568.3 R (4.574)

Btu f t lbf lbm f t

q = 400 779 32.17 , (4.575)

lbm Btu lbf s2

f t2

= 10.024 × 106 2 (4.576)

s

q

To2 = To1 + , (4.577)

cp

f t2

10.024 × 106 s2

= 535.2 + f t2

, (4.578)

6, 015 s2 R

= 2, 201.7 R (4.579)

To2 2, 201.7 R

= , (4.580)

To∗ 2, 563.3 R

= 0.8573 (4.581)

(γ + 1) M22 2 + (γ − 1) M22

To2

= 2 (4.582)

To∗ (1 + γM22 )

(1.4 + 1) M22 2 + (1.4 − 1) M22

0.8573 = 2 (4.583)

(1 + 1.4M22 )

Computer algebra gives four solutions. For a continuous variation of M , choose the positive subsonic

branch. Other branches do have physical meaning.

M2 = −0.6380 (4.585)

M2 = 1.710 (4.586)

M2 = −1.710 (4.587)

−1

1 2

T2 = To2 1 + M2 , (4.588)

5

4.6. FLOW WITH HEAT TRANSFER–RAYLEIGH FLOW 121

−1

1 2

= (2, 201.7 R) 1 + 0.6380 , (4.589)

5

= 2, 036 R (4.590)

p

c2 = γRT2 , (4.591)

s

f t2

= 1.4 1, 716 2 (2, 036 R), (4.592)

s R

ft

= 2, 211.6 (4.593)

s

u2 = M 2 c2 , (4.594)

ft

= (0.6380) 2, 211.6 , (4.595)

s

ft

= 1, 411 (4.596)

s

ρ2 u 2 = ρ1 u 1 (4.597)

u1

ρ2 = ρ1 , (4.598)

u2

!

250 fst

lbm

= 0.1019 3 , (4.599)

ft 1, 411 fst

lbm

= 0.01806 (4.600)

f t3

P2 = ρ2 RT2 (4.601)

f t2 1 lbf s2 f t2

lbm

= 0.01806 3 1, 716 2 (2, 036 R) , (4.602)

ft s R 32.17 lbm f t 144 in2

= 13.62 psia (4.603)

Is momentum satisfied?

P2 + ρ2 u22 = P1 + ρ1 u21

2

144 in2 1 lbf s2

lbf lbm ft

13.62 2 + 0.01806 1, 411

in f t2 f t3 s 32.17 lbm f t

2

2

1 lbf s2

lbf 144 in lbm ft

= 20 2 + 0.1019 250

in f t2 f t3 s 32.17 lbm f t

lbf lbf

3, 078.97 2 = 3077.97 2 close!

ft ft

Entropy Change

T2 P2

s2 − s1 = cp ln − R ln (4.604)

T1 P

1

f t2 f t2

2, 036 R 13.62 psia

= 6, 015 2 ln − 1, 716 2 ln (4.605)

s R 530 R s R 20 psia

= 8, 095.38 − (−659.28) , (4.606)

f t2

= 8, 754.66 2 (4.607)

s R

f t2 1 lbf s2

1 Btu

= 8, 754.66 2 (4.608)

s R 779 f t lbf 32.17 lbm f t

122 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

Btu

= 0.3493 (4.609)

lbm R

Second Law

q

s2 − s1 ≥ (4.610)

T

Btu 400 Btu

lbm

0.3493 ≥ (4.611)

lbm R 2, 036 R

Btu Btu

0.3493 ≥ 0.1965 yes! (4.612)

lbm R lbm R

maximum heat release

f t2 1 lbf s2

1 Btu

= 6, 015 2 (2, 568.3 R − 535.2 R) (4.614)

s R 779 f t lbf 32.17 lbm f t

Btu

qmax = 488 (4.615)

lbm

A detailed development is given in lecture for the numerical solution to the Riemann or

shock tube problem. The equations are first posed in the general conservative form:

∂q ∂

+ (f(q)) = 0. (4.616)

∂t ∂x

Here q and f vector functions of length N = 3; further f is itself a function of q. The

equations are discretized so that

f(q(x, t)) → f(qni ). (4.618)

A brief discussion of finite difference techniques is given in lecture. The most tempting

technique is a first order forward difference in time, central difference in space technique

which yields the finite difference relation:

∆t

qn+1 = qni −f(qni+1 ) − f(qni−1 ) .

i (4.619)

2∆x

Unfortunately this method is unstable.

4.7. NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF THE SHOCK TUBE PROBLEM 123

A robustly stable first order method is found int the Lax-Friedrichs method.

1 n ∆t

qn+1 qi−1 + qni+1 − f(qni+1 ) − f(qni−1 ) .

i = (4.620)

2 2∆x

The two-step Lax-Wendroff discretization is as follows

1 n

qni+1/2 = qi + qni+1 ,

(4.621)

2

n+1/2

• use central differencing (about i + 1/2) to step forward ∆t/2 so that qi+1/2 can be

estimated:

n+1/2 ∆t/2

qi+1/2 = qni+1/2 − f(qni+1 ) − f(qni ) .

(4.622)

∆x

• use central differencing (about i) to step forward ∆t, evaluating f at the i ± 1/2 and

n + 1/2 steps:

∆t n+1/2 n+1/2

qn+1

i = qni − f(qi+1/2 ) − f(qi−1/2 ) . (4.623)

∆x

124 CHAPTER 4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

Chapter 5

Flow

Suggested Reading:

Hughes and Brighton, Chapter 8: pp. 208-230

Shapiro, Chapters 9-16: pp. 265-609

White, Chapter 9: pp. 559-581

This chapter will discuss two-dimensional flow of a compressible fluid. The following

topics will be covered:

• oblique shocks

• Prandtl-Meyer rarefactions

∂

• ∂t

≡ 0; steady flow

∂

• w ≡ 0, ∂z ≡ 0; two-dimensional flow

125

126 CHAPTER 5. STEADY SUPERSONIC TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLOW

With the assumptions of above the following equations govern the flow away from shock

discontinuities:

∂ ∂

(ρu) + (ρv) = 0 (5.1)

∂x ∂y

∂ ∂

ρu2 + P +

(ρuv) = 0 (5.2)

∂x ∂y

∂ ∂

ρv 2 + P = 0

(ρvu) + (5.3)

∂x ∂y

∂ 1 2 2

P ∂ 1 2 2

P

ρu e + u +v + + ρv e + u +v + =0 (5.4)

∂x 2 ρ ∂y 2 ρ

1 P

e= + eo (5.5)

γ−1 ρ

∂ρ ∂ρ ∂u ∂v

u +v +ρ + =0 (5.6)

∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y

∂u ∂u ∂P

ρ u +v + =0 (5.7)

∂x ∂y ∂x

∂v ∂v ∂P

ρ u +v + =0 (5.8)

∂x ∂y ∂y

∂e ∂e ∂u ∂v

ρ u +v +P + =0 (5.9)

∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y

1 P

e= + eo (5.10)

γ−1 ρ

Mach waves are small acoustic disturbances in a flow field. Recall that small disturbances

propagate at the ambient sound speed. Let’s consider a small sphere moving at u1 through

a fluid with ambient sound speed co .

