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ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

(Revision of AGMA 120.01)


Reaffirmed March 2010

American National Standard

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

Tolerance Specification for


Gear Hobs

American
National
Standard

Tolerance Specification for Gear Hobs


ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03
[Revision of AGMA 120.01 (1975)]
Approval of an American National Standard requires verification by ANSI that the requirements for due process, consensus, and other criteria for approval have been met by the
standards developer.
Consensus is established when, in the judgment of the ANSI Board of Standards Review,
substantial agreement has been reached by directly and materially affected interests.
Substantial agreement means much more than a simple majority, but not necessarily unanimity. Consensus requires that all views and objections be considered, and that a
concerted effort be made toward their resolution.
The use of American National Standards is completely voluntary; their existence does not
in any respect preclude anyone, whether he has approved the standards or not, from
manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or procedures not
conforming to the standards.
The American National Standards Institute does not develop standards and will in no
circumstances give an interpretation of any American National Standard. Moreover, no
person shall have the right or authority to issue an interpretation of an American National
Standard in the name of the American National Standards Institute. Requests for interpretation of this standard should be addressed to the American Gear Manufacturers
Association.
CAUTION NOTICE: AGMA technical publications are subject to constant improvement,
revision, or withdrawal as dictated by experience. Any person who refers to any AGMA
technical publication should be sure that the publication is the latest available from the
Association on the subject matter.
[Tables or other self--supporting sections may be referenced. Citations should read: See
ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03, Tolerance Specification for Gear Hobs, published by the
American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350,
Alexandria, Virginia 22314, http://www.agma.org.]

Approved December 11, 2003

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this standard is to provide specifications for nomenclature, dimensions, tolerances, and
inspection of gear hobs, and thereby establish a basis for mutual understanding in this respect in the use and
manufacture of these tools.
Published by

American Gear Manufacturers Association


500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria, Virginia 22314
Copyright 2003 by American Gear Manufacturers Association
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic
retrieval system or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America


ISBN: 1--55589--816--5

ii

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

Contents
Page

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
1
Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2
Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
3
Terminology and definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
4
Hob classifications, drawings, and identification markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5
Manufacturing and purchasing considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
6
Gear hobs single and multiple start accuracy requirements . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7
Measuring methods and practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Annexes
A
B
C
D
E

Gear manufacturing terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Hob design parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equations and terminology for straight--sided hob profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Intermediate values for multiple thread tolerance calculations . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effects of hob accuracy on gear accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33
35
37
43
45

Figures
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Hob nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engagement zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protuberance on a gear hob tooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Negative rake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Positive rake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zero rake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tip relief on a gear tooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Normal section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2
2
2
4
5
5
5
6
7

Tables
1
2
3

Hob markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Reference for measurement methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Accuracy requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

iii

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Foreword
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, in this document are provided for
informational purposes only and are not to be construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA Standard
1102--A03, Tolerance Specification for Gear Hobs.]
ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03 is a replacement of AGMA 120.01. The first draft of AGMA 120.01
was prepared by the Cutting Tools Committee in May, 1972. Its purpose was to consolidate
all AGMA standards relating to hobs; i.e., AGMA 121.02, 122.02, 123.01 and 124.01. The
purpose of consolidating these standards was to provide the information as a handy
updated reference on gear--cutting tools for efficient use by manufacturers and users of
these tools.
The committee decided at the 1972 Semi--Annual Meeting to include Standard 124.01,
Wormgear Hobs, as an Information Sheet. AGMA 120.01 was approved by the Cutting
Tools Committee on November 6, 1973. It was approved by the AGMA Membership as of
February 28, 1975.
ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03 is the result of a rewrite of AGMA 120.01, incorporation of the metric
system, addition of inspection procedures, and development of equation based tolerances.
Other additions include increased tolerance grade levels, expansion of tolerances for
multi--thread hobs, line of action testing, and expansion of the hob range of sizes.
The first draft of AGMA 1102--A03 was made in February, 1999. It was approved by the
AGMA membership in October, 2003. It was approved as an American National Standard
on December 11, 2003.
Suggestions for improvement of this standard will be welcome. They should be sent to the
American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria,
Virginia 22314.

iv

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

PERSONNEL of the AGMA Cutting Tools Committee


Chairman: Michael Tennutti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Star--SU, Inc./Star Cutter Company

ACTIVE MEMBERS
C. Awot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T.R. Blum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
J. Brunner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
J.V. Caldwell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D. Hoying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E. Lawson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
S. Lyncha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
W. Miller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
R.P. Phillips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Koepfer America, L.L.C.


Gleason Works
Falk Corporation
SU America, Inc.
M&M Precision Systems Corporation
M&M Precision Systems Corporation
Horsburgh & Scott Company
GearHelp LLC
Gleason Cutting Tools Corporation

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS
A.S. Cohen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
J.S. Cowan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
M.E. Cowan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
M. Denipoti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D. Drechsler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D.W. Goodfellow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H. Hagiwara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
W. Hayward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
W.E. Lake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
R. Mory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
W. Norberg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. Nyamagoudar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D. Palmer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T. Royer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
J. Rybak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D. Sine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
L.J. Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
R.E. Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T. Ware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
M. Woodhouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

Engranes y Maquinaria Arco, S.A.


Eaton Corporation
Process Equipment Company
SU America, Inc.
Huffman Corporation
SU America, Inc.
Nippon Gear Copmany, Ltd.
Fairfield Manufacturing Company, Inc.
Mitsubishi Gear Technology Center
Ford Motor Company
Columbia Gear Corporation
SU America, Inc.
Brad Foote Gear Works, Inc.
M&M Precision Systems Corporation
Technical University of Rzeszow
Nachi Machining Technology Company
Consultant
R.E. Smith & Company, Inc.
Star SU, Inc./Star Cutter Company
Star SU, Inc./Star Cutter Company

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

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vi

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

American National Standard --

Tolerance Specification
for Gear Hobs

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

applying the most recent editions of the standards


indicated below.
ANSI/AGMA 1012--F90, Gear Nomenclature,
Definitions of Terms with Symbols
AGMA 915--3--A99, Inspection Practices -- Gear
Blanks, Shaft Center Distance and Parallelism
MIL--STD--105D, Sampling Procedures and Tables
for Inspection by Attributes

1 Scope
This standard provides specifications for nomenclature, dimensions, tolerances, and inspection for gear
hobs for modules 0.63 to 40 mm. It establishes a
basis for understanding the use and manufacture of
these tools.
1.1 Application
This standard applies to single and multiple--thread
hobs for spur and helical gears.
1.2 Exceptions
This standard is not intended to completely define
the hob tooth profile as it relates to the exact gear
profile. It is advisable to check gear tooth profile
specifications with the hob manufacturer involved.
Examples include cutting depth and hob tooth profile
modification as they affect gear tooth tip relief for
fine--pitch and coarse--pitch hobs.
Where conditions require use of hobs of special
design or specifications, such hobs shall be
considered beyond the scope of this standard.

2 Normative references
The following standards contain provisions which,
through reference in this text, constitute provisions of
this American National Standard. At the time of
publication, the editions indicated were valid. All
standards are subject to revision, and parties to
agreements based on this American National Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

3 Terminology and definitions


The terms and definitions used in this standard are,
wherever possible, consistent with ANSI/AGMA
1012--F90 and other approved AGMA documents.
However, some symbols and definitions used in this
standard may differ from other AGMA Standards.
Users should assure themselves that they fully
understand the terms, definitions, and symbols as
contained in this standard.
Nomenclature used in this standard and the hob
elements referred to are illustrated in figure 1.
Nomenclature of hob elements and other terms
relating to hobbing are presented as follows:
active hob length:
portion of the hob.

axial length of the toothed

allowed deviation: maximum deviation a hob can


have without exceeding the tolerance.
auxiliary leads: feature employed in some hobs,
especially worm gear hobs, wherein both sides of the
hob thread have leads different from the nominal hob
lead; one side longer, the other side shorter. This
results in the tooth thickness being successively less
toward the roughing end of the hob.
axial plane: plane containing the axis of rotation.
axial pressure angle:
pressure angle.

see definition under

back--off: see preferred term cam relief, under


relief.
bore diameter: diameter of the mounting hole for
arbor type hobs.

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Length
See figure 9
Tooth
face

Outside
diameter

Lead
angle
R.H.

Pitch
cylinder
diameter
Hub
diameter

Flute
helix angle

Bore
diameter

Multiple
threads

Axial pitch
Axial lead
Figure 1 -- Hob nomenclature
bore diameter: diameter of the mounting hole for
arbor type hobs.
cam: radial drop of the form in the angular distance
between adjacent tooth faces. See figure 2.

Cam

deviation: differences observed during testing that


are compared against the specified value or tolerance.
engagement zone: axial distance within which the
hob interacts with the involute portion of a gear tooth
profile being generated. It is equal to the axial
component of the hob line of action within the
confines of the functional profile. See figure 3.
Involute generating
path of engagement

Line of
action

functional
profile
depth

Figure 2 -- Cam
cam relief: see definition under relief.
chamfer: beveled surface to eliminate an otherwise
sharp corner.

engagement
zone

Figure 3 -- Engagement zone


evaluation zone: full toothed portion of the hob.
face keyway: transverse slot across the hub face.

clutch keyway: see face keyway.


depth of cut: radial depth to which the hob is sunk
into the workpiece. See related term whole depth.

fillet: 1) curved line joining two lines to eliminate a


sharp internal corner; 2) curved surface joining two
surfaces to eliminate a sharp internal corner.

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

flute: longitudinal groove, either straight or helical,


that forms the tooth face of one row of hob teeth and
the backs of the preceding row.
flute helix angle: angle which a helical tooth face
makes with an axial plane, measured on the hob
pitch cylinder.
flute index: see tooth face index.

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

-- intersection with a concentric cylinder is a


helix;
-- intersection with a plane of action is a straight
line.
hob addendum: radial distance between the top of
the hob tooth and the pitch cylinder (gear
dedendum).

flute lead: axial advance of a flute face in one turn


around the axis of a hob.

hob dedendum: in topping hobs, radial distance


between the bottom of hob tooth profile and pitch
cylinder (gear addendum).

flute lead deviation: deviation of a hob tooth face


from the desired helical surface.

hob full--topping: hob that cuts the gear outside


diameter and chamfers the gear tooth tip.

full tip radius: continuous radius tangent to top and


side cutting edges.

hob, non--topping: hob that does not cut the


outside diameter of the gear.

functional profile: portion of hob tooth that


generates the involute profile of a gear tooth. It is
limited toward the tip by the start of tip radius or,
when present, start of protuberance modification. It
is limited toward the root by the hob tooth dedendum
or, when present, start of tip relief or chamfer
modification. See figure 3.

hob, topping:
diameter.

functional profile depth: depth of the functional


profile.
gash: see preferred term flute.
generated fillet: at the bottom of the hobbed form,
fillet joining the root diameter with the desired
generated form. This fillet is not a true radius
(trochoid form).
generated fillet height: on the hobbed workpiece,
radial distance from the root diameter to the point
where the generated fillet joins the desired generated form.
helicoid, Archimedes: plane surface of compound
curvature, defined by its intersections with the
following planes:
-- intersection with a transverse plane is an
Archimedes spiral;
-- intersection with a concentric cylinder is a
helix;
-- intersection with an axial plane is a straight
line.

hob that cuts the gear outside

hob runout: runout of the hob when mounted in a


hobbing machine, measured radially on hub
diameter, and axially on hub face.
hob, semi--topping: hob that produces a chamfer
or tip relief on the gear.
hob teeth in engagement zone: within a given
thread, the approximate number of hob teeth
included in the engagement zone. This is also the
number of teeth involved in generating the involute
portion of the gear tooth profile. See figure 3.
hob tip modification: modification on the sides of
the hob tooth near the top.
hob tooth depth: minimum active depth of hob
tooth form.
hook: see preferred term rake.
hub: qualifying surface at each end of an arbor type
hob which is provided for checking diameter and
face runout. On a shank style hob, it is the clamping
surfaces or proof bands, when available.
hub diameter runout: total deviation in radial
distance of the hub periphery from the axis.
hub face: side surface of the hub.

helicoid, involute: plane surface of compound


curvature, defined by its intersections with the
following planes:

hub face runout: total axial deviation of the hub


face from a true plane of rotation.

-- intersection with a transverse plane is an


involute curve;

key: mechanical member through which the turning


force is transmitted to the hob.

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

keyway: slot through which the turning force is


transmitted to the hob. May be either a longitudinal
slot through the hole or a transverse slot across the
hub face. If the latter, it is called a face keyway.

pitch, axial: pitch parallel to the axis in an axial


plane between corresponding elements of adjacent
hob thread sections. Use of the term axial pitch is
preferred to the term linear pitch.

lead: axial advance of a thread for one complete


turn or convolution.

pitch, base: pitch on the base circle or along the line


of action.

lead angle: angle between any helix and a plane of


rotation,. In a hob, lead angle usually refers
specifically to the angle of thread helix measured on
the pitch cylinder.

pitch, normal circular: distance between corresponding elements on adjacent hob thread sections
measured along a helix that is normal to the thread
helix in the pitch cylinder.

lead deviation: axial deviation of the hob teeth from


the correct thread lead.

pitch circle: transverse section of the hob pitch


cylinder.

length: total distance from one end to the other


including shanks and hubs.

pitch cylinder: reference cylinder in a hob from


which design elements, such as lead, lead angle,
and tooth thickness are derived.

normal circular pitch: see definition under pitch.


normal module: (pi) times the normal circular
pitch.
normal plane:
cylinder helix.

plane perpendicular to a pitch

normal pressure angle:


pressure angle.

see definition under

number of threads: in multiple thread hobs,


number of parallel helical paths along which hob
teeth are arranged, sometimes referred to as
number of starts.
observed: Measuring of actual differences through
testing.
offset: see preferred term rake offset.
outside diameter: diameter of the cylinder which
contains the tops of the cutting edges of the hob
teeth.
outside diameter runout: total deviation in the
radial distance from the axis to the tops of the hob
teeth.

pitch diameter: diameter of the pitch cylinder.


pitch point: point at which a tooth profile intersects
the pitch cylinder.
pressure angle: angle between a tooth profile and a
line perpendicular to the pitch cylinder at the pitch
point. In hobs, the pressure angle is usually
specified in the normal plane or in the axial plane.
pressure angle, axial: pressure angle measured in
an axial plane. Use of the term axial pressure angle
is preferred to the term linear pressure angle.
pressure angle, normal: pressure angle measured
in a normal plane.
profile: see functional profile.
protuberance: modification near the top of the hob
tooth which produces undercut at the bottom of the
tooth of the workpiece. See figure 4.
Protuberance

Amount of
protuberance

pilot end: on shank type hobs, cylindrical or conical


bearing surface opposite the driving end.
pitch: distance between corresponding, equally
spaced hob thread elements along a given line or
curve. Use of the single word pitch without
qualification may be confusing. Specific terms such
as normal circular pitch or axial pitch are preferred.

