You are on page 1of 39

AGMA 923- B05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 923- B05

Metallurgical Specifications for Steel


Gearing

AGMA INFORMATION SHEET


(This Information Sheet is NOT an AGMA Standard)

American Gear Metallurgical Specifications for Steel Gearing


Manufacturers AGMA 923--B05
CAUTION NOTICE: AGMA technical publications are subject to constant improvement,
Association
revision, or withdrawal as dictated by experience. Any person who refers to any AGMA
technical publication should be sure that the publication is the latest available from the Association on the subject matter.
[Tables or other self--supporting sections may be quoted or extracted. Citations should
read: See AGMA 923--B05, Metallurgical Specifications for Steel Gearing, published by
the American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350,
Alexandria, Virginia 22314, http://www.agma.org.]
Approved May 3, 2005

ABSTRACT
This document identifies metallurgical quality characteristics which are important to the performance of steel
gearing. The AGMA gear rating standards identify performance levels of gearing by heat treatment method and
grade number. For each heat treatment method and AGMA grade number, acceptance criteria are given for
various metallurgical characteristics identified in this document.
Published by

American Gear Manufacturers Association


500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria, Virginia 22314
Copyright 2005 by American Gear Manufacturers Association
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic
retrieval system or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America


ISBN: 1--55589--848--3

ii

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 923--B05

Contents
Page

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
1
Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2
Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
3
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4
Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5
Metallurgical requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Tables
1
2
3
4

Metallurgical characteristics for through hardened gearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Metallurgical characteristics for carburize and hardened gearing . . . . . . . . .
Metallurgical characteristics for induction or flame hardened gearing . . . . . .
Metallurgical characteristics for nitrided gearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15
17
22
27

Figures
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Continuous carbide network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4


Semi--continuous carbide network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Discontinuous carbides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Dispersed carbides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Solid on shaft pinion blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Bore style gearing blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Disc style gearing blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Web style gear blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Intergranular oxidation in carburized gearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Non--martensitic transformation products in carburized gearing . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Tempered martensite and 5% retained austenite in carburized gearing . . . . 10
Tempered martensite and 20% retained austenite in carburized gearing . . . 10
Tempered martensite and 30% retained austenite in carburized gearing . . . 10
Variations in hardening pattern obtainable on gear teeth with flame or
induction hardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

iii

AGMA 923--B05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Foreword
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, in this document are provided for
informational purposes only and are not to be construed as a part of AGMA Information
Sheet 923--B05, Metallurgical Specifications for Steel Gearing.]
In November, 1984, an ad hoc Metallurgy and Gear Rating Committee met to define the
factors required to qualify the various metallurgical quality grades that were to be introduced
into the gear rating standard that eventually became ANSI/AGMA 2001-- B88, Fundamental
Rating Factors and Calculation Methods for Involute Spur and Helical Gear Teeth.
In May, 1988, ANSI/AGMA 6033--A88, Standard for Marine Propulsion Gear Units -- Part 1,
Materials, was published using a short list of metallurgical factors in table form.
In September, 1988, ANSI/AGMA 2001--B88 was published using metallurgical factors in
table form.
Starting in July, 1992, AGMA representatives participated in writing ISO 6336--5,
Calculation of Load Capacity of Spur and Helical Gears -- Part 5: Strength and Quality of
Materials, which was a modification of the tables in ANSI/AGMA and DIN Standards.
In February, 1993, AGMA 6002--B93, Design Guide for Vehicle Spur and Helical Gears, was
published using a modified version of the tables used in ANSI/AGMA 2001--B88.
In September, 1993, the AGMA Metallurgy and Materials Committee accepted the task of
consolidating the various tables to avoid redundancies and conflicting requirements, and
started work on AGMA 923--A00, Metallurgical Specifications for Steel Gearing.
In January, 1995, a revised ANSI/AGMA 2001--C95 was published using a version of the
ANSI/AGMA 2001--B88 tables as revised by the AGMA Helical Gear Rating Committee.
In November, 1997, a revised ANSI/AGMA 2003--B97, Rating the Pitting Resistance and
Bending Strength of Generated Straight Bevel, Zerol Bevel and Spiral Bevel Gear Teeth,
was published using a version of the ANSI/AGMA 2001--B88 tables as revised by the AGMA
Bevel Gearing Committee.
The committee reviewed all metallurgical tables of the gear rating standards ANSI/AGMA
2001--B88, ANSI/AGMA 2003--A86, and ISO 6336--5:1996 and their proposed revisions to
develop consolidated tables describing the metallurgical characteristics associated with
each specific type of heat treatment and metallurgical quality grade. Effort was made to
reference ISO specifications where possible. The consolidated tables were submitted to
the gear rating committees for their agreement and are published here for reference by
other standards.
AGMAs goal is to develop a consistent metallurgical specification which reflects the quality
requirements for steel gearing. AGMA 923--A00 was such a document, and was intended to
be consistent with the applicable portions of ISO 6336--5:1996, to the extent possible while
the two standards were in parallel development. The AGMA Technical Division Executive
Committee approved the publication of AGMA 923--A00 in August, 2000.
This edition of the information sheet, AGMA 923--B05, incorporates changes to item 8,
microstructure, of table 1, Metallurgical characteristics for through hardened gearing. The
balance of the document remains unchanged. The AGMA Technical Division Executive
Committee approved the publication of AGMA 923--B05 in May, 2005.
Suggestions for improvement of this information sheet will be welcome. They should be
sent to the American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350,
Alexandria, Virginia 22314.

iv

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 923--B05

PERSONNEL of the AGMA Metallurgy and Materials Committee


Chairman: Phil Terry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lufkin Industries, Inc.
Vice Chairman: Dale J. Weires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boeing Defense & Space Group

ACTIVE MEMBERS
C. Berndt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I. Botto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D. Breuer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
R.J. Cunningham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
G. Diehl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D. Herring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D.R. McVittie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
J. Mertz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
R.L. Schwettman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
M. Stein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
J.B. Walenta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
L.L. Witte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

Caterpillar, Inc.
FFE Minerals
Metal Improvement Company
Consultant
Philadelphia Gear Corporation
The Herring Group, Inc.
Gear Engineers, Inc.
Falk Corporation
Xtek, Inc.
Applied Process Southridge, Inc.
Caterpillar, Inc.
General Motors Corporation/Allison Transmission Division

AGMA 923--B05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

(This page is intentionally blank)

vi

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

American Gear Manufacturers


Association --

Metallurgical
Specifications for Steel
Gearing

AGMA 923--B05

ANSI/AGMA 2001--C95, Fundamental Rating


Factors and Calculation Methods for Involute Spur
and Helical Gear Teeth
ANSI/AGMA 2003--B97, Rating the Pitting
Resistance and Bending Strength of Generated
Straight Bevel, Zerol Bevel and Spiral Bevel Gear
Teeth
ANSI/AGMA 2004--B89, Gear Materials and Heat
Treatment Manual
ANSI/AGMA 2007--B92, Surface Temper Etch
Inspection After Grinding
ANSI/AGMA 6002--B93, Design Guide for Vehicle
Spur and Helical Gears

1 Scope
This information sheet recommends steel material
and metallurgical quality characteristics for use in
conjunction with AGMA gear rating standards. This
information sheet identifies specifications and requirements for various metallurgical quality grades
for through hardened, carburize and hardened,
induction and flame hardened, and nitrided gearing.
Characteristics covered include raw material, heat
treatment and post heat treat processing, and their
associated inspections. Topics related to gear design and rating, such as case depth, stress numbers,
and quality control sampling plans are not included in
this document.