5.3. OBLIQUE SHOCK WAVES 127

Consider that in time ∆t, the sphere will move u1 ∆t and the wave will propagate will be

felt by a circle with radius co ∆t, see Figure 5.1

c_o ∆t c_o ∆t

12345

12345 1234

1234

12345 1234

subsonic sonic

flow flow

u_1 ∆t

β = arcsin (1/M_1)

zone of silence

c_o ∆t

12345

12345

12345

supersonic

flow

u_1 ∆t

co ∆t co 1

sin β = = = (5.11)

u1 ∆t u1 M1

1

β = arcsin (5.12)

M1

An oblique shock is a shock which is not normal to the incoming flow field. It can be shown

that in the limiting case as the oblique shock strength goes to zero, the oblique shock wave

becomes a Mach wave, as described in the previous section.

128 CHAPTER 5. STEADY SUPERSONIC TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLOW

Given:

• a straight wedge inclined at angle θ to the horizontal

• a freestream flow parallel to the horizontal with known velocity v = u1 i + 0 j

• known freestream pressure and density of P1 and ρ1

• steady flow of a calorically perfect ideal gas (this can be relaxed and one can still find

oblique shocks)

Find:

• angle of shock inclination β

• downstream pressure and density P2 , ρ2

Similar to the piston problem, the oblique shock problem is easiest analyzed if we instead

consider

• β as known

• θ as unknown

They are best modeled in a two-dimensional coordinate system with axes parallel and

perpendicular to the shock, see Figure 5.2, so that

x = x̃ sin β + ỹ cos β (5.13)

y = −x̃ cos β + ỹ sin β (5.14)

u = ũ sin β + ṽ cos β (5.15)

v = −ũ cos β + ṽ sin β (5.16)

Consequently, in this coordinate system, the freestream is two-dimensional.

It is easily shown that the equations of motion are invariant under a rotation of axes, so

that

∂ ∂

(ρũ) + (ρṽ) = 0 (5.17)

∂ x̃ ∂ ỹ

∂ ∂

ρũ2 + P +

(ρũṽ) = 0 (5.18)

∂ x̃ ∂ ỹ

∂ ∂

ρṽ 2 + P = 0

(ρṽũ) + (5.19)

∂ x̃ ∂ ỹ

∂ 1 2 2

P ∂ 1 2 2

P

ρũ e + ũ + ṽ + + ρṽ e + ũ + ṽ + =0 (5.20)

∂ x̃ 2 ρ ∂ ỹ 2 ρ

1 P

e= + eo (5.21)

γ−1 ρ

5.3. OBLIQUE SHOCK WAVES 129

∼ / v_1

tan β = u_1 ∼ ∼ ∼

tan (β−θ) = u_2 / v_2

~u_2

~ ~

v_2

~ u_1 ~

v_1 v_2

P_1 β−θ

β P_2

ρ_1

u_1 ~

u_2 ρ_2

unshocked shocked

freestream flow

(supersonic) ~

y

y β

θ wedge

x

~

x

∂

• ∂ ỹ

=0

• ṽ 6= 0

∂ d

Consequently, all variables are a function of x̃ at most and ∂ x̃

= dx̃

. The governing

equations reduce to

d

(ρũ) = 0 (5.22)

dx̃

d

ρũ2 + P = 0

(5.23)

dx̃

d

(ρṽũ) = 0 (5.24)

dx̃

d 1 2 P

ρũ e + ũ + ṽ 2 + =0 (5.25)

dx̃ 2 ρ

1 P

e= + eo (5.26)

γ−1 ρ

Integrate and apply freestream conditions

130 CHAPTER 5. STEADY SUPERSONIC TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLOW

ρ2 ṽ2 ũ2 = ρ1 ṽ1 ũ1 (5.29)

1 2 2

P2 1 2 2

P1

ρ2 ũ2 e2 + ũ + ṽ2 + = ρ1 ũ1 e1 + ũ + ṽ1 + (5.30)

2 2 ρ2 2 1 ρ1

1 P

e= + eo (5.31)

γ −1 ρ

Now using the mass equation, the ỹ momentum equation reduces to

ρ2 ũ22

+ P2 = ρ1 ũ21 + P1 (5.34)

1 P2 1 2 P2 1 P1 1 2 P1

+ ũ2 + = + ũ1 + (5.35)

γ − 1 ρ2 2 ρ2 γ − 1 ρ1 2 ρ1

These are exactly the equations which describe a normal shock jump. All our old results

apply in this coordinate system with the additional stipulation that the component of velocity

tangent to the shock is constant.

Recall our solution for one-dimensional shocks in a calorically perfect ideal gas:

1 1 γ−1 2γ P1

= 1+ 2

(5.36)

ρ2 ρ1 γ + 1 (γ − 1) D ρ1

1 1 γ−1 2γ P1

= 1+ (5.37)

ρ2 ρ1 γ + 1 (γ − 1) ũ21 ρ1

2 ũ21

M1n ≡ (5.38)

γ Pρ11

we get

ρ1 γ−1 2

= 1+ 2

(5.39)

ρ2 γ+1 (γ − 1) M1n

5.3. OBLIQUE SHOCK WAVES 131

ρ1 ũ2

and since from mass ρ2

= ũ1

ũ2 γ−1 2

= 1+ 2

(5.40)

ũ1 γ+1 (γ − 1) M1n

Now for our geometry

ũ1

tan β = (5.41)

ṽ1

ũ2 ũ2

tan (β − θ) = = (5.42)

ṽ2 ṽ1

ũ2 tan (β − θ)

so = (5.43)

ũ1 tan β

thus

tan (β − θ) γ−1 2

= 1+ 2

(5.44)

tan β γ+1 (γ − 1) M1n

Now note that

2

M1n = M12 sin2 β (5.45)

so

tan (β − θ) γ−1 2

= 1+ (5.46)

tan β γ+1 (γ − 1) M12 sin2 β

γ − 1 (γ − 1) M12 sin2 β + 2

tan (β − θ)

= (5.47)

tan β γ+1 (γ − 1) M12 sin2 β

(γ − 1) M12 sin2 β + 2

tan (β − θ) = tan β (5.48)

(γ + 1) M12 sin2 β

tan β − tan θ (γ − 1) M12 sin2 β + 2

= tan β ≡χ (5.49)

1 + tan θ tan β (γ + 1) M12 sin2 β

tan β − tan θ = χ + χ tan θ tan β (5.50)

tan β − χ = tan θ (1 + χ tan β) (5.51)

tan β − χ

tan θ = (5.52)

1 + χ tan β

With a little more algebra and trigonometry this reduces to

M12 sin2 β − 1

tan θ = 2cotβ 2 (5.53)

M1 (γ + cos 2β) + 2

Given M1 , γ and β, this equation can be solved to find θ the wedge angle. It can be inverted

to form an equation cubic in sin β to solve explicitly for β. Figure 5.3 gives a plot of oblique

shock angle β versus wedge angle θ.