Figure 4 -- Protuberance on a gear hob tooth

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

rake: angular relationship between the tooth face


and a radial line intersecting the tooth face at the hob
outside diameter, measured in a plane perpendicular to the axis.

rake, zero: condition wherein the tooth face


coincides with a radial line. See figure 7.

rake, negative: condition wherein the peripheral


cutting edge lags the tooth face in rotation. See
figure 5.
Radial
tooth face
(zero rake)

Figure 7 -- Zero rake

Negative
rake
Rake offset
Figure 5 -- Negative rake
rake, positive: condition wherein the peripheral
cutting edge leads the tooth face in rotation. See
figure 6.

rake offset: distance between the tooth face and a


radial line parallel to the tooth face. Used for
checking rake. See figures 5 and 6.
ramp: modification at the bottom of the hob tooth
which produces a chamfer at the top corners of the
tooth of the workpiece.
reference diameter: synonymous with the nominal
hob pitch diameter. It is the diameter at which hob
tooth thickness is defined and controlled. It is also,
by convention, the diameter at which various other
hob geometry parameters are evaluated, including
flute lead, flute index, and thread lead.
relief: result of the removal of tool material behind or
adjacent to a cutting edge to provide clearance and
prevent rubbing (heel drag).
relief, cam: relief from the cutting edges to the back
of the tooth produced by a cam actuated cutting tool
or grinding wheel on a relieving (back--off) machine.

Positive
rake

Rake offset
Figure 6 -- Positive rake

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

relief, side: relief provided at the sides of the teeth


behind the cutting edges. The amount depends
upon the radial relief, axial relief, and nature of the
tooth profile.
root diameter: in topping hobs, the outside
diameter minus (2) whole depths.
shank: projecting portion of a hob which locates and
drives the hob in the machine spindle or adapter.

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

short (or long) lead: special design wherein the


hob lead is made shorter (longer) than the normal or
theoretical lead, to generate at a lower (higher)
diameter on the workpiece, to meet a particular fillet,
undercut or generating requirement.
side relief: see definition under relief.
stock allowance: amount of a modification of the
hob tooth to leave material on the workpiece tooth
form for subsequent finishing.
thread: a helical ridge, generally of constant form or
profile. In a hob, unlike a worm or screw, the thread is
not continuous and exists only at the cutting edges of
the hob teeth. Therefore, it is sometimes referred to
as the thread envelope.
thread envelope: see preferred term thread.
thread helix: helix of the hob thread in the pitch
cylinder.
thread spacing: difference in the average deviations obtained by traversing along the desired
helical path of one thread, indexing and traversing in
a similar manner on another thread.
tip radius: radius of the arc joining the top and a side
cutting edge of a hob tooth.
tip relief: gear tooth modification in which a small
amount of material is removed from the basic profile
near the tip of the gear tooth. See figure 8.
tip relief modification: modification on the sides of
the hob tooth near the bottom which produces tip
relief on the gear tooth.
Amount of
tip relief

tooth face index: deviation from the desired


position between tooth faces measured in the plane
of rotation.
tooth thickness: actual width or thickness of the
hob tooth at the pitch cylinder. Use of the single term
tooth thickness without qualification may be confusing. The specific terms normal tooth thickness and
axial tooth thickness are preferred.
tooth thickness, axial: tooth thickness as measured in an axial plane.
tooth thickness, normal: tooth thickness as
measured along a helix normal to the thread helix.
whole depth: radial depth which the hob is
designed to produce on the workpiece.

4 Hob classifications, drawings, and identification markings


4.1 Coverage
Hobs covered by this standard are classified and
shall be marked with reference to the classification.
4.2 Drawings
This standard enumerates minimum drawing data
and format for conveying information about a hob
design. The minimum informational requirement
should not be construed as precluding more detailed
data from being presented on a hob drawing.
4.2.1 Normal section

Tip relief

Start of
tip relief

Figure 8 -- Tip relief on a gear tooth


tooth: projection on a hob which carries a cutting
edge.

tooth face: tooth surface against which the chips


impinge.

The tooth form on the hob shall be illustrated on the


hob drawing in the normal plane and in such an
attitude as having the tooth face top coming.
Minimum dimensioning in the normal section shall
include:
--

normal circular pitch;

--

normal pressure angle;

--

nominal hob tooth design;

--

normal tooth thickness;

-- hob addendum (a basic dimension at which


the tooth thickness has been specified).

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

Where there are modifications to the functional


profile of the hob, the following additional information
shall also be shown on the normal section to define
the range for profile inspection:
--

depth to tip relief modification

--

depth to hob tip modification

4.2.3.2 Lead data


--

number of threads;

--

lead (axial);

--

hand of lead.

4.2.3.3 Flute data

4.2.2 Standard format


Figure 9 illustrates the standard format to be used to
present the normal section dimensions.
4.2.3 Minimum hob data
Minimum hob data listed on the drawing shall include
the hobs elements as follows:
4.2.3.1 Physical data
--

bore diameter or shank diameter;

--

nominal outside diameter;

--

nominal hub diameter;

--

nominal hub width;

--

keyway depth;

--

keyway width;

--

nominal length.

--

number of flutes;

--

flute lead;

--

hand of flute lead;

--

rake.

4.2.3.4 General data


--

accuracy grade;

--

nominal cam;

--

normal module.

4.3 Identification
All hobs covered by this standard shall be marked for
identification.
4.3.1 Hob markings
As may be appropriate, values for hob elements or
features and standard marking symbols from table 1
are to be used.

Circular pitch
Depth to hob
tip modification

Tooth
thickness

Hob
addendum

Depth to tip
relief modification

Pressure angle

Reference
diameter

Nominal
hob
tooth depth

Hob
dedendum
(topping only)

Figure 9 -- Normal section

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ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Table 1 -- Hob markings


Element or feature
Normal module
Normal pressure angle
Hob normal modulea)
Hob normal pressure
anglea)
Number of threads
Hand of threads
Hob tooth depth
Lead angle
Flute leadb) c)
Positive raked)
Negative raked)
Class (grade)
Pre--shave
Pre--roll
Pre--grind
Pre--skive
Tip mod
Flank mod
Full toppinge)
Semi--toppinge)
Roughing
Finishing

Standard marking
abbreviations
xx.xxxx NMOD
xx.xxxx NPA
xx.xxxx HNMOD
xx.xxxx HNPA

5 Manufacturing and purchasing


considerations
This standard provides classification tolerances and
measurement methods for gear hobs. This clause
presents considerations for control of the various
phases of hob manufacturing, including the
recommended process controls and measurement
methods.

x THD
xH
xx.xxx HTD
x.xxx or xxx LA
x.xx FL
xx--xx.xxx RAKE
NEG xx--xx.xxx RAKE
CL xxx
PRE--S
PRE--R
PRE--G
PRE--K
TPREL
FLREL
F--TOP
S--TOP
RGH
FIN

These methods provide the hob manufacturer and


purchaser with recommendations for verifying the
accuracy of a hob, as well as information relative to
the interpretation of measurement data.

NOTE:
a) Only show if different than gear data block value.
b) Do not mark if straight.
c) Straight gash may be denoted by FL.
d) If not marked, assume zero rake offset (not used
in this table).
e) If not marked, assume Non--topping (not used in
this table).

Certification of variations in accordance with the


hobs specific AGMA accuracy grade and inspection
charts or data can be requested as part of the
purchase contract.

4.3.2 Additional hob markings


The following additional markings and identification
shall be considered optional and based on purchasers or manufacturers requirements:
--

purchasers tool or part number, or both;

--

manufacturers code, or serial number;

--

hob material identification;

--

setting angle;

--

date of manufacture.

Some design and application considerations may


warrant measuring or documentation not normally
available in standard hob manufacturing processes.
Specific requirements are to be stated in the
contractual documents.
In the previous classification system (AGMA
120.01), hob accuracy grades were specified by
letter, ranging from Class D through Class AA, in
order of increasing precision. In this standard,
accuracy grades are also specified by letter, ranging
from grade D through grade AAA, in order of
increasing precision. However, it is important to
understand that the tolerance structures of the two
standards are not related.
5.1 Manufacturing certification

Manufacturing of hobs to a specified accuracy may


or may not include specific measurements. When
applications warrant, it may be necessary to establish detailed acceptance criteria for a hob including
specifications concerning measurements, data
analysis, and any additional considerations. Specific methods of measurement, documentation of
accuracy grade, and other geometric tolerances of a
hob are normally considered items that are to be
mutually agreed upon between hob manufacturer
and purchaser.
NOTE: Specifying an AGMA hob accuracy grade that
requires closer tolerances than required by the
application may increase cost unnecessarily.

5.2 Process control

Process control is defined as the method by which


hob accuracy is maintained through control of each

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

individual step of the hob manufacturing process.


Upon completion of all manufacturing operations, a
specific hob has been given an inherent level of
accuracy; this level of accuracy was established
during the manufacturing process, and is totally
independent of any final inspection.

When prior agreement between the hob manufacturer and purchaser specifies measurement of hobs,
the manufacturer may select:

Process control includes elements such as


manufacturing planning, maintenance of machine
tools, cutting tool selection and maintenance, heat
treatment control, and quality assurance programs,
as needed, to achieve and maintain the necessary
hob accuracy.
When properly applied, hobs
manufactured by specific control techniques will be
found to be of very uniform quality. Therefore, little or
no final inspection may be necessary for a hob,
particularly in some accuracy levels; assurance of
the necessary accuracy having been manufactured
through careful control at each step.

-- the piece of measurement equipment to be


used by the selected measurement method, provided it is in proper calibration;

NOTE: Documentation may be deemed unnecessary


for hobs manufactured under process control when
inspection records are not specified in the purchase
contract.

-- the measurement method to be used from


among the applicable methods described in this
standard and summarized in table 2;

-- the individual teeth to be measured, as long


as they are approximately equally spaced.
NOTE: No particular method of measurement or
documentation is considered mandatory unless specifically agreed upon between hob manufacturer and purchaser. When applications require measurements
beyond those recommended in this standard, special
measurement methods must be negotiated prior to
manufacturing the hob.

Table 2 -- Reference for measurement methods


Test description

Test numbera)
Test
method Elemental Composite
tests

With proper application of process control, relatively


few measurements may be made on any one hob.
Hobs made in production quantities may be inspected at various steps in their manufacturing
process on a statistical basis. Thus, it is possible that
a specific hob can pass through the entire production
process without ever having been measured.
However, based on appropriate confidence in the
applied process control, the manufacturer of that
hob must be able to certify that it meets the specified
accuracy level.
5.3 Measurement methods
Hob geometry may be measured by a number of
alternate methods as shown in table 2. The selection
of the particular method depends on the magnitude
of the tolerance, production quantities, equipment
available, and measurement costs.
The manufacturer or purchaser may wish to measure one or more of the geometric features of a hob
to verify its accuracy grade. However, a hob that is
specified to an AGMA accuracy grade must meet all
applicable individual tolerance requirements. Normally, the tolerances apply to both sides of the teeth.

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Hub diameter
7.3
1
runout
Hub face runout
7.3
2
Outside diameter
7.4
3
runout
Rake offset
7.7
4
Tooth face index,
7.5
5
adjacent
Tooth face index,
7.5
6
total
Flute lead
7.6
7
Tooth profile
7.10
8
Tooth thickness
7.11
9
Thread lead,
7.8
10
adjacent
Thread lead in 1
7.8
11
axial pitch
Thread lead in 3
7.8
12
axial pitches
Line of action,
b)
7.12
adjacent
b)
Line of action, total
7.12
Thread spacing,
7.9
15
adjacent
Thread spacing,
7.9
16
total
Bore diameter
7.2
17
NOTES:
a) See clause 6
b) Test does not apply for elemental method

tests

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8A
9
10
11A
12
13
14
15A
16A
17

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

5.3.1 Considerations for hob measurements


Before hob measurement values can be compared
with tolerance values, certain operational parameters of the measurement instrument must be known.
This includes:
--

datum axis;

--

measurement location;

--

direction of measurement;

--

direction of tolerancing;

--

hob geometry system.

In some cases, measurement instruments follow the


minimum requirements by default. When other
conditions exist, it is required that causes of the
resulting measurement differences are known and
compensated.
5.3.1.1 Reference axis
Specification of hob geometry requires definition of
an appropriate reference axis of rotation, called the
reference axis. It is defined by specification of the
reference surfaces. See 7.1.2.
The reference axis determines tooth geometry,
thereby being the reference for measurements and
associated tolerances. See AGMA 915--3--A99.
5.3.1.2 Measurement location
The location of hob measurements can affect both
the resulting values and relevance of those values to
the proper functioning of the hob. Also, measurement locations must be clearly defined if different
measurement operations are to achieve satisfactory
correlation.
The specification of measurement location may
include a number of possible parameters including
diameter, axial position, distance behind the cutting
edge (on the tooth flank), and whether testing is
carried out on the flank or over the cutting edge. Hob
measurements should be carried out at the default
locations specified in this standard. Reports of hob
measurement results must include descriptions of
any test locations that deviate from these default
locations.

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Test 2, Hub Face Runout, requires specification of


the testing diameter. The default position is one
millimeter in from the hub outside diameter.
Test 3, Outside Diameter Runout, requires specification of the axial position of testing. The default
position is at the centers of the tooth tips, midway
between the cutting edges of each given tooth.
Test 4, Rake Offset, requires specification of the
axial position of testing. The default position is at
the centers of the tooth faces, midway between
the cutting edges of each given tooth.
Tests 5 and 6, Tooth Face Index, require specification of the diameter and the axial position of
testing. The default diameter is the reference
diameter as specified in clause 3. The default
axial position is at the centers of the tooth faces,
midway between the cutting edges of each given
tooth.
Test 7, Flute Lead, requires specification of the
testing diameter. The default position is the
reference diameter as specified in clause 3.
Tests 8, 8A, Tooth Profile, require specification of
whether testing is carried out on the flank or over
the cutting edge and, if testing will be on the flank,
the distance behind the cutting edge. The default
is on the flank for test 8 and over the cutting edge
for test 8A.
Test 9, Tooth Thickness, requires specification of
the testing diameter. The default position is the
hob reference diameter as defined in clause 3.
Tests 10, 11, 11A, and 12, Thread Lead, require
specification of the diameter and whether testing
is carried out on the flank or over the cutting edge.
The default position is over the cutting edge, at the
hob reference diameter as defined in clause 3.
Tests 13 and 14, Line of Action, require testing
over the cutting edge.
Tests 15,15a,16 and 16a, Thread Spacing, are
based upon data derived from testing of Thread
Lead. The same measurement location specifications, as in tests 10 through 12, are therefore
applicable.
Test 17, Bore diameter, requires the specification
of the method of testing.
5.3.1.3 Direction of measurement

Test 1, Hub Diameter Runout, requires specification of the axial position of testing. The default
position is one millimeter from the adjacent hub
face.

10

Measurements of the shape or the position of any


surface can be made in a direction normal to that
surface or inclined to the surface at some angle.

