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Hydraulic Jump Test Lab Report

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OBJECTIVES

To demonstrate how energy and force momentum concepts are applied in open channel flows.

To investigate the relationship between depths upstream and downstream of a hydraulic jump and to

compare this with the theoretical relationship

Introduction

A hydraulic jump is a phenomenon in the science of hydraulics which is frequently observed in open

channel flow such as rivers and spillways. When liquid at high velocity discharges into a zone of lower

velocity, a rather abrupt rise occurs in the liquid surface. The rapidly flowing liquid is abruptly slowed

and increases in height, converting some of the flow's initial kinetic energy into an increase in potential

energy, with some energy irreversibly lost through turbulence to heat. In an open channel flow, this

manifests as the fast flow rapidly slowing and piling up on top of itself similar to how a shockwave forms.

The phenomenon is dependent upon the initial fluid speed. If the initial speed of the fluid is below the

critical speed, then no jump is possible. For initial flow speeds which are not significantly above the

critical speed, the transition appears as an undulating wave. As the initial flow speed increases further, the

transition becomes more abrupt, until at high enough speeds, the transition front will break and curl back

upon itself. When this happens, the jump can be accompanied by violent turbulence, eddying, air

entrainment, and surface undulations, or waves.

Theory

Hydraulic jumps are very efficient in dissipating the energy of the flow to make it more controllable & les

erosive. In engineering practice, the hydraulic jump frequently appears downstream from overflow

structures (spillways), or under flow structures (slvice gates), where velocities are height.

A hydraulic jump is formed when liquid at high velocity discharges into a zone of lower velocity only if

the 3 independent velocities (y1, y2, fr1) of the hydraulic jump equation conform to the following

equation:

Apparatus

Point gauges

Manometer & scales

Pump

Procedure

The tail gate was closed to allow water to accumulate and to develop hydraulic jump

The position of the hydraulic jump was adjusted by adjusting the amount of closure of slvice gate

IThe depth of the bed of flume was measured by using a point gauge.

In the next step , The water surface level was measured before it had crossed the spillway.

The height of spillway & the depth of water over the spillway were measured.

Using the point gauges the water surface level downstream of the jump was determined

Then the y1 & y2 heights were measured

Discussion

In open channels, the transition from supercritical to subcritical flows is called a hydraulic jump. For

low upstream Froude numbers, free-surface undulations develop downstream of the jump and the

hydraulic jump is called an undular jump. New experiments on undular hydraulic jumps were

performed in a rectangular channel in which the upstream flows were fully developed turbulent shear

flows. In this paper, the main flow patterns are described. Visual and photographic observations

indicate five types of undular jumps. One of the main flow characteristics is the presence of lateral

shock waves for Froude numbers larger than 1.2. The results show that the disappearance of undular

jump occurs for Froude numbers ranging from 1.5 to 2.9 and that the wave length and amplitude of the

free-surface undulations are functions of the upstream Froude number and the aspect ratio yc/W.

Hydraulic jump characteristics were measured over several artificially roughened test beds in a

horizontal rectangular flume with smooth side walls. A smooth test bed, two strip roughness test beds

and three densely packed gravel test beds provided a relative roughness range from 0.00.9. The

testing program involved some 200 hydraulic jump observations which included flow rate, upstream

depth, tailwater depth and jump length. Observations showed that boundary roughness reduces both

the sequent depth and the length of a hydraulic jump, and that the observed reductions were related to

both Froude number and the degree of roughness. The observed hydraulic jump characteristics were

consistent with theory, and a proposed approximation for a theoretical hydraulic jump equation was

found to compare favorably with the observed characteristics.

Advantages

Prevents scouring on the downstream side of the dam structure

Traps air in the water

Reverses the flow of water

Maintains a high water level on the downstream side

Disadvantages

May cause erosion on hydraulic surfaces

Undesirable condition for fish passage

To control hydraulic jump and enhance hydraulic jump efficiency, sills such as sharp-crested weirs,

broad-crested weirs or end sills at the bottoms of waterways are frequently used. The force acting upon

such a sill in the hydraulic jump rapidly decreases to the minimum as the end point of roller at

downstream of the hydraulic jump moves upward at a point where it almost overflows a sill. This impact

of sills can make the length of the scour risk zone shorter than a normal hydraulic jump phenomenon.

Then, as the hydraulic jump becomes shorter and moves further upstream, the force upon a sill

gradually increases to reach a certain level. Since such a rapidly varying flow is characterized as having

an uneven velocity distribution, the changes in force upon a sill seem to be because of the changes in

velocity distribution occurring between the starting points of the hydraulic jump to its end point.

Consequently, in a cross-section with unequal velocities, the momentum surges greatly. Theoretically,

hydraulic jump controlled by sills can be interpreted using the momentum theory. However, in the

absence of a precise theory of velocity distribution, an accurate quantification can hardly be made by

just relying on theoretic interpretation. An experiment for simulating the behavior of a sluice gate and

an associated hydraulic jump experiment have been carried out in different conditions to enable an

investigation of the characteristics of hydraulic jump, and to analyze energy dissipation, the physical

experiment collects data that are afterwards used to define relations, which are used as guidelines for

design operations.

Conclusion

A hydraulic jump is defined as a rise in the level of water. This occur when a supercritical flow (Fr > 1)

encounters a submerged object such as a dam or weir throwing the water upward and changing the flow

from a supercritical flow to a subcritical flow (Fr < 1), which causes a jump. An advantage of hydraulic

jumps is the ability to dissipate energy in dams, channels, and similar structures. A disadvantage of

hydraulic jumps is the downstream turbulence which can cause erosion and degradation of channels

Reference

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236154641_Experimental_Study_of_Hydraulic_Jump_Charact

eristics_in_Sloping_Prismatic_Channels

http://www.brighthubengineering.com/hydraulics-civil-engineering/55054-open-channel-flow-basicshydraulic-jump-calculations/

Douglas, J.F.; Gasiorek, J.M.; Swaffield, J.A. (2001). Fluid Mechanics (4th ed.). Essex: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0582-41476-8.

Faber, T.E. (1995). Fluid Dynamics for Physicists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52142969-2.

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