Note the following features:

132 CHAPTER 5. STEADY SUPERSONIC TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLOW

strong branch β

90 (post-shock subsonic)

57

08

Μ_1 = 2

05

2nd Law

Violation

60

06

Μ_1= 3

52

Maximum wedge

angle for attached

oblique shock Μ_1 = ∞

θ

Μ_1 = 2

04

04-

02-

02

04

30 Μ_1 = 3

52-

weak branch

(post shock supersonic, primarily)

2nd Law

02

Μ_1 = ∞

05-

Violation

γ = 7/5

57-

0 θ

0

01

02

03

04

05

0 10 20 30 40 50

∗ limθ→0 β = arcsin M1 , a Mach wave

∗ relevant branch for most external flows, matches in far-field to acoustic wave,

can exist in internal flows

2 2

∗ total Mach number primarily supersonic, M22 = ũ c+ṽ2 > 1 for nearly all 0 <

2

θ < θmax

2

∗ normal Mach number subsonic, M2n 2

= ũc2 < 1

2

∗ limθ→0 β = π2 , a normal shock wave

∗ relevant branch for some internal flows

ũ2 +ṽ2

∗ total Mach number completely subsonic, M22 = c22

< 1 for all 0 < θ < θmax

2 ũ2

∗ normal Mach number subsonic, M2n = c22

<1

5.3. OBLIQUE SHOCK WAVES 133

– 1 < M1 < M1a , supersonic incoming flow, detached curved oblique shock

– M1a < M1 < ∞, supersonic incoming flow, attached straight oblique shock

– as M1 → ∞, β → β∞

• Consider fixed supersonic freestream Mach number M1 , increasing θ, see Figure 5.5

– small θ, small β, small pressure, density rise

– medium θ, medium β, moderate pressure and density rise

– large θ, curved detached shock, large pressure and density rise

variation wedge from infinity oblique shock

1 < M_1 < M_1a

subsonic, shockless flow slightly supersonic flow moderately supersonic flow

attached attached

oblique shock oblique shock

at limiting wave

angle

β_ min

M_1 -> ∞

M_1a < M_1 < ∞

Example 5.1

Oblique Shock Example

134 CHAPTER 5. STEADY SUPERSONIC TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLOW

M_1

Small Disturbance Moderate Disturbances Large Disturbance

Analysis:

First some preliminaries:

s

p J m

c1 = γRT1 = (1.4) 287 (300 K) = 347.2 (5.54)

kg K s

m m

u1 = M1 c1 = (3.0) 347.2 = 1, 041.6 (5.55)

s s

P1 100, 000 P a kg

ρ1 = = = 1.1614 3 (5.56)

RT1 287 J (300 K) m

kg K

M12 sin2 β − 1

tan θ = 2cotβ (5.57)

M12 (γ + cos 2β) + 2

3.02 sin2 β − 1

tan 20◦ = 2cotβ (5.58)

3.02 (1.4 + cos 2β) + 2

(5.59)

Three solutions:

◦

strong oblique shock; rare β = 82.15 (5.61)

second law violating “rarefaction” shock β = −9.91◦ (5.62)

m m

ũ1 = u1 sin β = 1, 041.6 sin 37.76◦ = 637.83 (5.63)

s s

5.3. OBLIQUE SHOCK WAVES 135

m m

ṽ1 = u1 cos β = 1, 041.6 cos 37.76◦ = 823.47 (5.64)

s s

637.83 m

ũ1 s

M1n = = = 1.837 (5.65)

c1 347.2 ms

ρ1 γ−1 2

= 1+ 2 (5.66)

ρ2 γ+1 (γ − 1) M1n

kg

1.1614 m

3 1.4 − 1 2

= 1+ = 0.413594 (5.67)

ρ2 1.4 + 1 (1.4 − 1) 1.8372

kg

1.1614 m 3 kg

ρ2 = = 2.8081 3 (5.68)

0.41359 m

ρ2 ũ2 = ρ1 ũ1 (5.69)

kg

637.83 m

ρ1 ũ1 1.1614 m 3 s m

ũ2 = = kg

= 263.80 (5.70)

ρ2 2.8081 m3 s

m

ṽ2 = ṽ1 = 823.47 (5.71)

s

u2 = ũ2 sin β + ṽ2 cos β (5.72)

v2 = −ũ2 cos β + ṽ2 sin β (5.73)

m ◦

m m

u2 = 263.80 sin 37.76 + 823.47 cos 37.76◦ = 812.56 (5.74)

s s s

m ◦

m ◦ m

v2 = − 263.80 cos 37.76 + 823.47 sin 37.76 = 295.70 (5.75)

s s s

v2

check on wedge angle θ = arctan (5.76)

u2

295.70 m

s

= arctan = 19.997◦ (5.77)

812.56 m s

P2 = P1 + ρ1 ũ21 − ρ2 ũ22 (5.78)

kg m 2 kg m 2

P2 = 100, 000 P a + 1.1614 3 637.83 − 2.8081 3 263.80 (5.79)

m s m s

P2 = 377, 072 P a (5.80)

P2 377, 072 P a

T2 = = = 467.88 K (5.81)

ρ2 R 2.8081 mkg

287 kgJ K

3

s

p J m

c2 = γRT2 = (1.4) 287 (467.88 K) = 433.58 (5.82)

kg K s

ũ2 263.8 m s

M2n = = = 0.608 (5.83)

c2 433.58 m s

q 2 2

812.56 m + 295.7 m

p

2

u2 + v22

s s

M2 = = = 1.994 (5.84)

c2 433.58 m s

T2 P2

s2 − s1 = cp ln − R ln (5.85)

T1 P1

J 467.88 K J 377, 072 P a

= 1, 004.5 ln − 287 ln (5.86)

kg K 300 K kg K 100, 000 P a

J

s2 − s1 = 65.50 (5.87)

kg K

136 CHAPTER 5. STEADY SUPERSONIC TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLOW

m m

ũ1 = u1 sin β = 1, 041.6 sin 82.15◦ = 1, 031.84 (5.88)

s s

m ◦ m

ṽ1 = u1 cos β = 1, 041.6 cos 82.15 = 142.26 (5.89)

s s

1, 031.84 m

ũ1 s

M1n = = = 2.972 (5.90)

c1 347.2 ms

ρ1 γ−1 2

= 1+ 2 (5.91)