2 Normative references
The following standards contain provisions which,
through reference in this text, constitute provisions of
this document. At the time of initial development, the
editions shown were valid. All standards are subject
to revision, and parties to agreements based on this
document are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the
standards shown below.
AGMA 904--C96, Metric Usage
ANSI/AGMA 1010--E95, Appearance of Gear Teeth
-- Terminology of Wear and Failure
ANSI/AGMA 1012--F90, Gear Nomenclature,
Definitions of Terms with Symbols

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

ANSI/AGMA 6032--A94, Standard for Marine Gear


Units: Rating
ASTM A29--99, Specification for Steel Bars, Carbon
and Alloy, Hot--Wrought and Cold--Finished,
General Requirements for
ASTM A148--93b(1998), Specification for Steel
Castings, High Strength, for Structural Purposes
ASTM A255--99, Test Method for Determining
Hardenability of Steel
ASTM A275--98, Test Method for Magnetic Particle
Examination of Steel Forgings
ASTM A290--95(1999), Specification for Carbon
and Alloy Steel Forgings for Rings for Reduction
Gears
ASTM A291--95(1999), Specification for Steel
Forgings, Carbon and Alloy, for Pinions, Gears and
Shafts for Reduction Gears
ASTM A304--96, Specification for Carbon and Alloy
Steel Bars Subject to End--Quench Hardenability
Requirements
ASTM A322--91(1996), Specification for Steel Bars,
Alloy, Standard Grades
ASTM A370--97a, Test Methods and Definitions for
Mechanical Testing of Steel Products
ASTM A388--95, Practice for
Examination of Heavy Steel Forgings

Ultrasonic

ASTM A519--96, Specification for Seamless


Carbon and Alloy Steel Mechanical Tubing
ASTM A534--94, Specification for Carburizing
Steels for Anti--Friction Bearings
ASTM A609--91(1997), Practice for Castings,
Carbon, Low--Alloy, and Martensitic Stainless
Steel, Ultrasonic Examination Thereof

AGMA 923--B05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

ASTM A751--96, Test Methods, Practices, and


Terminology for Chemical Analysis of Steel
Products
ASTM A837--91(1996)1, Specification for Steel
Forgings, Alloy, for Carburizing Applications
ASTM A866--94, Specification for Medium Carbon
Anti--Friction Bearing Steel
ASTM A919--84 (1993)1, Terminology Relating to
Heat Treatment of Metals
ASTM A941--99a, Terminology Relating to Steel,
Stainless Steel, Related Alloys, and Ferroalloys
ASTM A956--97, Test Method for Equotip Hardness
Testing of Steel Products
ASTM E3--95, Practice
Metallographic Specimens

for

Preparation

of

ASTM E8--99, Test Methods for Tension Testing of


Metallic Materials
ASTM E10--98, Test Method for Brinell Hardness of
Metallic Materials
ASTM E18--98, Test Methods for Rockwell
Hardness and Rockwell Superficial Hardness of
Metallic Materials
ASTM E23--98, Test Methods for Notched Bar
Impact Testing of Metallic Materials
ASTM E45--972, Test Methods for Determining the
Inclusion Content of Steel
ASTM E92--82(1997)2, Test Method for Vickers
Hardness of Metallic Materials
ASTM E110--82(1997)2, Test Method for
Indentation Hardness of Metallic Materials by
Portable Hardness Testers
ASTM E112--96, Test Methods for Determining
Average Grain Size
ASTM E125--63(1997), Reference Photographs for
Magnetic Particle Indications on Ferrous Castings
ASTM E140--971, Hardness Conversion Tables for
Metals (Relationship Among Brinell Hardness,
Vickers Hardness, Rockwell Hardness, Rockwell
Superficial Hardness, Knoop Hardness, and
Scleroscope Hardness)
ASTM E350--95(1997)1, Test Methods for
Chemical Analysis of Carbon Steel, Low--Alloy
Steel, Silicon Electrical Steel, Ingot Iron, and
Wrought Iron
ASTM E384--89(1997)2,
Microhardness of Materials

Test

Method

for

ASTM E407--99, Practice for Microetching Metals


and Alloys
ASTM E415--99, Test Method for Optical Emission
Vacuum Spectrometric Analysis of Carbon and
Low--Alloy Steel
ASTM E428--92, Practice for Fabrication and
Control of Steel Reference Blocks Used in
Ultrasonic Inspection
ASTM E709--95, Guide for Magnetic Particle
Examination
ASTM E1077--91, Test Methods for Estimating the
Depth of Decarburization of Steel Specimens
ASTM E1444--94a, Practice for Magnetic Particle
Examination
ISO 642:1979, Steel -- Hardenability test by end
quenching (Jominy test)
ISO 643:1983, Steels -- Micrographic determination
of the ferritic or austenitic grain size
ISO 683--1:1987, Heat--treatable steels, alloy steels
and free--cutting steels -- Part 1: Direct--hardening
unalloyed and low--alloyed wrought steel in form of
different black products
ISO 683--11:1987, Heat--treatable steels, alloy
steels and free--cutting steels -- Part 11: Wrought
case--hardening steels
ISO 4967:1979, Steel -- Determination of content of
non--metallic inclusions -- micrographic method
using standard diagrams
ISO 6336--5:1996, Calculation of load capacity of
spur and helical gears -- Part 5: Strength and quality
of materials
ISO 14104:1995, Surface temper etch inspection
after grinding
SAE/AMS 2300G, Premium Aircraft--Quality Steel
Cleanliness,
Magnetic
Particle
Inspection
Procedure
SAE/AMS 2301H, Cleanliness, Aircraft Quality
Steel Magnetic Particle Inspection Procedure
SAE/AMS 2304, Special Aircraft--Quality Steel
Cleanliness,
Magnetic
Particle
Inspection
Procedure
SAE/AMS--S--13165, Shot Peening of Metal Parts
SAE J419 Dec 83, Methods of Measuring
Decarburization
SAE J422 Dec 83, Microscopic Determination of
Inclusions in Steels

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

SAE J423 Dec 83, Methods of Measuring Case


Depth
SAE J864 May 93, Surface Hardness Testing with
Files

3 Definitions
The terms used in this document, wherever applicable, conform to AGMA 904--B89, ANSI/AGMA
1012--F90, and ASTM A919, but they have been
modified to cover only those concepts applicable to
this document. For definitions of technical terms not
included in this clause, see ANSI/AGMA 1012--F90,
ANSI/AGMA 2004--B89, ASTM A919, and ASTM
A941. Key terms used in this document are defined
as follows:
NOTE: These definitions may differ from those in other
AGMA publications. The user should not assume that
familiar terms can be used without a careful study of
their definitions.

alloy steel: A steel containing specified quantities of


alloying elements (other than carbon and the
commonly accepted amounts of manganese, copper, silicon, sulfur, and phosphorus) added to
increase hardenability and to affect changes in
mechanical properties.
annealing: The heating to and holding at a suitable
temperature above the upper transformation temperature and then cooling, typically in the furnace at
a suitable rate, for reducing hardness, improving
machinability, producing a desired microstructure, or
obtaining desired mechanical properties.
austenite: A solid solution of one or more elements
in face--centered cubic iron. In carbon and low alloy
steels this phase is stable only at elevated
temperatures and is non--magnetic.
austenitizing: The forming of austenite by heating
a ferrous material into the transformation range
(partial austenitizing) or above the transformation
range (complete austenitizing).
bainite: An aggregate of ferrite and cementite
resulting from the transformation of austenite at
temperatures below the pearlite range but above the
martensite start temperature. Its appearance is
feathery if formed in the upper part of the bainite
transformation range and acicular, resembling
tempered martensite, if formed in the lower part.

