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WORKED EXAMPLES

FOR THE DESIGN OF CONCRETE BUILDINGS



Based on BSI publication DO ENV 1992-1-1: 1992.

Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. Part 1. General rules and rules for buildings.

This book of worked examples has been prepared by:

British Cement Association Ove Arup & Partners

and

S. B. Tietz & Partners

The work was monitored by the principal authors:

A. W. Beeby BSe. PhD, CEng, MICE, MIStructE, FACI

Professor of Structural Design, Dept of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds (formerly Director of Design and Construction, British Cement Association),

R. S. Narayanan BE(Hons), MSe, DIC, CEng, FIStructE

Partner, S. B. Tietz & Partners, Consulting Engineers,

and

R. Whittle MA(Cantab), CEng, MICE Associate Director, Ove Arup & Partners,

and edited by:

A, J. Threlfall BEng, DIC

Consultant (formerly a Principal Engineer at the British Cement Association).

This publication was jointly funded by the British Cement Association and the Department of the Environment to promote and assist the use of DD ENV 1992-1-1 Eurocode 2: Part 1.

The British Cement Association, BCA, is a research and information body dedicated to furthering the efficient and proper design and execution of concrete construction, Membership of BCA's Centre for Concrete Information is open to all involved in the construction process. BCA is funded by subscriptions from cement producers, through joint ventures, sales of publications, information and training courses, and the carrying out of research contracts.

Full details are available from the Centre for Concrete Information, British Cement Association, Century House, Telford Avenue, Crowthorne, Berkshire RG11 6YS, Telephone (0344) 725700, Fax (0344) 727202.

Ove Arup & Partners is an international firm offering a wide range of design and specialist services for the construction industry.

S. B. Tietz & Partners offer consultancy services in civil, structural and traffic engineering.

A catalogue and prices for BCA publications can be obtained from Publication Sales, Centre for Concrete Information, at the above address.

43.505

First published 1994 ISBN 0 7210 1446 1 Price group M

© British Cement Association 1994

Published by British Cement Association Century House, Telford Avenue, Crowthorne, Berks RG11 6YS Telephone (0344) 762676 Fax (0344) 761214 From 15 April 1995 the STD Code will be (01344)

All advice or information from the British Cement Association is intended for those who will evaluate the significance and limitations of its contents and take responsibiiity to. its use and application. No liability (including that for negligence) for any loss resulting from such advice or information IS accepted. Readers should note that all BCA publications are subject to revision from time to time and should therefore ensure that they are in possession of the latest version.

FOR THE DESIGN OF CONCRETE BUILDINGS

Based on BSI publication DD ENV 1992-1-1: 1992.

Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. Part 1. General rules and rules for buildings.

Published by the British Cement Association in conjunction with:

Ove Arup & Partners S.B. Tietz & Partners The Department of the

13 Fitzroy Street 14 Clerkenwell Close Environment

London W1 P 6BQ Clerkenwell 2 Marsham Street

Tel: 071-636 1531 London EC1R OPQ London SW1P 3EB

Tel: 071-490 5050 Tel: 071-276 3000

July 1994

FOREWORD

Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures, Part 1: General rules and rules for buildings (EC2)(1) sets out both the principles for the design of all types of concrete structure, and design rules for buildings. Rules for other types of structure and particular areas of technology, including precast concrete elements and structures, will be covered in other parts of EC2.

EC2 contains a considerable number of parameters for which only indicative values are given. The appropriate values for use in the UK are set out in the National Application Document (NAD)(l) which has been drafted by BSI. The NAD also includes a number of amendments to the rules in EC2 where, in the draft for development stage of EC2, it was decided that the EC2 rules either did not apply, or were incomplete. Two such areas are the design for fire resistance and the provision of ties, where the NAD states that the rules in BS 8110(2) should be applied.

Attention is drawn to Approved Document A (Structure) related to the Building Regulations 1991(3), which states that Eurocode 2, including the National Application Document, is considered to provide appropriate guidance for the design of concrete buildings in the United Kingdom.

Enquiries of a technical nature concerning these worked examples may be addressed to the authors directly, or through the BCA, or to the Building Research Establishment.

--------------------------------------~ 2 r---------------------------------------

CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS

1.1 Introduction 5

1.2 Symbols 5

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

Introduction 15

Basic details of structure,

materials and loading . . . . . . . .. 15

2.3 Floor slab 17

2.4 Main beam 20

2.5 Edge beam (interior span) 30

2.6 Columns 34

2.7 Foundation 39

2.8 Shear wall 43

2.9 Staircase 49

2 2.1 2.2

3 BEAMS

3.1 Introduction 53

3.2 Design methods for shear .. 53

3.3 Shear resistance with concentrated

loads close to support . . . . . . .. 63 3.4 Design method for torsion . . . .. 70

3.5 Slenderness limits 81

4 SLABS

4.1 Solid and ribbed slabs 82

4.2 Flat slabs 109

5 COWMNS

5.1 Introduction 132

5.2 Capacity check of a section by

strain compatibility 132

5.3 Biaxial bending capacity of

a section . . . . . . . . . . .. 137

5.4 Braced slender column 141

5.5 Slender column with biaxial

bending 143

5.6 Classification of structure 147

5.7 Sway structures 151

6 WALLS

6.1 Introduction 154

6.2 Example 154

7 FOUNDATIONS

7.1 Ground bearing footings 158

7.2 Pilecap design 172

8 SPECIAL DETAILS

8.1 Corbels................... 180

8.2 Nibs 185

8.3 Simply supported ends 188

8.4 Surface reinforcement . . . . . . .. 191

9 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

9.1 Introduction 193

9.2 Design data 193

9.3 Serviceability limit state 195

9.4 Ultimate limit state 204

9.5 Minimum and maximum areas of

reinforcement 207

9.6 Reinforcement summary 207

10 SERVICEABILITY CHECKS BY CALCULATION

10.1 Deflection 208

10.2 Cracking 219

11 DEEP BEAMS

11.1 Introduction 222

11.2 Example 222

12 LOAD COMBINATIONS

12.1 Introduction 236

12.2 Example 1

- frame 237

12.3 Example 2

- continuous beam 1 240

12.4 Example 3

- continuous beam 2 243

12.5 Example 4

- tank 245

13 DESIGN OF BEAM AND COWMN SECTIONS

13.1 Concrete grades 246

13.2 Singly reinforced rectangular

beam sections. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 246 13.3 Compression reinforcement . .. 248

13.4 Flanged beams 249

13.5 Symmetrically reinforced

rectangular columns . . . . . . .. 249

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 256

------------------------------------~ 3 r------------------------------------

1 INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS II

1.1 Introduction and symbols

The main objective of this publication is to illustrate through worked examples how EC2(1) may be used in practice. It has been prepared for engineers who are generally familiar with design practice in the UK, particularly to BS 8110(2).

The worked examples relate primarily to in-situ concrete building structures. The designs are in accordance with EC2: Part 1 as modified by the UK National Application Docurnent'", Where necessary, the information given in EC2 has been supplemented by guidance taken from other documents.

The core example, in Section 2, is a re-design of the in-situ concrete office block used in the BCA publication Designed and detailed (BS 8110: 1985), by Higgins & Rogers(4). Other design aspects and forms of construction are fully explored by means of further examples in Sections 3 to 12.

Equations and charts for the design of beam and column sections, taken from the Concise Eurocode for the design of concrete buildings (5) , are given in Section 13. Publications used in the preparation of this book, and from which further information may be obtained, are listed in the References. Unless otherwise stated, all references to BS 8110 refer to Part 1.

Two conventions have been adopted in the preparation of this book. Statements

followed by' OK' mark places where the calculated vaiue is shown

to be satisfactory. Green type is used to draw attention to key information such as the reinforcement to be provided.

The calculations are cross-referenced to the relevant clauses in EC2 and, where appropriate, to other documents: all references in the right-hand margins are to EC2 unless indicated otherwise.

The symbols used throughout the publication are listed and defined below, and are generally those used in EC2 itself.

A

1.2 Symbols

Ac Act Act,ext Ak Ap As A'

s

As,min As,prav As,req As,surf ASf As!

Area of cross-section

Area of concrete cross-section

Area of concrete within tensile zone

Area of concrete tensile zone external to links

Area enclosed within centre-line of thin-walled section Area of prestressing tendons

Area of tension or, in columns, total longitudinal reinforcement Area of compression reinforcement

Minimum area of tension or, in columns, total longitudinal reinforcement Area of tension reinforcement provided

Area of tension reinforcement required

Area of surface reinforcement

Area of transverse reinforcement within flange of beam

Area of tension reinforcement effective at a section or, for torsion, area of additional longitudinal reinforcement

Area of shear reinforcement or torsion links

Minimum area of shear reinforcement

Effective modulus of elasticity of concrete

------------------------------------~ 5 r-------------------------------------

INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS

e; Eem Es

Fe

Fs

FSd FSd,sup Ft

Fv

II In Ib Ie Ieol Islab

t,

Iy

J

M

Me Mer «. »:

Mo MAd «:

M' Ad,e

MAd,S

Secant modulus of elasticity of concrete at transfer Secant modulus of elasticity of concrete

Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement or prestressing steel Force due to concrete in compression at ultimate limit state

Force in tension reinforcement or prestressing tendons at ultimate limit state Design value of tie force in pilecap

Design value of support reaction

Tie force in corbel or due to accidental action

Vertical force applied to corbel or, for sway classification of structures, sum of all vertical loads under service conditions

Characteristic value of permanent action or dead load

Characteristic dead floor load

Characteristic dead roof load

Overall depth of tank

Horizontal force applied to corbel Second moment of area of cross-section

Second moment of area of uncracked concrete section Second moment of area of cracked concrete section Second moment of area of beam section

Second moment of area of concrete section

Second moment of area of column section

Second moment of area of slab section

Second moment of area of section in x direction Second moment of area of section in y direction St Venant torsional stiffness of rectangular section St Venant torsional stiffness of total section

Deflection-curvature factor dependent upon the shape of the bending moment diagram

Reduction factor for calculation of second order eccentricity

Coefficient taking account of decrease in curvature due to increasing axial force

Bending moment

Moment of force, Fe' about tension reinforcement Moment causing cracking

Moment of force, Nc' about x axis

Moment of force, Ne, about y axis

First order moment

Design moment of resistance

Moment of force, NAd,e' about mid-depth of section Moment of force, N' Ad,e' about mid-depth of section Moment of force, NAd,s' about mid-depth of section

--------------------------------------~ 6 ~--------------------------------------

INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS

MSd MSdx

MSdy

MSd1 MSd2 MSd,cs MSd,ms Mspan »:

Mt,max Mx My

N

Pay r.: r: r.:

Po

-:

PI Ok

°kf °kr

RA Rs S

Design value of applied moment Design moment in x direction Design moment in y direction First order moment at end 1

First order moment at end 2 Design moment in column strip Design moment in middle strip Moment in span

Moment at support

Maximum moment transfer value Moment about x axis

Moment about y axis

Axial force

Axial force due to concrete in compression Design resistance to axial force

Design resistance to axial force due to concrete

Design resistance to axial force due to concrete of hypothetical section of depth x > h

Design resistance to axial force due to reinforcement Design value of applied axial force

Mean applied axial force

Prestressing force or point load

Average prestressing force along tendon profile Initial prestressing force at transfer

Mean effective prestressing force at time t Final prestressing force after all losses

Maximum initial prestressing force at active end of tendon Required prestressing force

Final prestressing force at service

Characteristic value of variable action or imposed load Characteristic value of imposed floor load Characteristic value of imposed roof load

Reaction at support A

Reaction at support B

First moment of area of reinforcement about centroid of section

First moment of area of reinforcement about centroid of uncracked section First moment of area of reinforcement about centroid of cracked section Design value of tensile force in longitudinal reinforcement

Maximum torsional moment resisted by concrete struts

Maximum torsional moment resisted by reinforcement

-----------------------------------------;7 ~----------------------------------------

INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS

TSd TSdft TSd,tot T

Sd,w

VA

VB

VCd Vext

~nt VRd1

VRd2 VRd3

VSd VSdx VSdY

Vsd,max VWd

Wb WCP Wk

Wt

a

Design value of applied torsional moment Torsional moment applied to flange

Total applied torsional moment

Torsional moment applied to web

Shear force at support A

Shear force at support B

Design shear resistance provided by concrete Shear force at exterior support

Shear force at interior support

Design shear resistance of member without shear reinforcement Maximum design shear force to avoid crushing of notional concrete struts Design shear resistance of member with shear reinforcement

Design value of applied shear force

Design shear force in x direction

Design shear force in y direction

Maximum design shear force

Design shear resistance provided by shear reinforcement Section modulus at bottom fibre

Section modulus at centroid of tendons

Characteristic value of wind load

Section modulus at top fibre

Distance or deflection or maximum drape of tendon profile Deflection based on uncracked section

Deflection based on cracked section

Distance of load from face of support (corbel) or from centre-line of hanger bars (nib)

Deflection due to concrete shrinkage

Distance from face of support to effective centre of bearing Horizontal displacement of the envelope line of tensile force Total deflection

Distance between positions of zero and maximum bending Deflection at distance x along span

Values of ai at ends of span

Width of section or flange width or lateral cover in plane of lap Average width of trapezoidal compression zone

Width of effective moment transfer strip

Effective width of flange

Minimum width of support beam

Width of rib

Width of support

------------------------------------~ 8 r-------------------------------------

INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS

b, Mean width of section over the tension zone

bw Minimum width of section over the effective depth

c Cover to longitudinal torsion reinforcement

C1,C2 Support widths at ends of beam

d Effective depth of section

d' Depth to compression reinforcement

day Average effective depth for both directions

db Depth to bar considered

d Distance of critical section for punching shear from centroid of column

erit

d, Effective depth of flange

dH Effective depth for punching shear check in column head

<; Maximum effective depth for both directions

«; Minimum effective depth for both directions

dx Effective depth in x direction

dy Effective depth in y direction

d, Effective depth to bars in layer 1

d2 Effective depth to bars in layer 2

ea Additional eccentricity due to geometrical imperfections

eay Additional eccentricity in the y direction

eaz Additional eccentricity in the z direction

ee Equivalent eccentricity at critical section

eoy First order eccentricity in y direction

e01,e02 First order eccentricities at ends of column

etot Total eccentricity

ey Eccentricity in y direction

ez Eccentricity in z direction

e2 Second order eccentricity

e2y Second order eccentricity in y direction

e2z Second order eccentricity in z direction

fb Stress in concrete at bottom fibre

fbd Design value of ultimate bond stress

fed Design cylinder strength of concrete

te; Cube strength of concrete at transfer

fek Characteristic cylinder strength of concrete

fet,elf Effective tensile strength of concrete at time cracking is expected to occur

fetm Mean value of axial tensile strength of concrete

feu Characteristic cube strength of concrete

tpd Design tensile strength of prestressing steel

'; Characteristic tensile strength of prestressing steel

--------------------------------------~9 ~--------------------------------------

INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS

fRdu Design value of ultimate bearing stress

fs Stress in reinforcement

" Stress in concrete at top fibre

fYd Design yield strength of reinforcement

fYk Characteristic yield strength of reinforcement

fYld Design yield strength of longitudinal torsion reinforcement

fYWd Design yield strength of shear reinforcement or torsion links

fywk Characteristic yield strength of shear reinforcement or torsion links

gk Characteristic dead load per unit area

h Overall depth of section or liquid in tank

h' Reduced value of h for separate check about minor axis of column section

with biaxial eccentricities

ha Active height of deep beam

he Overall depth of corbel at face of support

h, Overall depth of flange

hH Depth of column head

hmax Larger dimension of rectangular section

hmin Smaller dimension of rectangular section

htot Total height of structure in metres

Radius of gyration of section

k Coefficient or factor

kA Restraint coefficient at end A

kB Restraint coefficient at end B

kbottom Restraint coefficient at bottom

ke Minimum reinforcement coefficient associated with stress distribution

ktop Restraint coefficient at top

k, Crack spacing coefficient associated with bond characteristics

k2 Crack spacing coefficient associated with strain distribution

I Length or span

I' Length of tendon over which anchorage slip is taken up

Ib Basic anchorage length

Ib,mln Minimum anchorage length

Ib,net Required anchorage length

Ie Diameter of circular column

leol Height of column between centres of restraints

left Effective span

left,slab Effective span of slab

IH Distance from column face to edge of column head

In Clear distance between faces of support

--------------------------------------~10r_--------------------------------------

INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS

pi

q

s

u

Distance between positions of zero bending or effective height of column or, for deep beams, clear distance between faces of support

Length of compression flange between lateral supports

Required lap length or floor to ceiling height in metres

Minimum lap length

Greater of distances in metres between centres of columns, frames or walls supporting any two adjacent floor spans in direction of tie under consideration

Effective span in x direction Effective span in y direction

Lengths between centres of supports or overall dimensions of rectangular column head

Minimum design moment per unit width

Ultimate design load per unit area or number of tendons or number of sub-divisions

Average loss of prestressing force per unit length due to friction Equivalent load per unit length due to prestressing force profile Characteristic imposed load per unit area

Radius of bend or radius of curvature

Radius of curvature based on uncracked section Radius of curvature based on cracked section Radius of curvature due to concrete shrinkage

Radius of curvature due to concrete shrinkage based on uncracked section Radius of curvature due to concrete shrinkage based on cracked section Total radius of curvature

Spacing of shear reinforcement or torsion links or horizontal length of tendon profile