ρ2 γ+1 (γ − 1) M1n

kg

1.1614 m

3 1.4 − 1 2

= 1+ = 0.26102 (5.92)

ρ2 1.4 + 1 (1.4 − 1) 2.9722

kg

1.1614 m 3 kg

ρ2 = = 4.4495 3 (5.93)

0.26102 m

ρ2 ũ2 = ρ1 ũ1 (5.94)

kg m

ρ1 ũ1 1.1614 m3 1, 031.84 s m

ũ2 = = kg

= 269.33 (5.95)

ρ2 4.4495 m3 s

m

ṽ2 = ṽ1 = 142.26 (5.96)

s

u2 = ũ2 sin β + ṽ2 cos β (5.97)

v2 = −ũ2 cos β + ṽ2 sin β (5.98)

m ◦

m m

u2 = 269.33 sin 82.15 + 142.26 cos 82.15◦ = 286.24 (5.99)

s s s

m ◦

m ◦ m

v2 = − 269.33 cos 82.15 + 142.26 sin 82.15 = 104.14 (5.100)

s s s

v2

check on wedge angle θ = arctan (5.101)

u2

104.14 m

s

= arctan = 19.99◦ (5.102)

286.24 m s

P2 = P1 + ρ1 ũ21 − ρ2 ũ22 (5.103)

kg m 2

kg m 2

P2 = 100, 000 P a + 1.1614 3 1, 031.84 − 4.4495 3 269.33 (5.104)

m s m s

P2 = 1, 013, 775 P a (5.105)

P2 1, 013, 775 P a

T2 = = = 793.86 K (5.106)

ρ2 R 4.4495 m kg

3 287 kgJ K

s

p J m

c2 = γRT2 = (1.4) 287 (793.86 K) = 564.78 (5.107)

kg K s

m

ũ2 269.33 s

M2n = = m = 0.477 (5.108)

c2 564.78 s

q

m 2 m 2

286.24 + 104.14

p

u22 + v22 s s

M2 = = m = 0.539 (5.109)

c2 564.78 s

T2 P2

s2 − s1 = cp ln − R ln (5.110)

T1 P1

5.3. OBLIQUE SHOCK WAVES 137

J 793.86 K J 1, 013, 775 P a

= 1, 004.5 ln − 287 ln (5.111)

kg K 300 K kg K 100, 000 P a

J

s2 − s1 = 312.86 (5.112)

kg K

3. “Rarefaction Shock”

m m

ũ1 = u1 sin β = 1, 041.6 sin (−9.91◦) = −179.26 (5.113)

s s

m m

ṽ1 = u1 cos β = 1, 041.6 cos (−9.91◦) = 1, 026.06 (5.114)

s s

−179.26 m

ũ1 s

M1n = = = −0.5163 (5.115)

c1 347.2 m

s

ρ1 γ−1 2

= 1+ 2 (5.116)

ρ2 γ+1 (γ − 1) M1n

!

kg

1.1614 m 3 1.4 − 1 2

= 1+ = 3.2928 (5.117)

ρ2 1.4 + 1 (1.4 − 1) (−0.5163)2

kg

1.1614 m 3 kg

ρ2 = = 0.3527 3 (5.118)

3.2928 m

ρ2 ũ2 = ρ1 ũ1 (5.119)

kg

−179.26 m

ρ1 ũ1 1.1614 m 3 s m

ũ2 = = kg

= −590.27 (5.120)

ρ2 0.3527 m3 s

m

ṽ2 = ṽ1 = 1, 026.06 (5.121)

s

u2 = ũ2 sin β + ṽ2 cos β (5.122)

v2 = −ũ2 cos β + ṽ2 sin β (5.123)

m ◦

m m

u2 = −590.27 sin (−9.91 ) + 1, 026.06 cos (−9.91◦) = 1, 112.34 (5.124)

s s s

m ◦

m ◦ m

v2 = − −590.27 cos (−9.91 ) + 1, 026.06 sin (−9.91 ) = 404.88 (5.125)

s s s

v2

check on wedge angle θ = arctan (5.126)

u2

404.88 m

s

= arctan = 20.00◦ (5.127)

1, 112.34 m s

P2 = P1 + ρ1 ũ21 − ρ2 ũ22 (5.128)

kg m 2

kg m 2

P2 = 100, 000 P a + 1.1614 3 −179.26 − 0.3527 3 −590.27 (5.129)

m s m s

P2 = 14, 433 P a (5.130)

P2 14, 433 P a

T2 = = = 142.59 K (5.131)

ρ2 R 0.3527 mkg

3 287 kgJ K

s

p J m

c2 = γRT2 = (1.4) 287 (142.59 K) = 239.36 (5.132)

kg K s

ũ2 −590.27 ms

M2n = = = −2.47 (5.133)

c2 239.36 m

s

138 CHAPTER 5. STEADY SUPERSONIC TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLOW

q

m 2 m 2

1, 112.34 + 404.88

p

u22 + v22 s s

M2 = = m = 4.95 (5.134)

c2 239.36 s

T2 P2

s2 − s1 = cp ln − R ln (5.135)

T P1

1

J 142.59 K J 14, 433 P a

= 1, 004.5 ln − 287 ln (5.136)

kg K 300 K kg K 100, 000 P a

J

s2 − s1 = −191.5 (5.137)

kg K

By taking a Taylor series expansion of the relationship between β and θ about θ = 0, for

fixed M1 and γ it can be shown that

1 γ+1 M14

tan β = p + θ θ << 1 (5.138)

M12 − 1 4 (M12 − 1)2

1

tan β = p (5.139)

M12 − 1

1

tan2 β = 2 (5.140)

M1 − 1

2 2

sin β sin β 1

= 2 = 2

(5.141)

cos2 β 1 − sin β M1 − 1

1

sin2 β M12

2 = (5.142)

1 − sin β 1 − M12

1

1

sin β = (5.143)

M1

1

β = arcsin (5.144)

M1

After a good deal of algebra and trigonometry, it can also be shown that the pressure

change, change in velocity magnitude, w, and change in entropy for flow over a thin wedge is

P2 − P1 γM12

= p θ (5.145)

P1 M12 − 1

5.4. SMALL DISTURBANCE THEORY 139

w2 − w1 θ

= −p (5.146)

w1 M12 − 1

s2 − s1

∼ θ3 (5.147)

s1

In terms of changes,

∆P γM12

=p ∆θ (5.148)

P1 M12 − 1

∆w ∆θ

= −p 2 (5.149)

w1 M1 − 1

∆s

∼ ∆θ3 (5.150)

s1

Note that a small positive ∆θ gives rise to

• an increase in pressure

Figure 5.6 shows the pattern of waves that one obtains when subjecting a flow to a series

of small turns and the pattern that evolves as the turning radius is shrunk.