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AGMA 923--B05

banding: A segregated structure consisting of


alternating, nearly parallel bands of different chemical composition, typically aligned in the direction of
primary hot working. Segregation is frequently
expressed as a departure from the average
chemical composition. Elements which tend to
segregate are sulfur, phosphorus, carbon, silicon,
and manganese.
base hardness: The surface hardness in the tooth
area that was developed by through hardening and
not changed by subsequent heat treatments. If the
material selected has adequate hardenability for the
required hardness and section size combination,
this surface hardness represents the expected
hardness at the intersection of the root circle and the
centerline of the tooth at mid--face width. Base
hardness is applicable to through hardened, induction hardened, flame hardened, and nitrided
gearing, but not to carburize and hardened gearing.
bending strength: The bending strength of gear
teeth related to their resistance to gear tooth bending
failure. Bending failure is a fatigue phenomenon
usually resulting in cracking at the tooth root fillet.
Typical cracks and fractures are illustrated in ANSI/
AGMA 1010--E95. See standards such as ANSI/
AGMA 2001--C95, ANSI/AGMA 2003--B97,
ANSI/AGMA 6002--B93, or ANSI/AGMA 6032--A94.
capable of: The producer documents that the
material was produced with the processing steps
and controls that the producer has established to
assure compliance with the specification, but the
testing to confirm compliance is not required.
carbide: A microstructural phase which is a
compound of metal (M) and carbon (C) having the
chemical formula of MxCy. See figures 1 through 4
for photomicrographs of various classifications of
carbide structures (white constituent) in tempered
martensite.
carbon potential: A measure of the ability of a
furnace environment containing active carbon to
alter or maintain, under prescribed conditions, the
carbon content of the steel.
carbon restoration: Carburizing to replace the
carbon lost in the surface layer due to previous
thermal processing.
carbon steel: A steel having no specified minimum
quantity of alloying elements except manganese
and silicon.

AGMA 923--B05

5% nital etch
400 X mag.

Figure 1 -- Continuous carbide network

5% nital etch
400 X mag.

Figure 2 -- Semi--continuous carbide network

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

5% nital etch
400 X mag.

Figure 3 -- Discontinuous carbides

5% nital etch
400 X mag.

Figure 4 -- Dispersed carbides

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

carburizing: A heat treatment process in which an


austenitized steel is brought into contact with a
carbonaceous atmosphere of sufficient carbon potential to cause adsorption of carbon at the surface
and by diffusion to create a concentration gradient.
Carburizing is generally followed by quenching and
reheating (tempering) of an item to produce a
hardened and tempered case.
case: The outer portion that has been made harder
than the inner portion (see core hardness) as a result
of altered composition, microstructure, or both, by
treatments such as carburize and hardening,
induction hardening, flame hardening, and nitriding.
case depth: See the specific type of case depth
such as effective or total case depth.
case hardening: The generic terminology covering
carburize and nitride hardening applicable to steel
that change the chemical composition and microstructure of the surface layer by adsorption of
carbon, nitrogen, or a mixture of the two and by
diffusion, create a chemical composition gradient.

AGMA 923--B05

controlling section: The section size which has the


greatest effect in determining the rate of cooling
during quenching at a location where the specified
hardness is required. Figures 5 through 8 illustrate
the controlling section size for various gearing
configurations whose teeth are machined after heat
treatment and whose hardness must be maintained
at the roots of the teeth. The maximum permitted
section size for an alloy steel increases with the
hardenability of the alloy steel.
Teeth

6 in
(150 mm)

8 in
(200 mm)

6 in
(150 mm)

Figure 5 -- Solid on shaft pinion blank

Teeth

Adsorption of carbon processes involve a subsequent quenching to harden, while adsorption of


nitrogen does not require quenching to harden.
case hardness: For carburize and hardened
gearing and induction or flame hardened gearing the
hardness is measured at 0.002--0.004 inches (0.05 -0.10 mm) below the surface using a microhardness
test technique.
For nitriding specifications surface hardness is
typically used rather than case hardness.

Controlling section:
8 in (200 mm) diameter

4 in
(100 mm)
8 in
(200 mm)
12 in
(300 mm)

Controlling section: 2 in
(50 mm) wall thickness
NOTE: If the bore diameter is less than 20 percent of
the length of the bore, then the controlling section is determined by figures 5 or 7.

Figure 6 -- Bore style gearing blank


Case hardness is not to be confused with surface
hardness which is taken directly on the surface using
a conventional or portable hardness tester.

Teeth

cementite: A hard compound of iron and carbon,


known chemically as iron carbide, having the
chemical formula Fe3C.
cold treatment: The preferred terminology for
cooling carburize and hardened parts to temperatures typically below minus 80F (minus 60C) to
reduce retained austenite. Cold treatment is also
known as sub--zero treatment or deep freezing. If
cooled to below minus 300F (minus 185C), the
correct terminology is deep cryogenic treatment.

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

12 in
(300 mm)
1.5 in
(40 mm)
2 in
(50 mm)

Controlling section: 2 in
(50 mm) thickness

Figure 7 -- Disc style gearing blank

AGMA 923--B05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION


Teeth

the hardness at a specified location such as surface,


quarter radius, mid--radius, or centerline.
decarburization: The loss of carbon from the
near--surface of a ferrous material.

36 in
32 in (900 mm)
(800 mm)

Controlling section: 2 in
(50 mm) rim thickness

8
(200 mm)

Figure 8 -- Web style gear blank

deoxidizing: The removal of oxygen from molten


steel by addition of suitable elements, such as silicon
and aluminum which react with oxygen, primarily
forming discard slag.
direct quenching: The quenching of carburized
gearing directly after the carburizing operation,
generally from a reduced temperature within the
austenitic range.

Note that a flat plate with thickness equal to the


diameter of a round bar will cool slower than the bar.
The thickness of a plate equivalent in cooling rate to
that of a round bar (equivalent controlling section
size) is 0.7 times the bar diameter.

effective case depth: The distance from the


finished tooth surface to a specific sub--surface
hardness value. Stock removal done after heat
treating will reduce the as heat treated effective case
depth and potentially the surface hardness.