Spacing of transverse reinforcement within flange of beam Maximum spacing of shear reinforcement or torsion links Average final crack spacing

Thickness of supporting element or wall of thin-walled section Minimum thickness of wall

Circumference of concrete section or critical section for punching shear Circumference of area Ak

Design shear resistance per unit length of critical perimeter, for slab without shear reinforcement

Maximum design shear resistance per unit length of critical perimeter, for slab with shear reinforcement

Design shear resistance per unit length of critical perimeter, for slab with shear reinforcement

Design value of shear force per unit length of critical perimeter Support width or quasi-permanent load per unit length

Design crack width

--------------------------------------~11 ~--------------------------------------

INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS

x

(3

'Yc

'Yp 'Yo 'Ys

Xl

Minimum width of support

Neutral axis depth or distance along span from face of support or distance along tendon or column dimension in x direction

Maximum depth of concrete in compression in direction of minor axis for column section with biaxial eccentricities

Depth of concrete in compression at position of minor axis for column section with biaxial eccentricities

Drape of tendon at distance x along profile or column dimension in y direction

Distance from centroid of uncracked section to extreme tension fibre Lever arm of internal forces

Distance from centroid of section to centroid of tendons

y

a Reduction factor for concrete compressive stress or modular ratio or deformation parameter

a) Value of parameter based on uncracked section

Value of parameter based on cracked section Effectiveness coefficient for anchorage Effective modular ratio

Reduction coefficient for assumed inclination of structure due to imperfections

Moment coefficients in x and y directions Effectiveness coefficient for lap

Coefficient with several applications including shear resistance enhancement, effective height of column, St Venant torsional stiffness, punching shear magnification, design crack width

Reduced value of shear resistance enhancement coefficient Coefficient associated with bond characteristics

Coefficient associated with duration of load

Partial safety factor for concrete material properties Partial safety factor for actions

Partial safety factor for permanent action or dead load

Partial safety factor for permanent action, in calculating lower design value Partial safety factor for permanent action, in calculating upper design value Partial safety factor for actions associated with prestressing force

Partial safety factor for variable action or imposed load

Partial safety factor for steel material properties of reinforcement or prestressing tendons

Ratio of redistributed moment to moment before redistribution Strain in concrete at bottom of section

Basic concrete shrinkage strain

Final concrete shrinkage strain

Minimum strain in tendons to achieve design tensile strength Strain in tendons corresponding to prestressing force P rn.t

--------------------------------------~12r_--------------------------------------

INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS

fs Strain in reinforcement

fs(t,tJ Estimated concrete shrinkage strain

fsm Mean strain in reinforcement allowing for tension stiffening effect of concrete

fu Ultimate compressive strain in concrete

fyd Initial yield strain in reinforcement

r Distribution coefficient

'Yj Moment coefficient

e Angle of rotation or angle between concrete struts and longitudinal axis

A Slenderness ratio

Acrit Critical slenderness ratio

Am Mean slenderness ratio of all columns in storey considered

Amin Slenderness ratio beyond which column is considered slender

Il Coefficient of friction between tendon and duct or applied moment ratio

Illim Limiting value of applied moment ratio for singly reinforced section

v Efficiency factor or assumed inclination of structure due to imperfections

vred Reduced value of assumed inclination of structure

Vu Longitudinal force coefficient

P Tension reinforcement ratio or density of liquid

p' Compression reinforcement ratio

PI Longitudinal tension reinforcement ratio

Pix' Ply Longitudinal tension reinforcement ratios in x and y directions

p, Effective reinforcement ratio

Pw Shear reinforcement ratio

P Minimum shear reinforcement ratio

w,min

Principal and secondary reinforcement ratios in solid slabs

Stress in concrete adjacent to tendons due to self-weight and any other permanent actions

Average stress in concrete due to axial force

Initial stress in concrete adjacent to tendons due to prestress

Initial stress in tendons immediately after stressing (pre-tensioning) or immediately after transfer (post-tensioning)

Stress in tension reinforcement calculated on basis of cracked section Value of as under loading conditions causing first cracking

Basic design shear strength

Factor defining representative value of variable action Value of 1/1 for rare load combination

Value of 1/1 for frequent loading

Value of 1/1 for quasi-permanent loading Mechanical ratio of tension reinforcement Mechanical ratio of compression reinforcement

w

w'

----------------------------------------~13~---------------------------------------

INTRODUCTION AND SYMBOLS

Limiting value of w for singly reinforced section Total vertical force applied to frame at floor j Anchorage slip or wedge set

Variation of longitudinal force in section of flange over distance a

v

Equivalent horizontal force acting on frame at floor j due to assumed imperfections

ilMRd,c Moment of force ilNRd,C about mid-depth of section

ilMsd Reduction in design moment at support

E

J

Design resistance to axial force due to concrete in area of hypothetical section lying outside actual section

Average loss of prestressing force due to elastic deformation of concrete Loss of prestressing force at active end of tendon due to anchorage slip Loss of prestressing force due to creep, shrinkage and relaxation at time t

ilP (x) Loss of prestressing force due to friction between tendon and duct at distance

I' x from active end of tendon

.6.a pr

cI> cI>(t,t)

cI>( DO,t)

Variation of stress in tendon due to relaxation Bar size or duct diameter or creep coefficient

Creep coefficient, defining creep between times t and t , related to elastic

o

deformation at 28 days

Final creep coefficient

--------------------------------------~14r_--------------------------------------

2 COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE II

2.1 Introduction

Design calculations for the main elements of a simple in-situ concrete office block are set out. The structure chosen is the same as that used in Higgins and Rogers' Designed and detailed (BS 8110: 1985Y4). Calculations are, wherever possible, given in the same order as those in Higgins and Rogers enabling a direct comparison to be made between BS 8110(2) and EC2(1) designs. For the same reason, a concrete grade C32/40 is used. This is not a standard grade recognized by EC2 or ENV 206(6), which gives grade C35/45 in Table NA.1. Some interpolation of the tables in EC2 has, therefore, been necessary.

The example was deliberately chosen to be simple and to cover a considerable range of member types. Comparison shows that, for this type of simple structure, there is very little difference between BS 8110 and EC2 in the complexity of calculation necessary or the results obtained.

2.2 Basic details of structure, materials and loading These are summarized in Table 2.1 and Figure 2.1.

Table 2.1 Design information

Intended use
Laboratory and office block
Fire resistance
1 hour for all elements
Loading (excluding self-weight of structure)
Roof - imposed (kN/m2) 1.5
- finishes (kN/m2) 1.5
Floors - imposed including partition allowance (kN/m2) 4.0
- finishes (kN/m2) 0.5
Stairs - imposed (kN/m2) 4.0
- finishes (kN/m2) 0.5
External cladding (kN/m) 5.0
Wind load
Speed (m/sec) 40
Factors
S1 1.0
S2 0.83
S3 1.0
c, 1.1
Exposure class
2b (external) and 1 (internal)
Subsoil conditions
Stiff clay - no sulphates
Allowable bearing pressure (kN/m2) 200
Foundation type
Reinforced concrete footings to columns and walls
Materials
Grade C32/40 concrete with 20 mm maximum aggregate
Characteristic strength of main bars (N/mm2) 460
Characteristic strength of links (N/mm2) 250
Self,weight of concrete (kN/m3j 24 ------------------------------------~15r_------------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

------------------------------------~16~------------------------------------

~ ® ~' '~ ,~)~) (9 (~ ~ cp

I a @ 5000040,000 I

~i·~~~~:~~~~--

O~O~I~f-i-r-i-i-i-~O

':' I I . I ~b I I I m

0-- 0-- 0--- 0 0-- 0 __ 0 __

wall

TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN

R CD

sz__ I==-~'__:=t-===!=

3 s:z_____

2 ~ ~---~----4

1 s;z____

G :s;z___

0 Notes ..
0
'"
m I. All columns 300 x 300
@ 1. Main beams 500 x 300
'"
>- 3. Edge beams 350 x 300
~
0 4 Internal column bases
gJ; 2750 x 2750 x 600
s TYPICAL CROSS SECTION

Notes:

1. N .S wind force resisted by end shear walls

2. Lateral bracing in E-W direction provided by staircase, and infill masonry panels, on gri d 11 H - J. and grid 31 H-j

t wind direction

WIND RESISTANCE

P C

c>< L
+' +' +'
Int. c: Int. e e Int.
-
<--,. .,_,. ........ ....,. -. "'-_,. -<-, ......,.
~ p

Key·

P - Peripheral tie Int. - I nternal tie

( - Cct urnn (external) tie

W - Wall (external) he

P

( P C

(

C

TIE PROVISION - horizontal ties

Ft 0 ( 20 + 4n 0) = 20 + 16 = 36 -e 60 kN

Figure 2.1 Structural details

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.3 Floor slab

2.3.1 Idealization of structure

Consider as a one-way continuous slab on knife-edge supports and design a typical 5 m interior span where

fCk 32 N/mm2

fYk = 460 N/mm2

2.3.2 Cover for durability and fire resistance

Nominal cover for exposure class 1 (internal) is 20 mm.

Cover should not be less than the bar size when 20 mm maximum aggregate size is used.

175 mm slab with 20 mm cover will give 1.5 hours fire resistance .... OK

Use 20 mm nominal cover bottom and top J

L___ _

2.3.3 Loading

Self-weight of slab = 0.175 x 24 Finishes = 0.5 kN/m2

Characteristic permanent load (gk) = 4.7 kN/m2

4.2 kN/m2

Characteristic variable load (qk)

4.0 kN/m2

1.35 x 4.7 1.5 x 4.0

6.35 kN/m2 6.0 kN/m2

Design permanent load Design variable load

2.3.4 Design moments and shears

Moments have been obtained using moment coefficients given in Reynolds and Steedman's Reinforced concrete designer's handbook?), Table 33.

Support moment = 0.079 x 6.35 x 52 + 0.106 x 6.0 x 52 = 28.4 kNm/m

Span moment = 0.046 x 6.35 x 52 + 0.086 x 6.0 x 52 Design shear force = 0.5 x 6.35 x 5 + 0.6 x 6.0 x 5

20.2 kNm/m 33.9 kN/m

2.3.5 Reinforcement 2.3.5.1 Support

Assume effective depth

175 - 20 - 6

149 mm

= 0.040

0.048, xld

0.092 (Section 13, Table 13.1)

NAD Table 6 4.1.3.3

NAD 6.1(a) & BS 8110 Table 3.5

& Figure 3.2

Table 2.2

------------------------------------,17r------------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

For zero redistribution, x/d should be less than 0.45 . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OK

As = 498 mm2/m

Minimum area of reinforcement

0.6btd

-_ f;:. 0.0015 btd = 224 mm2/m

fYk

OK

Use T12 @ 200 mm crs. (565 mm2/m)

2.3.5.2 Span

M bd2f

ck

0.028

A/Yk =:

As = 342 mm2/m

0.063 (Section 13, Table 13.1)

0.033,

x/d

Use T12 @ 300 mm crs. (377 rnrnvrn)

Note:

Reinforcement areas differ somewhat from those given by BS 8110 which permits design for the single load case of maximum load on all spans combined with 20% redistribution. EC2 requires alternate and adjacent spans to be considered. In this instance, no redistribution has been carried out but it would have been permissible to carry out 30% redistribution in the EC2 design. This would have resulted in an identical answer to that given by BS 8110 but ductility class H (as defined in prEN 10080(8» reinforcement would need to be specified.

2.3.6 Shear

Shear resistance of the slab without shear reinforcement is given by VRd1 = 'Rl(1.2 + 40PI)bwd

where

0.35 N/mm2

k 1.6 - d = 1.6 - 0.149 = 1.451

565

0.0038

1000 x 149

Hence

VRd1 = 102.3 kN/m > VSd

33.9 kN/m . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OK

No shear reinforcement required

Note:

Since shear is rarely a problem for normally loaded solid slabs supported on beams, as the calculation has shown, it is not usually necessary to check in these instances.

2.5.3.4.2(5)

5.4.2.1.1(1)

NAD Table 5

4.3.2.3 Eqn 4.18

Table 4.8

------------------------------------~18~------------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.3.7 Deflection

Reinforcement ratio provided in span

377

0.0025

1000 x 149

Using NAD Table 7(1) and interpolating between 48 for 0.15% and 35 for 0.5%, a basic span/effective depth ratio of 44 is given. By modifying according to the steel stress, the ratio becomes

44 (400 x 377) = 42.2 460 x 342

5000 The actual span/effective depth ratio is

149

33.6 OK

Had EC2 Table 4.14 been used instead of NAD Table 7, the basic ratio before modification would have been 35, which would not have been OK.

2.3.8 Cracking

For minimum area of reinforcement assume

f 3 N/mm2

ct,eif

k 0.8

0.5 x 175 x 1000

87500 rnrn"

Hence

0.4 x 0.8 x 3 x 87500/460 = 183 mm2/m

Area of reinforcement provided = 377 mm2/m OK

No further check is necessary as h = 175:5 200 mm

Maximum bar spacing = 3h:5 500 mm OK

2.3.9 Tie provisions

The NAD requires that ties are provided in accordance with BS 8110. Internal tie in E-W direction, with Ft = 36 kN/m width, is given by

36 x (4.7 + 4) x ~ = 41.8 kN/m

7.5 5

NAD Table 7

4.4.3.2(4)

4.4.2.2

Eqn 4.78

4.4.2.3(1) NAD Table 3 5.4.3.2.1(4)

NAD 6.5(g) BS 8110 3.12.3.4

------------------------------------~19~------------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

. 41.8 X 103

Minimum area = = 91 mm2/m

460

Thus this area of the bottom reinforcement is the minimum that should be made continuous throughout the slab.

2.3.10 Reinforcement details

The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 2.2.

~ 0-

15T10-6-3

ST10-4) 3 5T10-5 T2

cp A ~ r-4T10-7-300T1 C? r-67T12-B-2
- -----_:-*
. --4--!- ::'11 --- --- -
. I
0012 II I I IJ I. :
150---1 1200 1/'
5 A I I
00 4 13 + 2) I
Alt. (2 +31
2 3 8T10-2J
1500 ~ 7T10- 3
·1 I- i- I 150
: I, 3 2 .1 TI 8110-3J
I II 7T10-2
0 1'1 5 4 13 + 2)
Alt. I! ; (2+3) : I
I! I J 3 I I
OT~_rl-i_ :-It -- _=- __ I ' I _L.
I I
-- - - - - - - --=-f:~:-
I
45T12-1-30081 B~

5 T10 - 5) 30 5T10-4 T2

,5T10-6-30

0--

! ~ I g cid 20m i It" foe clnrit y I I '''" nlt er nnte bnrs

t~: =m £"'1 [, f"j f'

2fJ . __ l~_'t_. __ ---- I

A-A

B- B COVER to outer bars = 20

300

82 Alt.

00T1

300

62 AI t.

Figure 2.2 Slab reinforcement details

2.4 Main beam

2.4.1 Cover for durability and fire resistance

Nominal cover for exposure class 1 (internal) is 20 mm.

Nominal cover for 1 hour fire resistance is 20 mm.

Use 20 mm nominal cover to links

NAD Table 6

BS 8110 Table 3.5

----------------------------------~20~-----------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.4.2 Loading

Permanent load from slab (Section 2.3.3) = 4.7 x 5 = 23.5 kN/m

Self-weight of beam = (0.5 - 0.175) x 0.3 x 24

Characteristic permanent load (gk) = 25.8 kN/m Characteristic imposed load (qk) = 5 x 4 = 20 kN/m

2.3 kN/m

Maximum design load Minimum design load

1.359k + 1.5qk = 64.8 kN/m 1.359k = 34.8 kN/m

2.4.3 Analysis

2.4.3.1 Idealization of structure and load cases

The structure is simplified as a continuous beam attached to columns above and below, which are assumed to be fixed at their upper ends and pinned at the foundations, as shown in Figure 2.3.

T 175

l'~

14 300 ~I

6

1._ ~_8~00~0 _.~+_--~60~O~0----~

5000

I _L

Figure 2.3 Idealization of structure

2.4.3.2 Design moments and shears

These are summarized in Table 2.2 and Figures 2.4 and 2.5.