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Common metrology practice is to measure in a


direction normal to the surface being tested. This
holds true for some hob parameters including hub
faces, hub diameters, and outside diameters. It may
or may not be true for hob flute faces and is rarely
true for all remaining hob tooth parameters. It is
important to understand that various hob measuring
instruments use different testing procedures, some
measuring given parameters in the normal direction,
others measuring in other directions.
If the direction of measurement and direction of
tolerancing are different, original measurement
values must be compensated before test values can
be compared to the tolerances.
5.3.1.4 Direction of tolerancing
Tolerances on the shape or the position of hob
surfaces must specify the direction in which given
measurements are to be considered. This specified
direction, called the tolerancing direction, may be
normal to that surface or inclined at some angle.
In this standard, the tolerancing direction varies with
the given toleranced parameter. Tolerancing direction requirements are listed in clause 7. Original
measurement values must be compensated if the
actual measurement direction and the tolerancing
direction specified for the given parameter are
different.
The specified direction of tolerancing for runout of
hub faces is axial and for runout of hub diameters
and outside diameters is radial. The direction of
tolerancing for hob flute face parameters is normal to
those surfaces.
The specified direction of tolerancing for remaining
hob parameters is normal to the involute helicoid
surface approximated by the hob cutting edges. At
any point on a hob tooth surface, that normal vector
is oriented 1) tangent to the base cylinder of the hob,
and 2) inclined relative to the transverse plane at the
base helix angle.
Measurements taken in the tolerance direction have
the following characteristics:
-- Measurements will always be the smallest
when the direction of measurement is normal to
the surface. Measurements at any other inclination will be larger;

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ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

-- Measurements made normal to the involute


helicoid surface approximated by the hob cutting
edges are not affected by the tolerance diameter
selected by the test operator;
-- As the hob proceeds through mesh with the
mating gear, the points of contact between the
hob cutting edges and gear tooth profile occur
along a line of action, which is oriented normal to
the involute helicoid tooth surfaces of both the hob
and gear. Measurements reported in this normal
direction coincide with the cutting engagement
between hob and gear teeth. Such hob measurements thus correlate well with normal direction
measurements of the gear tooth profiles produced by that hob.
5.4 Additional considerations
When specifying a hob, there may be additional or
special considerations such as:
--

modified AGMA accuracy grade;

--

hob geometry system.

These and other special considerations are to be


reviewed and agreed upon by the manufacturer and
purchaser.
5.4.1 Modified AGMA accuracy grade
Conditions may require that one or more of the
individual hob elemental or composite tolerances be
of a lower or higher accuracy grade than the other
tolerances. In such cases, it is possible to modify the
accuracy grade to include an accuracy grade for
each hob elemental or composite tolerance.
NOTE: Specifying an AGMA hob accuracy grade that
requires closer tolerances than required by the application may increase cost unnecessarily.

5.4.2 Hob geometry system


Hobs may be specified with either involute helicoid
(straight profile in the plane of action) or Archimedes
helicoid (straight profile in the axial plane) geometry
systems. While the involute helicoid system is
technically most correct, the Archimedes helicoid
system may be used because it is more economical
to produce and, for most applications, the differences in gear profiles produced are not significant.
See Annex C.
5.5 Acceptance criteria
Tolerances, methods, and definitions contained in
this standard prevail unless contractual agreements

11

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

between manufacturer and purchaser contain specific exceptions.


5.5.1 Evaluation of hob accuracy
Evaluation of AGMA hob accuracy can be made
either by elemental methods or composite methods,
as listed in table 2, but not both. See 5.1.
Accuracy of a hob is determined by the lowest AGMA
accuracy grade letter obtained by evaluating the hob
using the criteria of this standard.

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

2 for Tests 8 to 14.


Grade B and Grade C is:
2 for Tests 3, 7, 8 and 10 to 14.
1 for Tests 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9.
Grade C and Grade D is 1.32 for all tests except for
bore tolerances, which are in Test 17.
6.1.3 Module range ratios
The ratios between module ranges are:
0.63--1 module and 1--2 module is

1.06

6 Gear hobs single and multiple start


accuracy requirements

1--2 module and 2--3.5 module is

1.12

2--3.5 module and 3.5--6.3 module is

1.18

6.1 Derivation of tolerances

3.5--6.3 module and 6.3--10 module is

1.25

With the exception of Test 7 (flute lead) and Test 17


(bore diameter), the datum from which all the values
in table 3 are derived is the value of 45 mm in Test 14,
Grade A, module 16--25.

6.3--10 module and 10--16 module is

1.32

10--16 module and 16--25 module is

1.40

16--25 module and 25--40 module is

1.444

It should be noted that Test 7 (flute lead) and Test 17


(bore diameter) do not conform to a datum value and
are not in the statements below concerning grade
relationships.
6.1.1 Rounding rules
Values determined from the equations in 6.1 through
6.5 are to be rounded to the nearest whole micron
with two microns being the minimum value, with the
exception of test 2 where the minimum value is 1
micron.
NOTE: If the measuring instrument reads in inches,
then values calculated in clause 6 are to be converted
to inches and rounded to the nearest fifty millionths of
an inch (0.00005 in).

6.1.2 Grade ratios

6.1.4 Test ratios


Test ratios are:
Test 1:

Hub diameter; radial runout


Test 14 3.15

Test 2:

Hub face; axial runout


Test 14 4

Test 3:

Outside diameter; radial runout of tips


Test 14 x 1.6

Test 4:

Tooth faces of gashes; straightness and


radial alignment
Test 14 x 1.25

Test 5:

Tooth faces
spacing
Test 14 x 1.6

Test 6:

Tooth faces of gashes; cumulative


spacing
Test 14 x 3

Test 7:

Flute lead (no relationship to Test 14)

Test 8:

Tooth profile over the cutting edge or on


the flank (see 6.5 for multiple thread
profile ratios)
Test 14 2

The ratios between grades are:


Grade AAA and Grade AA is 1.6 except for Test 9
where it is 1.
Grade AA and Grade A is 1.6, except for Test 9
where it is 1.
Grade A and Grade B is:
1.6 for Tests 1 and 2.
1.8 for Tests 3 to 6.

12

of

gashes;

adjacent

Test 8A: Tooth profile over the cutting edges (see


notes at end of table and 6.5 for multiple
thread profile ratios )
Test 14 1

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Test 9:

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

Tooth thickness
Test 14 x 2.24

7 Measuring methods and practices

Test 10: Thread lead; tooth--to--tooth


Test 14 2.24
Test 11: Thread lead; cumulative in one axial
pitch ( see 6.5 for multiple thread profile
ratios)
Test 14 1.25
Test 11A:Thread lead; cumulative in one axial
pitch (see notes at end of table and 6.5
for multiple thread profile ratios)
Test 14 1.12
Test 12: Thread lead; cumulative in 3 axial
pitches
Test 14 x 1.4
Test 13: Tooth spacing along line of action;
tooth--to--tooth
Test 14 2.24
Test 14: Tooth spacing along line of action;
cumulative
Datum: 45 mm, m>16 to 25, Grade A

Using the sum of the single thread tolerances for


profile (Test 8, 8A) and lead (Test 11, 11A) in one
axial pitch, the following multipliers are used to
calculate the sum of profile, lead in one axial pitch
and lead thread to thread for multiple thread hobs.
1.6
1.9
2.2

NOTE: See Annex D for intermediate values.

Multi--thread sum = Single thread sum


[Factor from above]
Test 8, 8A:

Tooth profile over cutting edges or


on the flank = 0.3
[Multiiple Thread Sum]

Test 11, 11A: Thread lead: cumulative in one axial


pitch = 2/3 0.7
[Multiiple Thread Sum]
Test 15, 15A: Thread spacing adjacent = 1/3 0.7
[Multiiple Thread Sum]
Test 16, 16A: Thread spacing, total= 1.5
[Adjacent Thread Spacing]

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7.1 Inspection practices


When inspection is specified, it may be carried out by
a number of alternative methods.
7.1.1 Inspection plans
It may be necessary to require inspection of certain
parameters of all hobs to be applied to a process.
However, quantities, available equipment, labor, and
inspection costs may influence the choice of using a
statistical sampling plan, such as provided by
MIL--STD--105D.
7.1.2 Inspection data references
7.1.2.1 Reference axis

6.2 Multiple thread ratios

2 threads
3--4 threads
5--7 threads

This section describes the recommended methods


and practices to be used for the inspection of gear
hobs. Experienced personnel, using calibrated
instruments in a suitable environment, are required.
No particular method of inspection or documentation
is considered mandatory unless specifically agreed
upon between hob manufacturer and user. The tests
are shown in table 3.

The reference axis of a hob is the guiding axis of the


hob (axis of the bore or the shanks). During
inspection, the hob must be mounted and held with
its reference axis in coincidence with the instrument
spindle axis.
7.1.2.2 Reference identification of tooth data
The hob shall be considered to be in top--coming
orientation, that is, with the reference axis horizontal
and the sharpened flute faces in view at the top of the
hob (see figure 1). Then, the following terminology is
applied:
-- Flank (right or left). The surface bounding
the right or left side of a tooth when this tooth is
viewed with its tip above its root (top--coming).
-- Flank (lead or drag). The flank in which the
back--off or relief tends to increase the inclination
of the tooth flank surface from the plane of rotation
is the lead flank. This would be the right flank of a
hob with a right hand thread lead and the left flank
of a hob with a left hand thread lead. The flank in
which the back--off or relief tends to decrease the
inclination of the tooth flank surface from the
plane of rotation is the drag flank. This would be
the right flank of a hob with a left hand thread lead
and the left flank of a hob with a right hand thread
lead.

13

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

7.1.2.3 Reference inspection zone


Where applicable, the tolerances apply to the
evaluation zone.
7.2 Bore diameter
The bore shall be checked for diameter and parallelism. It shall also be checked for bearing area on an
accurate mandrel.

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

outside diameter cutting edge in a direction normal to


the outside diameter cylinder.
7.4.2 Outside diameter runout tolerances [Test
No. 3]
Outside diameter runout tolerance is the maximum
allowed deviation between any two tooth tips.
7.5 Tooth face index

7.2.1 Bore diameter testing


The bore shall be checked for diameter and parallelism. A mandrel of nominal size shall pass through
the bore as a check for alignment.
7.2.2 Bore diameter tolerances [Test No. 17]
Bore diameter tolerance is the maximum allowed
deviation on the bore of the hob. Tolerances are plus
(+) only.
7.3 Hub runout
7.3.1 Hub runout testing
The hob is rotated about its reference axis while hub
surface deviation is measured normal to the surface.
7.3.2 Hub runout tolerances
This standard provides tolerances for the following
hub runout parameters.
7.3.2.1 Hub face runout tolerances [Test No. 2]
Hub face runout tolerance is the maximum allowed
deviation on the end face of the hob.
7.3.2.2 Hub diameter runout tolerances
[Test No. 1]
Hub diameter runout tolerance is the maximum
allowed deviation on the hub diameter of the hob.
7.4 Outside diameter runout
7.4.1 Outside diameter runout testing
The hob is rotated about its reference axis while a
measurement probe is moved parallel to the reference axis in a linear, synchronized relationship
according to the thread lead. The probe is oriented
so that, as it is carried along the thread lead, the
probe tip will contact the passing tops of all teeth in
that lead, thus measuring their positions at the hob

14

7.5.1 Tooth face index testing


The measurement probe is initially positioned to
contact the approximate center of a sharpened tooth
flute surface (tooth face) so as to measure normal to
the surface. Following the initial measurement, the
probe is retracted clear of the hob outside diameter
to permit repositioning to the next nominal tooth face
location. This repositioning involves rotation of the
hob about its reference axis while the measurement
probe is moved parallel to the reference axis in a
linear, synchronized relationship according to the
thread lead.
This motion is carried out along the hob lead for an
incremental distance required to position the probe
at the nominal location of the next tooth face along
the thread. For straight flute hobs this increment is
based upon division of a circle according to the
number of hob flutes. For helical flute hobs this
increment must also be adjusted according to the
flute lead. Once the incremental movement has
been completed, the probe is returned to the same
position on the tooth face and another measurement
taken. This repositioning of the probe from tooth
face to tooth face is repeated along the hob thread
until all flutes have been measured.
7.5.2 Tooth face index tolerances
This standard provides tolerances for the following
flute index parameters.
7.5.2.1 Tooth face index deviation, total
[Test No. 6]
Total flute index deviation is the maximum allowed
deviation between any two tooth face index
measurements.

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

7.5.2.2 Tooth face index deviation, adjacent [Test


No. 5]
Adjacent flute index deviation is the maximum
allowed deviation between any two consecutive
tooth face index measurements.
7.6 Flute lead
7.6.1 Flute lead testing

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

7.8 Thread lead


Thread lead testing measures the displacement of
hob teeth along the thread lead. The tooth displacements may be measured either at the actual cutting
edge or behind the cutting edge on the relieved tooth
flank. The default position is over the cutting edge, at
the hob reference diameter as defined in clause 3.
7.8.1 Thread lead testing
7.8.1.1 Thread lead testing, over the edge

The measurement probe is moved parallel to the


reference axis, at the pitch diameter, for the full
cutting face width so as to follow the nominal path of
the flute. For hobs having helical flutes, the hob must
also be rotated about its reference axis in a linear,
synchronized relationship according to the flute
lead. As the probe follows the nominal path, it is
oriented to contact the sharpened tooth flute surfaces (tooth faces) as they pass by and measure
their positions normal to the surface.
7.6.2 Flute lead tolerance [Test No. 7]
Flute lead tolerance is the maximum allowed deviation as the probe contacts the tooth faces within any
100 millimeter axial region of the flute.
7.7 Rake offset to cutting depth
7.7.1 Rake offset testing
The measurement probe is positioned to contact the
sharpened tooth flute surface (tooth face) at the
depth of cut and midway between the left and right
flanks so as to measure normal to the surface.
Standard radial (zero rake) tooth face hobs require
positioning of the probe on center line for this test.
Hobs having offset tooth faces specified will require
positioning of the probe to a location offset from
centerline by the specified dimension. After the
probe is thus positioned at the appropriate starting
location, it is retracted along a path containing (for
radial face) or parallel to (for offset face) the
centerline until the tooth outside diameter is passed.
7.7.2 Rake offset tolerance [Test No. 4]
The tolerance of rake to cutting depth is the
maximum allowed deviation as the probe traverses
the tooth face from whole depth to outside diameter.