This has an analog in one-dimensional unsteady flow. Consider a piston with an initial

velocity of zero accelerating into a tube

140 CHAPTER 5. STEADY SUPERSONIC TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLOW

Wave convergence;

Shock Formation;

Breakdown of Isentropic Assumption

Isentropic Compression

Isentropic Expansion

Wave divergence;

No shock formation

Oblique

Shock

Prandtl-Meyer

Expansion

Figure 5.6: Wave pattern and streamlines for flows undergoing a series of small turns and

for sudden turns

• lead wave decreases temperature (and sound speed) of disturbed flow

• each successive acoustic wave travels slow than lead wave

• no shock formation

If we let ∆θ → 0, the entropy changes become negligibly small relative to pressure and

velocity changes, and the flow is isentropic. The relations can be replaced by differential

relations:

dP γM 2

=√ dθ (5.151)

P M2 − 1

5.5. CENTERED PRANDTL-MEYER RAREFACTION 141

t t

accelerating

piston shock

path

decelerating

slow, acoustic piston

lead wave path

x x

t suddenly t

accelerated

piston path

shock

locus

suddenly

decelerated

piston

path Prandtl-Meyer

expansion fan

x x

Figure 5.7: Schematic of compression and expansion waves for one-dimensional unsteady

piston-driven flow

dw dθ

= −√ (5.152)

w M2 − 1

ds

∼0 (5.153)

s

To γ−1 2

=1+ M (5.154)

T 2

γRTo γ−1 2

=1+ M (5.155)

γRT 2

c2o γ−1 2

2

=1+ M (5.156)

c 2

142 CHAPTER 5. STEADY SUPERSONIC TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLOW

− 1

γ−1 2 2

c = co 1 + M (5.157)

2

− 3

co γ −1 2 2

dc = − 1+ M (γ − 1) MdM (5.158)

2 2

γ−1

dc MdM

= − 2 γ−1 2 (5.159)

c 1+ 2 M

Also

w = cM (5.160)

dw = cdM + Mdc (5.161)

dw dM dc

= + (5.162)

w M c

γ−1

dw dM 2

MdM

= − (5.163)

w M 1 + γ−1

2

M2

dw 1 dM

= γ−1 (5.164)

w 1+ 2 M M 2

dθ 1 dM

− √ = γ−1 (5.165)

M2 − 1 1 + 2 M2 M

√

M2 − 1 dM

−dθ = (5.166)

M 1 + γ−1

2

M2

Now positive θ corresponds to compression and negative θ corresponds to expansion.

Let’s define ν so positive ν gives and expansion.

ν ≡ − θ + θo (5.167)

dν = −dθ (5.168)

Now integrate the expression

√

M2 − 1 dM

dν = (5.169)

M 1 + γ−1

2

M2

Let ν = 0 correspond to M = 1. This effectively selects θo

√

r r

γ+1 γ−1

ν(M) = tan−1 (M 2 − 1) − tan−1 M 2 − 1 (5.170)

γ−1 γ+1

The function ν(M) is called the Prandtl-Meyer function. It is plotted in Figure 5.8.

Many texts tabulate the Prandtl-Meyer function. For a known turning angle, one can find

the Mach number. As the flow is entirely isentropic, all other flow variables can be obtained

through the isentropic relations. Note:

5.5. CENTERED PRANDTL-MEYER RAREFACTION 143

q

π γ+1

• As M → ∞, ν → 2 γ−1

− 1 , corresponds to vacuum conditions

ν (ο) ο

ν_max = 130.5

120

100

80

60 γ = 7/5

10 20 30 40

M

Example 5.2

Centered Expansion

m

Given: Calorically perfect, ideal air with P1 = 100 kP a, T1 = 300 K, u1 = 500 s , turned through

a 30◦ expansion corner.

Analysis:

P1 100 kP a kg

ρ1 =

= = 1.1614 3 (5.171)

RT1 0.287 kgJ K (300 K) m

s

p J m

c1 = γRT1 = 1.4 287 (300 K) = 347.2 (5.172)

kg K s

u1 500 ms

M1 = = = 1.4401 (5.173)

c1 347.2 m s

γ−1 2

To = T1 1 + M1 (5.174)

2

1

To = 300 K 1 + 1.44012 = 424.43 K (5.175)

5

144 CHAPTER 5. STEADY SUPERSONIC TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLOW

γ

γ−1

γ−1 2

Po = P1 1 + M1 (5.176)

2

3.5

1

Po = 100 kP a 1 + 1.44012 = 336.828 kP a (5.177)

5

Now calculate the Prandtl-Meyer function for the freestream:

r r

γ+1 γ−1

q

ν(M1 ) = tan−1

(M12 − 1) − tan−1 M12 − 1 (5.178)

γ−1 γ+1

r r

1.4 + 1 1.4 − 1 p

ν(M1 ) = tan−1 (1.44012 − 1) − tan−1 1.44012 − 1 (5.179)

1.4 − 1 1.4 + 1

ν(M1 ) = 0.177138 rad (5.180)

180◦

ν(M1 ) = 0.177138 rad = 10.1493◦ (5.181)

π rad

The interpretation here is that an initially sonic flow would have had to had turned 10.1493◦ to achieve

a Mach number of M1 = 1.4401.

ν(M2 ) = ν(M1 ) + 30◦ (5.182)

◦ ◦ ◦

ν(M2 ) = 10.1493 + 30 = 40.1493 (5.183)

π rad

ν(M2 ) = 40.1493◦ = 0.700737 rad (5.184)

180◦

A trial and error solution gives the M2 which corresponds to ν(M2 ) = 0.700737 rad:

r r

1.4 + 1 1.4 − 1

q

0.700737 rad = tan−1 (M22 − 1) − tan−1 M22 − 1 (5.185)

1.4 − 1 1.4 + 1

M2 = 2.54431 (5.186)

−1

γ−1 2

T2 = To 1 + M2 (5.187)

2

−1

1

T2 = 424.43 K 1 + 2.543312 = 189.4 K (5.188)

5

γ

− γ−1

γ−1 2

P2 = Po 1 + M2 (5.189)

2

−3.5

1 2

P2 = 336.828 kP a 1 + 2.54331 = 18.43 kP a (5.190)

5

P2 18.43 kP a kg

ρ2 = = = 0.3390 3 (5.191)

RT2 J

0.287 kg K (189.4 K) m

s

p J m

c2 = γRT2 = 1.4 287 (189.4 K) = 275.87 (5.192)

kg K s

m m

w2 = M2 c2 = 2.54431 275.87 = 701.89 (5.193)

s s

5.6. WAVE INTERACTIONS AND REFLECTIONS 145

Shocks and rarefactions can intersect and reflect in a variety of ways.