6

3500

4000

2.3.3.1 2.3.2.3.(4)

2.5.3.3

------------------------------------~21 ~-----------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

Table 2.2 Results of frame analysis

Load case 1 Load case 2 Load case 3
I Load per m on 8 m span (kN) 64.8 64.8 34.8
Load per m on 6 m span (kN) 64.8 34.8 64.8
Upper LH column moment (kNm) 103 109 50
Lower LH column moment (kNm) 68 72 33
LH end of 8 m span moment (kNm) -171 -180 -82
LH end of 8 m span shear (kN) 233 238 119
Middle of 8 m span moment (kNm) 242 256 116
RH end of 8 m span moment (kNm) -382 -345 -242
RH end of 8 m span shear (kN) 286 280 159
! Upper centre column moment (kNm) 33 55 3
Lower centre column moment (kNm) 18 29 2
LH end of 6 m span moment (kNm) -331 -262 -247
LH end of 6 m span shear (kN) 240 146 223
Middle of 6 m span moment (kNm) 98 20 130
RH end of 6 m span moment (kNm) -57 -12 -76
RH end of 6 m span shear (kN) 149 63 166
Upper RH column moment (kNm) 34 7 46
Lower RH column moment (kNm) 22 5 30 REDISTRIBUTION AT CD AND CD
Case 1 - Reduce 171 to 126 ( see 2 )
Reduce 362 to 268 (-30%)
Case 2 - Reduce 180 to 126
Reduce 345 to 268
Case 3 - No redistribution 76 (3)

(3) elastic"

"(1) redistributed

(2) elastic

(1)&(2] redistributed

325

Envelope Moments in kNm

Figure 2.4 Bending moment envelope

----------------------------------------_,22~----------------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

(1 J 240

(3 J 223 ~

(2 J 146

(R J 242

( 1 J 233

149 (1 J 16b (3 J

( 3 J 119

Case 1

Case 2

Case 3 Redistri buted Envelope Forces in kN

63 (2 J

159 ( 3 I

277 {RJ 286 (1 J

8000

6000

Figure 2.5 Shear force envelope

2.4.4 Reinforcement for flexure

2.4.4.1 Internal support

From bending moment envelope

M 268 kNm

0.7 and x/d :5 (0 - 0.44)/1.25 = 0.208

Il-lim 0.0864 and Wlim = 0.1084 (Section 13, Table 13.2)

268 X 106

0.1442 > Il-lim

300 X 4402 x 32

Therefore compression reinforcement is required

0.1442 - 0.0864 0.87 (1 - 50/440)

0.87 (1- d'/d)

0.0750 (Section 13)

At

W ~ = WI' + ca' = 0.1084 + 0.0750 = 0.1834 (Section 13)

bdt im

ck

As 0.1834 x 300 x 440 x 32/460 = 1684 rnrrr'

Since d'/x d'/0.208d = 0.546 > (1 - tyJ805) = 0.429

Increase w' to (~ - 0.429) 0.075 = 0.0943

- 0.546

A I = 0.0943 x 300 x 440 x 32/460

s

866 rnm"

Use 4T25 (1960 rnrrr') top Use 2T25 (982 rnrn') bottom

2.5.3.4.2 Eqn 2.17

------------------------------------_,23~--------------------------~--------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.4.4.2 Near middle of 8 m span

From bending moment envelope

M 325 kNm

s > 1.0

Effective flange width = 300 + 0.2 x 0.85 x 8000

1660 mm

325 X 106

0.030

1660 X 4502 x 32

x/d 0.068 (Section 13, Table 13.1)

Neutral axis is in flange since x = 31 < 175 mm

w 0.035 (Section 13, Table 13.1)

0.035 x 1660 x 450 x 32/460

1819 mm2

Use 4T25 (1960 rnm")

2.4.4.3 Left-hand end of 8 m span From bending moment envelope

M 126 kNm

[) 0.7 and P.lim = 0.0864 (Section 13, Table 13.2)

126 X 106

= 0.0678 < JL1im

300 X 4402 x 32

Therefore no compression reinforcement is required.

w 0.084 (Section 13, Table 13.1)

0.084 x 300 x 440 x 32/460

772 mm2

Using 2T25 bent-up bars, minimum diameter of mandrel

Use 2T25 (982 rnrrr) with r = 5¢

2.5.2.2.1 Eqn 2.13

5.2.1.2 NAD Table 8

------------------------------------~24r_-----------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.4.4.4 Right-hand end of 6 m span From bendi ng moment envelope M = 76 kNm

M

0.041

bd2f 300 X 4402 x 32

ck

w 0.049 (Section 13, Table 13.1)

A 450 rnrn"

s

Use 2T25 (982 rnrrr) with r

4cJ> minimum

2.4.4.5 Near middle of 6 m span

From bending moment envelope M = 138 kNm

Effective flange width

300 + 0.2 x 0.85 x 6000

1320 mm

138 X 106

= 0.0161

32 X 4502 x 1320

w 0.019 (Section 13, Table 13.1)

0.019 x 1320 x 450 x 32/460

785 rnrn"

Use 2T25 (982 rnm')

2.4.4.6 Minimum reinforcement

A

s

;;::: k kfct ftAct/(J

c.e s

where

kc 0.4

k 0.68

f 3 N/mm2

ct,eft

Act 300 x 325 mm2

"« 460 N/mm2

Therefore

A ;;::: 173 rnm". , , , , OK

s

203 rnrrr' , . , , . .. OK

4.4.2.2 Eqn 4.78

5.4.2.1.1(1)

----------------------------------~25~-----------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.4.5 Shear reinforcement

2.4.5.1 Minimum links

Here, for comparison with BS 8110 design, grade 250 reinforcement will be used.

Interpolation from EC2 Table 5.5 gives

Minimum

«; 0.0022

A Is 0.0022 x 300 = 0.66 mm2/mm

sw

If VSd :5 (t) VRd2 - refer to Section 2.4.5.3 for VRd2

s = lesser of 300 mm or O.8d = 300 mm

max

Use R12 links @ 300 mm crs. (A Is = 0.75 mm2/mm)

sw

2.4.5.2 Capacity of section without shear reinforcement VRd1 = TRdk(1.2 + 40p) bwd

Assume 2T25 effective

PI 982/(300 x 440) = 0.00743

k

1.6 - d

1.6 - 0.44 = 1.16

0.35

VRd1 = 300 x 440 x 0.35 x 1.16 x (1.2 + 40 x 0.00743) X 10-3 = 80.2 kN

2.4.5.3 Shear reinforcement by standard method

Maximum capacity of section

u

0.7 - fc/200 = 0.7 - 32/200 = 0.54 1:. 0.5

0.5 x 0.54 x (3211.5) x 300 x 0.9 x 440 x 10-3 = 684 kN

Design shear force is shear at a distance d from the face of the support. This is 590 mm from the support centreline.

Asw VSd - 80.2

= = 0.0116 (VSd - 80.2)

s 0.9 x 440 x 0.87 x 250

Design of shear reinforcement is summarized in Table 2.3.

4.3.2

5.4.2.2

Eqn 5.17

4.3.2.3

Table 4.8

4.3.2.4.3

Eqn 4.21

Eqn 4.25 4.3.2.2(10)

Eqn 4.23

------------------------------------~26r_-------------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

Table 2.3 Design of shear reinforcement

As)s s for 12 mm Links
Location VSd links
8 m span
LH end 203 1.42 159 R12 @ 150
RH end 248 1.95 116 R12 @ 100
6 m span
LH end 202 1.41 160 R12 @ 150
RH end 128 min. max. R12 @ 300
Minimum R12 @ 300 2.4.6 Deflection

Reinforcement percentage at centre of 8 m span

= 100 x 1960/(450 x 1660) = 0.26%

Interpolating between 0.15 and 0.5%, basic span/effective depth ratio for end span = 40

To modify for steel stress multiply by 400/460 To modify for T section multiply by 0.8

To modify for span > 7 m multiply by 7/8

Therefore permissible ratio

40 x (400/460) x 0.8 x 7/8 = 24.3

17.8 OK

Actual ratio = 8000/450

2.4.7 Cracking

For estimate of steel stress under quasi-permanent loads

Ultimate load

64.8 kN/m 0.3

0.3 x 20 + 25.8 = 31.8 kN/m

Assuming 1{;2 Quasi-permanent load

Approx. steel stress at midspan

460 x 31.8 = 196 N/mm2

1.15 64.8

Approx. steel stress at supports allowing for 30% redistribution = 196/0.7 = 280 N/mm2

These are conservative figures since they do not allow for excess reinforcement over what is needed or for moment calculated at centreline of support rather than at face of support. Check limits on either bar size or spacing.

From EC2 Table 4.11,25 mm bars in spans are satisfactory at any spacing since steel stress < 200 N/mm2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OK

From EC2 Table 4.12, bar spacing at supports should be :5 150 mm with no limitation on size. As bars are located inside column bars the maximum possible spacing is 125 mm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OK

4.4.3.2

NAD Table 7

4.4.2.2

NAD Table 1

4.4.2.3

--------------------------------------~v~--------------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.4.8 Curtailment of reinforcement

Reinforcement must extend for a distance of at + [b,ne! beyond the moment envelope where

5.4.2.1.3

at 0.9d/2 = 198 mm
25 460 782 mm 5.2.3.4.1
I = -- x x -
b,net 4 1.15 3.2
a{ + I = 980 mm
b,net Bars mark 8, which are located outside the web, must extend a further 150 mm - refer to Figure 2.8.

2.4.9 Reinforcement details

Curtailment of the main reinforcement and arrangement of the link reinforcement are shown in Figures 2.6 and 2.7. Reinforcement details are shown in Figure 2.8 and given in Table 2.4.

126

76

5.4.2.1.3

--------------------------------------~28~--------------------------------------

Moment envelope Cur tui 1m ent line

Figure 2.6 Curtailment diagram of main reinforcement

300 lOa 300 clc

(minimum links) ~:14si:(minimUm lin"ks7

240

'I Sh enr cupcc i+y of minimum links

.-- t _- _- -- (R12 -300) with

147kNI

I

, 2150 286

14 ~I

166

Figure 2.7 Arrangement of link reinforcement

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

0
-;-
'"
'" N
N ,._ 0 0
N en '"
G-+·_·-·

~f 0
N
"'.
*t- '"
-'"
c:
a
I ~
~I ';'r- ..I '-
<0 1 '"
>D '" >
e- ~ ~I ;:::: N a
,._ w
::liN ~I N
e-
N ~, sr: -v
~ I
~ CD CD
~;h~'
<:>
'"
~ 1 1
"''''
@ NN
,._,._
'" NN
8-m~'" ·~d
>D
<> 0 0
0 '" '"
r-
@ 0
C> 0 ""
N <:>
m
0
'"
e-
0
0 >D .... N
m 1 1
",,,,
@ NN
,._ ,._ 1-
;: ..I N N("oj
'1~r
c::-_ ~ :1
'D C -- - o~ ::;: "\T'"" -v
« «
d a
.c
:::, 0
m
0
'" '"
<3 N
N
f~~
0-;: _ >D l!J'


1
, r-,
§I~ '" "
N L
e- -' ,._ '"
N :>
0
u
'"
'=
V) --------------------------------------~29~-------------------------------------

Figure 2.8 Main beam reinforcement details

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

Table 2.4 Commentary on bar arrangement

Bar Notes
marks
1 Tension bars are stopped 50 mm from column face to avoid clashing with the
column bars
Nominal cover = 20 + 12 = 32 > 25 mm .. , ........ ........... OK
2 Remaining tension bars stopped off at LH end as shown in Figure 2.6.
Bars extended at RH end to provide compression reinforcement (lap = Ibn.)
and continuity for internal ties (lap = 1000 mm)
Check minimum distance between bars =:: bar size or 20 mm
(300 - 32 x 2 - 4 x 25)/3 = 45 > 25 mm ... ...... ... ,. , ..... OK
3 Not used
4 Sim ilar to bar mark 1
5,10 Loose U bars are fixed inside the column bars and provide continuity for
column and internal ties
Top legs project from centre line into span, minimum dimensions shown in
Figure 2.6
Bottom legs are lapped 1000 mm to provide continuity for internal ties
5 Top legs = 1800 mm
Bottom legs = 200 + 1000 = 1200 mm
Use r = 5</> for both bends
Note that the bottom legs are raised to avoid gap between bars being < 25 mm
10 Top legs = 1500 mm
Bottom legs = 200 + 1000 = 1200 mm
6,9 2T16 provided as link hangers are stopped 50 mm from column face
7,8 Tension bars over the support are stopped as in Figure 2.6.
Bars mark 8 are located outside the web
11 Links are arranged in accordance with Figure 2.7 for shear. Links also
provide transverse reinforcement with a spacing :5 150 mm at all laps 2.5 Edge beam (interior span)

2.5.1 Cover for durability and fire resistance

Nominal cover for exposure class 2b (external) is 35 mm. Nominal cover for 1 hour fire resistance is 20 mm.

Use 40 mm nominal cover to links

4.1.3.3(5)

BS 8110 5.2.1.1

5.4.2.1.3

BS 8110

5.2.1.1

5.4.2.1.2(2)

5.2.4.1.2(2)

NAD Table 6 BS 8110 Table 3.5

--------------------------------------~30~--------------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.5.2 Loading

Permanent load from slab = 4.7 x 5 x 1.25 = 29.4 kN (assuming 1.25 m strip to be loading on edge beam)

Self-weight of beam = (0.35 - 0.175) x 0.3 x 5 x 24 = 6.3 kN Cladding load @ 5 kN/m = 5 x 5 = 25 kN

Characteristic permanent load = 60.7 kN

Characteristic imposed load = 4 x 5 x 1.25 = 25 kN

Total design load = 1.35 x 60.7 + 1.5 x 25 = 119.5 kN

2.5.3 Design moments and shears

These are taken from the Concise Eurocode, Appendix, Table A.1(5l.

2.5.3.1 Interior support

Moment = 0.10 x 119.5 x 5 = 59.8 kNm Shear = 0.55 x 119.5 = 65.7 kN

2.5.3.2 Mid-span

Moment = om x 119.5 x 5 = 41.8 kNm

2.5.4 Reinforcement for flexure

2.5.4.1 Interior support

Assume effective depth = 280 mm

M 59.8 x 106

= 0.079 2802 x 300 x 32

0.099 (Section 13, Table 13.1)

xld

0.189 < 0.45................................ OK

A 579 mrn"

s

Use 2T20 (628 rnrrr)

2.5.4.2 Mid-span

Assume effective depth = 290 mm

Effective flange width = 300 + 0.1 x 0.7 x 5000

650 mm

2.5.3.4.2(5)

2.5.2.2.1

------------------------------------~31~-----------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

41.8 X 106

= 0.024

650 X 2902 X 32

0.028 (Section 13, Table 13.1)

= 367 rnrn"

Use 2T20 (628 rnrrr')

The cross-section is shown in Figure 2.9.

650

• • 2T 20

70

T

350

2T 20

• •

_l

60

300

I'"

Figure 2.9 Edge beam cross-section

2.5.5 Shear reinforcement

Design shear force may be taken to be at distance d into the span from the face of the support. This can be calculated approximately as

VSd 65.7 - 119.5 (0.28 + 0.15)/5.0 = 55.4 kN

( 40 x 628 )

300 x 280 x 0.35 (1.6 - 0.28) x 1.2 + ----

300 x 280

58.2 kN

This is greater than VSd' hence only minimum links are required.

Assuming grade 250 reinforcement for links, EC2 Table 5.5 gives

Pw = 0.0022

Hence

A

sw

0.0022 x 300 = 0.66 mm2/mm

s

0.5 (0.7 - 32) x 32 x 300 x 0.9 x 280 = 435 kN

200 1.5

4.3.2.2(10)

4.3.2.3(1)

4.3.2.2(2)

4.3.2.3(3)

------------------------------------~32~-----------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

Since

< (i-) VRd2'

Smax = 0.8d = 224 mm

200 mm spacing gives Asw = 132 mrn"

Use R10 links at 200 mm crs. (Asw = 2 x 78.5 157 rnrrr')

2.5.6 Deflection

Actual span/effective depth ratio = 5000/290 = 17.2 At mid-span

100 A

s

100 x 628

= 0.33%

bd

650 x 290

By interpolation from NAD Table 7, modified for fYk = 460 Basic span/effective depth ratio = 36

Note:

This can be increased allowing for use of a larger than required steel area to

= 36 x 628/367 = 61.6

But not greater than 48/1.15 = 41.7 Inspection shows this to be unnecessary.

Allowable lid > actual lid OK

2.5.7 Curtailment of reinforcement

Since the bending moment diagram has not been drawn, simplified curtailment rules are needed. These are given in Section 8 of the Appendix to the Concise Eurocode.

Using the rules, the 20 mm bars in the top may be reduced to 12 mm bars at a distance from the face of support

0.11 + 32cp + 0.45d = 500 + 32 x 20 + 0.45 x 280

1266 mm from the column face

Eqn 5.17

Concise Eurocode Figure A.12

4.4.3.2(4)

NAD Table 7 Note 2

------------------------------------_,33r-------------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.5.8 Reinforcement details

The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 2.10.

23Rl0 - 5 - 300

2T12 - 3

2T20 -4

top cover 60 side cover 75

1- ,...."

2T20-1

si de cover 75

ELEVATION

3 4 4 3

=f]

iJ lJ 1 2 2 1

(over to links = 40

A-A

Figure 2.10 Edge beam reinforcement details

2.6 Columns

2.6.1 Idealization of structure

The simplification assumed for the design of the main beam is shown in Figure 2.3.

2.6.2 Analysis

Moments and column loads at each floor are taken from the analysis for the main beam given in Section 2.4.3.

2.6.3 Cover for durability and fire resistance

Nominal cover for interior columns (exposure class 1) is 20 mm. Nominal cover for exterior columns (exposure class 2b) is 35 mm. Nominal cover for 1 hour fire resistance is 20 mm.