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

The measurement probe is moved parallel to the


reference axis, for the full cutting face width, while
the hob is rotated about the reference axis in a linear,
synchronized relationship according to the thread
lead. As the nominal lead is thus generated, the
probe is oriented to contact the passing tooth cutting
edges at the nominal pitch diameter, and measure
their displacements normal to the involute helicoid
surface approximated by the hob cutting edges.
Since measurements are taken at the cutting edge,
effects of variations in sharpening will be reflected in
the thread lead measurements.
7.8.1.2 Thread lead testing, on the flank
The measurement probe is initially positioned to
contact a relieved tooth flank behind the cutting edge
so as to measure normal to the involute helicoid
surface approximated by the hob cutting edges. The
first tooth selected for testing should be at one end of
the cutting face width. Following the initial measurement, the probe is retracted clear of the hob outside
diameter to permit repositioning to the next nominal
tooth flank location. This repositioning involves
rotation of the hob about its reference axis while the
measurement probe is moved parallel to the reference axis in a linear, synchronized relationship
according to the thread lead. This motion is carried
out along the lead for an incremental distance
required to position the probe at the nominal location
of the next tooth flank along the thread. For straight
flute hobs this increment is based upon division of a
circle according to the number of hob flutes. For
helical flute hobs this increment must also be
adjusted according to the flute lead. Once this
incremental movement has been completed, the
probe is returned to the same position on the next
tooth flank and another measurement taken. This
repositioning of the probe from tooth flank to tooth

15

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

flank is repeated along the hob thread for the full


cutting face width. Since measurements are taken
on the tooth flank behind the cutting edge, effects of
variations in sharpening will not be reflected in the
thread lead measurement.
7.8.2 Thread lead tolerances
This standard provides tolerances for the following
thread lead parameters.
7.8.2.1 Lead deviation, in 3 axial pitches
[Test No. 12]
Lead deviation in 3 axial pitches is the maximum
allowed deviation between any two teeth contained
in 3 axial pitches.
7.8.2.2 Lead deviation, in 1 axial pitch
[Test Nos. 11 &11A]
Lead deviation in one axial pitch is the maximum
allowed deviation between any two teeth within any
group of consecutive teeth contained in one axial
pitch. The number of teeth in one axial pitch is that
number of teeth encountered by the measurement
probe as it moves parallel to the reference axis
during lead testing for a distance of one axial pitch of
the hob. This number of teeth will be determined by
the number of flutes, the number of threads, and, in
the case of helical flute hobs, the flute lead.
7.8.2.3 Lead deviation, adjacent tooth--to--tooth
[Test No. 10]
Adjacent tooth--to--tooth lead deviation is the
maximum allowed deviation between any two
consecutive teeth.
7.9 Thread spacing
7.9.1 Thread spacing testing
The measurement of thread spacing of multiple
thread hobs may be carried out by either of two
methods depending upon whether hob evaluation is
to be carried out by elemental or composite
methods. See 5.5.1.
When elemental method evaluation is selected,
thread spacing testing is based upon thread lead
testing of the given flank at appropriate angular
increments. The position of each thread is deter-

16

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

mined by the thread lead testing procedure described in 7.8. After the first thread is thus measured,
the hob must be repositioned to the nominal of the
next thread. For lead testing over--the--edge procedures, this repositioning is based upon division of a
circle according to the number of threads. For lead
testing on--the--flank procedures, the repositioning
will require additional adjustment in hob and measurement probe location according to the number of
flutes, thread lead, and in the case of helical flute
hobs, flute lead. Once this incremental repositioning
has been completed, the probe is returned to the
testing diameter and the thread lead testing is
resumed. Thread lead testing and incremental
repositioning is repeated until the position of each
thread has been measured.
When composite method evaluation is selected,
thread spacing testing is based upon line of action
testing of the given flank at appropriate angular
increments. The position of each thread is determined by the line of action testing procedure
described in 7.12.1.1. After the first thread is thus
measured, the hob must be repositioned to the
nominal location of the next thread. This repositioning is based upon division of a circle according to the
number of threads. Once this incremental repositioning has been completed, the probe is returned to
the testing diameter and thread lead testing is
resumed. Line of action testing and incremental
repositioning is repeated until the position of each
thread has been measured.
7.9.2 Thread spacing tolerance
This standard provides tolerances of the following
thread spacing parameters.
7.9.2.1 Thread spacing tolerance, total
When elemental method evaluation is used (Test
16), total thread spacing tolerance is the maximum
allowed deviation between the average values of
lead measurements on the given flank of any two
threads along the length of the hob. When composite method evaluation is used (Test 16A), total thread
spacing tolerance is the maximum observed deviation between the average values of line of action
measurements on the given flank of any two threads.

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

7.9.2.2 Thread spacing tolerance, adjacent

7.10.1.2 Tooth profile testing, on--the--flank

When elemental method evaluation is used (Test


15), adjacent thread spacing tolerance is the maximum allowed deviation between the average values
of lead measurements on the given flank of any two
adjacent threads along the length of the hob. When
composite method evaluation is used (Test 15A),
adjacent thread spacing tolerance is the maximum
observed deviation between the average values of
line of action measurements on the given flank of any
two adjacent threads.

Tooth profile testing on--the--flank involves movement of the measurement probe from the root to the
tip of the hob tooth at the specified angle while in
contact with the tooth flank behind the cutting edge.
The probe must be oriented so that contact with the
flank occurs only within the specified plane and so as
to measure flank displacement normal to the involute
helicoid surface approximated by the hob cutting
edges.

7.10 Tooth profile

Axial tooth profile testing assumes that the helical


hob thread should contain a straight profile at the
intersection of the thread and an axial plane. Testing
may take place either on--the--flank or over--the-edge. The specified angle is the axial pressure angle
and the specified plane is the axial plane.

7.10.1 Tooth profile testing


Hob tooth profile testing may be carried out according to a variety of procedures as described in the
following paragraphs. The default is on--the--flank
for test 8 and over--the--edge for test 8A.
7.10.1.1 Tooth profile testing, over--the--edge
Tooth profile testing over--the--edge involves measurement of tooth cutting edge profile displacement
at a series of incremental positions from root to tip of
the hob tooth relative to the incremental positioning
of the measurement probe along the specified angle.
At each of the incremental test positions, the probe is
moved across the cutting edge in a helical lead
movement as described in 7.8.1.1. After the probe
has passed the cutting edge and measured the
displacement, the helical lead motion is reversed
until hob and probe return to the starting position with
the probe just behind the cutting edge. During the
reverse motion, the probe may be temporarily
retracted so that it does not catch on the sharp
cutting edge. Following the reverse motion, the
probe is moved to the next incremental location
along the specified angle. The helical lead motion
can then be repeated at the new profile location.
This incremental repositioning of the probe accompanied by individual helical lead movements across
successive tooth cutting edge profile locations
continues until the full profile has been traversed.
The probe must be oriented so that contact with the
cutting edge occurs only within the specified plane
and so as to measure cutting edge displacement
normal to the involute helicoid surface approximated
by the hob cutting edges.

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

7.10.1.3 Tooth profile testing, axial

7.10.1.4 Tooth profile testing, normal


Normal tooth profile testing assumes that the helical
hob thread should contain a straight profile at the
intersection of the thread and a normal plane.
Testing may take place either on--the--flank or
over--the--edge. The specified angle is the normal
pressure angle and the specified plane is the normal
plane.
Normal tooth profile testing may also be accomplished by projection. A shadow of the tooth may be
optically magnified to permit comparison of the
profile to a large scale layout of the specified profile.
This method requires orientation of the hob tooth
with the optical projection system.
7.10.1.5 Tooth profile testing, involute helicoid
generator
Involute helicoid generator tooth profile testing
assumes that the helical hob thread should contain a
straight profile at the intersection of the thread and
plane of action. The plane of action is a plane
tangent to the base cylinder of the hob. This
geometry system assumes that hob geometry, at the
cutting edges, is the same as that of a helical involute
gear. Hobs conforming to this geometry system will
generate true involute profiles on gears cut. Hobs
conforming to axial or normal profile geometry
systems will produce some tip and root relief relative
to a true involute on the gears cut. See Annex C.

17

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

Testing may take place only over--the--edge. The


specified angle is the hob lead angle at the base
diameter and the specified plane is the plane of
action.
7.10.2 Tooth profile tolerances [Test Nos 8 & 8A]
This standard provides tolerances that are applicable only to measurements of involute helicoid tooth
profile for those cases where the hob has been
specified to be manufactured with that tooth geometry. The tooth profile tolerance is the maximum
allowed deviation as the probe traverses the specified angle from whole depth to edge round at the
outside diameter, exclusive of any specified modifications deviating from the straight profile.
7.11 Tooth thickness
7.11.1 Tooth thickness testing
The measurement probe is oriented to contact the
cutting edge and measure the displacement normal
to the hob thread helix at the reference diameter and
tangent to the cylinder of the reference diameter. If
the hob is non--topping, the reference diameter is the
outside diameter minus (2) hob addendums. If the
hob is topping, the reference diameter is the root
diameter plus (2) hob dedendums. The probe is then
relocated to a comparable location in contact with
the opposite tooth flank. Differences in probe
position and cutting edge displacement measurements will determine actual tooth thickness in the
normal plane.
Tooth thickness may alternatively be tested by
projection. A shadow of the tooth may be optically
magnified to permit comparison to a large scale
specified layout. The tooth thickness should be
observed at the reference diameter of the tooth. This
method requires orientation of the hob tooth with the
optical projection system, and will determine actual
tooth thickness in the normal plane.
7.11.2 Tooth thickness tolerance [Test No. 9]
Tooth thickness tolerance is the maximum allowed
deviation between any measured tooth thickness
and specified tooth thickness. The tolerance is
minus (--) only.

18

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

7.12 Line of action


Line of action testing permits an observation of how
all the elements of hob geometry come together to
generate an involute gear profile. While this
composite type of testing procedure is of limited
value to process control of hobs, it can be a valuable
tool in determining how well a given hob may work for
its intended purpose.
As two mating gear teeth pass through mesh, they
contact one another at constantly changing diameters as the point of contact moves along the line of
action tangent to both their base circles. The
engagement between a gear tooth and its generating hob occurs along a similar line of action.
Successive teeth along the thread lead encounter
the gear profile at constantly changing diameters.
Each encounter of the gear profile with a hob tooth
cutting edge occurs along the line of action.
Ordinarily, the two most significant elements of hob
geometry are lead and profile. Line of action testing
permits an observation of the combined effect of the
deviations of these two important parameters. Since
line of action testing theory assumes that a hob
should represent involute helicoid geometry just like
a gear, the test is performed in the plane of action of
the hob tangent to its base cylinder. Thus, the line of
action test will reveal the effect of the gear profile tip
and root relief resulting from allowed normal or axial
hob profiles. Since the test is carried out across the
cutting edge, the effects of sharpening deviations
are also included in this composite test.
7.12.1 Line of action testing
Hob line of action testing may be accomplished
either by direct measurement or by modeling based
on lead and involute helicoid generator profile test
data. Testing will occur over the unmodified portion
of the hob tooth.
7.12.1.1 Line of action testing, direct
measurement
Line of action testing of a hob involves moving the
measurement probe along the thread line of action
so as to permit measurement of cutting edge
displacements from their proper positions. This
complex motion may be considered as a combina-

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

tion of two basic components. First is the rotation of


the hob about its reference axis while the measurement probe is moved parallel to the reference axis,
so as to generate the nominal lead of the thread. As
this occurs, the motion of the probe is modified so
that it will contact each successive tooth along the
thread at a constantly increasing (or decreasing)
diameter. Actually, the probe is caused to move
along the profile in a manner described under
involute helicoid generator profile testing (see
7.10.1.5) while simultaneously progressing along
the thread lead. As the nominal line of action is thus
generated, the probe is oriented to contact the
passing tooth cutting edges and measure their
displacements normal to the involute helicoid surface approximated by the hob cutting edges. Since
interaction of the various elements of hob accuracy
typically varies at different locations around a hob, it
is recommended that line of action testing be carried
out at multiple locations. It is also required that line of
action measurements be observed on both flanks of
all threads.

7.12.1.2 Line of action testing, modeled from


lead and profile data
Thread lead and involute helicoid generator profile
test data can be combined in such a manner as to
provide equivalent data as would be derived from a
direct line of action measurement. The thread lead
data for a given flank of a selected thread is collected
as described in 7.8.1.1, thread lead testing over-the--edge. Profile data for the same flank and thread
is collected as described in 7.10.1.5, tooth profile
testing, involute helicoid generator. Since this profile
test must take place over the cutting edge, refer also
to 7.10.1.1. Additionally, the incremental positions
selected along the profile must correspond to those
locations which would be encountered during a
direct measurement of line of action.
Only one thread lead test data set and one involute
helicoid generator profile test data set taken on the
same flanks of the same hob thread can be
combined to produce a modeled line of action test
data set. Once this data is collected, it must be
combined by the summation of successive lead and

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

profile test data samples to create successive line of


action model data samples. The lead and profile
data summation procedure must be organized with
regard to the order of data combination (i.e., profile
root to tip or tip to root, lead start to end or end to
start) so as to create a valid line of action model.
In the case of a hob designed with minimum cutting
face width required to generate a full gear profile, the
number of lead and profile data samples will be
approximately equal. For hobs with greater cutting
face widths, the additional lead data samples will
permit the creation of multiple line of action models
by the combination of profile data with multiple
groups of lead data. This is recommended since
interaction of the various elements of hob accuracy
typically varies at different locations around a hob. It
is also required that line of action be observed on
both flanks of all threads.
7.12.2 Line of action tolerances
The hob line of action tolerances provided by this
standard may be applied to line of action tests for
those cases where the hob has been specified to be
manufactured with involute helicoid geometry. Hob
line of action tolerances may be thus applied to the
following line of action parameters.
7.12.2.1 Line of action deviation, total
[Test No. 14]
Total line of action deviation is the maximum allowed
deviation between any two teeth of a given line of
action test. Total hob line of action tolerances may
be applied to total line of action test results for those
cases where the hob has been specified to be
manufactured with involute helicoid geometry.
7.12.2.2 Line of action deviation, adjacent
[Test No. 13]
Adjacent line of action deviation is the maximum
allowed deviation between any two consecutive
teeth of a given line of action test. Adjacent hob line
of action tolerances may be applied to adjacent line
of action test results for those cases where the hob
has been specified to be manufactured with involute
helicoid geometry.

19

Hub diameter

Hub face

Outside
diameter

Tooth face

20

Element

Test
no
no.

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

De
eviat
ation
n

Drawing
g

Straightness and
radial alignment
of the rake offset
over the cutting
g
d th
depth
(see 7
7.7.2)
7 2)

Radial runoutt off


tips of teeth
(see 7.4.2)

Axial
A
ial runoutt off
hub face
(see 7.3.2.1)

Radial runoutt off


hub diameter
(see 7.3.2.2)

Object
j
of test

Table 3 -- Accuracy requirements

Pitch range module,


m
> 0.63
to
1
>1
to
2
>2
to
3.5
> 3.5
to
6.3
>6.3
to
10
> 10
to
16
> 16
to
25
> 25
to
40
> 0.63
to
1
>1
to
2
>2
to
3.5
> 3.5
to
6.3
> 6.3
to
10
> 10
to
16
> 16
to
25
>25
to
40
> 0.63
to
1
>1
to
2
>2
to
3.5
> 3.5
to
6.3
> 6.3
to
10
> 10
to
16
> 16
to
25
> 25
to
40
> 0.63
to
1
>1
to
2
>2
to
3.5
> 3.5
to
6.3
> 6.3
to
10
> 10
to
16
> 16
to
25
> 25
to
40
AA
3
3
3
4
5
6
9
13
2
2
3
3
4
5
7
10
14
15
17
19
24
32
45
65
11
12
13
15
19
25
35
51

Grade
A
B
4
7
5
7
5
8
6
10
8
12
10
16
14
23
21
33
3
6
4
6
4
7
5
8
6
10
8
13
11
18
16
26
22
40
24
42
26
48
31
56
39
70
51
93
72
130
104 187
17
31
18
33
21
37
24
44
30
55
40
72
56
101
81
146

D
9
10
11
13
16
22
30
44
7
8
9
10
13
17
24
34
106
112
126
148
185
244
342
494
41
44
49
58
72
95
134
193

(continued)

C
7
7
8
10
12
16
23
33
6
6
7
8
10
13
18
26
80
85
95
112
140
185
259
374
31
33
37
44
55
72
101
146

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

AAA
2
2
2
2
3
4
6
8
1
1
2
2
2
3
4
6
9
9
10
12
15
20
28
41
7
7
8
10
12
16
22
32

Tolerances, mm

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Tooth faces

Tooth faces

Tooth faces

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

Element

Test
no
no.