The controlling section size for the selection of an


appropriate type of steel and specified hardness
combination must consider part configuration at the
time of heat treatment. Special stock additional
allowances, such as those used to minimize distortion during heat treatment, must be considered.

Carburize and hardened


The effective case depth is measured normal to the
finished gear surface to a location where the
hardness number is 50 HRC (542 HK500 or 515
HV500 min) by conversion from a microhardness test
result. Note that ISO 6336--5 uses 550 HV500 min,
which converts to 52.4 HRC or 583 HK500, as its
criterion for determining the effective case depth. It
is recognized that the effective case depth of
carburize and hardened gear teeth varies with
location on the gear tooth.

converted hardness: The hardness number reported on a scale different from the scale used for
hardness testing. For example an actual microhardness test reading of 542 HK500 has a converted
hardness of 50 HRC and would be properly reported
as 50 HRC (542 HK500) with the hardness number
and scale in parentheses representing the actual
testing result and method.
core hardness: The hardness at the intersection of
the root circle and the centerline of the tooth at
mid--face width that was developed during the
hardening of carburized gearing. An alternative
location is given by ISO 6336--5, table 4, item 8.
The material must have adequate hardenability for
the required hardness and section size combination
for the required core hardness to be achieved. The
quench severity must also be adequate in order to
achieve the required core hardness.
The term core hardness is applicable to carburize
and hardened gearing. Induction, flame, and nitride
hardened gearing may use the term base hardness.
The core hardness of non--tooth portions (such as
journal areas of carburize and hardened gearing), is

Induction and flame hardened


For Grades 1 and 2 gearing, the effective case depth
is measured from the finished surface to a location
where the hardness number is equivalent to 10 HRC
numbers below the specified minimum surface
hardness. Grade 3 induction hardened gearing uses
the carburize and hardened definition for its effective
case depth definition. Note that ISO 6336--5 uses
the distance from the surface to the location where
the hardness is equal to 80% of the specified
minimum surface hardness as its criterion for
determining the effective case depth.
Nitrided
The effective case depth is measured from the
finished surface to a location where the hardness
number is equivalent to 40.8 HRC (421 HK500 or 400
HV500 min) by conversion from a microhardness test
result. If the core hardness is more than 38.9 HRC
(391 HK500 or 380 HV500 min), core hardness plus 54
HK500 or 50 HV500 min (4.6 HRC) may be used as the

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 923--B05

definition of nitrided effective case depth. Note that


this is the same definition used in ISO 6336--5.

hardness: See specific kind of hardness such as


base, case, core or surface.

ferrite: A solid solution of one or more elements in


body--centered cubic iron. In carbon and alloy steels
this phase is stable at room temperature.

hardness conversion chart: A published document for use in converting from one hardness testing
scale to another.

flame hardening: A case hardening process in


which only the surface layer of the work piece is
heated by a flame to above the upper transformation
temperature and immediately quenched.

Hardness conversion charts should be used with


great caution since discrepancies of 0.3 HRC
numbers at 30 HRC to 3.9 HRC numbers at 60 HRC,
have been noted between various published conversion charts. Therefore, it is suggested that the
conversion chart used for testing and reporting be
specified. Some of the more popular hardness
conversion charts are found in ASTM A370, ASTM
E140, ISO 6336--5, and certain individual corporate
documents and standards. For this document,
ASTM A370 is used and should be used whenever
no other document is specified.

free ferrite: The ferrite that is formed directly during


cooling without simultaneous formation of carbide.
grain size: The dimensions of the grains, or
crystals, in a polycrystalline metal exclusive of
twinned regions and sub--grains when present. The
ASTM grain size is a designation bearing a relationship to average intercept distance at 100 diameters
magnification. Commercial grain size is categorized
as either coarse (grain size 1--4) or fine (grain size 5
or finer).
hardenability: The property of a ferrous alloy that
determines the depth and distribution of hardness
induced by quenching.
hardened depth: For induction or flame hardened
gearing, alternative terminology for effective case
depth.

induction hardening: A surface hardening process


in which only the surface layer of the work piece is
heated by electrically induced currents to above the
upper transformation temperature and immediately
quenched.
intergranular oxidation (IGO): The preferential
oxidization of certain alloying elements along grain
boundaries during gas carburizing. See figure 9 for a
photomicrograph of intergranular oxides (black
constituent).

Unetched
400 X mag.

Figure 9 -- Intergranular oxidation in carburized gearing

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AGMA 923--B05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

linear indication: An indication with length at least


three times its width.
marquench: Quenching into a liquid media whose
temperature is above the martensite start transformation temperature, typically 300 -- 500F (150 -260C), held at this temperature until temperature is
uniform throughout, and then cooled to form
martensite. Marquenching is used to achieve
reduced distortion when compared to conventional
quenching.
martensite: A generic term for microstructures
formed by the diffusionless phase transformation of
austenite. Martensite is characterized by an acicular
or needle--like pattern in the microstructure and is
the hardest of the austenitic transformation products
in steel.
microsegregation: The non--uniform distribution of
alloying elements, impurities, or phases observed
primarily in the microstructure of the material.
nitriding: The introduction of nascent nitrogen into
a suitable solid ferrous alloy by holding at a suitable
temperature in contact with a nitrogenous material.
Adsorption of nascent nitrogen produces case
hardening without quenching.

non--martensitic structures: Inclusive terminology for ferrite, carbide, retained austenite, pearlite,
and bainite due to incomplete transformation to
martensite or incomplete austenization. Retained
austenite is not included in the quantitative
metallographic measurement of non--martensitic
structures.
non--martensitic transformation products: Inclusive terminology for ferrite, cementite, pearlite, and
upper bainite in the surface microstructure of
carburize hardened gearing due to incomplete
transformation to martensite. See figure 10 for a
photograph of non--martensitic transformation products in martensite.
normalizing: The heating of a ferrous alloy to a
suitable temperature above the transformation
range and then cooling, typically in air, to a
temperature substantially below the transformation
range.
pearlite: A microstructural constituent consisting of
lamellar ferrite and cementite resulting from the
transformation of austenite at temperatures above
the bainite range.

5% nital etch
400 X mag.

Figure 10 -- Non--martensitic transformation products in carburized gearing

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

pitting resistance: Endurance limit adequate to


resist contact fatigue. Initial pitting and progressive
pitting are illustrated and discussed in ANSI/AGMA
1010--E95. See standards such as ANSI/AGMA
2001--C95, ANSI/AGMA 2003--B97, ANSI/AGMA
6002--B93, or ANSI/AGMA 6032--A94.
process control test coupon: For carburize and
hardened gearing or nitrided gearing, a test coupon
used primarily to monitor the consistency of the heat
treatment process in terms of carbon or nitrogen
penetration and case microstructure. Sometimes
called a standardized test coupon. For procedures
associated with process control test coupons, see
4.2.1.
Due to differences in quench cooling rates and
hardenability, the microstructure and hardness of
process control test coupons used for carburize and
hardened gearing may not be the same as that of the
finished gear tooth.
reduction ratio: In forging and rolling, the ratio of
the cross sectional area of the rough cast ingot or
continuously cast billet to the final cross--sectional
area. The reduction ratio is calculated by the
following equation:
RR = A C E F
B D G H

(1)

where
RR

is reduction ratio;

is the cross sectional area of the cast ingot


or continuous cast billet, in2 (mm2).