Use 20 mm (interior) and 40 mm (exterior) nominal cover to links

NAD Table 6

--------------------------------------1~~------------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.6.4 Internal column

2.6.4.1 Loading and moments at various floor levels These are summarized in Table 2.5.

Table 2.5 Loading and moments for internal column

Beam loads Column design loads Column moments
(kN) (kN) (kNm)
Total Imposed Dead Top Bottom
Load case 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
Roof 8m 240 238 53 51 187 187 32 42
6m 202 165 43 6 159 159
Self-weight 9 9
-- -- -- --
96 57 355 355 30 39
3rd floor 8 m 283 278 131 126 152 152 33 49
6m 236 143 110 17 126 126
Self-weight 9 9
-- -- -- --
337 200 642 642 30 55
2nd floor 8 m 283 278 131 126 152 152 33 49
6m 236 143 110 17 126 126
Self-weight 9 9
-- -- -- --
578 343 929 929 33 55
1st floor 8 m 286 280 132 126 154 154 18 29
6m 240 146 111 17 129 129
Self-weight 14 14
-- -- -- --
Foundations 821 486 1226 1226 2.6.4.2 Design for column between first floor and foundation Effective height in N - S direction

= (0.5 x 675 x 106 + 675 x 106)

5000 3500

(3125 X 106 + 3125 x 106)

8000 6000

0.28 but take not less than 0.4

Hence

= 0.8

Effective height = 0.8 x 5000 = 4000 mm

Load case 1 gives worst condition (by inspection). Imposed load = 0.7 x 821 = 575 kN

Eqn 4.60

Figure 4.27

BS 6399:

Part 1, Reduction factor

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

Dead load = 1226 kN

NSd 1801 kN

MSd 18 kNm (top), 0 (bottom)

1801 X 103 x 1.5 = 0.94 3002 x 32

Hence

I Ii

o

4000[12 300

46

Note: Iii = (Iih) x [12

A > 25, hence column is slender in N-S direction

The slenderness in the E-W direction will be found to be approximately the same.

The structure is braced and non-sway (by inspection), hence the Model Column Method may be used with the column designed as an isolated column.

\r~ = 25(2 - eO/e02) = 50 in both E-W and N-S directions

Slenderness ratios in both directions are less than \r~' hence it is only necessary to ensure that the column can withstand an end moment of at least

NSdhl20 = 1801 x 0.3120 = 27.0 kNm

This exceeds the first order moments.

Hence NSd = 1801 kN and MSd = 27.0 kNm

NSd 0.62
bhfck
MSd 27.0 X 106 0.031
bh2f 3003 x 32
ck
Assume
d' 45 mm 4.3.5.3.5(2)

4.3.5.5.3 Eqn 4.62

4.3.5.5.3 Eqn 4.64

------------------------------------~36~-----------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

Then

d'lh 45/300 0.15

0.16 (Section 13, Figure 13.2(c))

Hence

A = 1002 rnrrf

s

Use 4T20 (1260 rnrrr)

Note:

In the design by Higgins and Rogers, the slenderness ratio exceeds the equivalent of }.. "t but the design moment is still Nh120. EC2 requires less

ell

reinforcement due to the smaller design load and the assumption of a smaller

cover ratio. If the same cover ratio is used in the Higgins and Rogers design, 4T20 are sufficient in both cases.

2.6.5 External column

2.6.5.1 Loading and moments at various levels These are summarized in Table 2.6.

Table 2.6 Loading and moments for external column

Beam loads Column design loads Column moments
(kN) (kN) (kNm)
Total Imposed Dead Top Bottom
Load case 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
Roof
Main 184 186 39 41 145 145 104 107
Edge 55 55 55 55
Self-weight 9 9
-- -- -- --
39 41 209 209 93 98
3rd floor
Main 235 240 109 114 126 126 93 98
Edge 55 55 55 55
Self-weight 9 9
-- -- -- --
148 155 399 399 93 98
2nd floor
Main 235 240 109 114 126 126 93 98
Edge 55 55 55 55
Self-weight 9 9
-- -- -- --
257 269 589 589 103 109
1st floor
Main 233 238 108 113 125 125 68 72
Edge 55 55 55 55
Self·weight 9 9
-- -- -- --
Foundations 365 382 778 778 ------------------------------------4~r_------------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.6.5.2 Design for column between first floor and foundation

k - (675 X 106 x 0.5 675 x 106) . (3125 x 106)

top - +..,.. = 0.71

4000 3500 8000

Hence

(3

= 0.85

Effective height = 0.85 x 4000 = 3400 mm Slenderness ratio = 1 Ii = 3400 [12 = 39.3

o 300

p will be small so 1~ will be less than 25

u u

Hence

A . 25

min

A > 25, therefore column is slender in N-S direction

Calculate Acrit

bottom moment top moment

o 85

o

Hence

\rit = 25 (2 + 0) = 50

Slenderness ratios in the E-W and N -S directions are both less than 50, hence it is only necessary to ensure that the end moment is at least Nh120.

The worst condition occurs with load case 2 at section just above the first floor. where MSd is greatest.

NSd 589 + 0.8 x 269 = 804 kN

Nh 20

804 x 0.3 20

12.0 kNm

Design end moment = 109 > 12 kNm

Hence NSd = 804 kN and MSd = 109 kNm

Figure 4.27

4.3.5.5.3

------------------------------------~38~------------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.6.6 Reinforcement details

Maximum spacing of links for internal column

Generally 12 x 20 = 240 mm

Above and below floor 0.67 x 240 = 160 mm

Maximum spacing of links for external column

Generally 12 x 25 = 300 mm

At lap and below floor 0.67 x 300 = 200 mm

The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 2.11.

INTERNAL COLUMN F2 EX TERNAL COLU MN F1
Li n ks Verti cal bars Section Li nks Vertical bars Section
<:> .~
~ -o
I
@ en
U"> a:
r-, '"
1st. ... -. I m~
sr
- - = F - --- -- .J I_
-- -- --- f 4 4
" <:>
<:>
'" .. N
N ~ <:> E I
N C>
... e I
..
_,. .c
® <:>
C> , g:,
... U"> "0 I
I N .~
@ l-
_,. 4 4
~ '"
-
I G)-- 5
<1\ <:> @--
:::: N C>
I-
@ _,. ~
~ 1 1 '" 4 4
C>
N ...
@ , '"
'" e--
[over to Ii n k s = 30 fdn:" N __j_ [over to links 40
I-
U _,.
I ~ @g ,t
N'" ---
Fdn. l__l ro" I
a:-,<
\l ....,..= '"
~ _ _J---~Starters. see Fig. 2.13 -_J <X>
-'< ~~
co .S
a: -'
_ N
N, Figure 2.11 Column reinforcement details

2.7 Foundation

Design typical pad footing for internal column. 2.7.1 Cover

Use 50 mm nominal cover against blinding

BS 8110 specifies a nominal cover of not less than 40 mm against blinding. EC2 specifies a minimum cover greater than 40 mm. This implies a nominal cover greater than 45 mm, hence the choice of 50 mm.

2.7.2 Loading

Taken from internal column design. Ultimate design loads: Dead Imposed Total

1226 575 1801 kN

5.4.1.2.2(3) NAD Table 3 5.4.1.2.2(4)

4.1.3.3(9)

------------------------------------439r-----------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

Hence service loads: Dead

Imposed

Total

908 383

1291 kN

The assumption is made that the base takes no moment. Also it is assumed that the dead weight of the base less the weight of soil displaced is 10 kN/m2 over the area of the base.

2.7.3 Size of base

Since, at the time of publication, EC7: Geotechnical design(9) and EC2, Part 3:

Concrete foundations(10) have not been finalized, the approach used here is based on current UK practice.

Use 2.75 m x 2.75 m x 0.6 m deep pad

Bearing pressure under service loads

1291

-- + 10 = 181 < 200 kN/m2 OK

2.752

Design pressure at ultimate limit state

1801 2.752

238 kN/m2

2.7.4 Flexural reinforcement

Moment at face of column = 238 x 2.75 x 1.~~252/2 Average effective depth = 600 - 50 - 25 = 525 mm

491 kNm

491 X 106

= 0.020

2750 X 5252 x 32

0.023 (Section 13, Table 13.1)

Hence

As = 0.023 x 2750 x 525 x 32/460 = 2310 rnrrr'

Use 9T20 @ 300 mm crs. each way (2830 mrn')

2.7.5 Shear

2.7.5.1 Shear across base

Shear force may be calculated at a critical section distance d from the face of the column.

4.3.2.2(10)

Design shear (V sd

238 x 2.75 x [(2.75 2- 0.3) - 0.525] ~ 458 kN

---------------------------~~r-----------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

In calculating VRd1, the influence of the reinforcement will be ignored since, if straight bars are used, they will not extend d + [b,net beyond the critical section.

VRd1 0.35 x 1.075 x 1.2 x 2750 x 525/1000 = 652 kN

VRd1 > VSd' hence no requirement for shear reinforcement

2.7.5.2 Punching shear

The critical perimeter is shown in Figure 2.12. Design load on base = 1801 kN

Length of critical perimeter

u

= [ 4 x 300 + 7r (2 x 1.5 x 525) 1 11000

6.15 m

Figure 2.12 Critical perimeter for punching

VRd1 = 0.35 x 1.075 x 1.2 x 525 x 6.15 = 1458 kN

Area within perimeter = 2.98 m2

Area of base = 7.56 m2

Design shear (VSd) = (7.56 - 2.98) x 238 = 1090 kN

VSd < VRd1, hence no requirement for shear reinforcement

2.7.6 Cracking

Approximate steel stress under quasi-permanent loads

460 (908 + 0.3 x 383) 2310

x x --

1.15 1801 2830

186 N/mm2

From EC2 Table 4.11 bar size should not exceed 25 > 20 mm used.

Hence cracking OK

4.3.2.3(1)

4.3.4.5.1

4.3.4.1(5)

4.4.2.3 Table 4.11

------------------------------------__,41r------------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.7.7 Reinforcement details

The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 2.13 and given in Table 2.7.

~ I

I

~A

-I"" I

I

:~-+--------~~+~.--9T20-1-300B2

2 2 3

~

2 2

0-------'- -

AL._

-r

'- 9T20-1-300 81

PLAN

Fdn. \l

I-I+-I,.T20-2 Cover = 40

I I

2R8-3 -300

L1

A-A

COVER-B1=50, end =75

Figure 2.13 Base reinforcement details

Table 2.7 Commentary on bar arrangement

Bar marks Notes
1 Straight bars extend full width of base less end COVl3r of 75 mm. Bars should
extend an anchorage length beyond the column face
Anchorage length = 32 x 20 = 640 mm
Actual extension = 1150 mm
2 Column starter bars wired to bottom mat
Minimum projection above top of base is
a compression lap + kicker = 32 x 20 + ni = 715 mm
3 Links are provided to stabilize and locate the starters during construction 4.1.3.3(9) 5.2.3.4.1

5.2.4.1.3

----------------------------~~~------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.8 Shear wall

2.8.1 Structure

The structure is shown in Figure 2.14.

1 st floor

_____ 'V --------- 14--0·5 x wind

,-------------- load on building

II

250

T

14300

I ... 900 .. I

-,

Figure 2.14 Shear wall structure

2.8.2 Loading at foundation level

Dead load from first to third floors and roof

0.5 (3 x 23.5 + 28.5) = 49.5 kN/m Self-weight = 0.175 x 24 x 15.5 = 65.1 kN/m Characteristic dead load = 49.5 + 65.1 = 114.6 kN/m Characteristic imposed load from slabs

= 2.5 (1.5 + 3 x 4) x 0.7 = 23.6 kN/m

Wind loading is taken as 90% of value obtained from CP3: Ch V: Part 2(11). Total wind load on building in N-S direction = 0.9 x 449 = 404 kN Wind load on wall = 404/2 = 202 kN

Moment in plane of wall = 202 x 8 = 1616 kNm

Hence

Maximum force per unit length due to wind moment

±

Mx6 [2

±

1616 x 6 14.22

± 47.4 kN/m

2.8.3 Vertical design load intensities at ultimate limit state Dead load + imposed load

= 1.35 x 114.6 + 1.5 x 23.6

190.1 kN/m

Dead load + wind load

1.35 x 114.6 + 1.5 x 47.4 = 225.8 kN/m; or 1.0 x 114.6 - 1.5 x 47.4 = 43.5 kN/m

NAD 4(c)

Eqn 2.8(a)

Eqn 2.8(a)

------------------------------------~43r_-----------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

Dead load + wind load + imposed load

1.35 x 114.6 + 1.35 x 23.6 ± 1.35 x 47.4 250.6 kN/m or 122.6 kN/m

Therefore maximum design load = 250.6 kN/m

From analysis of slab (not presented), maximum moment perpendicular to plane of wall = 11.65 kNm/m

2.8.4 Slenderness ratio

0.5 + ...L 4 3.5

...L

5

2.05

Hence

{3

0.94

(31 = 0.94 x 4 = 3.76 m

col

IIi

o

3.76 x 1000 x ./12 175

74.4

Hence wall is slender

2.8.5 Vertical reinforcement

Higgins and Rogers design the shear wall as unreinforced. Plain concrete walls will be covered in EC2 Part 1A which, at the time of publication, has not yet been finalized. The wall will, therefore, be designed here as a reinforced wall. As will be seen, the result is the same.

Eccentricity due to applied loads

eOl 0

e02 11.65 x 10001250.6 = 46.5 mm

Hence

= 0.6 x 46.5 + 0 = 27.9 mm

Accidental eccentricity

3760

- x = 9.4 mm

200 2

Eqn 2.8(b) NAD 4(c)

Eqn 4.60

Figure 4.27

Eqn 4.66

Eqn 4.61

--------------------------~~~-----------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

Second order eccentricity

37602 460

x 2 x

10 1.15 x 200000

x x K

0.9 x 122 2

Assuming K2 = 1 Design eccentricity

27.9 + 9.4 + 51.5 = 88.8 mm

Design ultimate load = 250.6 kN/m

Design ultimate moment = 88.8 x 250.6/1000 22.3 kNm/m

0.023

N

0.045

0.01 (Section 13, Figure 13.2(d))

Hence

A = 122 mm2/m or 61 rnrnvrn in each face

s

Minimum area of reinforcement

= 0.004 x 1000 x 175 = 700 mm2/m

This exceeds the calculated value. Hence the minimum governs.

Use T12 @ 300 mm crs. in each face (754 mm2/m)

2.8.6 Shear

Design horizontal shear = 1.5 x 202 = 303 kN

Shear stress =

303 x 1000 14300 x 175

OK

= 0.12 N/mm2 ...

Note:

VRd1 is not calculated since it must be > 0.12bwd by quick inspection of EC2 Eqn 4.18.

2.8.7 Horizontal reinforcement

Minimum at 50% of vertical reinforcement provided

A = 188 rnrnvrn (EF)

s

Minimum for controlled cracking due to restraint of early thermal contraction

5.4.7.2

5.4.7.3

4.4.2.2

------------------------------------~45~------------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

A k ifcte" c/ (J s Eqn 4.78
s
k 1.0
c
k 0.8
f 1.9 N/mm2 (assuming concrete strength to be equivalent to Table 3.1
ct.ert
C16/20 at time of cracking)
(J 360 N/mm2 (assuming 10 mm bars) Table 4.11
s
A 1.0 x 0.8 x 1.9 x 175 x 1000/360 = 739 mm2/m
s Use T10 @ 200 mm crs. in each face (785 mm2/m)

2.8.8 Tie provisions at first floor

According to the NAD, these should follow the rules in BS 8110.

NAD 6.5(g) BS 8110 3.12.3

Ft = 36 kN

2.8.8.1 Peripheral tie

A

s

36 X 103

= 78 rnm"

460

Use 1T10 (78.5 rnrn")

2.8.8.2 Internal tie force

Force

2.5 x 36 (4.7 + 4.0) 7.5

14.3 x -

5

299 kN

Hence

A

s

299 X 103

= 650 rnrn"

460

Use 5T10 in each face (785 rnrrr)

Hence T10 @ 200 mm crs. horizontal reinforcement in wall 0.5 m above and below slab is adequate.

2.8.8.3 Wall tie

Take the greater of (a) and (b) IF

(a) Lesser of 2.0Ft or _s_t = 72 or 48 kN 2.5

------------------------------------~46r_-----------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

(b) 3% of total vertical load = 0.03 x 190.1

5.7 kN

Hence

Tie force 48 kN

48 X 103 460

104 mm2

Therefore reinforcement in slab will suffice

2.8.9 Strip footing

EC2, Part 3: Concrete foundations, at the time of publication, has not yet been drafted, hence current UK practice is adopted.

Maximum pressure due to characteristic dead, imposed and wind loads

= 114.6 + 23.6 + 47.4/0.9 = 191 kN/m

For 900 mm wide strip, pressure = 191 = 212 kN/m2 0.9

Allow extra 10 kN/m2 for ground floor loads and weight of concrete displacing soil in foundations. This gives 222 kN/m2.

Allowable pressure = 1.25 x 200 = 250 > 222 kN/m2 OK

Use 900 mm wide strip

Calculate reinforcement for flexure

Moment

250.6 x (0.9 - 0.175)2 8

16.5 kNm/m

Minimum area

0.0015bd

0.0015 x 1000 x 200 = 300 mm2/m

Use T12 @ 300 mm crs. (377 mm2/m)

5.4.2.1.1

------------------------------------~~~-----------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.8.10 Reinforcement details

The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 2.15 and given in Table 2.8.

cr

st'SFL __ '\1_

B

.i&1T10-7 ~ 2 x1T10-B 1T1~ 1
- _J .
_.J - -- or- -- -roO I
: T;VB f--
sr I
I
'"
...
'_g 96T12-3-300 ~~
I .. ~I~ (4BN2+4BF2l .><.0
c.
- ''::::>
~ o~p.
350 :=' g u..
~ 00
HgN NN
'" . , ~ • I
0
I 0 .j~
.j'" N X
I I ,.:, N I 0
oog co ~
I + 0:1-
a: I- o ~ 0. 0.
0. ~ ~ z ~ ~
~ I- 0-
co ~
rn x
96 T12-1- 300 x N (48N2 + 48 F2 l
"'_
I ... 75__1__ - ...; I F
I I
I , lap I
L x - - (over o

8

wall tie

~.I

2 4T12 2 300 B2

= 40 - ends =75

-------------------------------------~48r_--------------------------------------

(grid 2 omitted for clarity) EAST WALL ELEVATION

B-B

COVER to outer bars - N1 = 40. F1 = 20

Figure 2.15 Shear wall reinforcement details

3 xBR10-9 - 1000 EW

A-A

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

Table 2.8 Commentary on bar arrangement

Bar marks Notes
1 Wall starters match vertical reinforcement
The projection of the horizontal legs beyond the face of the wall form the tension
reinforcement in the footing
This extension must be at least a tension anchorage length
12 460 209 208 mm OK
= - x x - =
4 1.15 x 3.2 377
The minimum projection above the top of the base is a compression lap
+ 75 mm kicker
= 32 x 12 + 75 = 459 mm
This is detailed at 525 mm ..... . .... . .. OK
2 Minimum longitudinal reinforcement provided
4,5,6 Minimum horizontal reinforcement provided
7,8 Peripheral tie at floor
9 Wall spacers to maintain location of reinforcement 2.9 Staircase

2.9.1 Idealization

The idealization of the staircase is shown in Figure 2.16.