An oblique shock which reflects from a wall is represented in Figure 5.9.

Μ_1 Μ_2

Μ_3

β_1 β_2

P_3

P_2

interior streamline

P_1 pressure field

P_3

Note:

• analysis just that of two oblique shocks

• flow always turns to be parallel to wall

• angle of incidence not equal angle of reflection due to non-linear effects

• interior pressure profile has two steps

• wall pressure profile has single step

• P2 > 2P1 , that is the pressure is higher than that obtained in the acoustic limit

Two oblique shocks intersect as sketched in Figure 5.10

Note:

• flow always turns to be parallel to wall

• when shocks intersect, flow turns again to be parallel to itself

146 CHAPTER 5. STEADY SUPERSONIC TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLOW

Μ_2

Μ_1 Μ_3

Μ_2

A flow turned by a corner through an oblique shock can be strengthened by a second turn

as sketched in Figure 5.11

am

stre

slip

ra

r

ef

ac

tio

n

• strengthened shock

• slipstream in which pressures match, velocity directions match, but velocity magnitudes

differ

• weak rarefaction wave

5.7. SUPERSONIC FLOW OVER AIRFOILS 147

A flow turned by a corner through an oblique shock can be weakened by a second turn as

sketched in Figure 5.12

The standard problem in flow over an airfoil is to determine the lift and the drag. While in

actual design it is the magnitude of the lift force FL , and drag force FD , that is most crucial,

there exists dimensionless numbers the lift coefficient CL and the drag coefficient CD which

give good relative measures of airfoil performance.

FL

CL ≡ 1 (5.194)

ρ u2 A

2 1 1

FD

CD ≡ 1 (5.195)

ρ u2 A

2 1 1

Though this is the traditional formula, it is probably not the best for interpreting how the

forces vary when flight speed is varied. This is because when u1 , flight speed is varied both

numerator and denominator change. To remedy this, we can instead scale by the ambient

sound speed to define a dimensionless lift force F ∗L and dimensionless drag force F ∗D :

FL

F ∗L ≡ (5.196)

ρ1 c21 A

FD

F ∗D ≡ (5.197)

ρ1 c21 A

148 CHAPTER 5. STEADY SUPERSONIC TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLOW

far

ge

g ed field

din tion Mach

P_1 lea efac wave

T_1 rar

M_1

P_2

α_ο

slipstream

P_2’

le hoc

ad k

s

in

g

far

ed

ge

field

Mach

wave

The simplest problem is that of a flat plate at angle of attack αo . A schematic is illustrated

in Figure 5.13. Note:

• both a shock and rarefaction are attached to the trailing edge to turn the flow to the

horizontal

• the flow regions are separated by a slipstream in which pressure and velocity directions

match

(P2′ −P2 ) cos αo

• FL = (P2′ − P2 ) A cos αo , CL = 1

ρ u2

2 1 1

• FD = (P2′ − P2 ) A sin αo , CD = 1

ρ u2

2 1 1

• other components of drag, skin friction drag and thickness drag are zero due to inviscid

limit and zero thickness limit

5.7. SUPERSONIC FLOW OVER AIRFOILS 149

∆P γM 2

= p 21 ∆θ (5.198)

P1 M1 − 1

γP1 M 2

P2′ = P1 + p 2 1 αo (5.199)

M1 − 1

γP1 M 2

P2 = P1 + p 2 1 (−αo ) (5.200)

M1 − 1

2γP1 M 2

P2′ − P2 = p 2 1 αo (5.201)

M1 − 1

′ 2γP1 u21

P2 − P2 = αo (5.202)

M12 − 1 γP

p 1

ρ1

2

P2′ − P2 = p 2 ρ1 u21 αo (5.203)

M1 − 1

2

FL = p 2 ρ1 u21 αo A cos αo (5.204)

M1 − 1

2

FL = p ρ1 u21 αo A(1) (5.205)

M12 − 1

4αo

CL = p 2 (5.206)

M1 − 1

2

FD = p 2 ρ1 u21 αo A sin αo (5.207)

M1 − 1

2

FD = p 2 ρ1 u21 αo2 A (5.208)

M1 − 1

4 α2

CD = p 2 o (5.209)

M1 − 1

FL 2 M12 αo

F ∗L = = (5.210)

ρ1 c21 A

p

M12 − 1

FD 2 M12 αo2

F ∗D = = (5.211)

ρ1 c21 A

p

M12 − 1

High Mach number limit: F ∗L = 2M1 αo (5.212)

High Mach number limit: F ∗D = 2M1 αo2 (5.213)

Dimensionless lift and drag are plotted versus Mach number in Figure 5.14

Example 5.3

Lift and Drag on an Inclined Flat Plate

150 CHAPTER 5. STEADY SUPERSONIC TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLOW

2

F* = F / ρ 1 c A

L L 1

2

Dimensionless Lift Force

1.75 Flat Plate at Small Angle of Attack

1.5

1.25

1 Invalid Region

0.75

0.5

ο

0.25 α ο= 5

0 2 4 6 8 10

M1

F* = F / ρ c 2 A

D D 1 1

0.5

0.4

Flat Plate at Small Angle of Attack

0.3

0.2

Invalid Region

0.1

ο

α ο= 5

0 2 4 6 8 10

M1

Figure 5.14: Dimensionless Lift and Drag versus Incoming Mach Number for Flat Plate at

Small Angle of Attack

Given: Flat plate, of chord length 2 m, depth 10 m inclined at 20◦ to the horizontal in a freestream

of M1 = 3, P1 = 100 kP a, T1 = 300 K.

s

p J m

c1 = γRT1 = (1.4) 287 (300 K) = 347.2 (5.214)

kg K s

m m

u1 = M1 c1 = (3.0) 347.2 = 1, 041.6 (5.215)

s s

P1 100, 000 P a kg

ρ1 = = = 1.1614 3 (5.216)

RT1 287 J (300 K) m

kg K

γ

γ−1

γ−1 2

Po = P1 1 + M1 (5.217)

2

3.5

1 2

Po = 100 kP a 1 + 3 = 367.327 kP a (5.218)

5

5.7. SUPERSONIC FLOW OVER AIRFOILS 151

In a previous example, we found the oblique shock state under identical conditions:

Now consider the rarefaction.

r r

γ+1 γ−1

q

ν(M1 ) = tan−1 (M12 − 1) − tan−1 M12 − 1 (5.220)