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

2
1

Drawing
g

Devviatio
on
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

16

to
to
to

> 16
> 25

Flute lead
Per 100 mm face
deviation of tooth
width
face (see 7.6.2)

10

40

25

6.3

to

to

>1
to

to

> 0.63

40

3.5

to

> 25

25

16

10

6.3

3.5

to

to

to

> 10
> 16

to

> 6.3

to

>2
to

to

>1
> 3.5

to

> 0.63

Pitch range module,


m

>2
Total index
deviation of tooth > 3.5
faces
> 6.3
(see 7
7.5.2.1)
5 2 1)
> 10

Index deviation
of adjacent tooth
faces
(see 7.5.2.2)
7 5 2 2)

Object
j
of test

Table 3 (continued)

Deviation

De ation
Deviat

40

76

53

38

29

23

19

17

16

41

28

20

15

12

10

AAA

60

122

84

60

46

37

31

28

26

65

45

32

24

19

17

15

14

AA

72

51

39

31

26

24

22

80

195

135

96

73

58

50

44

42

100

351

243

174

131

105

89

80

75

187

130

93

70

56

48

42

40

Grade
A
B

104

Tolerances, mm
D

180

463

321

229

174

139

118

105

99

247

171

122

93

74

63

56

53

21

(continued)

140

351

243

174

131

105

89

80

75

187

130

93

70

56

48

42

40

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

Tooth profile

22

Element

Test
no
no.

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

Deviation

Drawing
g

5--7 threads

3--4 threads

2 threads

1 thread

Deviation of the
tooth flank
surface from
d i
designed
d ttooth
th
profile
(see 7.10.2)
7 10 2)

Object
j
of test

Table 3 (continued)

> 0.63
>1
>2
> 3.5
> 6.3
> 10
> 16
> 25
> 0.63
>1
>2
> 3.5
> 6.3
> 10
> 16
> 25
> 0.63
>1
>2
> 3.5
> 6.3
> 10
> 16
> 25
> 0.63
>1
>2
> 3.5
> 6.3
> 10
> 16
> 25

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40
1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40
1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40
1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40

Pitch range module,


m
4
5
5
6
8
10
14
20
5
6
6
8
9
13
18
25
6
7
8
9
11
15
21
30
7
8
9
10
13
17
24
35

AA
7
7
8
10
12
16
23
32
9
9
10
12
15
20
28
41
10
11
12
14
18
24
33
48
12
13
14
17
21
28
39
56

14
15
17
19
24
32
45
65
17
18
21
24
30
40
56
81
21
22
24
29
36
48
67
96
24
25
28
33
42
55
77
112

Grade
A
B

37
39
44
51
64
85
119
172
46
49
54
64
80
106
148
214
54
58
65
76
95
126
176
254
63
67
75
88
110
146
204
294

(continued)

28
29
33
39
49
64
90
130
35
37
41
49
61
80
112
162
41
44
49
58
72
95
133
193
48
51
57
67
84
110
154
223

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

3
3
3
4
5
6
9
13
3
4
4
5
6
8
11
16
4
4
5
6
7
9
13
19
5
5
6
7
8
11
15
22

AAA

Tolerances, mm

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Tooth profile

8A

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

Element

Test
no
no.

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

D i ti
Deviation

Drawing
g

5--7 threads

3--4 threads

2 threads

1 thread

1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40
1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40
1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40
1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40

> 0.63
>1
>2
> 3.5
> 6.3
> 10
> 16
> 25
> 0.63
>1
>2
> 3.5
> 6.3
> 10
> 16
> 25
> 0.63
>1
>2
> 3.5
> 6.3
> 10
> 16
> 25
> 0.63
>1
>2
> 3.5
> 6.3
> 10
> 16
> 25

Deviation of the
tooth flank
surface from
designed tooth
profile when
using line of
action check
(see 7.10.2)
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

Pitch range module,


m

Object
j
of test

Table 3 (continued)

5
6
6
8
10
13
18
25
5
5
6
7
9
11
16
23
6
6
7
8
10
14
19
27
7
7
8
10
12
16
22
32

AAA
9
9
10
12
15
20
28
41
8
8
9
11
14
18
26
37
9
10
11
13
16
22
30
44
11
12
13
15
19
25
35
51

AA

Tolerances, mm

14
15
17
19
24
32
45
65
13
13
15
18
22
29
41
59
15
16
18
21
26
35
49
70
17
18
21
24
30
40
56
81

28
29
33
39
49
64
90
130
25
27
30
35
44
58
82
118
30
32
36
42
53
69
97
140
35
37
41
49
61
80
112
162

Grade
A
B

73
78
87
103
129
170
238
343
67
71
79
93
117
154
216
312
79
84
94
111
139
183
256
370
92
97
109
128
161
212
297
429

23

(continued)

56
59
66
78
97
129
180
260
51
54
60
71
88
117
164
236
60
64
71
84
105
139
194
281
69
74
82
97
122
161
225
325

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

Tooth
thickness

Thread lead

10

24

Element

Test
no
no.

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

Deviation

Thickness

Pitch cylinder

Adjacent Teeth

Drawing
g

to

to

> 16
> 25

to

> 10

40

25

16

10

3.5

to

to

>2

6.3

to

>1

to

to

> 0.63

18

13

AA
28
30
33
39
49
65
91
131

29

20

14

11

58

40

29

22

17

15

13

12

Grade
A
B
31
34
33
36
37
41
44
48
55
60
72
79
101 111
146 160

153

106

76

57

46

39

35

33

D
53
57
63
75
94
124
173
250

(continued)

116

80

57

43

35

29

26

25

C
41
44
49
58
72
95
133
192

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

11

AAA
22
24
27
31
39
52
73
105

Tolerances, mm

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Pitch range module,


m
> 0.63
to
1
>1
to
2
>2
to
3.5
> 3.5
to
6.3
> 6.3
to
10
> 10
to
16
> 16
to
25
> 25
to
40

> 3.5
Lead deviation
on adjacent teeth
(see 7.8.2.3)
> 6.3

Tooth thickness
deviation when
measured in a
reference
f
pitch
it h
cylinder
cylinder.
Tolerance values
are minus (--)
( )
only.
y
(
(see
7.11.2)
7 11 2)

Object
j
of test

Table 3 (continued)

Devi
viation

Thread lead in
one axial p
pitch

11

One tooth

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

Element

Test
no
no.

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Deviation

One axial pitch

One axial pitch

Drawing
g

5--7 threads

3--4 threads

2 threads

1 thread

Lead deviation in
one axial pitch
(see 7.8.2.2)

Object
j
of test

Table 3 (continued)

> 0.63
>1
>2
> 3.5
> 6.3
> 10
> 16
> 25
> 0.63
>1
>2
> 3.5
> 6.3
> 10
> 16
> 25
> 0.63
>1
>2
> 3.5
> 6.3
> 10
> 16
> 25
> 0.63
>1
>2
> 3.5
> 6.3
> 10
> 16
> 25

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40
1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40
1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40
1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40

Pitch range module,


m
4
5
5
6
8
10
14
20
5
6
6
7
9
12
17
25
6
7
7
9
11
15
20
29
7
8
9
10
13
17
24
34

AAA
7
7
8
10
12
16
23
32
8
9
10
12
15
20
27
40
10
11
12
14
18
23
33
47
12
12
14
16
20
27
38
54

AA

Tolerances, mm

11
12
13
16
19
26
36
52
14
14
16
19
24
31
44
63
16
17
19
23
28
37
52
75
19
20
22
26
33
43
60
87

22
24
26
31
39
51
72
104
27
29
32
38
48
63
88
127
32
34
38
45
56
74
104
151
37
40
44
52
65
86
121
174

Grade
A
B

59
62
70
82
103
136
190
275
72
76
85
100
125
166
232
335
85
90
101
119
149
197
275
398
98
104
117
138
172
228
319
460

25

(continued)

44
47
53
62
78
103
144
208
54
58
64
76
95
125
176
254
64
68
76
90
113
149
209
301
75
79
89
105
131
172
241
349

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

Thread lead in
one axial p
pitch

11A

26

Element

Test
no
no.

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

One tooth

Deviation

One axial pitch

One axial pitch

Drawing
g

5--7 threads

3--4 threads

2 threads

1 thread

Lead deviation in
one axial pitch
pitch,
when using line
of action check
(see 7.8.2.2)

Object
j
of test

Table 3 (continued)

> 0.63
>1
>2
> 3.5
> 6.3
> 10
> 16
> 25
> 0.63
>1
>2
> 3.5
> 6.3
> 10
> 16
> 25
> 0.63
>1
>2
> 3.5
> 6.3
> 10
> 16
> 25
> 0.63
>1
>2
> 3.5
> 6.3
> 10
> 16
> 25

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40
1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40
1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40
1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40

Pitch range module,


m
8
8
9
11
14
18
25
36
12
13
15
17
22
29
40
58
15
16
17
21
26
34
41
69
17
18
20
24
30
39
55
79

AA
12
13
15
17
22
29
40
58
20
21
23
28
35
46
64
92
23
25
28
33
41
54
76
110
27
29
32
38
48
63
88
127

25
26
29
35
43
57
80
116
40
42
47
55
69
91
128
185
47
50
56
66
82
108
152
219
54
58
64
76
95
126
176
254

Grade
A
B

66
69
78
92
115
152
212
306
104
111
124
146
183
241
337
487
124
131
147
173
217
286
401
579
143
152
170
201
251
331
464
670

(continued)

50
53
59
70
87
115
161
232
79
84
94
111
138
183
256
369
94
99
111
131
164
217
304
439
109
115
129
152
190
251
352
508

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

5
5
6
7
8
11
16
23
8
8
9
11
14
18
25
36
9
10
11
13
16
21
30
43
11
11
13
15
19
25
34
50

AAA

Tolerances, mm

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Thread lead in
three axial
pitches

Line of action

12

13

Adjacent
deviation along
the line of action
(see 7.12.2.2)

Lead deviation in
three axial
pitches
(see 7.8.2.1)

Object
j
of test

Table 3 (continued)

Line of action

Three axial pitches

Three axial pitches

Drawing
g

One tooth

Deviation

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

Element

Test
no
no.

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Deviat
ation

to
to

> 16
> 25

to

>2

to

to

>1

> 10

to

> 0.63

to

to

> 25

> 6.3

to

> 16

to

to

> 10

> 3.5

to

> 6.3

to

>2
to

to

>1

> 3.5

to

> 0.63

40

25

16

10

6.3

3.5

40

25

16

10

6.3

3.5

Pitch range module,


m

11

36

25

18

13

11

AAA

18

13

57

39

28

21

17

14

13

12

AA

Tolerances, mm

29

20

14

11

91

63

45

34

27

23

21

19

52

40

29

22

17

15

13

12

182

126

90

68

55

46

41

39

Grade
A
B

153

106

76

57

46

39

35

33

480

333

238

180

144

122

109

103

27

(continued)

116

80

57

43

35

29

26

25

364

252

180

136

109

92

83

78

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

Line of action

14

28

NOTES:
Shaded area is datum referred to in 6.1.

Element

Test
no
no.

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

Active
length

Drawing
g

Total deviation
along the line of
action
(see 7.12.2.1)

Object
j
of test

Table 3 (continued)

Total
To
devia
viation

to
to
to

> 10
> 16
> 25

to

> 6.3

to

>2
to

to

>1

> 3.5

to

> 0.63

40

25

16

10

6.3

3.5

Pitch range module,


m

41

28

20

15

12

10

AA

65

45

32

24

19

17

15

14

130

90

64

49

39

33

29

28

Grade
A
B

343

238

170

129

103

87

78

73

(continued)

260

180

129

97

78

66

59

56

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

25

18

13

10

AAA

Tolerances, mm

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Thread
spacing

15

Drawing
g

Adjacent deviation

Total thread length


on each thread

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

Element

Test
no
no.

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

to
to

> 6.3
> 10

Average position
of thread #1

to
to
to
to

> 6.3
> 10
> 16
> 25

to

to
> 3.5

>2
Thread #1

to

to

> 10

to

to

> 6.3

>1

to

> 3.5

> 0.63

to

>2

to

to

>1

> 25

to

> 0.63

to

to

> 25

Average position
of thread #2

5--7 threads

to

> 3.5

to

to

>2

> 16

to

>1

> 16

3--4 threads

2 threads

to

> 0.63

40

25

16

10

6.3

3.5

40

25

16

10

6.3

3.5

40

25

16

10

6.3

3.5

Pitch range module,


m

Thread #2

Average position
of thread #3

Thread #3

Average position
of thread #4

Thread #4

Thread spacing
deviation
between
adjacent threads
((see 7.9.2.2))

Object
j
of test

Table 3 (continued)

17

12

14

10

12

AAA
3

27

19

13

10

23

16

11

20

14

10

AA
4

Tolerances, mm

43

30

21

16

13

11

10

37

26

18

14

11

31

22

15

12

86

59

42

32

26

22

19

18

74

51

37

28

22

19

17

16

62

43

31

23

19

16

14

Grade
A
B
7
13

227

157

112

85

68

58

51

49

196

136

97

73

59

50

44

42

165

114

82

62

49

42

37

D
35

29

(continued)

172

119

85

64

51

44

39

37

148

103

73

56

44

38

34

32

125

86

62

47

37

32

28

C
27

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

Thread
spacing

15A

30

Element

Test
no
no.

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

Adj
Adjacent
t deviation
d i ti

Total
T
t l thread
th d llength
th
on each thread

Drawing
g

Average position
of thread #1

Thread #1

Average position
of thread #2

Thread #2

Average position
of thread #3

Thread #3

Average position
of thread #4

Thread #4

Pitch range module,


m
Thread spacing > 0.63
to
1
deviation
>1
to
2
between
to
3.5
adjacent threads, > 2
when using the > 3.5
to
6.3
line of action
> 6.3
to
10
check
> 10
to
16
(see 7.9.2.2)
> 16
to
25
>
25
to
40
2 threads
> 0.63
to
1
>1
to
2
>2
to
3.5
> 3.5
to
6.3
3--4 threads
> 6.3
to
10
> 10
to
16
> 16
to
25
> 25
to
40
> 0.63
to
1
>1
to
2
>2
to
3.5
> 3.5
to
6.3
5--7 threads
> 6.3
to
10
> 10
to
16
> 16
to
25
> 25
to
40

Object
j
of test

Table 3 (continued)

AA
6
6
7
9
11
14
20
28
7
8
9
10
13
17
23
34
8
9
10
12
15
19
27
39

Grade
A
B
10
19
10
21
12
23
14
27
17
34
22
45
31
63
45
91
12
23
12
24
14
27
16
32
20
40
27
53
37
75
54
108
13
27
14
28
16
32
19
37
23
47
31
62
43
87
63
125

D
51
54
61
72
90
119
166
240
61
65
72
85
107
141
197
285
71
75
84
99
124
163
229
330

(continued)

C
39
41
46
55
68
90
126
182
46
49
55
65
81
107
150
216
54
57
64
75
94
124
173
250

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

AAA
4
4
5
5
7
3
12
18
5
5
5
6
8
10
15
21
5
6
6
7
9
12
17
24

Tolerances, mm

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Thread
spacing

16

Drawing
g

Total deviation

Total thread length


g
on each
h thread
th d

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

Element

Test
no
no.