,r- ------

/~-.------ -f

// // // //

//

//

3500

'~'-----

5060

Figure 2.16 Idealization of staircase

Design as end span of a continuous beam. Calculations will be given for 1 m width.

2.9.2 Durability and fire resistance

As for floor slab, Section 2.3, 20 mm nominal cover will be satisfactory.

5.2.2.2 5.2.2.3 5.2.3.4.1

5.4.7.3 4.4.2.2

BS 8110 3.12.3.5

------------------------------------------~4g~-----------------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.9.3 Loading

Average slab thickness on plan Self-weight = 0.25 x 24 Finishes

Characteristic dead load Characteristic imposed load Design ultimate load

2.9.4 Analysis

250 mm 6.0 kN/m 0.5

6.5 kN/m 4.0 kN/m

1.35 x 6.5 + 1.5 x 4

14.78 kN/m

Using coefficients in the Concise Eurocode

Moment at interior support Moment near mid-span Shear

2.9.5 Reinforcement for flexure

Effective depth

0.11 x 14.78 x 5.062 = 41.6 kNm 0.09 x 14.78 x 5.062 = 34.1 kNm

0.6 x 14.78 x 5.06 = 44.9 kN

M

175 - 20 - 6 = 149 mm

41.6 X 106

= 0.059

Interior support, bd2f ck

From Section 13, Table 13.1

= 0.072

Hence

A = 746 mm2/m

s

Use T12 @ 150 mm crs. (754 rnrnvrn)

0.048

0.058

Hence

A = 601 mm2/m

s

Use T12 @ 150 mm crs. (754 mm2/m)

Concise Eurocode Table A.1

------------------------------------~50r_-----------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.9.6 Shear

Reinforcement ratio

754

0.0051

1000 x 149

Near support

VRd1 = 0.35 x (1.6 - 0.175) x (1.2 + 40 x 0.0051) x 149 = 104.3 kN

VRd1 > VSd 44.9 kN, hence no shear reinforcement required

2.9.7 Deflection

Reinforcement ratio at mid-span = 0.51%

Concrete is lightly stressed, hence basic span/effective depth ratio is 32. Since fYk = 460, this should be modified to:

32 x 400/460 x 754/601 34.9

Actual span/effective depth ratio = 5060/149

34 < 34.9 OK

2.9.8 Cracking

As for floor slab in Section 2.3.8

Minimum area of reinforcement = 183 mm2/m Thickness of waist = 175 < 200 mm

No further check is necessary.

2.9.9 Tie provisions

E-W internal tie, the minimum area required = 91 mm2/m (see Section 2.3.9)

Total area for staircase = 91 x 3 = 273 mrrr'

Provide 2T12 tie bars each side of staircase in adjacent slab

4.3.2.3 Eqn 4.18

Table 4.14

4.4.3.2(4)

4.4.2.2 4.4.2.3 (1)

BS 8110 3.12.3.2

------------------------------------~51 r-------------------------------------

COMPLETE DESIGN EXAMPLE

2.9.10 Reinforcement details

The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 2.17.

7

2

750

3+ 2T10-8

3 rd SZ

l L 10T12-12-150 10T12-13-150

[over = 40

10T12-15-150

I (over to outer bars = 20 I

FLIGHT 'B'

A-A

2+3T10-8

21T10-7-150

U - bar [aver: 40

5T10 -10-300

6T10-1,1-250

10T12-5-150

2 nd SZ

FLI GHT A

,

14---.j- 4110 - 2 - 300

L 10T12 -1 - 150

Figure 2.17 Staircase reinforcement details

-----------------------------------------452~----------------------------------------

3 BEAMS II

3.1 Introduction

This Section covers the design of beams for shear and torsion, and supplements the examples given in Section 2. The requirements for adequate safety against lateral buckling are also examined.

3.2 Design methods for shear 3.2.1 Introduction

EC2(1) differs from BS 8110(2) because the truss assumption used in shear design is explicit. Leading on from this, two alternative methods are given in the Code.

(1) Standard

(2) Variable Strut Inclination (VSI).

The standard method assumes a concrete strut angle of 45° (cote = 1) and that the direct shear in the concrete, VCd' is to be taken into account. This contrasts with the VSI method which permits the designer to choose strut angles between the limits set in the NAD(1), as shown in Figure 3.1, but ignores the direct shear in the concrete.

NAD limits

cot 9 • tan 9

0.3 '--_--'- __ --'- l..- ....l..... ----'

0·4 0·67 1·0 is 2·0 2·5 cot 9

EC2 limits

Figure 3.1 Limits of cote (VSI method)

Because the direct shear in the concrete is not taken into account in the VSI method, no savings in shear reinforcement can be achieved until the applied shear exceeds three times the concrete shear (VSd > 3Vcd)·

A further disadvantage of this method is that with increasing values of cote, i.e., reductions in the concrete strut angle, the forces in the tension reinforcement

.. I

---------------------~53~--------------------------

BEAMS

increase significantly and may well outweigh any notional savings in shear reinforcement. These forces are, it should be noted, explicitly checked in EC2 but not in BS 8110. Given special circumstances the VSI method may be required but for most practical situations, the standard method will provide the most economic design.

3.2.2 Example 1 - uniformly distributed loading

The beam shown in Figures 3.2 and 3.3 is to be designed for shear.

Ultimate load = 385 kN/m

Figure 3.2 Beam span and loading - example 1

I"'n-. _
900
1000
tJ~ _ ....
_ , I Asl = 6434mm 2 18T321
I .. 400 .. I (over to links = 50mm
Figure 3.3 Typical section - example 1 The material strengths are

fCk 30 N/mm2 (concrete strength class C30137)

250 N/mm2 (characteristic yield strength of links)

f

ywk

The beam will be checked for shear reinforcement at three locations using both the standard and VSI methods for comparison. These are

(1) d from support

(2) Where VSd = VRd1, i.e., the point beyond which only minimum shear reinforcement is required

(3) An intermediate point between 1 and 2.

3.2.2.1 Standard method

The shear force diagram is shown in Figure 3.4.

Figure 3.4 Shear force diagram - example 1

4.3.2.4.3 4.3.2.4.4

4.3.2.2(10) 4.3.2.2(2)

4.3.2.4.3

--------------------------------------~54~--------------------------------------

BEAMS

The design shear resistance of the section, VRd1, is given by

VRd1 [TRi (1.2 + 40PI) + 0.15a ] b d
cp w
TRd 0.34 N/mm2 for fCk 30 N/mm2
k 1.6 - d 4:: 1 = 1
ASI 6434 0.Q18 t> 0.02
PI bd 400 x 900
w (assuming 8T32 throughout span)

a cp

VRd1 0.34 x 1 (1.2 + 40 x 0.018) x 400 x 900 235 kN

3.2.2.1.1 Position 1 - at d from support

VSd = 1155 - 0.9 x 385 = 808.5 kN

VSd > VRd1, shear reinforcement is required

The shear resistance of a section with shear reinforcement is given by

VCd VRd1 = 235 kN

A

~ (o.9d)f

5 ywd

where

A area of shear reinforcement

sw

5 spacing of shear reinforcement

f 250/1.15 = 217.4 N/mm2

ywd

A

__.!'!!. (0.9d)f V V

d~ Sd- cd

5 yw

Therefore A

sw

(808.5 - 235) x 103

5 0.9 x 900 x 217.4

Try R12 links @ 140 mm crs. (4 legs), A 15

sw

4.3.2.3(1)

Eqn 4.18

Table 4.8

4.3.2.4.3

Eqn 4.22

Eqn 4.23

--------------------------------------~55r_----------------~--------------------

BEAMS

Check crushing of compression struts

For vertical links, cota = 0

v

f 0.7 -~ 200

0.55 1:. 0.5

Eqn 4.25

Eqn 4.21

4.4.2.3

Eqn 4.79

Table 4.13

5.4.2.2(7) Eqn 5.18

Table 5.5

4.3.2.1P(6) 5.4.2.1.3

Eqn 4.30

------------------------------------__,56~------------------------------------

30 1.5

= 20 N/mm2

Therefore

VRd2 (t) x 0.55 x 20 x 400 x 0.9 x 900 x 1

1782 kN > V Sd, max = 1155 kN OK

Check maximum spacing of links

Asw

452

0.0081

sb sin a

w

140 x 400

(808.5 - 3 x 235) x 103 0.0081 x 400 x 900

35 N/mm2

Maximum spacing for crack control = 300 mm

Since (-H VRd2 < VSd :S (~~ VRd2

Smax = 0.6d 1> 300 mm

140 mm spacing OK

Check minimum value of Pw

Concrete strength class C30/37

Steel class S250

By interpolation from EC2 Table 5.5

P . = 0.0022 < 0.0081 proposed

w,mln

Use R12 links @ 140 mm crs. (4 legs)

Note:

Using the standard method, the increase in force in the tension reinforcement is best covered by using the shift rule.

It will, however. be calculated in this example to provide a comparison with the values obtained in the subsequent examples using the VSI method.

Force in tension reinforcement MSd

- + (t) Vsicote - coto) Z

BEAMS

884 kNm,

0.9d

810 mm

z

VSd 808.5 kN

cote

o for vertical links

1,

coto

Therefore Td

1091 + 404

1495 kN

3.2.2.1.2 Position 2 - where VSd = VRd1 = 235 kN From Figure 3.4

1155 - a x 385

235 kN

a 2.39 m from support

From Section 3.2.2.1.1, VRd2 > VSd, max ., •..........•... ,..... OK

The amount of shear reinforcement provided should be greater than Pw,min

Pw,min = 0.0022

A Re-arranging EC2 Eqn 5.16 in terms of ~ gives 8

For vertical links sino Hence

A

sw

= 0.0022 x 400 x 1 = 0,88 mm2/mm

8

Maximum longitudinal spacing (8 ) is given by EC2 Eqns 5.17-5.19.

max

VSd 235 kN

VRd2 1782 kN from Section 3.2.2.1.1

Since

VSd ~ (~) VRd2, EC2 Eqn 5,17 applies

0,8d 'P 300 mm

0.88 x 300 = 264 rnrn",

314 mm"

4R10

Use R10 links @ 300 mm crs. (4 legs)

3.2.2.1.3 Position 3 - at 1.65 m from support

This is a point intermediate between the section at dfrom support and the point at which shear reinforcement is no longer required.

VSd 1155 - 1.65 x 385 = 520 kN

VRd1 235 kN

4.3.2.4.3(5)

Table 5.5

Eqn 5.17

------------------------------------~57r_-----------------------------------

BEAMS

Since VSd > VRd1, shear reinforcement is required

Re-arranging EC2 Eqn 4.23

A

sw

(520 - 235) x 103 162 2/

= . mm mm

0.9 x 900 x 217.4

4.4.2.3

Eqn 4.79

Table 4.13

5.4.2.2(7) Eqn 5.18

------------------------------------~58r_------------------------------------

5

Try R12 links @ 250 mm crs. (4 legs) = 1.81 mm2/mm

Check maximum spacing of links A

sw

sb sin«

w

For vertical links sino = Hence

452

0.0045

250 x 400

(520 - 3 x 235) X 103 0.0045 x 400 x 900

-114 N/mm2

Maximum spacing for crack control = 300 mm ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OK

Since

smax = 0.6d 1> 300 mm

From Section 3.2.2.1.1

VRd2 > V Sd,max' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OK

Provide R12 links @ 250 mm crs (4 legs)

To optimize link spacing, check the point at which shear reinforcement is satisfied by R12 @ 200 mm crs. (4 legs).

Asw 452 = 2.26 mm2/mm

5 200

A

....:!!!. (0.9d)f ywd 5

2.26 x 0.9 x 900 x 217.4

398 kN

Equating

VRd3 = VSd and noting that Vcd = VRd1

VSd VRd1 + VWd = 235 + 398 = 633 kN

BEAMS

Distance of point from support =

1155 - 633 385

1.36 m

The proposed link arrangement is shown in Figure 3.5 .



R12- 140 R12 - 200 R12-300 R12 - 200 R12 - 140
4 legs 4 legs 4 legs 4 legs 4 legs
1· 36 m J J l l 1· 36 m
2· 39 m + 2· 39m +
6'Om bet~een centres I of su_pports Figure 3.5 Link arrangement (standard method) - example 1

Note:

In the centre portion of the beam R10 links are required by calculations but R12 (*) are shown to avoid the possible misplacement on site. Distance from the support (+) could be reduced to 1.70 m in this case.

3.2.2.2 Variable strut inclination method

This method allows the angle of the concrete compression strut to be varied at the designer's discretion within limits stated in the Code.

It can give some economy in shear reinforcement but will require the provision of additional tension reinforcement. In most cases the standard method will suffice.

This reduced shear reinforcement will only be obtained at high levels of design shear and is counter-balanced by increased tension reinforcement. This can be seen by a comparison of EC2 Eqns 4.22 and 4.23 in the standard method and EC2 Eqn 4.27 in the variable strut inclination method.

The standard method gives

A

~ (0.9d)f

S ywd

Re-arranging gives

Asw VRd3 - VCd

S (0.9d)fYWd

The VSI method gives

A

VRd3 = ~ (O.9d)f d cote

s yw

Re-arranging gives

Asw VRd3

S (O.9d)f d cote

yw

4.3.2.4.4

Eqn 4.22

Eqn 4.23

Eqn 4.27

------------------------------------~59~------------------------------------

BEAMS

Note:

In the above equation the contribution of the concrete, VCd' to the shear resistance of the section is not taken into account.

With cote = 1.5 which is the maximum value permitted in the NAD, reductions in shear reinforcement will only occur when

<

VRd3 - VCd (0.9d)fYWd

; or

(0.9d) fYWd x 1.5

Putting VSd = VRd3 gives VSd > 3VCd

If VSd > 3VCd' then the VSI method will allow a reduction in shear rei nforcement.

If this inequality is not satisfied, use of the variable strut inclination method will produce an uneconomic amount of shear reinforcement. In this case the standard method should be used.

For elements with vertical shear reinforcement, VRd2 is given by

Eqn 4.26

cote + tane

Putting VSd

VRd2 and re-arranging gives

cote + tano

Figure 3.1 shows cote plotted against 1/(cote + tane) together with the EC2 and NAD limits for cote. Hence for a given VSd' the limits for cote can be found.

Increasing the value of cote will reduce the shear reinforcement required but increase the force in the tension reinforcement.

In this example, cote will be chosen to minimize the shear reinforcement.

3.2.2.2.1 Position 1 - at d from support
From above
VSd
---
bwzvfCd cote + tane
bw 400 mm
z 0.9 x 900 810 mm
0.7 fCk 0.55 4:. 0.5 Eqn 4.21
v
200 ---------------------------_,60~--------------------------------

BEAMS

30 1.5

20 N/mm2

VSd 808.5 kN

Therefore

1

808.5 X 103

0.22

cote + tane

400 x 810 x 0.55 x 20

From Figure 3.1, this lies under the curve. Therefore, cote = 1.5 can be chosen which is the maximum value allowed under the NAD limits.

= (Asw) zf cote

s ywd

Now equating VRd3 to V Sd and re-arranging

808.5 X 103

810 x 217.4 x 1.5

Check

AsJywd = b s

w

1.66 s (t)pfcd = 5.5 OK

Try R12 links @ 150 mm crs. (4 legs), A Is

sw

Check maximum spacing of links.

A

sw

= 0.0075

sb sina

w

VSd - 3VCd P b d

w w

(808.5 - 3 x 235) X 103 0.0075 x 400 x 900

38.3 N/mm2

Maximum spacing for crack control = 300 mm

= 0.0075 > pw•min = 0.0022................... OK

Check smax

808.5 kN

400 x 810 x 0.55 x 20 2.167

1644 kN

cote + tane

Smax 0.6d 1> 300 mm

Eqn 4.27

4.4.2.3

Eqn 4.79

Table 4.13

Table 5.5

5.4.2.2(7)

Eqn 5.18

------------------------------------~61 r------------------------------------

BEAMS

Use R12 links @ 150 mm crs. (4 legs)

Check additional force in tension reinforcement.

MSd 1

- + ("2) VSd(cote - coto) = 1091 + 606 = 1697 kN

z

This compares with Td = 1495 kN using the standard method.

Note:

Although not permitted by the NAD, values of cote up to 2.5 are given in EC2.