For bar stock and forged shafting including step


shafts for solid on shaft pinion blanks as in figure 5:
B

is the cross sectional area at the finished


largest forging diameter in the area where
the teeth will be, in2 (mm2); and,

C, D, E, F, G and H = 1.
For upset forged gearing blanks as in figures 7 and 8:
B

is the cross sectional area of the billet prior


to upsetting, in2 (mm2);

is the height of the cutoff ingot prior to upsetting, inch (mm);

is the height of the finish forged upset blank


before piercing, inch (mm); and

E, F, G and H = 1.

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AGMA 923--B05

For forged or rolled rings:


B

is the cross sectional area of the billet prior


to upsetting, in2 (mm2);

is the height of the cutoff ingot prior to upsetting, inch (mm);

is the height of the upset blank after upsetting before piercing, inch (mm);

is the height of the upset blank after piercing,


inch (mm);

is the wall thickness of the upset blank after


piercing, before any bore expansion
associated with piercing, inch (mm);

is the height of the finish forged or rolled ring,


inch (mm);

is the wall thickness of the finish forged or


rolled ring, inch (mm).

representative test coupon: A test coupon designed to represent the quenching rate of the
finished gearing tooth. If the coupon is to be used
only to determine the case properties, it can be
smaller than one used to determine the core
properties of the gear tooth. A representative test
coupon sized for determining the core hardness and
microstructure can also be used for determining the
case properties or as a process control test coupon.
A representative test coupon sized for determining
the case properties can also be used as a process
control test coupon but not for determining core
properties unless substantiated by documented test
data. For procedures associated with representative
test coupons, see 4.2.2.
retained austenite: The metastable austenite
retained within a quenched microstructure. The
amount of retained austenite is a function of carbon
content, alloy content (especially nickel and
manganese), quench temperature and subsequent
thermal or mechanical treatments. See figures 11,
12 and 13 for examples of visual estimates of
retained austenite (white constituent) in tempered
martensite. More precise measurements of retained
austenite can be obtained by X--ray diffraction
techniques.
shot peening: A cold working process performed
by bombarding the surface of a part with small
spherical media. This results in a thin layer of high
magnitude residual surface compressive stress and
generally improves the bending strength in the roots
of gear teeth. Shot peening should not be confused
with grit blasting or shot blasting which are cleaning
operations.

AGMA 923--B05

5% nital etch 400X mag.


Figure 11 -- Tempered martensite and 5%
retained austenite in carburized gearing

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

5% nital etch 400X mag.


Figure 13 -- Tempered martensite and 30%
retained austenite in carburized gearing
specialty nitriding steel: A steel typically alloyed
with 1% aluminum to provide higher surface hardness after nitriding than normally attained with
nitrided through hardening steels.
standardized test coupon: Alternate terminology
for a process control test coupon.
subcritical anneal: Reheating to a temperature
below the transformation range. For carburized
gearing the temperature is typically 1200--1250F
(650--675C) and is done after carburizing and
before hardening.
surface hardening: The generic terminology for
selective induction or flame heating of a surface
layer and then quenching that layer to produce a
hardened surface layer that may be thinner than the
heated area, but is harder than the unheated base
material. With induction or flame hardening there is
no significant alteration of the chemical composition
of the surface layer.

5% nital etch 400X mag.


Figure 12 -- Tempered martensite and 20%
retained austenite in carburized gearing

10

surface hardness:
The hardness measured
directly on the functional surface, after appropriate
surface preparation. Surface hardness is not to be
confused with case hardness, which is taken on a

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 923--B05

metallographic cross section using a microhardness


tester.

Banding -- See microsegregation.

tempering: The reheating of a hardened ferrous


alloy part to a temperature below the transformation
range, and then cooling it at any rate.

Case hardness

test bar: A sample used for tensile or impact


strength testing. Also used as alternate terminology
for a test coupon used for hardness and
microstructure testing.
test coupon: See specific type of test coupon such
as process control or representative.
total case depth: For carburized gearing the
maximum depth of diffused carbon.
The total case depth for induction or flame hardened
gearing is usually assumed to be the same as the
hardened and effective case depths.
The total case depth for nitrided gearing is the
distance from the surface to the depth at which the
HRC hardness number is 110% of the hardness
number for the core.
total nominal alloy content: The sum of the
mid--points of the specified ranges for all alloying
elements added to increase hardenability (e.g., Mn,
Cr, Ni, Mo).
transformation temperature: The temperature at
which a phase change occurs.
traveling indication: An uninterrupted ultrasonic
testing signal on the display which moves horizontally on the sweep line as the transducer is moved on
the scanning surface. Travel of the signal indicates
varied depth of the discontinuity from the scanning
surface, often indicative of a crack.

4 Procedures
4.1 Recommended test methods
The test methods listed in this clause are to be used
when no other method is clearly defined or specified.
These are the methods to be used for evaluations to
the requirements of clause 5.
Testing of the actual part is preferred and should
always be used whenever practical. However,
properly selected test coupons can also be used.
The dimensions in this document are always to be
measured normal (not oblique) to the surface.

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

Carbon -- See surface carbon.

For carburize and hardened gearing, unless


otherwise specified, the case hardness is determined at a location 1/2 of tooth height (or from a
representative test coupon).
For induction or flame hardened gearing, unless
otherwise specified, the case hardness is determined at a location 1/4 of tooth height above the
root.
For nitrided gearing, unless otherwise specified,
the case hardness is determined at a location 1/2
of tooth height (or from a process control or
representative test coupon).
Chemistry -- Analyzed per ASTM A751.
Core hardness -- Per a standard or superficial
hardness testing method listed under hardness.
Decarburization -- Per any of three methods:
Method 1 -- File hardness
The flanks of a tooth are file hardness tested per
SAE J864 or ISO 6336--5, annex D with lack of file
hardness indicating possible decarburization or
non--martensitic structures.
Method 2 -- Reduction of hardness
Surface hardness readings are taken in the same
area using two different hardness testing loads,
such as HRC and HR15N with major loads of 150
kg and 15 kg respectively. The two sets of readings are compared using a standard hardness
conversion chart, such as ASTM A370, ASTM
E140 or ISO 6336--5, annex C. Decarburization is
indicated by a lower converted hardness for the
lighter load compared to that from the heavier
load, presuming that proper hardness testing
techniques were used for both sets of tests.
Method 3 -- Metallographic evaluation
A metallographic specimen is prepared per ASTM
E3, etched per ASTM E407, and evaluated per
ASTM E1077 or SAE J419.
Effective case depth -- Per SAE J423 microhardness test method. For carburize and hardened
gearing and nitrided gearing, unless otherwise
specified, the effective case depth is determined at a
location 1/2 of tooth height (or from a representative
test coupon).
For induction or flame hardened gearing, unless
otherwise specified, the effective case depth is

11

AGMA 923--B05

determined at a location 1/4 of tooth height above the


root.
Grain size -- Per ASTM E112 or ISO 643.

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

of three points HRC from actual HRC measurements


per ASTM E18. The significance and interpretation
of those results needs to be agreed upon between
the parties.