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Average position
of thread #1

Thread #1

Average position
of thread #2

Thread #2

Average position
A
iti
of thread #3

Thread #3

Average position
of thread #4

Thread #4

5--7 threads

4 threads

Total thread
spac g
spacing
deviation
between threads
(see 7.9.2.1)

Object
j
of test

Table 3 (continued)

to
to

> 6.3
>10

to
to
to

>10
>16
>25

to

to

>3.5
>6.3

to

to

>1
>2

to

to

>0.63

>25

to

to

> 3.5

>16

to

to

>1
>2

to

> 0.63

40

25

16

10

6.3

3.5

40

25

16

10

6.3

3.5

Pitch range module,


m

25

17

12

22

15

11

AAA

40

28

20

15

12

10

35

24

17

13

10

AA

Tolerances, mm

64

45

32

24

19

16

15

14

56

39

28

21

17

14

13

12

129

89

64

48

39

33

29

28

111

77

55

42

33

28

25

24

Grade
A
B

340

235

168

127

102

86

77

73

294

203

145

110

88

75

67

63

31

(continued)

258

178

127

97

77

65

58

55

223

154

110

83

67

57

50

48

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

Thread
spacing

Bore diameter

16A

17

Total thread length


g
on each
h thread
h d

Total deviation

Drawing
g

Average position
A
iti
of thread #1

Thread #1

Average position
of thread #2

Thread #2

Average position
of thread #3

Thread #3

Average position
of thread #4

Thread #4

Bore diameter
d i ti
deviation,
tolerance values
are plus (+) only.
(see 7.2.2)

5--7 threads

4 threads

Total thread
spacing
spac
g
deviation
between threads,
when using the
line of action
check
(see 7.9.2.1)

Object
j
of test

Table 3 (continued)

to
to
to

>1
>2
>3.5

to

>25

40

25

16

10

6.3

3.5

40

25

16

10

6.3

3.5

Bore diameter, mm
>8
to
10
>10
to
13
> 13
to
22
> 22
to
32
> 32
to
50
> 50
to
60
> 60
to
80

to

to
>16

>10

to

to

>0.63

>6.3

to

>25

to

to

>10
>16

to

to

to

to

to

> 6.3

> 3.5

>2

>1

> 0.63

Pitch range module,


m

2.5
3
4
6
7
8
9

37

25

18

14

11

32

22

16

12

AAA

3
4
5
6
8
9
10

59

41

29

22

18

15

13

13

51

35

25

19

15

13

11

11

AA

Tolerances, mm

4
5
6
9
11
12
14

94

65

46

35

28

24

21

20

81

56

40

30

24

21

18

17

6
8
8
10
12
13
16

188

130

93

70

56

48

43

40

162

112

80

61

49

41

37

35

Grade
A
B

9
11
12
13
16
19
20

375

260

186

141

112

95

85

80

324

224

160

121

97

82

73

69

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

12
14
15
17
21
25
28

495

343

245

186

148

126

112

106

428

296

211

160

128

109

97

91

32

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

NOTES:
Line of action tests:
If the manufacturer does not have the facility to apply an over--riding line of action test, the tolerance on tooth profile and tooth lead elements are as given under the headings, Test 8, Test 10, Test 11 and Test 12 respectively. However, it is permissible to increase the tolerances on tooth profile, tooth lead, and thread spacing to the values given for Tests 8A, 11A, 15A and 16A and not carry out Test 12, providing the tolerances specified for the tooth spacing along the line of action (Test 13s and 14) are met. The
reason is that a hob manufacturer can compensate for errors in one element by adjusting the other element, without detriment to the tooth geometry accuracy of the resulting
gear. When this is done, the final accuracy of the hob can only be monitored by the generative line of action test.

Element

Test
no
no.

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

D viatio
Devia
on

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

Annex A
(informative)
Gear manufacturing terminology
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03, Tolerance Specification for Gear Hobs.]

A.1 Purpose
The purpose of this annex is to provide definitions of
gear manufacturing terminology. It is intended to
serve as a supplement to the nomenclature which
pertains directly to gear cutting tools in clause 3.
A.2 Terminology
approach: linear distance in the direction of feed
between the point of initial hob contact and the point
of full hob contact.
arbor spacer: hollow cylinder which fits an arbor,
and is used to position the hob.
axial feed: rate of change of hob position parallel to
the workpiece axis, usually specified in millimeters
per revolution of the workpiece.
centering device: ground locating pin used to
center a tooth or space of the hob on the centerline of
the workpiece.
climb hobbing: rotation of a hob in the opposite
direction to the feed of the hob relative to the
workpiece at the point of contact.
common factor ratio: in multiple thread hobs,
condition wherein the gear tooth--hob thread ratio is
not a whole number, but there is a common factor of
the number of gear teeth and number of hob threads.
conventional hobbing: rotation of a hob in the
same direction as the feed of the hob relative to the
workpiece at the point of contact.
cutting speed: peripheral linear speed resulting
from rotation, usually expressed as meters per
minute (m/min).
drawbar: rod which retains an arbor, adapter or hob
shank in the spindle.
even ratio: in multiple thread hobs, condition
wherein the gear tooth--hob thread ratio is a whole
number.
feed: rate of change of hob position while cutting.
See axial feed, tangential feed, and in--feed.
gear tooth--hob thread ratio: ratio of the number of
teeth in the workpiece to number of threads in the

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

hob. See common factor ratio, prime ratio and even


ratio.
grinding cracks: fractures in the hob caused by
improper grinding techniques.
hob arbor: device to mount in or on the spindle of a
hobbing machine, which is designed to carry and
drive an arbor--type hob.
hob shift: axial movement of a hob along its axis to
engage a different section with the workpiece, to
distribute the hob wear.
hunting ratio: see preferred term prime ratio.
in--feed: radial rate of change of hob position,
relative to the workpiece axis, usually specified in
millimeters per revolution of the workpiece.
keyseat: pocket, usually in the driving element, in
which the key is retained.
overtravel: linear distance in the direction of feed
between the last point of full depth cutting by the hob
and the point at which the hob disengages the work
entirely.
prime ratio: in multiple thread hobs, condition
wherein the gear tooth--hob thread ratio is not a
whole number, and there is no common factor of the
number of gear teeth and the number of hob threads.
scallops: shallow depressions on the generated
form produced by hob tooth action.
setting angle: angle used for setting hob swivel to
align the hob thread with the workpiece teeth.
sharpening guide: cylindrical part with flutes,
having the same lead as the hob flutes, used for
guiding the hob along the correct lead when
sharpening.
tangential feed: rate of change of hob position
along its own axis, usually specified in millimeters
per revolution of the workpiece.
undercut: condition at the base of a hobbed
workpiece form wherein additional material beyond
the basic form is removed. Under certain conditions
this may occur naturally, while in other cases it may
be produced by intentional modification of the hob
tooth.

33

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

wear land: cylindrical or flat land worn on the


relieved portion of the hob tooth behind the cutting
edge.

34

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

wobble: motion of a hob when the radial runout


varies along the hob length.

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

Annex B
(informative)
Hob design parameters
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03, Tolerance Specification for Gear Hobs.]

B.1 Purpose
The purpose of this annex is to establish recommended outside diameters and numbers of flutes for gear hobs.
See tables B.1 and B.2.
Table B.1 -- Outside diameter and lead angle of small bore type gear hobs, (multi threads), mm
Type
(bore)

10

13

Module,
Module
m
0.5
0.55
0.6
0.65
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.9
1
0.5
0.55
0.6
0.65
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.9
1
1.25
1.5
1.75
2
0.5
0.55
0.6
0.65
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.9
1
1.25
1.5
1.75
2

1 thread
Outside
Lead
diameter, da
angle,
24
1.2593
24
1.3930
24
1.5281
24
1.6647
24
1.8029
24
1.9426
24
2.0839
24
2.3715
24
2.6659
32
0.9317
32
1.0290
32
1.1272
32
1.2262
32
1.3260
32
1.4266
32
1.5281
32
1.7336
32
1.9426
40
1.9426
40
2.3715
40
2.8157
40
3.2758
32
0.9317
32
1.0290
32
1.1272
32
1.2262
32
1.3260
32
1.4266
32
1.5281
32
1.7336
32
1.9426
40
1.9426
40
2.3715
40
2.8157
40
3.2758

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

2 threads
Outside
Lead
diameter, da
angle,
32
1.8636
32
2.0584
32
2.2548
32
2.4529
32
2.6527
32
2.8541
32
3.0572
32
3.4688
32
3.8874
32
1.8636
32
2.0584
32
2.2548
32
2.4529
32
2.6527
32
2.8541
32
3.0572
32
3.4688
32
3.8874
40
3.8874
40
4.7471
40
5.6382
40
6.5624
32
1.8636
32
2.0584
32
2.2548
32
2.4529
32
2.6527
32
2.8541
32
3.0572
32
3.4688
32
3.8874
40
3.8874
40
4.7471
40
5.6382
40
6.5624

3 threads
Outside
Lead
diameter, da
angle,
32
2.796
32
3.088
32
3.383
32
3.681
32
3.981
32
4.283
32
4.589
32
5.207
32
5.837
32
2.796
32
3.088
32
3.383
32
3.681
32
3.981
32
4.283
32
4.589
32
5.207
32
5.837
40
5.837
40
7.131
40
8.474
40
9.871
32
2.796
32
3.088
32
3.383
32
3.681
32
3.981
32
4.283
32
4.589
32
5.207
32
5.837
40
5.837
40
7.131
40
8.474
40
9.871

35

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Table B.2 -- Outside diameter and lead angle of gear hobs, (multi threads), mm
1 thread
2 threads
Module,
z
zc
d

m
c
a
a
1
50 1.206 15
55 2.183 17
1.25
50 1.528 15
55 2.762 17
1.5
55 1.677 15
60 3.057 17
1.75
55 1.981 16
60 3.608 17
2
65 1.910 16
70 3.528 17
2.25
65 2.172 15
80 3.469 17
2.5
70 2.247 15
85 3.640 18
2.75
70 2.497 15
85 4.037 18
3
75 2.547 15
90 4.171 18
3.5
80 2.816 14 100 4.400 18
4
85 3.057 14 115 4.370 19
4.5
90 3.276 13 120 4.747 19
5
95 3.475 14 125 5.100 19
5.5
100 3.656 13 135 5.205 19
6
105 3.823 13 140 5.509 18
6.5
110 3.976 13 150 5.578 18
7
115 4.117 13 155 5.844 18
8
120 4.589 11 160 6.562 17
9
125 5.037 11 170 7.010 16
10
130 5.465 11 180 7.414 16
11
150 5.152 11 200 7.327 16
12
160 5.296 11 210 7.662 15
14
180 5.541 10 240 7.850 15
16
200 5.739 10 270 7.998 15
18
220 5.904 10
20
240 6.042 10
22
250 6.478 10
25
270 6.920 9
28
320 6.431 10
32
350 6.807 9
36
350 7.959 8
40
400 7.662 8
NOTES:
1. da is the outside diameter of the gear hob.
2. is the lead angle of the gear hob.
3. zc is the maximum number of gashes.

36

3 threads
da

60 2.991
60 3.780
70 3.895
80 3.981
90 4.048
100 4.101
110 4.145
110 4.589
115 4.802
125 5.182
140 5.296
150 5.584
160 5.837
170 6.062
175 6.459
180 6.839
190 6.992
200 7.662
210 8.279
220 8.850

zc
18
18
19
20
20
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
20
19

4 threads
da

85 2.779
95 3.120
100 3.574
110 3.800
120 3.989
120 4.513
120 5.044
130 5.126
130 5.622
150 5.688
170 5.739
180 6.123
190 6.470
200 6.784
210 7.070

zc
23
25
25
27
25
25
25
25
27
27
27
29
27
27
27

5 threads
da

85 3.475
95 3.901
100 4.469
110 4.752
120 4.989
120 5.645
120 6.309
130 6.412
130 7.033
150 7.117
170 7.181
180 7.662
190 8.097
200 8.491
210 8.850

zc
23
25
25
27
25
25
25
25
27
27
27
29
27
27
27

6 threads
da

85 4.171
95 4.682
100 5.365
110 5.705
120 5.990
120 6.779
120 7.578
130 7.701
130 8.450
150 8.550

zc
23
25
25
27
25
25
25
25
27
27

7 threads
da

85 4.867
95 5.465
100 6.263
110 6.660
120 6.993
120 7.915
120 8.850
130 8.995
130 9.871
150 9.989

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

zc
23
25
25
27
25
25
25
25
27
27

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

Annex C
(informative)
Equations and terminology for straight--sided hob profiles
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03, Tolerance Specification for Gear Hobs.]

C.1 Purpose
Hobs conforming to axial or normal profile geometry
systems will produce some tip and root relief relative
to a true involute on gears cut. This annex provides
calculations for these reliefs.
C.2 Symbols
Table C.1 is a list of symbols used in this annex,

along with associated terms. The Where first used


column gives the clause or equation number where
the particular symbol is first used.
NOTE: The symbols and definitions used in this annex
may differ from other AGMA standards. Users should
assure themselves that they fully understand the terms,
definitions, and symbols as contained in this annex.