A check on shear reinforcement using cote = 2.5 is now given to illustrate the effect of increasing values of e on shear and tension reinforcement.

Asw 5

808.5 X 103

= 1.84 mm2/mm

zf d cote yw

810 x 217.4 x 2.5

Try R12 @ 225 mm crs. (4 legs), A 15 = 2.01 mm2/mm

sw

Check maximum spacing of links

Pw = 0.005

VSd - 3VCd

= 57.5 N/mm2

pbd

w w

Maximum spacing for crack control = 250 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OK

5max = 0.6d 1> 300 mm OK

Use R12 links @ 225 mm crs. (4 legs)

Check additional force in tension reinforcement.

MSd

- + (t)VSd (cote - cot«) = 1091 + 1011 = 2102 kN z

This compares with Td = 1495 kN using the standard method.

3.2.2.2.2 Position 2 - where VSd = VRd1

Since only minimum shear reinforcement is required this case is identical to that shown in Section 3.2.2.1.2.

3.2.2.2.3 Position 3 - at 1.65 m from support

VSd 520 kN

A

sw

520 X 103

810 x 217.4 x 1.5

5

Try R12 links @ 225 mm crs. (4 legs), A Is = 2.01 mm2/mm

sw

Eqn 4.30

Table 4.13

Eqn 5.18

------------------------------------~62~------------------------------------

BEAMS

From Section 3.2.2.2.1 spacing is satisfactory.

Use R12 links @ 225 mm crs. (4 legs)

As in Section 3.2.2.1.3, check the point at which the shear requirement is satisfied by R12 @ 200 mm crs. (4 legs).

A

sw

452

-- = 2.26 mm2/mm

200

s

(A;w)ZfYWd cote = 2.26 x 810 x 217.4 x 1.5

597 kN

1155 - 597 Distance from support =

385

1.45 m

The proposed link arrangement is shown in Figure 3.6.

R12 - 150

R12-150

R12 - 200 R12 - 300 R12 - 200

4 legs

4 legs 4 legs 4 legs

4 legs

I

I

i HSm

2·139m

1'45m

2· 39m

6·0m beh,-~en centres of supports

Figure 3.6 Link arrangement (VSI method) - example 1

Comparing this with the arrangement in Figure 3.5 obtained using the standard method, it can be seen that less reinforcement is required near the support but this needs to be carried further along the beam. There is little overall saving in this case.

3.3 Shear resistance with concentrated loads close to support

3.3.1 Introduction

Where concentrated loads are located within 2.5d of a support, the value TRd may be modified by a factor (3 when calculating VRd1. This enhancement only applies when the section is resisting concentrated loads and the standard method is used. For a uniformly distributed load, an unmodified value of VRd1 should be used.

3.3.2 Example 2 - concentrated loads only

The beam shown in Figures 3.7 and 3.8 is to be designed for shear.

Eqn 4.27

4.3.2.2(9)

------------------------------------~63~------------------------------------

BEAMS

800 kN 800 kN
l Ultimate loads l_
. i •
"35rn I 1'3Sm
I
6m Figure 3.7 Beam span and loading - example 2

,.

900

1000

t ...

I ASI= 482Smm2(6T32) I .. 400~ (over to links = SOmm

Figure 3.8 Typical section - example 2

The materials strengths are

fCk 30 N/mm2 (concrete strength grade, C30/37)

f 250 N/mm2 (characteristic yield strength of links)

ywk

In the example. VRd1 will be calculated at positions between the support and 2.5d away at intervals of o.5d. This is done to illustrate the effect even though the critical section will normally be at the position of the concentrated load.

3.3.2.1 Shear reinforcement

The shear force diagram is shown in Figure 3.9.

Figure 3.9 Shear force diagram - example 2

--------------------------------------~64~--------------------------------------

BEAMS

The basic design shear resistance of the section, VAd1, is given by

TAd = 0.34 N/mm2 for fCk = 30 N/mm2

For concentrated loads within 2.5d of the face of the support, an enhancement of shear resistance is permitted. TAd may be multiplied by a factor {3 when determining VAd1.

{3

= 2.5d/x with 1.0 -s {3 -s 5.0

Taking values of x between 0.5d and 2.5d gives values of {3TAd shown in Table 3.1.

Table 3.1 Design shear strength {3TAd

x fJ fJTRd
(m) (N/mm~
0.45 5 1.7
0.90 2.5 0.85
1.35 1.67 0.57
1.80 1.00' 0.34
2.25 1.00' 0.34 • No enhancement taken, see Figure 3.9

The equation for VAd1 can be modified to give a range of values corresponding to the distance from the support.

k 1.6 - d .;::. 1

(J cp

Asl 4825 0.013
bd 400 x 900
w
NSd 0
A
C Values of design shear resistance, VAd1, are given in Table 3.2.

Table 3.2 Design shear resistance VAd1

X VRd1
(m) (kN)
0.45 1052
0.90 526
1.35 353
1.80 211
2.25 211 4.3.2.3(1)

Eqn 4.18

Table 4.8

Eqn 4,17

Eqn 4.18 (mod)

------------------------------------~65r_------------------------------------

BEAMS

Shear reinforcement is required when VSd > VRd1·

From Figure 3.9, VSd = 800 kN from x = 0 to x = 1.35 m Using the standard method

Putting VRd3 = VSd and VCd

VRd1 gives

4.3.2.4

4.3.2.4.3

Eqn 4.22

4.3.2.2(9)

4.3.2.2(9)

--------------------------------------~66r_--------------------------------------

Values of design shear resistance to be provided by shear reinforcement, Vwd' are given in Table 3.3.

Table 3.3 Design shear resistance VWd

VRd1 VSd VSd - VRd1 = VWd
(kN) (kN) (kN)
1052 800 < a
526 800 274
353 800 447
211 a < 0
-
211 a < 0 Therefore maximum shear reinforcement is required when VRd1 = 353 kN, i.e., when x = 1.35 m.

This should be provided over the entire length from x = 0 to x = 2.25 m (0 < x < 2.5d).

Note:

If a concentrated load is positioned close to a support, it is possible that using (3 to modify VRd1 may lead to only minimum shear reinforcement being provided throughout the beam. In this case, the designer may wish to base the shear resistance on the unmodified VRd1.

This can be illustrated by taking the example above but placing the point load at 0.5d from the support.

The modified shear force diagram is shown in Figure 3.10.

VRd1 (mod) = 1052kN _--.

VSd = 800kN 1----1

Note ,,= 1 on span side of concentrated load

VRd1 = 211kN I-

I

I

I

I

X/d = 0·5 1·0 1·5 2'0 2'5

L Position of concentrated load

Figure 3.10 Shear force diagram (load at O.5ci) - example 2 modified

BEAMS

In this case it would be prudent to check the shear resistance on the unmodified VRd1 = 211 kN. The required shear reinforcement should be provided from x = 0 to x = 0.5d

Check area of shear reinforcement required in example 2.

Re-arranging the equation for Vwd gives

A

sw

Vwd 0.9dfYWd

447 X 103

= 2.54 mm2/mm

0.9 x 900 x 217.4

s

Try R12 links @ 175 mm crs. (4 legs), Asw/s = 2.58 mm2/mm

Check crushing of compression strut

For vertical links, cote = 0

p

f 0.7 -~ 200

0.55

30 1.5

20 N/mm2

Therefore

VRd2 (t) x 0.55 x 20 x 400 x 0.9 x 900 x 1

1782 kN > V Sd = 800 kN , , , . . . . .. 0 K

Check maximum spacing of links.

A

sw

sb sina

w

For vertical links sino 1

452

0.0064 > Pw,min

0.0022 . , . . . .. OK

175 x 400

(800 - 3 x 353) X 103 0,0064 x 400 x 900

< 0

Maximum spacing for crack control = 300 mm

By inspection, EC2 Clause 5.4,2.2(7) is satisfied.

Use R12 links @ 175 mm crs. (4 legs) for 0 < x < 2.25 m

Eqn 4.23

Eqn 4.25

Eqn 4.21

4.4.2.3

Eqn 4.79

Table 5.5

Table 4.13

5.4.2.2(7)

BEAMS

3.3.3 Example 3 - combined loading

The revised loading and shear force diagrams are shown in Figures 3.11 and 3.12 respectively.

Ultimate loads
800 kN 800 kN
1 \. 100 kN/m 1
C'-Tl. '\.J \.J'--\ C\.J V JVl. l. ...lo.l..l.L
~ 1·35m .J L 1·35m
I 6m I Figure 3.11 Beam span and loading - example 3

Figure 3.12 Shear force diagram - example 3

The basic design shear resistance of the section, VRd1, is given by

For concentrated loads within 2.5d of the face of the support, TRd may be increased as in Section 3.3.2. However, no similar enhancement is permitted for uniformly distributed loads.

{3 must be reduced depending on the proportion of concentrated loads to total design load. {3 can then be written as

v

= 1 + ((3 - 1) Sd(conc) with 1.0 ~ (3 ~ 5.0

VSd(tot)

VSd(conc)

design shear force due to concentrated loads

VSd(tot)

design shear force due to total loads

Values of the concentrated load ratio and the resulting design shear strength are given in Tables 3.4 and 3.5.

4.3.2.3(1)

Eqn 4.18

4.3.2.2(9)

----------------------------------~68r_----------------------------------

BEAMS

Table 3.4 Concentrated load ratio VSd(cOnc/VSd(tot)

x V Sd(conc) V Sd(ud1) vSd(1OI) v Sd(conc/v Sd(1Ot)
(m) (kN) (kN) (kN)
0.45 800 255 1055 0.76
0.90 800 210 1010 0.79
1.35 800 165 965 0.83
1.80 0 120 120 0
2.25 0 75 75 0 Table 3.5 Design shear strength t3'edTRd

x {3'edTRd
(m) {3 {3rod (N/mm2j
0.45 5 4.04 1.37
0.90 2.5 2.19 0.75
1.35 1.67 1.56 0.53
1.80 1.0 1.00 0.34
2.25 1.0 1.00 0.34 The equation for VRd1 can be modified to give a range of values corresponding to the distance from the support.

VRd1 (x) = [t3'edTRi(1.2 + 40p/) + 0.15 O'cp] bwd

As in Section 3.3.2.1

k

1,

p/ = 0.013,

Values of design shear resistance, VRd1, and design shear resistance to be provided by shear reinforcement, Vwd, are given in Tables 3.6 and 3.7.

Table 3.6 Design shear resistance (VRd1)

X VRd1
(m) (kN)
0.45 848
0.90 464
1.35 328
1.80 211
2.25 211 Table 3.7 Design shear resistance (Vwd)

VRd1 VSd VSd - VRd1 = Vwd
(kN) (kN) (kN)
848 1055 207
464 1010 546
328 965 637
211 120 < 0
211 75 <0 Eqn 4.18 (mod)

------------------------------------~69~----------------------~------------

BEAMS

Therefore maximum shear reinforcement is required when

VRd1 = 328 kN, i.e., when x = 1.35 m

This should be provided from x = 0 to x Check area of shear reinforcement required. Re-arranging the equation for VWd

2.25 m (0 < x < 2.5d)

Asw s

637 X 103

(0.9d)fYWd

0.9 x 900 x 217.4

Try R12 links @ 125 mm crs. (4 legs), Asjs Check crushing of compression strut

From example 2, VRd2 = 1782 kN > VSd Check maximum spacing of links

By comparison with example 2, requirements are satisfied

1100 kN OK

OK

Use R12 links @ 125 mm crs. (4 legs) for 0 < x < 2.25 m

For the remainder of the beam beyond x = 2.5d (2.25 m) provide minimum reinforcement as example given in Section 3.2.2.

3.4 Design method for torsion

3.4.1 Introduction

The edge beam shown in Figure 3.13 carries the ends of simply supported floor slabs seated on the lower flange. The beam is fully restrained at its ends.

The example chosen is the same as that used in Allen's Reinforced concrete design to as 8110: Simply explained(12).

Analysis of the structure and the design of the section for flexure is not included. The section will be checked for shear, torsion and the combination of both.

Eqn 4.23

4.4.2.3 5.4.2.2(7)

------------------------------------~ror_------------------------------------

BEAMS

560

I~

250

1500

Floor ~lab

Figure 3.13 Beam section

3.4.2 Design data

Design torsional moment (TSd) Design shear (VsJ = 355 kN

120 kNm

Concrete strength grade is C30/3?, fCk 30 N/mm2

Nominal cover to links is 35 mm.

Assuming 25 mm bars and 10 mm links

d 1500 - 35 - 10 - 25 1441.5 say 1440 mm

2

Assume 0.25% tensile reinforcement for flexure

3.4.3 Shear resistance

Shear will be taken as acting on the web of the section only.

When combined shear and torsion effects are to be considered, shear is to be checked using the variable strut inclination method. The angle e of the equivalent concrete struts is to be the same for both torsion and shear design.

The design shear resistance, VRd1, with zero axial load is given by

0.34 N/mm2 for fCk = 30 N/mm2

k 1.6 - d = 1.6 - 1.44 = 0.16 -t:.1.0

3.1.2.4 Table 3.1 4.1.3.3 NAD Table 6

4.3.3.2.2(4) 4.3.2.3(1)

Eqn 4.18

Table 4.8

------------------------------------~71 r-------------------------------------

BEAMS

Assuming 0.25% tensile reinforcement, PI = 0.0025 1> 0.02

VRd1 0.34 x 1(1.2 + 40 x 0.0025) x 250 x 1440 x 10-3

159.1 kN < 355 kN

Therefore shear reinforcement required.

Use the variable strut inclination method. The maximum design shear force, VRd2, to avoid web crushing is given by

b zvt d

w C

(cote + tane)

Re-arranging gives

VRd2
bwzvfCd cote + tano
VSd 355 kN
b 250 mm
w
z 0.9d = 0.9 x 1440 1296 mm

4.3.2.4.4(2) Eqn 4.26

4.3.2.4.2(3)

NAD Table 3 4.3.2.4.4(1)

4.3.2.4.4(2) Eqn 4.27

--------------------------------------4n~------------------------------------

v

f 0.7 - ~ 200

0.55 1:. 0.5

0.7 _ 30 200

30 1.5

20 N/mm2

Therefore

355 X 103

0.1

250 x 1296 x 0.55 x 20

e should be ~ 0.1

cot + tane

By reference to Figure 3.1, it will be seen that the value of cote may be taken anywhere between the limits of 0.67 to 1.5.

To minimize link reinforcement, take cote = 1.5

Design shear resistance, VRd3, for shear reinforcement is given by

= (~sw) zf cote

s ywd

BEAMS

Re-arranging gives

Asw VRd3

S zf dcote

yw

Putting VRd3 equal to VSd

Using high yield reinforcement

f

ywd

400 N/mm2

460 1.15

Therefore

A

sw

355 X 103

s

0.9 x 1440 x 400 x 1.5

ASwfYWd 400 :5 vfed

-- = 0.46 x - = 0.74

b s 250 2

w

20 0.55 x-

2

5.5 N/mm2 .. OK

Before choosing the reinforcement, the effects of torsion will be considered and the results combined.

The force in the longitudinal reinforcement, Td, ignoring flexure, is given by

= (t) Vsicote - coto)

For vertical links, cote 0

355

x 1.5

2

266.3 kN

Additional area of longitudinal reinforcement

Td 266.3 x 103 = 666 rnrn"

f 400

ywd

This area of reinforcement must be combined with the tension reinforcement required for flexure together with the longitudinal reinforcement required for torsion.

3.4.4 Torsional resistance

Torsional resistance is calculated on the basis of a thin-walled closed section. Solid sections are replaced by an idealized equivalent thin-walled section. Sections of complex shape are divided into sub-sections with each sub-section treated as an equivalent thin-walled section. The torsional resistance is taken as the sum of the torsional resistances of the sub-sections.

The torsional moment, carried by each sub-section according to elastic theory, may be found on the basis of the St Venant torsional stiffness. Division of the section into sub-sections should be so arranged as to maximize the calculated stiffness.

4.3.2.4.4(2) Eqn 4.27

4.3.2.4.4(5) Eqn 4.30

--------------------------------------173r--------------------------------------

BEAMS

For this example the section will be divided into the sub-sections shown in Figure 3.14.

Figure 3.14 Dimensions of sub-sections

3.4.4.1 St Venant torsional stiffnesses

J = {jh3. h

min max

3.4.4.1.1 Top and bottom flanges

h

max

310 mm,

h.

min

200 mm

h

max

310

1.55

h . 200

min

From which {j = 0.203

Therefore

J 0.203 X 2003 x 310

3.4.4.1.2 Web

h

max

1500 mm,

250 mm

h

max

1500

6

h . 250

min

From which {j = 0.33

Therefore

J 0.33 X 2503 x 1500

BS 8110:

Part 2

2.4.3 Eqn 1

BS 8110:

Part 2 2.4.3 Table 2.2

BS 8110:

Part 2 2.4.3 Table 2.2

------------------------------------~~~------------------------------------

BEAMS

3.4.4.1.3 Total stiffness

Jtot [(2 x 0.5) + 7.7] x 109 = 8.7 X 109 rnrn"

3.4.4.2 Thicknesses of equivalent thin-walled sections A 1> the actual wall thickness

u

where

u outer circumference of the section

A total area within the outer circumference

3.4.4.2.1 Top and bottom flanges

u (310 + 200)2 = 1020 mm

A 310 x 200 = 62 X 103 rnm"

Therefore

62 X 103 = 61 mm 1020

t may not be less than twice the cover, c, to the longitudinal bars. Hence, with 10 mm links

tmin = 2(35 + 10) = 90 mm

3.4.4.2.2 Web

u (1500 + 250)2 = 3500 mm

A 1500 x 250 = 375 x 103 rnrn"

Therefore

375 X 103

3500 = 107 mm > 2c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OK

Values of t between the limits of Alu and 2c may be chosen provided that the design torsional moment, TSd' does not exceed the torsional moment that can be resisted by the concrete compression struts.