γ−1 γ+1

r r

1.4 + 1 1.4 − 1 2 p

ν(M1 ) = tan−1 (3 − 1) − tan−1 32 − 1 = 0.8691 rad = 49.7973◦ (5.221)

1.4 − 1 1.4 + 1

ν(M2 ) = ν(M1 ) + 20◦ (5.222)

◦ ◦ ◦

ν(M2 ) = 49.7973 + 20 = 69.7973 (5.223)

r r

1.4 + 1 1.4 − 1

q

69.7973◦ = 1.218 rad = tan−1 (M22 − 1) − tan−1 M22 − 1 (5.224)

1.4 − 1 1.4 + 1

M2 = 4.3209 (5.225)

γ

− γ−1

γ−1 2

P2 = Po 1 + M2 (5.226)

2

−3.5

1

P2 = 367.327 kP a 1 + 4.32092 = 1.591 kP a (5.227)

5

FL = (P2′ − P2 ) A cos αo (5.228)

◦

FL = (377, 072 P a − 1, 591 P a) (10 m) (2 m) cos 20 (5.229)

FL = 7, 142, 073 N (5.230)

FL 7, 142, 073 N

CL = 1 2

= 2 (5.231)

2 ρ1 u 1 A 1.1614 kg3 1, 041.6 m (10 m) (2 m)

1

2 m s

CL = 0.5668 (5.232)

FD = (P2′ − P2 ) A sin αo (5.233)

FD = (377, 072 P a − 1, 591 P a) (10 m) (2 m) sin 20◦ (5.234)

FD = 2, 320, 600 N (5.235)

FD 2, 320, 600 N

CD = 1 2

= 2 (5.236)

2 ρ1 u 1 A 1.1614 kg3 1, 041.6 m (10 m) (2 m)

1

2 m s

CD = 0.1842 (5.237)

4αo

Compare with thin airfoil theory: CL thin =p 2 (5.238)

M1 − 1

4 (20◦ ) π180

rad

◦

CL thin = √ = 0.4936 (5.239)

32 − 1

4α2

CD thin = p 2o (5.240)

M1 − 1

2

4 (20◦ ) π180

rad

◦

CD thin = √ = 0.1723 (5.241)

32 − 1

152 CHAPTER 5. STEADY SUPERSONIC TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLOW

The simplest supersonic airfoil with camber for analysis purposes is the diamond shaped

airfoil as sketched in Figure 5.15. The sketch shows the airfoil at zero angle of attack. The

upper half of the wedge is inclined at angle ǫ to the horizontal In this case there will be no

lift but there will be drag. Note the following features:

far field

Mach waves

P_1

T_1

M_1

shock P_4 trailing oblique

2ε shock

Prandtl-Meyer

rarefaction

• turn through isentropic Prandtl-Meyer rarefaction

• far field limit: acoustic (Mach) waves

M1 −1

2

• Thin airfoil limit CD thin = √ 4ǫ2 , same as for flat plate!

M1 −1

A general airfoil with camber is sketched in Figure 5.16. The sketch shows the airfoil at zero

angle of attack. In this case there will be no lift but there will be drag. Note the following

features:

5.7. SUPERSONIC FLOW OVER AIRFOILS 153

Transonic flow exists whenever there is a continuous transition from subsonic to supersonic

flow. One example of a transonic flow is sketched in Figure 5.17 1 which shows an accelerating

airfoil.

Note:

• for slightly supersonic Mach number, new shock approaches from far field

• as supersonic Mach number increases, shock from far field approaches leading edge and

supersonic bubble disappears

1

adopted from Bryson, A. E., “An Experimental Investigation of Transonic Flow Past Two-Dimensional

Wedge and Circular-Arc Sections Using a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” NACA Tech. Note 2560, 1951.

154 CHAPTER 5. STEADY SUPERSONIC TWO-DIMENSIONAL FLOW

Shock

Shock

M<1 M>1 M<1 M<1 M>1 M<1

M>1 Shock

Shock Shock

M>1

M<1 M>1 M>1

M<1

Sonic Locus M>1

M<1

Chapter 6

Linearized Flow

• steady,

• two-dimensional,

• irrotational,

• isentropic,

• ideal.

6.1 Formulation

In lecture a detailed discussion is given in which the linearized velocity potential equation is

obtained:

2

∂2φ ∂2φ

1 − M∞ + 2 = 0. (6.1)

∂x2 ∂y

Here we consider flows in which the Mach number is subsonic, but not negligibly small.

155

156 CHAPTER 6. LINEARIZED FLOW

A discussion is given where it is shown that the pressure coefficient on a supersonic airfoil

can be determined in terms of the pressure coefficient known from subsonic theory:

cpo

cp = p . (6.2)

1 − M∞2

The technique of separation of variables is used to show the subsonic flow over a wavy wall

can be written in terms of the velocity potential as

p !

−2π 1 − M∞ 2 y

U∞ h 2πx

φ(x, y) = p sin exp . (6.3)

1 − M∞2 l l

6.3.1 D’Alembert’s Solution

The D’Alembert solution for the wave equation is shown for supersonic flows:

p p

φ(x, y) = f x + M∞ 2 − 1y + g x − M∞2 − 1y . (6.4)

The solution for flow over a wavy wall is given in detail in lecture.

Chapter 7

Viscous Flow

This chapter will focus on problems in which viscous stress plays an important role in deter-

mining the motion of the fluid. The topic in general is quite broad; to gain understanding

of the fundamental physics, we will restrict our attention to the following limits:

• incompressible fluid

The chapter will consider the governing equations and then solve a few representative

problems.

This section considers the governing equations for the conditions specified for this chapter.

In dimensional non-conservative form, the governing equations are as follows:

∂u ∂v

+ =0

∂x ∂y

2

∂ u ∂2u

∂u ∂u ∂u ∂P

ρ + ρu + ρv =− +µ +

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂x2 ∂y 2

2

∂ v ∂2v

∂v ∂v ∂v ∂P

ρ + ρu + ρv =− +µ +

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2

2

∂2T

∂T ∂T ∂T ∂P ∂P ∂P ∂ T

ρcp +u +v = +u +v +k +

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2

2 2 2 !

∂u 1 ∂u ∂v ∂v

+2µ + + +

∂x 2 ∂y ∂x ∂y

157

158 CHAPTER 7. VISCOUS FLOW

An argument could be made to eliminate the viscous dissipation term and the pressure

derivatives in the energy equation. The argument is subtle and based on the low Mach

number limit which corresponds to incompressibility.

Consider a channel flow driven by plate motion See Figure 7.1

U

T = T0

y=h

P0 P0

y

x

y=0

x=0 T = T0

The mechanics of such a flow can be described by stripping away many extraneous terms

from the governing equations.