Hardenability -- Per ASTM A255 or ISO 642


end--quench test or by hardenability calculation per
ASTM A255.

Intergranular oxides -- In the unetched condition,


see metallography and figure 9.

Hardness -- Listed below are each method and the


associated processes which are tested by that
method.

Magnetic particle -- Per ASTM E1444 regardless of


form, or alternatively ASTM E125 for raw castings,
ASTM A275 for raw forgings, or ASTM E709 for
finished gearing.

ASTM E10, Brinell hardness testing


--

Through hardened parts

-- Base hardness of flame, induction, or nitride


hardened parts

--

Through hardened parts

--

Carburize and hardened parts

Metallography -- Performed at a magnification of


400 -- 600 diameters. Metallographic samples shall
be prepared per ASTM E3 and etched per ASTM
E407, except for intergranular oxidation which shall
be evaluated in the unetched condition.

--

Flame and induction hardened parts

Microhardness -- See hardness.

--

Nitrided parts

ASTM E18, Rockwell hardness testing

--

Through hardened parts

Microsegregation -- Analyzed per ASTM A534.


Acceptance criteria is not specified but is to be
agreed upon.

--

Carburize and hardened parts

Microstructure -- See metallography.

--

Flame and induction hardened parts

--

Nitrided parts

Nonmetallic inclusions -- Per any of the following


methods:

ASTM E92, Vickers hardness testing

ASTM E384, Microhardness testing

--

SAE/AMS 2301, for aircraft steels

--

ASTM A534, for carburizing bearing steels

--

Carburize and hardened parts

--

Flame and induction hardened parts

-- ASTM A866, for through hardening bearing


steels

--

Nitrided parts

--

If standard bench top hardness testing cannot be


accomplished as stated in ASTM E10 or ASTM E18,
portable testing may be accomplished by ASTM
E110 or other appropriate methods.
Measurement of surface hardness per ASTM E18 is
used as a nondestructive method to evaluate the
conformity of individual work pieces to the surface
hardness requirements. The measurement method
should be appropriate for the size and configuration
of the work pieces. The teeth area requirements for
hardness measurements include the root of the
tooth. Alternate methods of hardness measurement, including file testing in accordance with SAE
J864 or ISO 6336--5, annex D, may be used.
Due to the state of the art of alternate microhardness
testing methods, results may vary by the equivalent

12

Mechanical testing -- Per ASTM E8 for tensile


testing and ASTM E23 for impact testing (also see
hardness).

ASTM E45, for inclusion count

-- ISO 4967, by comparison to micrographic


diagrams, Method B, Plate II with 0.3 in2 (200
mm2) inspection area
-- SAE J422, by comparison to micrographic
diagrams
Surface carbon -- Per one of the following methods:
Method 1 -- Spectrometric
Per ASTM E415.
Method 2 -- Combustion
The combustion method utilizes chips from a machining cut of 0.001 -- 0.004 inch (0.02 -- 0.10 mm)
in thickness on a carbon control specimen. The
chips from this cut are collected and analyzed by
combustion for carbon content per ASTM E350.
The specimen should be machined dry with high

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

speed cutting tools on centers, and at least one


gram of clean chips free of contamination should
be used for analysis.
Both methods require that prior to carburizing the
process control specimen, sufficient stock be machined from the surface to be carburized, in order
to remove all material with non--uniform surface
chemistry.
Surface temper -- Per ANSI/AGMA 2007--B92 or
ISO 14104.
Test coupons -- Microstructure, microhardness and
core hardness characteristics may be determined
from either actual parts or test coupons. See 4.2 for
the specific type of test coupon (process control or
representative).
Ultrasonic inspection -- Ultrasonic inspection is
recommended for large parts to detect flaws before
incurring the expense of machining. When ultrasonic inspection is specified, the following guidelines
shall apply:
-- For wrought products the straight beam procedures described in ASTM A388 shall apply. Either the flat bottom hole or back reflection method
may be used.
The sensitivity for the flat bottom hole method
shall utilize standard test blocks per ASTM E428
with the reflector size as specified in tables 1
through 4 of this information sheet. The metal test
distance for the blocks shall be 4.000 inches
(101.6 mm). This sensitivity shall be used when
radially scanning the portion of the wrought material that will comprise the tooth area. The tooth
area includes only those portions of the gearing
material where the teeth will be located to a depth
below the finished tooth tips of at least 1.5 times
the tooth height. The balance of the part may be
scanned using a distance amplitude correction
curve (DAC) whose construction is detailed in
ASTM A388.
-- For cast products the straight beam procedures described in ASTM A609 shall apply. The
back reflection method shall be used.
4.2 Test coupons
4.2.1 Process control test coupons
Process control test coupons are used to monitor
various heat treatment process parameters, their
variation, their interactions, and to verify that these
parameters are maintained within their expected

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AGMA 923--B05

control range. The process control test coupons


may be made of various steel grades, different sizes,
and differing geometry depending on the parameter
to be monitored and the heat treat facilitys quality
control plan. Process control test coupons are not
intended to be used for final acceptance.
The properties of a process control coupon may be
correlated by experience to the properties of the
finished gearing with regard to hardness and case
depth.
The process control test coupon
microstructure may be correlated to the condition of
the finished gear. The method of correlation should
be documented.
Process control test coupons may be used to
determine surface carbon concentration, carbon
penetration, carbon gradients, nitride depth, white
layer thickness, intergranular oxidation depth, and
process repeatability. Shim stock is often used to
monitor atmospheric carbon potential. Variations
from expected process control limits are used as
indicators of unacceptable heat treat process variations. As long as the process control test coupons
are within expected control limits, the parts being
heat treated should have the expected metallurgical
properties.
The process control test coupon for carburize and
hardening should have minimum dimensions of 5/8
inch (16 mm) diameter by 2 inches (50 mm) long and
is suitable for gearing 4.5 normal diametral pitch (5.6
module) and finer. A 1 inch (25 mm) diameter by 2
inches (50 mm) long coupon may be used for
coarser pitch (module) carburized gearing to 1.5
normal diametral pitch (17 mm module). The size of
the coupon for coarser than 1.5 normal diametral
pitch (17 module) gearing should be agreed upon,
and should approximate the inscribed diameter at
mid height of the tooth cross section. The coupon
length should be a minimum of 2 times the diameter.
Test disks or plates may be used whose minimum
thickness is 70 percent of the appropriate test bar
diameter. The minimum inscribed diameter on a test
disc (or plate dimensions) should be three times its
thickness.
For determination of case hardness, case depth,
and case microstructure, the process control test
coupon should be examined on a section normal to
its axis and at least one diameter from the end of the
test coupon. Case hardness is to be measured by a
microhardness method at a depth 0.002 to 0.004
inch (0.05 to 0.10 mm) below the surface. Any
post--heat treat stock removal must be considered.