3.4.4.3 Torsional moments

TSd.tot = 120 kNm

This total moment is shared between the flanges and web in proportion to their torsional stiffness.

Therefore

T

Sd.w

120 x 0.5 8.7

= 120 x 7.7 = 106 kNm 8.7

6.9 kNm

TSd must satisfy the following two conditions

4.3.3.1(6)

4.3.3.1(6)

4.3.3.1(5)

Eqn 4.38 Eqn 4.39

------------------------------------~75~------------------------------------

BEAMS

3.4.4.4 Torsion in flanges

cote + tane

Re-arranging gives

cote + tane

Putting TRd1 equal to TSd

TSd

2vfeiAk cote + tane

TSd,f1 6.9 kNm

v

0.7 (0.7 -~)

200

0.7 (0.7 - 12. )

200

0.385 1: 0.35

fed 20 N/mm2

t 90 mm

Ak area enclosed within the centre line of the thin-wall section (310 - 90) x (200 - 90) = 24.2 X 103 rnrrr'

Therefore

0.206

2 x 0.385 x 20 x 90 x 24.2 X 103

By reference to Figure 3.1 it may be seen that the value of cote may be taken anywhere between the limits of 0.67 to 1.5.

To minimize link reinforcement take cote = 1.5.

Note that this value must be consistent with the value taken for normal shear.

Re-arranging gives

Asw TRd2

S 2A/ywdcote

4.3.3.1(6) Eqn 4.40

4.3.3.1(6) Eqn 4.41

NAD Table 3 4.3.3.1(6)

4.3.3.1(7) Eqn 4.43

--------------------------------------4ro~------------------------------------

BEAMS

5.4.2.3(3)

Putting TRd2 equal to TSd

Asw TSd

s 2A/YWdcote

Using mild steel reinforcement

"Is

250 1.15

217 N/mm2

Therefore

A

sw

6.9 X 106

s

2 x 24.2 X 103 x 217 x 1.5

u The spacing of torsion links should not exceed _k 8

where

the circumference of the area Ak

2[(310 - 90) + (200 - 90)]

660 mm

Therefore

660

- = 82.5 mm, say 80 mm

8

A

sw

35.2 mm"

0.44 x 80

Use R8 links at 80 mm crs.

The additional area of longitudinal steel for torsion is given by

Re-arranging and putting TRd2 equal to TSd

Asl

(TSd~Jcote

'Yld

Using high yield reinforcement

460 = 400 N/mm2 1.15

Therefore

6.9 X 106 x 660 x 1.5 400 x 2 x 24.2 X 103

353 rnrn"

Use 4T12 bars

4.3.3.1(7)

Eqn 4.44

-----------------------------------~77~------------------------------------

BEAMS

Reinforcement will also be required in the bottom flange to cater for flexure of the flange acting as a continuous nib.

3.4.4.5 Torsion in web

T 106 kNm

Sd.w

(1500 - 107) x (250 - 107)

199.2 X 103 mm2

Therefore

106 X 106

0.32

2 x 0.385 x 20 x 107 x 199.2 x 103

Again by reference to Figure 3.1, cote should fall within the limits of 0.67 to 1.5. Similarly use cote = 1.5

As the web is subject to shear and torsion, the combined effects should now be checked to satisfy the condition

TSd 106 kNm

2vfCdtAk cote + tane

2 x 0.385 x 20 x 107 x 199.2 x 103 1.5 + (115)

151.5 kNm

VSd 355 kN

cote + tane

250 x 1300 x 0.55 x 20 1.5 + C1s)

1650 kN

Therefore

( 106 )2 ( 355 )2

151.5 + 1650

0.54 < 1.0 OK

Where the entire section is used to resist normal shear, each sub-section should be checked to satisfy the above interaction condition.

4.3.3.2.2(3) Eqn 4.47

4.3.3.1(6) Eqn 4.40

4.3.2.4.4(2) Eqn 4.26

------------------------------------~~~------------------------------------

BEAMS

3.4.5 Reinforcement in web

Link reinforcement for torsion

Using high yield links

A

sw

106 X 106

s

2 x 199.2 X 103 x 400 x 1.5

Note that A for torsion relates to a single leg in the wall of the section.

sw

Link reinforcement required for shear

A

sw

= 0.46 mm2/mm from Section 3.4.3

s

Note that Asw for shear relates to the total shear link legs.

Assuming single links, total area for one leg

A

sw

0.46s

= -- + 0.44s = 0.67s rnrrr'

2

Using T12 links

0.67s 113 rnrn"

s 168 mm, say 160 mm

Maximum link spacing for shear (+)VRd2 < VSd :5 (; WRd2

5.4.2.2(7) Eqn 5.18

s = 0.6d

max

864 1> 300 mm

Therefore

s 300 mm

max

For cracking

pbd

w w

4.4.2.3(5) Table 4.13

Therefore s

max

300 mm

For torsion

8

2[(1500 - 107) + (250 - 107)]

3072 mm

Therefore

S

max

3072

= -- = 384 mm 8

Maximum spacing to suit all conditions is 300 mm.

Use T12 links @ 160 mm crs.

------------------------------------~79~------------------------------------

BEAMS

Additional area of longitudinal steel for torsion in web 106 x 106 x 3072 x 1.5

3065 rnrrr'

400 x 2 x 199.2 X 103

Use 16T16 bars

The bars in the tension face of the web will need to be increased to provide for the additional longitudinal steel required for shear and combined with the reinforcement required for flexure.

Area required in tension face for combined torsion and shear

(3065 x 2) + 666 = 1049 mrrr'

16

Use 3T25 bars

3.4.6 Summary of reinforcement

Top flange

4T12 longitudinal bars R8 links @ 80 mm crs.

Bottom flange

4T12 longitudinal bars R8 links @ 80 mm crs.

Plus reinforcement for flexure of the nib

Web

3T25 longitudinal bars in tension face 7T16 bars in each side face

T12 links @ 160 mm crs.

Plus reinforcement for flexure

The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 3.15

4T12

R8 -so

R8 -80

T16 bars except where shown otherwise

T12 - 160

Additional bars needed for flexure in nib

4T12 3T25

Figure 3.15 Beam reinforcement details

Eqn 4.44

--------------------------------------~80r_--------------------------------------

BEAMS

It will be seen from this example that choosing the upper limit value of cote, to minimize the link reinforcement, results in substantial additional longitudinal reinforcement being required. In practice the value of cote should be chosen so as to optimize the total reinforcement in the section.

3.5 Slenderness limits

The Code requires that a beam has an adequate factor of safety against buckling.

Providing that the following requirements are met, the safety against lateral buckling may be assumed to be adequate

< 50b; and

h

< 4b

where

width of the compression flange, which can be taken as beff for T and L beams

h total depth of the beam

b

unrestrained length of the compression flange taking lateral bracing into account

For example, consider the beam shown in Figure 3.16.

975)( 400 beam

~vvv~~vv~~vv~~,:

ABC 0

Figure 3.16 Beam spans and loading for slenderness check

In this example the top of the beam is loaded but unrestrained (for instance, the beam is carrying a wall).

The second requirement is satisfied i.e. h < 4b = 1600 mm

In calculating lot' the unrestrained length of the compression flange can be taken as the distance between points of contraflexure.

These distances, which need to be < 50b = 20 m, can be obtained from EC2 Figure 2.3.

I (A-B)

ot

0.85/(A-B) O.71(B-C)

0.85 x 22 = 18.7 m

lot(B-C) lot(C-O)

0.7 x 22 = 15.4 m

21(C-O) = 2 x 11

22 m

Spans A-C are satisfactory but span C-O is not. It is too slender and the width will need to be increased, or additional lateral retrain! will need to be provided.

4.3.5.7

4.3.5.7(2)

Eqn 4.77

NAD

2.5.2.2.1(3)

2.5.2.2.1(4)

Figure 2.3

--------------------------------------~81 ~--------------------------------------

4 SLABS II

4.1 Solid and ribbed slabs

4.1.1 One-way spanning solid slabs

Example of a one-way spanning slab is given in Section 2.

4.1.2 Two-way spanning solid slabs

EC2(1) permits the use of elastic analysis, with or without redistribution, or plastic analysis for ultimate limit state design.

Elastic analyses are commonly employed for one-way spanning slabs and for two-way spanning slabs without adequate provision to resist torsion at the corners of the slab and prevent the corners from lifting. Plastic analyses are commonly used in other situations.

Tabulated results for moments and shears from both types of analysis are widely available.

Care is necessary in subsequent design to ensure that adequate ductility is present. Where redistribution has been performed, the necessary checks should be carried out.

4.1.2.1 DeSign example of a simply-supported two-way spanning solid slab Design a solid slab, spanning in two directions and simply-supported along each edge on brickwork walls as shown in Figure 4.1. The slab is rectangular on plan and measures 5 m by 6 m between the centre of the supports.

In addition to self-weight, the slab carries a characteristic dead load of 0.5 kN/m2 and an imposed load of 5.0 kN/m2.

The slab is in an internal environment with no exposure to the weather or aggressive conditions.

,

-F---~------ll

II II'

I I

I

I I'

220mm Wide -- 'I

supporting "'alit i: :

II I,

-,=L:::=_===.=::::::::= -~~~=Jl~ L

~

ly = 6m I

~-------~----------~.

I x = Sm

Figure 4.1 Layout of slab

4.1.2.1.1 Durability

For a dry environment, exposure class is 1. Minimum concrete strength grade is C25/30.

2.5.1.1(5)

2.5.3.5.1(2)

as 8110 Tables

3.14 & 3.15 2.5.3.2.2(5) 2.5.3.4.2(3) 2.5.3.5.5(2)

Table 4.1 ENV 206 Table NA.1

---------------------------~82r_----------------------------------

SLABS

For cement content and w/c ratio, refer to ENV 206 Table 3(6).

Minimum cover to reinforcement Assume nominal aggregate size Assume maximum bar size Nominal cover

= 15 mm = 20 mm = 12 mm ~ 20 mm

Use nominal cover = 25 mm

Note:

20 mm nominal cover is sufficient to meet the NAO(1) requirements in all respects.

Check requirements for fire resistance to BS 8110: Part 2(2).

4.1.2.1.2 Materials

Type 2 deformed reinforcement

fYk 460 N/mm2

460 1.15

400 N/mm2

C25/30 concrete with 20 mm maximum aggregate size

4.1.2.1.3 Loading

Assume 200 mm thick slab

Gk 4.8 + 0.5 = 5.3 kN/m2
Ok 5.0 kN/m2
'YG 1.35
'Yo 1.5 Ultimate load

14.66 kN/m2

4.1.2.1.4 Flexural design

Bending moment coefficients for simply-supported two-way spanning slabs, without torsional restraint at the corners or provision to resist uplift at the corners, based on the Grashof-Rankine Formulae, are widely published and are reproduced in BS 8110.

I For .:

I

x

1.2

0.084,

0.059

NAO Table 6

NAO 6.4(a)

NAO

Table 3 4.1.3.3(8)

NAO 6.1(a)

NAO 6.3(a)

2.2.3.2 Table 2.3

Table 2.2

Eqn 2.8(a) NAO 6.2(d)

BS 8110 Table 3.14

------------------------------------~83r_------------------------------------

SLABS

Giving

MSdx 30.8 kNm/m

MSdY 21.6 kNm/m

For short span with reinforcement in bottom layer 12

d

= 200 - 25

= 169 mm

2

0.043

x

0.099 < 0.45 OK

d

0.052

Therefore A = 478 mm2/m

s

Use T12 @ 200 mm crs. (566 rnrnvrn) in short span

For longer span

d

200 - 25 - 12 - 6

157 mm

0.035

A/yk bdfck

Therefore A = 359 mm2/m

s

0.042

Use T12 @ 300 mm crs. (377 rnrrr'rm) in long span

4.1.2.1.5 Shear

VSdx

24.6 kN/m

(nl 2)

= 8ex _x_ = 14.4 kN/m sy 21

y

The shear resistance with no axial load:

VRd1 = TRl(1.2 + 40p)bwd

Where

0.3 N/mm2

2.5.3.4.2(5)

4.3.2

4.3.2.3 Eqn 4.18

Table 4.8

--------------------------------------184~-------------------------------------

SLABS

Assume 'I> 50% of reinforcement curtailed at support

k = 1.6 - d = 1.431 1:. 1

Assume

As[ bd

w

o 'I> 0.02

Hence

VRd1 = 87.0 kN/m > VSdX = 24.6 kN/m

No shear reinforcement required

4.1.2.1.6 Serviceability - deflection

Control by limiting span/effective depth ratio based on the shorter span for a two-way spanning slab.

A = 566 mm2/m,

s,prov

p = 0.0033

NAD Table 7 gives basic span/effective depth ratios which are assumed to be based on fYk = 400 N/mm2.

Note 2 to NAD Table 7 states that modification to the tabulated values for nominal reinforced concrete should not be carried out to take into account service stresses in the steel (refer to EC2 Clause 4.4.3.2(4». However, it is assumed that the correction ought to be made for concrete with 0,15% ::;;; p«; 0.5% but that the resulting values should not exceed those tabulated in the NAD for nominally reinforced concrete.

Basic limiting span/effective depth ratios are:

Concrete lightly stressed (p = 0.5%): 25 Concrete nominally reinforced (p = 0.15%): 34

By interpolation at p = 0.33%: 29.4

The actual service steel stress modification factor is

250

400

1.03

400

460 x 478/566

Therefore, permissible span/effective depth ratio = 1.03 x 29.4 = 30.3 ::;;; 34

Since span 'I> 7 m, no further adjustment is required.

Actual span/effective depth ratio

5000 169

29.6 < 30.3.... OK

Note:

No modification to the longer span reinforcement is required in cases where short span reinforcement is increased to comply with deflection requirements.

Figure 4.12

4.3.2.1P(2) 4.3.2.2

4.4.3.2

4.4.3.2(4)

NAD 6.4(e)&(f) Table 7

4.4.3.2(3)

BS 8110 3.5.7

------------------------------------~85~------------------------------------

SLABS

4.1.2.1.7 Serviceability - cracking

For a slab with h ~ 200 mm, no further measures to control cracking are necessary if the requirements of EC2 Clause 5.4.3 have been applied.

4.1.2.1.8 Detailing

Detailing requirements for cast in situ solid slabs, including two-way slabs

Slab thickness, h = 200 > 50 mm OK

For the short span, use alternately staggered bars and anchor 50% of the midspan reinforcement at the supports.

VSd (~) + NSd

Anchorage force, F

S

d

Therefore

F

S

VSd

24.6 kN/m

A

s,req

F

S

fyd

24.6 X 103 400

A

s,prov

OK

Net bond length, Ib,net

alA

a b s,req

1:- Ib,min

A

s,prov

1.0 for straight bars

cP 4

All bars in slabs with h ~ 250 mm may be assumed to have good bond,

fbd 2.7 N/mm2
12 400
Ib x 444 mm
4 2.7
Ib, . 0.3/b 1:- 10cP or 100 mm 133 mm
min In calculating Ib, t take A as mid-span reinforcemenU4 giving

ne s,req

1

Ib,r.et = 1.0 x 444 x '2 = 222 mm > Ib,min " OK

4.4.2.3{1}

5.4.3 5.43.1{1} 5.4.3.2.2{1}

5.4.3.2.1(1) 5.4.2.1.4(2) Eqn 5.15

5.4.3.2.1(1)

5.2.3.4.1(1} Eqn 5.4

5.2.3.4.1

5.2.2.3 Eqn 5.3

5.2.2.1 Table 5.3

5. 2.3.4.1 (1) Eqn 5.5

NAD 6.5(c) 5.4.2.1.4(3}

Eqn 5.4

SLABS

For a direct support. the anchorage length required is

(2/3)lb.net = 148 mm

The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 4.2.

T12 - 300

T12-200 alternately staggered



(4----J-- (213) lb,net = 148

\.

220

·1

Figure 4.2 Section through short span support

The use of (2/3)lb,net at a direct support is an allowance for the transverse compression due to the support reaction,

Minimum area of reinforcement

A

s

Minimum area provided (T12 @ 400 mm crs.) near support

283 mm2/m OK

Maximum bar spacing

3h 1> 500 mm

Maximum spacing used

400 mm near support , , , , , , . , . . . . .. OK

4.1.2.2 Design example of a continuous two-way spanning solid slab

Design a solid slab spanning between beams, as shown in Figure 4.3.

In addition to self-weight, the slab carries a characteristic dead load of 1,0 kN/m2 and an imposed load of 5.0 kN/m2.

5.4.2.1.4(3) Figure 5.12(a)

5.4,3.2.1(3) 5.4,2.1.1(1)

NAD Table 3 5.4.3.2,1(4)

------------------------------------~~r_-----------------------------------

SLABS

Supporting beams

6m

6m

6m

1 7' 2 m

....

I 7·2 m

...

I ..

7· 2 m

-I

Figure 4.3 Layout of slab

4.1.2.2.1 Durability

For a dry environment, exposure class is 1. Minimum concrete strength grade is C25/30.