Take

∂u ∂T

• fully developed velocity and temperature profiles: ∂x

≡ 0, ∂x

≡0

∂

• steady flow ∂t

≡0

∂v

=0 (7.1)

∂y

v(x, y) = f (x) (7.2)

and since in order to prevent mass flowing through the wall boundaries, v(x, 0) = v(x, h) = 0,

thus

7.2. COUETTE FLOW 159

v(x, y) = 0 (7.3)

∂u

Since ∂x

= 0, ∂u

∂t

= 0 and ∂T

∂x

= 0, ∂T

∂t

= 0, we have at most,

u = u(y) (7.4)

T = T (y) (7.5)

The y momentum equation has no information and x momentum and energy reduce to the

following:

d2 u

0=µ 2 (7.6)

dy

2

d2 T

du

0=k 2 +µ (7.7)

dy dy

d2 u

=0 (7.8)

dy 2

du

= C1 (7.9)

dy

u(y) = C1 y + C2 (7.10)

y

u(y) = U (7.11)

h

Shear stress:

∂u

τyx = µ (7.12)

∂y

U

τyx =µ (7.13)

h

The energy equation becomes

2

d2 T

µ du

2

=− (7.14)

dy k dy

160 CHAPTER 7. VISCOUS FLOW

d2 T µ U2

= − (7.15)

dy 2 k h2

dT µ U2

=− y + C1 (7.16)

dy k h2

1 µ U2 2

T (y) = − y + C1 y + C2 (7.17)

2 k h2

Now T (0) = To and T (h) = To . This fixes the constants, so

1 µ 2 y y 2

T (y) = U − + To (7.18)

2k h h

In dimensionless form this becomes

1 µcp U 2 y y 2

T − To

= − (7.19)

To 2 k cp To h h

T − To P r Ec y y 2

= − (7.20)

To 2 h h

µ

µcp ρ ν momentum dif f usivity

Prandtl Number: Pr ≡ = k

= = (7.21)

k ρcp

α thermal dif f usivity

U2 kinetic energy

Eckert Number: Ec ≡ = (7.22)

cp To thermal energy

Now

dT 1 µ U2

= (h − 2y) (7.23)

dy 2 k h2

dT 1 U2

qy = −k = µ 2 (2y − h) (7.24)

dy 2 h

µU 2

qy (0) = − (7.25)

2h

Note:

• at lower wall, heat flux into wall; heat generated in fluid conducted to wall

7.3. SUDDENLY ACCELERATED FLAT PLATE 161

h

Also since Tmax occurs at y = 2

1µ 2

Tmax = U + To (7.26)

8k

Note:

q (0) q (0)∆y

y y

Nu ≡ k∆T = (7.27)

∆y k∆T

µU 2 h

2h 2

Nu = =2 (7.28)

k 18 µk U 2

The problem of pulling a plate suddenly in a fluid which is initially at rest is often known

as Stokes’ First Problem or Rayleigh’s problem.

7.3.1 Formulation

Consider a channel flow driven by a suddenly accelerated plate. See Figure 7.2 Initially,

t<0

• fluid at rest

• plate at rest

For t ≥ 0

Assume:

∂u

• fully developed flow ∂x

= 0, ∂T

∂x

=0

162 CHAPTER 7. VISCOUS FLOW

u(∞, t) = 0

T(∞, t) = T0 u (y, 0) = 0

T(y, t) = T0

ρ, µ, P0

u = u (y, t) 1/2

y δ ∼ (µ t / ρ)

u(0,t) = U

U

T(0, t) = T0

Again from mass we deduce that v(x, y, t) = 0. The x momentum equation reduces to

∂u ∂2u

ρ =µ 2 (7.29)

∂t ∂y

The initial and boundary conditions are

u(y, 0) = 0 (7.30)

u(0, t) = U (7.31)

u(∞, t) = 0 (7.32)

This problem is solved in detail in lecture. The solution for the velocity field is shown to be

Z y/√νt

u 2

exp −s2 ds

=1− √ (7.33)

Uo π 0

The starting transient problem for plane Couette flow can be formulated as

∂u ∂2u

=ν 2 (7.34)

∂t ∂y

u(y, 0) = 0, u(0, t) = Uo , u(h, t) = 0. (7.35)

In class a detailed solution is presented via the technique of separation of variables. The

solution is

7.5. BLASIUS BOUNDARY LAYER 163

∞

−n2 π 2 νt

u y 2X1 nπy

=1− − exp sin (7.36)

Uo h π n=1 n h2 h

The problem of flow over a flat plate in the absence of pressure gradient is formulated and

solved using the classical approach of Blasius.

7.5.1 Formulation

After suitable scaling and definition of similarity variables, discussed in detail in class, the

following third order non-linear ordinary differential equation is obtained:

d3 f 1 d2 f

+ f = 0, (7.37)

dη 3 2 dη 2

df df

= 0, = 1, f |η=0 = 0. (7.38)

dη η=0 dη η→∞

The solution is used to obtain the classical formulae for skin friction coefficient:

0.664

Cf = √ , (7.39)

Rex

and drag coefficient:

1.328

CD = √ . (7.40)

ReL

164 CHAPTER 7. VISCOUS FLOW

Chapter 8

Acoustics

This chapter outlines the brief introduction to acoustics given in class in somewhat more

detail.

8.1 Formulation

We reduce the Euler equations for isentropic flow to the following equations where quantities

with a hat are understood to be small perturbations about the ambient state, denoted with

a subscript of ”o”.

∂ ρ̂

+ ρo ∇ · v̂ = 0 (8.1)

∂t

∂ v̂

ρo + ∇ · P̂ = 0 (8.2)

∂t

P̂ = c2o ρ̂. (8.3)

Introducing the velocity potential ∇φ = v̂ and employing further manipulation allows the

equation to be written as the wave equation:

∂2φ

= c2o ∇2 φ. (8.4)

∂t2

∂φ

P̂ = −ρo , (8.5)

∂t

v̂ = ∇φ, (8.6)

∂φ

ρ̂ = −ρo c2o . (8.7)

∂t

165

166 CHAPTER 8. ACOUSTICS

The D’Alembert solution for planar waves is shown in class to be

P̂ = −ρo co f ′ (x + co t) + ρo co g ′ (x − co t), (8.9)

û = f ′ (x + co t) + g ′ (x − co t), (8.10)

(8.11)

The D’Alembert solution for spherical waves is shown in class to be

1 1

φ = f (r + co t) + g(r − co t), (8.12)

r r

ρo co ′ ρo co ′

P̂ = − f (r + co t) + g (r − co t), (8.13)

r r

1 ′ 1

û = f (r + co t) + g ′(r − co t), (8.14)

r r

(8.15)

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