13

AGMA 923--B05

4.2.2 Representative test coupon


The representative test coupon shall be from the
same grade of alloy steel with similar hardenability
as the production part, but need not necessarily be
from the same heat of steel. Representative test
coupon proportions of a minimum diameter of 6
divided by the normal diametral pitch (6 times
module) but not less than 5/8 inch diameter (16 mm),
and a minimum length 2 times its diameter, as used
in ISO 6336--5, are recommended. A representative
test coupon may contain a tooth form that will be
used to verify the heat treat process.
With customer approval, representative test coupon
proportions of a minimum diameter of 3 divided by
the normal diametral pitch (3 times module) but not
less than 5/8 inch diameter (16 mm), and a minimum
length 2 times its diameter, as used in ISO 6336--5,
are recommended.
A representative test coupon should have the same
heat treat condition prior to carburizing as the part(s)
represented. This coupon should remain with the
part(s) represented throughout the entire heat treat
process, with the possible exception of heat
treatments prior to carburizing.
The representative test coupon, when positioned in
a heat treat load in the same general area but
separate from the piece part, is intended to represent
the metallurgy of the heat treated tooth section. The
microstructure at the center of the minimum size
representative test coupon approximates the core
microstructure of the tooth section.

5 Metallurgical requirements
The metallurgical characteristics identified in the
tables of this clause are intended to be used for all
steel gearing. Metallurgical characteristics defined
in the tables of this clause are intended to assure the
quality of the finished gear teeth.
Individual AGMA rating standards may have specific
modifications to the metallurgical characteristics
grading; but the intent is to formalize the assumptions and definitions on which the various AGMA
standards are based. These characteristics should
be compatible, wherever possible, with ISO 6336--5.
Users of this document must be aware that the
Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 gearing produced by
different heat treatment processes have different

14

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

ratings.
Refer to the applicable gear rating
standards for specific gear ratings.
Individual customers and manufacturers may have
specific modifications to the metallurgical grade
requirements or special material and processing
conditions that are not covered in these tables.
These modifications and special conditions are
permissible with mutual agreement.
The following tables establish reasonable minimum
limits for each material and metallurgical characteristic that will allow gearing, which meet dimensional
tolerances, to meet the minimum expectations of the
gear rating design standards. As individual gearing
designs increase in size and complexity of features,
they become more difficult to manufacture, heat
treat, and inspect. This document, as a general rule,
does not differentiate based on gearing size.
However, where necessary, specific notation is
made to reflect the special processing methods,
techniques and inspections required for large gear
manufacturing.
All requirements for a metallurgical quality grade
must be met in order to use the stress value, from the
AGMA rating standard, for that grade. This can be
accomplished by specifically certifying each requirement where necessary, or by establishing practices
and procedures to obtain the requirements on a
production basis. It is not the intent of this document
that all requirements for metallurgical quality grade
be certified, but that practices and procedures be
established for their compliance on a production
basis. Intermediate values are not classified since
the effect of deviations from the quality standards
cannot be evaluated easily. Specific sampling plans
and test methods need to be addressed by either the
manufacturer, the customer, or both.
The various characteristics are listed in the order in
which that characteristic is typically evaluated during
the manufacturing sequence. Each individual
characteristic has the same item number in tables 1,
2, 3 and 4 whenever it is used, regardless of which
table it appears. Some characteristics are only
applicable to specific heat treat methods. Therefore,
some item numbers are not used in some tables.
Characteristics that are typically evaluated at the
same time are grouped by having the same number
before the decimal point, and modified with different
numbers after the decimal point for the individual
characteristics evaluated at that time.
5.1 Through hardened gearing
The major metallurgical characteristics that affect
through hardened gearing performance are shown

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

in table 1. The minimum acceptable requirements


for each factor for metallurgical quality Grades 1 and
2 are specified. All criteria in any given grade must

AGMA 923--B05

be met to qualify for the stress number associated


with that metallurgical quality grade.

Table 1 -- Metallurgical characteristics for through hardened gearing


Item
Characteristic1) 2)
1
Material chemistry

Grade 1
Not specified
verified.

Grain size

Verification
required.

Hardenability

Not specified.

Non--metallic
inclusions Not specified.
(cleanliness, steelmaking) 3)

5.1

Material form

5.2

Material
reduction
(wrought only)

Heat treatment

Mechanical properties
heat treatment6)

Microstructure3)

ratio Notl specified.


Not specified.

or

Grade 2
Test report only. Medium carbon alloy steel.
0.025% maximum sulfur.

not

Predominantly 5 or finer. Test report only.

A minimum hardenability which is appropriate for part size and


quench severity should be specified.
Wrought gearing
Capable of meeting (certification not required)
SAE/AMS 2301, ASTM A866 or SAE J422 S2--O2
Cast gears
Only permissible if primarily round (Type 1) sulfide inclusions.
Forgings per either ASTM A290 or ASTM A291
Bar stock per ASTM A29, ASTM A304 or ISO 683--1
Castings per ASTM A148
Tubing per ASTM A519
-- At least 7 to 1 for strand or continuous cast
-- At least 3 to 1 for ingot cast4) 5)
Quench and temper
900F (480C) minimum temper.

after Hardness testing is required. Other mechanical testing is required only if specified.
Not specified.

Sound metallurgical practice dictates that the microstructure requirements in the tooth area should be predominantly tempered martensite
with limited upper transformation products (ferrite, upper bainite and fine
pearlite). The microstructure shall be free of blocky ferrite (due to incomplete austenization) with the following limits for non--martensitic upper
transformation products:
Controlling section size,
Non--martensitic structures,
inch
maximum
at least
less than
---5
5%
5
10
10%
10
15
20%
15
---Hardness must be obtained at
roots with 900F minimum temper
Controlling section size,
mm
at least
less than
---125
125
250
250
375
375
----

Ultrasonic inspection3) 5)
Wrought material.
Either method is acceptable.
-- Flat bottom hole (FBH) Not specified.
technique

Non--martensitic structures,
maximum
5%
10%
20%
Hardness must be obtained at
roots with 480C minimum temper

Inspection recommended to the following limits:


-- No indications giving a signal response greater than an 8/64 inch (3.18
mm) reference standard.
-- No indications giving a signal response greater than 50% of the same
reference standard if accompanied by a 50% loss of back reflection.
-- No indications which are continuous over an area twice the diameter
of the search unit.

(continued)

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

15

AGMA 923--B05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Table 1 (concluded)
Item
Characteristic1) 2)
9
(continued)
-- Back reflection technique

Not specified.

-- No indications giving a signal response greater than 15% of back


reflection.
-- No multiple indications that lower the amplitude of the first back
reflection by more than 40%.
-- No traveling indications whose amplitude is greater than 10% of back
reflection and length is greater than 0.75 inch (19 mm).

Castings
-- Back reflection technique

Not specified.

-- ASTM A609 Level 1 from outside surface to 1.5 times tooth height below finished tooth tips.
-- ASTM A609 Level 2 greater than 1.5 times tooth height below finished
tooth tips.

16

Surface microstructure
considering subsequent stock
removal

16.3

Decarburization. Any of the following methods are acceptable

Grade 1

Should meet the following surface related characteristic:

-- Method 1. File testing.


Not applicable.
-- Method 2.
Reduction of Not specified.
surface hardness by two load
method.6)

Not applicable.
Maximum 2 HRC points or equivalent by conversion.

-- Method 3.
evaluation.

No total or partial decarburization apparent on the finished gear tooth.

Metallographic Not specified.