For cement content and w/c ratio, refer to ENV 206 Table 3.

Minimum cover to reinforcement Assume nominal aggregate size Assume maximum bar size Nominal cover

= 15 mm = 20 mm = 12 mm ~ 20 mm

Use nominal cover

25 mm

Note:

20 mm nominal cover is sufficient to meet the NAD requirements in all respects.

Check requirements for fire resistance to BS 8110: Part 2.

4.1.2.2.2 Materials

Type 2 deformed reinforcement, fYk = 460 N/mm2 C25/30 concrete with 20 mm maximum aggregate size.

Table 4.1 ENV 206 Table NA.1

NAD Table 6

NAD 6.4(a)

NAD

Table 3 4.1.3.3(8)

NAD 6.1(a)

--------------------------------------~88~--------------------------------------

SLABS

4.1.2.2.3 Loading

Assume 200 mm thick slab

Gk 4.8 + 1.0 = 5.8 kN/m2
Ok 5.0 kN/m2
'YG 1.35 or 1.0
'Yo 1.5 or 0.0 For non-sensitive structures, a single design value for permanent actions may be applied throughout the structure, i.e. 'YG = 1.35 throughout.

Maximum ultimate load Minimum ultimate load

1.35 x 5.8 + 1.5 x 5.0 = 15.33 kN/m2 1.35 x 5.8 = 7.83 kN/m2

4.1.2.2.4 Load cases

For continuous beams and slabs in buildings without cantilevers subjected to dominantly uniformly distributed loads, it will generally be sufficient to consider only the following load cases.

(a) Alternate spans carrying the design variable and permanent load ('YOOk + 'YGGk) , other spans carrying only the design permanent load, 'YGGk.

(b) Any two adjacent spans carrying the design variable and permanent load hoOk + 'YGGk). All other spans carrying only the design permanent load, 'YGGk.

4.1.2.2.5 Flexural design

Bending moment coefficients for two-way spanning slabs supported on four edges, with provision for torsion at the corners, have been calculated based on both elastic and yield line theory. The coefficients published in BS 8110:

Part 1, Table 3.15, are based on yield line analysis and are used in this example.

For continuous slabs the effects of rotational restraint from the supports can be ignored.

Yield line methods can only be used for very ductile structural elements. Use high ductility steel Class H to prEN 10080(8).

No direct check on rotational capacity is required if high ductility steel is used.

The area of steel should not exceed a value corresponding to

x

M 0.25 which is equivalent to -bd2f

ck

0.102

d

For the yield line (kinematic) method, a variety of possible mechanisms should be considered. This is assumed in the use of the published bending moment coefficients.

Table 2.2

2.3.2.3

2.5.1.2(4)

BS 8110 Table 3.15

2.5.3.3(3)

2.5.3.2.2(5) NAD Table 5

2.5.3.5.5(3)

2.5.3.5.5(2)

2.5.3.5.5(4)

-------------------------------------489r-------------------------------------

SLABS

The ratio of moments at a continuous edge to the span moment should be between 0.5 and 2.0. This is true for the published coefficients.

Consider the design of the corner panel, D, in Figure 4.4.

N <S>
...r ...r
9 0
~ 0·024 6 0·028
-0 ·032 - 0·032 - 0 ·037 I
- -
~t ~t
N ~
...r
<;> 0
C> A 6 B
I I
oD tTl
..... oD
<:> 9
-0,037 ~ ~ -0·037 - 0·045 c;> 0·034
-
~t ~f
c 0 2.5.3.5.5(5)

2.5.1.2

BS 8110 3.5.3.6

2.5.3.3(4)

Eqn 2.16

------------------------------------~90r_------------------------------------

Figure 4.4 Bending moment coefficients I II = 1.2

y x

Using the coefficients shown in Figure 4.4 and the method described in BS 8110 to adjust moments for adjacent panels with unequal conditions, the following moments and shears can be calculated for this panel:

In the 6 m direction, M 29.7 kNm/m
sup
M 28.5 kNm/m
span
In the 7.2 m direction, M 21.0 kNm/m
sup
M 20.6 kNm/m
span The support moments calculated can be further reduced by an amount ~MSd

where

FSd,sup = design support reaction compatible with the analysis moments.

In the 6 m direction, FSd ,sup

In the 7.2 m direction, FSd

,sup

81,9 kN/m 69.9 kN/m

For a 300 mm wide supporting beam:

In the 6 m direction, ~MSd In the 7.2 m direction, ~MSd

Therefore, the design support moments are:

3.1 kNm/m

2.6 kNm/m

In the 6 m direction,

M

sup

26.6 kNm/m 18.4 kNm/m

In the 7.2 m direction, M

sup

SLABS

For the short span, with the reinforcement in the first layer

d

= 200 - 25 -

12 2

= 169 mm

M

sup

0.038

x

d

0.087 < 0.25 OK

A/Yk =:

A 414 mm2/m

s

0.045

Use T12 @ 250 mm crs. (452 mm2/m) T in short span

The span moment is similar to that over the support and the same reinforcement may be used in the bottom

For the long span, with the reinforcement in the second layer 12

d 200 - 25 - 12 - -- = 157 mm

2

M

sup

0.030

x d

0.068 < 0.45 0 K

0.035

Use T12 @ 300 mm crs. (377 mm2/m) T in long span

The span moment is again similar to that over the support and the same reinforcement may be used in the bottom

For arrangements of reinforcement in middle and edge strips use BS 8110. The NAD directs the use of BS 8110 where torsion reinforcement is required in the corners of panels.

4.1.2.2.6 Shear

Use forces consistent with the analysis moments. In the 6 m direction:

At internal beam, Vint At edge, Vex!

0.47 X 15.33 X 6 0.31 X 15.33 X 6

43.2 kN/m 28.5 kN/m

2.5.3.5.5(2)

BS 8110 3.5.3.5 NAD 6.5(e) 5.4.3.2.2

4.3.2

------------------------------------~91 r-------------------------------------

SLABS

In the 7.2 m direction:

At internal beam, ~n! At edge, Vex!

0.4 X 15.33 X 6 0.26 X 15.33 X 6

36.8 kN/m 23.9 kN/m

= 0.3 N/mm2

Assume

1> 50% of the bottom reinforcement curtailed at edge support.

k 1.6 - 0.169 = 1.431 Asl

= 0.00134 1> 0.02

b d

w

Note: Ensure detailing provides necessary anchorage to As!' See EC2 Figure 4.12 for definition of Asi.

(1 = a

Cp

Therefore

VRd1 = 91.0 kN/m > VSd = 28.5 kN/m at edge support

It is also clear that VRd1 > VSd = 43.2 kN/m at the internal beam.

No shear reinforcement required

4.1.2.2.7 Serviceability - deflection

Control by limiting span/effective depth ratio based on the shorter span for a two-way spanning slab.

Actual span/effective depth ratio

6000 169

35.5

For a corner panel use structural system 2.

It may be normally assumed that slabs are lightly stressed (p ::s; 0.5%).

NAD 6.4(e) and (f) allows the basic span/effective depth ratio to be interpolated, according to the reinforcement provided, for values in the range 0.15% < p < 0.5%.

Basic span/effective depth ratio (p = 0.5%) = 32 (p = 0.15%) = 44

For the span moment A = 441 mm2/m

s,req

A = 452 mm2/m,

s,prov

p = 0,27%

Basic span/effective depth ratio (p = 0.27%) 39.9

4.3.2.3 Eqn 4.18

Table 4.8

5.4.3.2.2

4.3.2.1P(2) 4.3.2.2(2)

4.4.3.2 4.4.3.2(5)

Table 4.14 4.4.3.2(5)

NAD Table 7

------------------------------------~92~------------------------------------

SLABS

Using reinforcement with f k > 400 N/mm2, this value should be multiplied to reflect the actual servic~ steel stress by the factor

250

400 x 452 460 x 441

0.89

400

Therefore, permissible span/effective depth ratio

= 0.89 x 39.9 = 35.5............................... OK

Note 2 to NAD Table 7 is taken to mean that the resulting span/effective depth ratio, after the service stress modification, is limited to the value tabulated for nominally reinforced concrete. In this case the value is 44.

4.1.2.2.8 Serviceability - cracking

For a slab with h :5 200 mm no further measures are required to control cracking, provided the requirements of EC2 Clause 5.4.3 have been applied.

4.1.2.2.9 Detailing

Slab thickness, h = 200 mm > 50 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OK For the short span, use alternately staggered bars and anchor 50% of the midspan reinforcement at the external support.

Anchorage force (at external support)

F

S

VSd al
x -- + NSd
d
0
d
VSd 28.5 kN/m
F 28.5 x 103
S 71 mm2/m
fYd 400 F

S

A

s.req

A 226 mm2/m OK

s.prov

Net bond length

A

s.req ~

As,prov

lb, .

min

<Xa 0.7 for curved bars

4.4.3.2(4)

4.4.2.3(1)

5.4.3

5.4.3.1(1) 5.4.3.2.2(1)

5.4.2.1.4(2) Eqn 5.15

5.4.3.2.1 (1)

5.2.3.4.1(1) Eqn 5.4

5.2.2.3 Eqn 5.3

------------------------------------~93~------------------------------------

SLABS

For all bars in slabs with h -s 250 mm, good bond may be assumed.

fbd

2.7 N/mm2

12 400

4

x

= 444 mm

2.7

In calculating Lb, et take A as mid-span reinforcementl4.

n s.req

L

b.net

1

= 0.7 x 444 x - = 156 mm > Lb .

2 .rrun

OK

Bars to extend into support for a distance

b

- + L = 256 mm

3 bone!

giving sufficient end cover in 300 mm wide section . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. OK

4.1.2.2.10 Top reinforcement at edge beam

Design moment = M 14 = 7.125 kNm/m

span

0.Q1

0.012

= 110 mm2/m 1:. A .

s.mtn

Minimum area of reinforcement

Use T10 @ 250 mm crs. bars extending 0.21 from inner face of support into span

The reinforcement details are shown in Figure 4.5.

5.2.2.1

Table 5.3

NAD 6.5(c) 5.4.2.1.4(3)

Figure 5.12(b)

5.4.3.2.2(2)

5.4.3.2.1(3)

5.4.3.2.2(2)

------------------------------------~94r_------------------------------------

SLABS

r------~~-~~--- ----~------------------_;

T10 - 500 secondary transverse reinforcement

1200

T12 - 300 middle strip T 10 - 300 edge strip

T10 -250

T12- 250 alternately staggered

1.26 •• 1 ·

600

-I

I. Edge strip .1. Middle strip

-------------~

Figure 4.5 Detail at edge beam

4.1.2.2.11 Secondary transverse reinforcement - top Principal reinforcement, T10 @ 250 mm crs., As Secondary reinforcement, A = 0.2 x 314

s

Maximum spacing = 500 mm

Use T10 @ 500 mm crs. (157 mm2/m)

4.1.2.2.12 Corner reinforcement

Use the detailing guidance given in BS 8110.

4.1.2.2.13 Anchorage of bottom reinforcement at intermediate supports

Retain not less than a quarter of mid-span reinforcement at support and provide not less than 104> anchorage.

Provide continuity bars lapped with bottom reinforcement as shown in Figure 4.6. Using alternately staggered bars with continuity for 50% of the mid-span rei nforceme nt.

Minimum lap, lb t

.ne

1 1.4 x 444 x-

2

310 mm

T12 500

r- -
'"' . - '"'
• - •
- • -
I I
- T12
I I
120 1:l01tJ=120 - 250

Figure 4.6 Detail at interior support

5.4.3.2.1(2) NAD Table 3 5.4.3.2.1(4)

5.4.3.2.3 NAD 6.5(e) 5.4.3.2.3 5.4.2.1.5

5.4.2.1.4(1)

Figure 5.13(b)

--------------------------------------_,95r---------------------------------------

SLABS

4.1.2.2.14 Transverse reinforcement at laps

No requirement for slabs.

4.1.3 Ribbed slabs

EC2 permits ribbed slabs to be treated as solid slabs for the purposes of analysis, provided that the flange and transverse ribs have sufficient torsional stiffness.

4.1.3.1 Design example of a ribbed slab

Design a ribbed slab spanning between beams as shown in Figure 4.7.

In addition to self-weight, the slab carries a characteristic dead load of 1.0 kN/m2 and an imposed load of 5.0 kN/m2.

Supporti 09 beams

I AII/~I

~========lF=======I I=========l 1========1 I========~I========I F=======I 1========1

It=== === ======111== = === == =1' t=============II=-========1 1========~I========t ,===========1 P=========j

I I I I

6m

NAD 6.5(b) 5.2.4.1.2

2.5.2.1(5)

------------------------------------~96r_-----------------------------------

-111-125 I
600 , 600 ·1
-l-
A-A I-

Figure 4.7 Ribbed slab spanning between beams

SLABS

4.1.3.1.1 Durability

For a dry environment, exposure class is 1. Minimum concrete strength grade is C25/30.

For cement content and w/c ratio, refer to ENV 206 Table 3.

Minimum cover to reinforcement Assume nominal aggregate size Assume maximum bar size Nominal cover

15 mm 20 mm 20 mm

~ 20 mm

Use nominal cover

25 mm

Note:

20 mm nominal cover is sufficient to meet the NAD requirements in all respects.

Check requirements for fire resistance to BS 8110: Part 2.

4.1.3.1.2 Materials

Type 2 deformed reinforcement, fYk = 460 N/mm2

fk

f =...!.._ =

yd 'Y

5

460 2

- = 400 N/mm

1.15

C25/30 concrete with 20 mm maximum aggregate size

4.1.3.1.3 Analysis model Span ~ 4 x 6 m ~ 4 x

slab depth

0.275 = 1.1 m , OK

Rib spacing Rib depth

600:5 1500 mm OK

175:5 4 x rib width = 500 mm OK

Flange depth = 100 mm 1

~ 10 x clear spacing between ribs ~ 50 mm . .. OK

Transverse ribs (at supports only)

Spacing = 6 m > 10 x slab depth

2.75 m

Hence the ribbed slab may not be treated as a solid slab in the analysis under the terms of this clause unless intermediate transverse ribs are incorporated. This is not always desirable.

The model adopted in this example uses gross concrete section properties of the T shape in sagging regions and a rectangular section, based on the rib width, in the hogging region.

EC2 Figure 2.3 has been used initially to define the extent of the hogging. This method can clearly be refined.

Table 4.1 ENV 206 Table NA.1

NAD Table 6

NAD 6.4(a)

NAD Table 3 4.1.3.3(8)

NAD 6.1(a)

2.2.3.2P(1) Table 2.3

2.5.2.1(3)

2.5.2.1(5)

2.5.2.1(5)

------------------------------------~wr_------------------------------------

SLABS

4.1.3.1.4 Effective span

lett = In + a1 + a2

Assume 300 mm wide supporting beams I = 5700 mm

n

a1 at edge beam = aj taken as H-) t = 150 mm a2 at central beam = aj = (+) t = 150 mm lett = 6000 mm

For ratio of adjacent spans between 1 and 1.5

10 = 0.85/1 = 0.85 x 6000 = 5100 mm

4.1.3.1.5 Effective width of flanges

Effective flange width is assumed constant across the span for continuous beams in buildings.

For a symmetrical T beam

beff bw + (+) 10 ~ b

125 + (+) x 5100 -s 600 mm

Therefore

bett = 600 mm

4.1.3.1.6 Loading Gk Ok

3.6 + 1.0 5.0 kN/m2

4.6 kN/m2

1.35 1.5

Maximum ultimate load Minimum ultimate load

1.35 x 4.6 + 1.5 x 5.0 = 13.7 kN/m2 1.35 x 4.6 = 6.2 kN/m2

4.1.3.1.7 Flexural design

Design for ultimate limit state using linear elastic method, choosing not to redistribute moments.

Consider the following load combinations:

(a) Alternate spans carrying the design variable and permanent load ('YOOk + 'YGGk) , other spans carrying only the design permanent load, 'YGGk.

(b) Any two adjacent spans carrying the design variable and permanent load ('YOOk + 'YGGJ. All other spans carrying only the design permanent load, 'YGGk.

2.5.2.2.2 Eqn 2.15

Figure 2.4(a)

Figure 2.4(b)

2.5.2.2.1(4) Figure 2.3

2.5.2.2.1 2.5.2.2.1(2)

2.5.2.2.1(3) Eqn 2.13

Table 2.2 2.3.2.3P(2) Table 2.2

2.5.3.2.2

2.5.1.2

------------------------------------~98~-------------------------------------

SLABS

- 30 . 5 1- 37· 0 I

26·7 124'SI

26·7 124'SI

2.5.3.3(4)

Eqn 2.16

--------------------------------------~99~--------------------------------------

BENDING MOMENT ENVELOPE (kNm)

29·8 130·S1

Notes

1. Values are per rib

2. Values in brackets are those obtained when I IS taken as uniform throughout the span

21·0 120·21

-21·0 1-20·2)

- 29·8 (- 30·8)

SHEAR FORCE ENVELOPE (kN)

Figure 4.8 Results of analysis

The following results are taken from the analysis (see Figure 4.8).

M

span

26.7 kNm/rib

- 30.5 kNm/rib 59.6 kN/rib

M

sup

F

Sd,sup

Support moment can be reduced by an amount ilMsd where

59.6 x 0.3/8

2,2 kNm/rib

Therefore

M - 28.3 kNm/rib

sup

16 2

b 600 mm (span), 125 mm (support)

d

275 - 25 - 10

232 mm