Table C.1 -- Symbols used in equations


Symbol
da
da
db
db
df
df
d
da
do
d
Ea
Ef
ga
ga
gf
gf
go
g
hf
Lg
Lr
mn
mno
mn
pzc
pz
rb

Element represented
Units
Any diameter greater than do and less than or equal to outside mm
diameter of gear
Contact diameter on hob at df
mm
Base diameter, gear
mm
Base diameter, hob
mm
Any diameter less than do and greater than db
mm
Contact diameter on hob at df
mm
Pitch diameter, gear
mm
Outside diameter, hob
mm
Operating pitch diameter, gear
mm
Pitch diameter, hob
mm
Profile relief at da
mm
Profile relief at df
mm
2x line of action distance to operating pitch diameter
mm
mm
2x line of action distance to contact diameter with df
2x line of action distance to df
mm
mm
2x line of action distance to contact diameter with da
2x line of action distance to operating pitch diameter
mm
2x line of action distance to hob pitch diameter
mm
Dedendum, gear
mm
Hob engagement zone
mm
Hob functional profile depth
mm
Normal module
mm
Operating normal module
mm
Hob normal module
mm
Flute lead, hob
mm
Lead, hob
mm
Hob base radius
mm

Where
first used
Eq C.18
Eq C.28
Eq C.3
Eq C.14
Eq C.26
Eq C.21
Eq C.2
Eq C.10
Eq C.8
Eq C.10
Eq C.23
Eq C.30
Eq C.18
Eq C.27
Eq C.26
Eq C.19
Eq C.9
Eq C.16
Eq C.10
Eq C.31
Eq C.31
Eq C.2
Eq C.7
Eq C.34
Eq C.37
Eq C.17
Eq C.33
(continued)

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37

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Table C.1 (continued)


Symbol
rd
ro
z
zc
zg
z
a
f
n
no
n
t
to
t
x

b
c
o

b
b

Element represented
Hob radius to inner limit of the functional profile
Hob radius to outer limit of the functional profile
Number of gear teeth
Number of hob flutes
Number of teeth in engagement zone
Number of hob threads
Transverse pressure angle at da
Transverse pressure angle at df
Normal pressure angle, gear
Operating normal pressure angle
Hob normal pressure angle
Transverse pressure angle, gear
Operating transverse pressure angle
Transverse pressure angle, hob
Axial pressure angle, hob
Helix angle, gear
Base helix angle, gear
Hob flute helix angle
Operating helix angle, gear
Helix angle, hob
Base helix angle, hob
Hob base lead angle
Hob lead angle

C.3 Straight--sided hob profiles


The involute generating portion of the hob profile
may be produced straight--sided in the axial section.
The straight portion of the hob tooth form will
generate a gear tooth profile which departs from a
true involute profile. In order for a hob to produce a
true involute profile, it would have to have a profile of
an involute helical worm. Figure C.1 shows the
characteristic relief produced at the top and bottom
of a gear tooth generated by a straight--sided hob. In
most applications this relief is negligible; however,
when working with coarse pitches, multi--thread
hobs, or a combination of both, the relief may
become significant.

Units
mm
mm
-- --- --- --- -degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees
degrees

C.4.1 Gear calculations


C.4.1.1 Transverse pressure angle, t
tan t =

tan n
cos

(C.1)

where
n

is gear normal pressure angle, degrees;

is gear helix angle, degrees.

C.4.1.2 Pitch diameter, d


d =

z mn
cos

(C.2)

where
z

is number of gear teeth;

mn

is normal module, mm.

C.4 Calculation method to estimate the relief


produced in the gear

C.4.1.3 Base diameter, db

When the geometry of the gear and hob are known,


the amount of relief can be estimated using the
equations enumerated below:

C.4.1.4 Base helix angle, b

38

Where
first used
Eq C.33
Eq C.33
Eq C.2
Eq C.36
Eq C.36
Eq C.11
Eq C.29
Eq C.22
Eq C.1
Eq C.5
Eq C.32
Eq C.1
Eq C.6
Eq C.12
Eq C.13
Eq C.1
Eq C.4
Eq C.37
Eq C.5
Eq C.11
Eq C.15
Eq C.32
Eq C.32

d b = d cos t

tan b = d b

tan
d

(C.3)

(C.4)

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

True involute
Maximum relief
hob can produce

Outside
diameter

Line
of action

Pitch
diameter

Maximum relief hob


can produce

Figure C.1 -- Schematic diagram showing how a straight--sided hob tends to produce tip and root
relief on an involute gear tooth
C.4.3.2 Helix angle,

C.4.2 Operating conditions


C.4.2.1 Operating helix angle, o
sin
sin o = cos b
no

cos =
(C.5)

normal

pressure

angle,

C.4.2.2 Operating transverse pressure angle, to


tan no
tan to =
cos o

(C.6)

C.4.2.3 Operating normal module, mno


cos
m no = m n cos n
no

(C.7)

z m no
cos o

(C.8)

C.4.2.5 2x line of action distance to operating


pitch diameter, go
g o = d o sin to

(C.9)

C.4.3.1 Pitch diameter, hob, d


d = d a d o + d 2h f

is number of hob threads.

C.4.3.3 Transverse pressure angle, t


tan t =

tan no
cos

(C.12)

C.4.3.4 Axial pressure angle, hob, x


tan x =

tan no
sin

(C.13)

d b = d cos t

(C.14)

C.4.3.6 Base helix angle, b


tan b = d b

tan
d

(C.15)

C.4.3.7 2x line of action distance to hob pitch


diameter, g

C.4.3 Hob calculations

(C.10)

g = d sin t

(C.16)

C.4.3.8 Lead, pz

where
da is hob outside diameter, mm;
hf

(C.11)

C.4.3.5 Base diameter, db

C.4.2.4 Operating pitch diameter, do


d o =

where

where
no is operating
degrees.

z m no

is gear dedendum, mm.

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

p z =

d b
tan b

(C.17)

39

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

C.4.4 Relief amount at any diameter greater than


operating pitch diameter
C.4.4.1 2x line of action distance to da, ga
g a = d 2a d 2b

(C.18)

is any diameter greater than operating pitch


diameter and less than or equal to the outside diameter of the gear, mm.

C.4.4.2 2x line of action distance to contact


with da, gf
g f = g

g a g o
H

(C.19)

cos b
H=
cos b

(C.20)

C.4.4.3 Contact diameter on hob at da, df


d f =

d2b + g2f

(C.21)

C.4.4.4 Transverse pressure angle at df, f


cos f =

d b

(C.22)

d f

C.4.4.5 Gear profile relief at da, Ea

X 2 X1 z
p z

X 2 = inv t inv f
X 1 = d d f

(C.23)

tan x
2

p z
2

(C.24)
(C.25)

C.4.5 Relief amount at any diameter less than


operating pitch diameter
C.4.5.1 2x line of action distance to df, gf
g f = d 2f d 2b

(C.26)

where
is any gear diameter less than operating
pitch diameterand greater than base diameter, mm.

C.4.5.2 2x line of action distance to contact with


df, ga
g a = g

40

(C.28)

C.4.5.4 Transverse pressure angle at da, a


d b

(C.29)

d a

C.4.5.5 Gear profile relief at df, f


Ef =

X 3 X4
p z

z
z db

(C.30)

where
X 3 = d a d

tan x
2
p z
2

C.5 Analysis required


Where the amount of relief produced by a hob
straight--sided in the axial section will be excessive
for the gear application, the cutting edge of the hob
will have to be modified in order to obtain satisfactory
results. The equations presented here for profile
deviation are to aid in determining whether a
modified hob profile is required and are not to be
taken as the analysis required for the exact gear
profile generated by a hob.
C.6 Hob engagement

z db

where

df

d2b + g2a

X 4 = inv a inv t

where

Ea =

d a =

cos a =

where
da

C.4.5.3 Contact diameter on hob at df, da

g f g o
H

(C.27)

Line of action testing permits an observation of how


all the elements of hob geometry come together to
generate an involute gear profile as described in
7.12. This testing practice stipulates that hob
geometry be considered as involute helicoid. The
line of action test derives its unquestioned validity
from this stipulation. The fundamental operating
principle of gear hobbing processes is the kinematic
simulation of the meshing of two crossed--axis
involute helicoid gears, one being the production
gear, the other being the hob. However, some hobs
are specified and manufactured to be straight sided
in the axial section rather than involute helicoid since
this has been shown to be a more cost effective
approach for most applications. Testing of such
hobs by line of action procedures under 7.12 would
produce results with a more concave form caused by
the difference in specified geometry systems. This
condition and formulas for calculating its influence
on a particular hob design are discussed in greater
detail in clause 5 of this standard. Since it is
considered unreasonable to apply a penalty for this
difference in specified geometry systems, the hob

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

engagement test is included herein to provide a


method for composite analysis of hobs with straight
line geometry in the axial section.
The hob engagement test provides a composite
observation of the combined effects of hob lead,
profile, and sharpening variations upon the generated involute gear profile. The hob engagement test
does not include the effect of specified straight line
axial geometry upon the generated involute gear
profile.
C.6.1 Hob engagement testing
Hob engagement testing may be accomplished
either by direct measurement or by modeling based
on lead and axial profile test data.
C.6.1.1
Hob
measurement

engagement

testing,

direct

Hob engagement testing involves moving the measurement probe along a path similar to the thread
line of action so as to permit measurement of cutting
edge displacements from their proper positions.
This complex motion may be considered as a
combination of two basic components. First is the
rotation of the hob about its reference axis while the
measurement probe is moved parallel to the reference axis, so as to generate the nominal lead of the
thread. As this occurs, the motion of the probe is
modified so that it will contact each successive tooth
along the thread at a constantly increasing (or
decreasing) diameter. Actually the probe is caused
to move along the profile in a manner described
under axial profile testing (see 7.10.1.3) while
simultaneously progressing along the thread lead.
This movement of the probe to successive, equally
spaced positions along the axial profile must proceed so as to contact an equivalent number of hob
teeth during its course as that encountered during a
hob line of action test. As the nominal hob engagement is thus generated, the probe is oriented to
contact the passing tooth cutting edges and measure their displacements normal to the involute
helicoid surface approximated by the hob cutting
edges. Since interaction of the various elements of
hob accuracy typically varies at different locations
around a hob, it is recommended that hob engagement testing be carried out at multiple locations. It is
also required that hob engagement be observed on
both flanks of all threads.

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

C.6.1.2 Hob engagement testing, modeled from


lead and profile data
Thread lead and axial profile test data can be
combined in such a manner as to provide the same
data as would be derived from a direct hob engagement measurement. The thread lead data for a given
flank of a selected thread is collected as described in
7.8.1.1, Thread lead testing, over--the--edge.
Profile data for the same flank and thread is collected
as described in 7.10.1.3, Tooth profile testing, axial.
Since this profile test must take place over the cutting
edge for inclusion in the hob engagement model,
refer also to 7.10.1.1. Additionally, the incremental
positions selected along the profile must be equivalent in number and spacing to the locations which
would be encountered during a line of action test.
Only one thread lead test data set and one axial
profile test data set, taken on the same flank of the
same hob thread, can be combined to produce a
modeled hob engagement test data set. Once this
data is collected, it must be combined by the
summation of successive lead and profile test data to
create successive hob engagement model data
samples. The lead and profile data summation
procedure must be organized with regard to the
order of data combination (i.e., profile root to tip or tip
to root, lead start to end or end to start) so as to
create a model which is equivalent to a line of action
test.
In the case of a hob designed with minimum cutting
face width required to generate a full gear profile, the
number of lead and profile data samples will be
approximately equal. For hobs with greater cutting
face widths, the additional lead data samples will
permit the creation of multiple hob engagement
models by the combination of profile data with
multiple groups of lead data. This is recommended
since interaction of the various elements of hob
accuracy typically varies at different locations
around a hob. It is also required that hob engagement be observed on both flanks of all threads.
C.6.2 Hob engagement tolerances
Line of action tolerances can be applied to hob
engagement parameters.
C.6.2.1 Hob engagement deviation, total
Total hob engagement deviation is the maximum
allowed deviation between any two teeth of a given
hob engagement test.

41

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

C.6.2.2 Hob engagement deviation, adjacent


Adjacent hob engagement deviation is the maximum
allowed deviation between any two consecutive
teeth of a given hob engagement test.

C.7.1 Hob engagement zone, Lg

z
(C.31)

where:
Lr

is hob base lead angle;

is hob lead angle;

(C.35)

r 2d r 2b

0.5

zc

(C.33)

where:
d b

(C.36)

where:

The functional profile depth within the plane of action


can be calculated as follows:

is hob base radius =

sin

cosz

Lg
zg = p
z

C.7.2 Functional profile depth, Lr

0.5

tan n

C.7.3 Number of teeth in engagement zone, zg

L r = r 2o r 2b

(C.32)

n is hob normal pressure angle.

42

(C.34)

mn is hob normal module, mm.

t = tan 1

where:

rd

sin

is number of hob threads;

is hob functional profile depth.

b = cos1cos cos n

ro

m n

To calculate transverse pressure angle, t

Hob base lead angle, b

rb

d b = cos t z
where:

C.7 Hob engagement zone calculations

L
L g = r
tan b

To calculate hob base diameter, db

2
is hob radius to outer limit of the functional
profile, mm. If exact data is not available,
substitute the hob tip radius;
is hob radius to inner limit of the functional
profile, mm. If exact data is not available,
substitute the hob tip radius minus one hob
whole depth of cut.

is number of hob flutes.

To calculate hob flute helix angle, c:


For spiral flute hobs
m n
z sin

c = tan 1 p
zc

(C.37)

where
pzc

is hob flute lead, mm.

For straight flute hobs,


c = 0

(C.38)

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

Annex D
(informative)
Intermediate values for multiple thread tolerance calculations
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03, Tolerance Specification for Gear Hobs.]

Table D.1 -- When tests 8 and 11 are applied


Tolerances, mm
Number of threads

1 thread

2 threads

3--4 threads

5--7 threads

Pitch range module,


module m
> 0.63
>1
>2
> 3.5
> 6.3
>10
>16
>25
>0.63
>1
>2
>3.5
>6.3
>10
>16
>25
>0.63
>1
>2
>3.5
>6.3
>10
>16
>25
>0.63
>1
>2
>3.5
>6.3
>10
>16
>25

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40
1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40
1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40
1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40

Grade
AAA
7
7
8
10
12
16
23
33
11
12
13
16
20
26
37
53
13
14
16
19
23
31
43
63
16
16
18
22
27
36
50
73

AA
11
12
13
16
20
26
37
53
18
19
21
25
32
42
59
84
21
23
25
30
38
50
69
100
25
26
30
35
44
57
80
116

A
18
19
21
25
32
43
59
84
29
31
34
41
51
67
94
135
34
36
41
48
60
79
111
161
40
42
47
56
70
92
129
186

B
36
38
43
51
63
84
117
169
58
61
69
81
101
134
187
270
69
73
82
96
120
159
222
321
80
84
94
111
139
184
257
372

C
72
77
86
101
127
167
234
338
116
123
137
162
203
267
374
541
137
146
163
192
241
318
445
642
159
169
189
223
279
368
515
744

D
95
101
113
134
167
221
309
446
153
162
181
214
267
353
494
714
181
192
215
254
318
419
587
848
210
223
249
294
368
485
680
982

43

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Table D.2 -- When test 8A and 11A are applied


Tolerances, mm
Number of threads

1 thread

2 threads

3--4 threads

5--7 threads

44

Pitch range module,


module m
> 0.63
>1
>2
> 3.5
> 6.3
>10
>16
>25
>0.63
>1
>2
>3.5
>6.3
>10
>16
>25
>0.63
>1
>2
>3.5
>6.3
>10
>16
>25
>0.63
>1
>2
>3.5
>6.3
>10
>16
>25

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40
1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40
1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40
1
2
3.5
6.3
10
16
25
40

Grade
AAA
10
11
12
14
18
24
33
48
16
17
20
23
29
38
53
77
20
21
23
27
34
45
63
91
23
24
27
32
40
52
73
106

AA
16
17
20
23
29
38
53
77
26
28
31
37
46
61
85
123
31
33
37
44
55
72
101
146
36
38
43
51
63
84
117
169

A
26
28
31
37
46
61
85
123
42
45
50
59
74
97
136
197
50
53
59
70
88
116
162
234
58
61
69
81
101
134
187
271

B
53
56
62
74
92
122
170
246
84
89
100
118
147
195
273
394
100
106
119
140
175
231
324
468
116
123
137
162
203
268
375
541

C
105
112
125
147
184
243
341
492
168
179
200
236
295
389
545
787
200
212
237
280
350
462
647
935
232
246
275
324
406
535
750
1083

D
139
147
165
195
243
321
450
650
222
236
264
312
389
514
720
1039
264
280
313
370
462
610
855
1234
306
324
363
428
535
707
989
1429

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

Annex E
(informative)
Effects of hob accuracy on gear accuracy
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be
construed as a part of ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03, Tolerance Specification for Gear Hobs.]

E.1 Purpose
This annex provides end users with a basic understanding of how the different elements of the hob can
affect the accuracy of a gear (or gears) being cut.
There is no direct correlation of hob accuracy to the
gear accuracy produced. By knowing the cutting
application, and intended use, the end user can
decide which parameters of hob accuracy will have
the most impact on the gear accuracy at that stage of
manufacture. It is also hoped to educate the end
user that manufacturing hobs to ANSI/AGMA
1102--A03 alone might not be sufficient enough to
produce the gear accuracy required in todays
market. In those specific applications, an agreement
as to what specific parameters might need tighter
tolerances between the user and the hob manufacturer must be achieved when the hob is ordered.
E.2 Basics of single thread versus multiple
thread hobs
Single thread hobs have only one thread wrapped
around the periphery. As the hob makes one
revolution, the work spindle advances one tooth (or
pitch) on the gear being cut. The benefit is that each
gear space is cut with the same teeth in the hob
thread through the entire gear face width, thus
producing a very uniform quality. Multiple thread
hobs have more than one thread wrapped around
their periphery. The primary benefit is that for every
rotation of the hob, the work spindle will advance a
quantity of teeth on the gear equal to the quantity of
threads on the hob. A 2--thread hob advances the
work two teeth, a 3--thread hob advances three
teeth, and so on. Since the hobbing process
incorporates feed rates per revolution of the work
piece, faster rotation of the work results in shorter
cycle times in gear production.
E.2.1 Impact of adding more threads to the hob
design
The hobbing process generally uses a short section
of the hobs overall length during each cut, with the
involute being developed in what is called the
generating zone. With a fixed hob diameter, adding
additional threads to the design will result in a greater

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

thread lead angle, as the thread must wrap around


the axis at a longer lead to make room for the other
threads. Therefore, within the generating zone,
multi--thread hobs have fewer teeth within each
thread that must do the metal removal, resulting in
fewer generating flats on the involute form. This
results in thicker chips unless the feed rate is
reduced accordingly, which limits the productivity
improvement. To overcome this situation, the hob
diameters are usually increased. This achieves two
things. First, it provides more hob circumference to
allow the addition of more flutes, and increases the
number of generating flats. Secondly, the thread
lead angle is reduced. The disadvantage is that the
rotational speed of the hob must be reduced to
maintain a constant surface speed of the hob,
increasing the cycle time again. Thus, the productivity gains achieved by adding more threads is limited
to some extent by other cycle parameter changes
that must accompany such a change.
Another design criteria to consider when designing
multi--thread hobs, is the actual lead angle value. As
it increases, there becomes a point that the flute lead
must change from being a straight flute parallel to the
hob axis, to a spiral flute that is perpendicular to the
thread, and also wraps around the axis. This
balances the included angles at the cutting edges,
and maintains acute angles, instead of becoming
obtuse. This hob design is more difficult to sharpen,
and cannot be accomplished on all sharpening
machines. Consult the hob supplier if more information is needed on this type of hob. An approximate
value where the lead angle suggests going to a spiral
flute design is 6.
E.2.1.1 Ratio of gear teeth to hob threads is a
whole number
If the number of gear teeth is evenly divisible by the
number of hob threads, the result will be a gear being
cut such that each space is cut by only one thread.
For a 2--thread hob cutting a gear with an even
number of teeth, one thread will cut every other gear
space in the gear. For a 3--thread hob, each thread
cuts every third gear space. The individual gear
teeth will have uniform flank leads from end to end,

45

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

similar to that of a single thread hob. The disadvantage will be in the pitch accuracy being cut. With the
different gear spaces being cut by different threads
of the hob, the thread--to--thread spacing error in the
hob will be transposed directly into the gear spacing
error.

the gear tooth profile that are uniformly positioned for


optimum gear accuracy. When they are out of
position, the generating flats on the gear profile vary
slightly in magnitude and position, and gear accuracy can be diminished in several different ways, which
are discussed below.

E.2.1.2 Ratio of gear teeth to hob threads has a


common factor

E.3.1 Hob lead at the cutting edge

In this case, the number of teeth is not evenly


divisible by the number of hob threads, but both
numbers are divisible by a third number. Consider a
30--tooth gear being cut with a 4--thread hob. Since
both are divisible by 2, the individual spaces will be
cut with a specific combination of the threads. Odd
numbered gear spaces will have alternating feed
scallops produced by the odd threads in the hob, and
even numbered gear spaces will have alternating
feed scallops produced by the even threads in the
hob. As a result, in this example gear lead accuracy
will be a composite of the thread--to--thread accuracy
between every other thread. Likewise, gear spacing
will be a composite result comparing the thread--to-thread positioning of all threads, with some averaging of the odd threads together in the odd gear
spaces to the averaging the even threads together in
the even gear spaces.
E.2.1.3 Ratio of gear teeth to hob threads is a
prime number
This combination, known as a hunting tooth ratio,
will produce the best blending of the hob thread--to-thread accuracy onto all gear teeth equally. An
example of this is a 30--tooth gear being cut with a
7--thread hob. As a result, average tooth spacing in
the gear is most uniform, but within a single space,
the individual thread--to--thread hob errors will be a
combination of all threads, resulting in localized
spacing errors. This can produce a weave in the
gear lead.
E.3 The cutting action
Hobs are cylindrical cutting tools consisting of many
cutting edges positioned along one or more threads.
During the cutting process, the profile is created
through a generating process, where both the part
and cutter rotate together in a synchronized motion.
The accuracy grade produced on the gear is actually
produced by only a small axial portion of the hob,
identified as the generating zone. Perfect location of
the cutting edges in this zone and concentric rotation
around the hob axis will produce generating flats on

46

The inconsistent positioning of the hob cutting edges


as the part is cut can affect several different
attributes of the gear (refer to Tests #10 16).
E.3.1.1 Hob lead effect on gear profile
The profile of the gear tooth is generated by the
cutting action of successive teeth of the hob thread.
Often, during rotation, the cutting edges are in a
sinusoidal position pattern as seen in the inspection
chart of Test #12. This can occur from one or several
of the following factors: 1) runout of the hob axis
during finishing of the thread flanks, 2) runout of the
hob axis during flute finishing, or 3) runout of the hob
axis when mounted on the hobbing machine. As the
gear is cut, this composite sinusoidal position pattern
transfers the same sine wave and amplitude onto the
gear profile being cut. This is the typical profile
pattern that limits what gear accuracy can be
achieved. As the hob is shifted to spread the wear,
the sine wave repositions itself, walking up one
profile and down the other. To minimize this
wandering effect, the hob shift amount should be set
equal to one axial pitch of the hob. Therefore, if
profile accuracy is of utmost concern, the hob must
have minimal sine wave in the hob lead check, and
be mounted in the hobbing machine with care.
E.3.1.2 Hob lead effect on gear size
E.3.1.2.1 With single thread hobs
There are different aspects of hob lead accuracy that
can affect size over a series of parts being cut. Often,
size is analyzed by measurement over balls (or
pins). But when the profiles have peaks and valleys,
the balls will contact point at different radial positions
dependent on the location of the peaks and valleys.
When the hob is shifted, these peaks and valleys
reposition themselves, and the contact of the balls
can either increase or decrease. This change is
normally small when compared to the part tolerance,
but can become significant when part size on a
series of parts is analyzed statistically or tolerances
are tight. Shifting full pitch increments between parts
will minimize this characteristic.

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

E.3.1.2.2 With multiple thread hobs


If the hob has multiple threads, and also exhibits a
significant sine wave pattern on the part profile, there
is another factor that often enters into the resultant
size measurements taken on a given part. Assuming
that the thread--to--thread deviation is zero, the
implication is that the hob accuracy would be
equivalent to that of any individual thread. However,
that isnt necessarily true. Typically, these sine
waves from the various threads will be out of phase
based upon the number of threads. In a 2--thread
hob it will be 180 (a half pitch), on a 3--thread hob it
will be 120 (a third of a pitch), and so on. This
translates into a situation where a 2--thread hob has
one thread cutting at its maximum radial position of
the sine wave while the other thread is cutting at its
minimum position. The resultant is that there are
positional deviations of the generating flats due to
the sine wave as well as the thread--to--thread
location difference. Within a given part, this thread
phasing variable could result in one thread cutting a
profile hollow at the same radial position that another
thread is cutting a profile peak. This produces
greater variability in the size measurements that are
made around a given gear. In the case of a hunting
tooth cutting action, a prime ratio between the
number of hob threads and gear teeth will also result
in lead deviation along the length of the tooth. To
factor this variable out when sizing a part, it is best to
take a number of readings on consecutive spaces
that equal the number of threads in the hob, and then
average them together. For example, a gear cut with
a 3--thread hob should have three consecutive size
readings taken, and averaged together.
E.3.1.2.3 When the hob tooth thickness is
tapered from end to end
Another hob aspect that may affect part size within a
series of parts is related to taper along the length of
the hob. This can occur in a variety of ways. One is
to have the two thread flanks ground separately with
slightly different leads. A second results when the
hob axis is not parallel to the axis of the grinding
wheels finishing the thread flanks, resulting in a
converging or diverging center distance. The third is
when the flute lead is ground at the wrong lead,
taking more stock off one end than the other. When
this occurs, the size of a continuous batch of parts
will increase or decrease over the shiftable length of

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

the hob. This characteristic can also appear if the


hobbing machine is not properly gauged, and the
hob shifting mechanism displaces the hob radially as
it shifts from end to end. With dry hobbing, or other
applications where large shift increments are being
used, this characteristic can cause the operator to
constantly make size corrections. Then, when the
hob automatically shifts back to the beginning shift
end, there is a significant size shift that could be
greater than the part tolerance would allow, making
parts oversized, or undersized. This characteristic
must be considered if the machine is programmed to
do multi--pass shifting automatically.
Another factor that must be considered when the
size trends upward or downward over a series of
pieces cut is the thermal stability of the hobbing
machine itself. Successive cutting adds heat into the
coolant and machine, and will therefore influence
what size is cut. Modern machines are sometimes
equipped with thermal probes and algorithms that
automatically compensate for much of this thermal
instability. Therefore, it is important to define
whether the trending is from the machine, hob, or
some combination.
E.3.2 Hob flute effect on gear
There are two basic elements of the flute that affect
the accuracy of the gear: the actual rake offset and
the flute lead.
E.3.2.1 Hob rake offset effect on gear
A rake offset error will result in removal of too much
material in either the root of the flute, or at the tip.
Excessive material removed from the root will
increase the effective hob pressure angle slightly,
and excessive material removed from the tip will
decrease the effective hob pressure angle slightly.
E.3.2.2 Hob flute lead effect on gear
An error in grinding the correct flute lead will result in
removal of additional material off one end of the hob.
The end at which this occurs will be slightly smaller
than the other end due to the relieving nature of the
tooth shape, and will result in a gradual change in
size of parts cut over the length of the hob. This is
detrimental in the case where multiple--pass hob
shifting is being used, or where large shift increments are incorporated. In addition, there is a very
slight shift in the resulting pressure angles of the
flanks.

47

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

E.3.2.3 Hob tooth face index deviation effect on


gear
Due to the relieving nature of the tooth shape, any
index deviation will produce hob teeth of varying size
at a given radius of rotation. This in turn, will impact
the location of the generating flats, and will effect the
part size as defined above. A sinusoidal pattern of
the tooth face index accuracy (Tests #5 & 6), would
result in a sinusoidal lead in the hob, and an erratic
index pattern, which would translate into erratic
positioning of the generating flats. Both conditions
affect part size.
E.4 Does this standard ensure a good gear?
This standard was designed to provide tolerance
levels and ways to analyze the hob within the
generating zone length of the hob. However, hob
usage very seldom stays within one generating
zone. Many end users have machines dedicated to
cutting a single application. For them, hobs have
been designed longer to increase the shiftable
length, thus reducing the frequency of hob change.
One would hope that the gear accuracy would
remain constant over the entire hob length, but that is
not guaranteed. It is up to the purchaser and hob
supplier to have a clear understanding on how the
hob will be used, what the required gear accuracy is
at the time of hobbing, and whether the hob class
specified will meet the gear accuracy that is required.
E.4.1 Impact of using SPC when analyzing gear
accuracy
When gear accuracy characteristics are to be
subjected to SPC analysis, the hob supplier must be
informed which parameters, and what level of SPC
capability will be required. The reason is that the
supplier needs to be restricted from some of the full
print tolerances that appear on the part drawing.
Often, a suitable hob class with possible special
tolerances must be defined.

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

after every resharpening, the cutting action is


compromised. The flanks of the gear teeth will
appear dull to the naked eye, the actual surfaces will
be rougher to the elemental inspection probe, and
the tool life could be compromised unless cutting
speeds and feeds are adjusted accordingly.
E.5 Alternative way to analyze hob accuracy
Another way to analyze thread lead data has been
used to better understand what a hobs total lead
accuracy is, and what effect it could have on parts
throughout that sharpening. Lead data for each flank
of all threads is recorded. Data for both flanks of
each thread are then plotted against each other
showing the relative tooth thickness variation within
that thread. Refer to figures E.1 through E.3 for this
analysis on a 3--thread hob. This visually shows
whether there is taper across the length of the hob,
as well as thickness variation due to manufacturing,
or mounting runouts, or other sharpening issues. It is
also possible to see variation between threads at
any axial location along the hob by looking at figure
E.4 from the same hob inspection. The relative
individual thread thicknesses are overlayed on each
other to see the variability. The greater the variability
in figure E.4, the greater the variability in generating
flats, which in turn, affects the different elements of
the gear. Depending upon the ratio of gear teeth to
hob threads. See E.2.1.1 through E.2.1.3. Certain
elements will be affected more than others. Figure
E.5 contains two plots. The upper plot represents
the average thickness of the three threads, and the
lower plot represents its potential effect on part size
over pins (balls) when factoring in the gear pressure
angle. In this example, it is possible to see that this
hob has taper over the one end, which would affect
size consistency.

E.4.2 Benefits of coating the hob


Hob accuracy lasts only as long as the cutting edge
is maintained. By using one of the many coatings
available today, the end user can select to run at
uncoated speeds and feeds to improve tool life, or
increase speeds and feeds to maintain the same tool
life as uncoated tools, or some speed--feed combination in between to improve both elements to
some extent. If, however, the hob is not recoated

48

Figure E.1 -- Hob lead thread 1

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

Figure E.2 -- Hob lead thread 2

ANSI/AGMA 1102--A03

Figure E.4 -- Hob thickness 3 threads and


average

Figure E.3 -- Hob lead thread 3

Figure E.5 -- Effect of thickness on measurement over pins

AGMA 2003 ---- All rights reserved

49

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