21

Surface cracks7) 8)

22

Magnetic particle inspection of


finished gearing5) 7) 8) 9)
-- Below the pitch line
Not specified.
-- Above the pitch line
Normal
diametral pitch
Module
at
less
more
at
least
than
than
most
---3
8
---3
10
2.5
8
10
------2.5

23

Grade 2

Shot peening10)

Cracks, bursts, seams and laps are not permissible in functional areas of finished gearing.

Not specified.

Inspection recommended to the following limits:


No indications.

Indication, maximum
inch
mm
1/8
3.2
3/32
2.4
1/16
1.6

Shot peening per SAE/AMS--S--13165 may be used to increase surface residual compressive
stress.

NOTES:
1) See clause 3 for definitions and clause 4 for test methods.
2) The metallurgical requirements assume homogeneous composition. In practice, microsegregation and banding occurs in steels.
This microsegregation can produce variations in microstructure and properties that need to be assessed.
3) The grade requirements for non--metallic inclusion, ultrasonic and microstructure characteristics apply only to those portions of the
gearing material where the teeth will be located to a depth below the finished tooth tip of at least 1.5 times the tooth height.
4) A 7 to 1 minimum reduction ratio is recommended. For large gearing where this reduction ratio is not physically obtainable, lesser
reduction ratios may be used down to a minimum of 3 to 1.
5) In--process ultrasonic and/or magnetic particle inspection of gearing blanks is recommended for large diameter parts to detect flaws
before incurring the expense of further machining.
6) See ASTM A370, ASTM E140 or ISO 6336--5, annex C for hardness conversion tables.
7) Removal of defects that exceed the stated limits is acceptable, provided the integrity of the gear is not compromised.
8) Cracks in non--functional areas require engineering disposition.
9) Limits: maximum of one indication per inch (25 mm) of face width with a maximum of five such indications on any one tooth flank.
Indications less than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) are not considered.
10) It is recommended that ANSI/AGMA 2004--B89 be reviewed to determine if the benefits of surface residual compressive stress
achieved by shot peening may be beneficial to the particular application. Shot peening of the flanks of gear teeth should be reviewed to
ensure that no detrimental effects are caused to the gear set.

16

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

5.2 Carburize and hardened gearing


The major metallurgical characteristics that affect
carburize and hardened gearing performance are
shown in table 2. Neither carbonitrided nor nitrocarburized gearing is covered by this document. The

AGMA 923--B05

minimum acceptable requirements for each factor


for metallurgical quality Grades 1, 2 and 3 are
specified. All criteria in any given grade must be met
to qualify for the stress number associated with that
metallurgical quality grade.

Table 2 -- Metallurgical characteristics for carburize and hardened gearing


Item
Characteristic1) 2)
1
Material chemistry
2
3

Grain size
Hardenability

Non--metallic inclusions
(cleanliness, steelmaking)3) 4)

5.1

Material form

5.2

Material reduction ratio


(wrought only)

Grade 1
Specified, but not
verified.
Verification
not required.
Not specified.
p

Grade 2
Test report only. Alloy steel.
0.025% maximum sulfur.3)

Grade 3
Test report only. Alloy steel.
0.015% maximum sulfur.3)

Predominantly 5 or finer. Test report only.


A minimum hardenability which is appropriate for part size and quench
severity should be specified.
Wrought gearing
Alternative A:
-- Capable of meeting bearing quality per ASTM A534
Alternative B, all of the following:
-- The steel must be certified:
-- electric furnace practice
-- ladle refined
-- deoxidized
-- vacuum degassed
-- bottom poured ingot or strand
casted
-- protected from reoxidation
during teeming or casting
-- capable of oxygen content of
20 ppm maximum
-- capable of cleanliness confirmation by either ASTM E45 or
ISO 4967 Method B Plate II with 0.3
inch2 (200 mm2) inspection area.
Acceptable if does not exceed:
Type
Fine Thick
A (sulfide)
3.0
3.0
B (alumina)
2.5
1.5
C (silicate)
2.5
1.5
D (globular oxide) 2.0
1.5
Alternative C:
Capable of meeting SAE/AMS
2301 or SAE J422, S2--O2
Alternative D:5)
Magnetic particle inspection of finished gearing to the requirements
of Item 22, Grade 3.
Cast gears
Only permissible if primarily round
(Type 1) sulfide inclusions.

Wrought gearing
Alternative A:
-- Certified ASTM A534
Alternative B, all of the following:
-- The steel must be certified:
-- electric furnace practice
-- ladle refined
-- deoxidized
-- vacuum degassed
-- bottom poured ingot
-- protected from reoxidation
during teeming or casting
-- oxygen content of 20 ppm
maximum
-- certified cleanliness by either
ASTM E45 or ISO 4967 Method B
Plate II with 0.3 inch2 (200 mm2) inspection area. Acceptable if does
not exceed:
Type
Fine Thick
A (sulfide)
2.5
1.5
B (alumina)
2.0
1.0
C (silicate)
0.5
0.5
D (globular oxide) 1.0
1.0
Alternative C:
Certified SAE/AMS 2300 or
SAE/AMS 2304.

Cast gears
Not permitted.

Forgings per ASTM A837 and either ASTM A290 or ASTM A291
Bar stock per ASTM A29, ASTM A304 or ISO 683--11
Tubing per ASTM A519
Not specified.

Castings per ASTM A148.


Castings not permitted.
-- At least 7 to 1 for strand or continuous cast
-- At least 3 to 1 for ingot cast 6) 7)

(continued)

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

17

AGMA 923--B05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Table 2 (continued)
Characteristic1) 2)

Item
9

Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

inspection4) 7)

Ultrasonic
Wrought material.
Either method is acceptable.

Inspection recommended to the Inspection required to the following


following limits:
limits:

-- Flat bottom hole (FBH) Not specified.


technique

-- Back reflection technique

-- No indications giving a signal response greater than an 8/64 inch


(3.18 mm) reference standard.
-- No indications giving a signal
response greater than 50% of the
reference standard if accompanied
by a 50% loss of back reflection.
-- No indications which are
continuous over an area twice the
diameter of the search unit.

-- No indications giving a signal response greater than a 5/64 inch


(1.98 mm) reference standard.
-- No indications giving a signal response greater than 50% of the reference standard if accompanied by
a 50% loss of back reflection.
-- No indications which are continuous over an area twice the diameter
of the search unit.

Not specified.

-- No indications giving a signal response greater than 15% of back


reflection.
-- No multiple indications that lower
the amplitude of the first back reflection by more than 40%.
-- No traveling indications whose
amplitude is greater than 10% of
back reflection and length is greater than 0.75 inch (19 mm).

-- No indications giving a signal response greater than 10% of back


reflection.
-- No multiple indications that lower
the amplitude of the first back reflection by more than 20%.
-- No traveling indications whose
amplitude is greater than 10% of
back reflection and length is greater than 0.50 inch (13 mm).

Not specified.

-- ASTM A609 Level 1 from outside


surface to 1.5 times tooth height
below finished tooth tips.
-- ASTM A609 Level 2 greater than
1.5 times tooth height below finished tooth tips.

Recommended.

Required.

Castings
-- Back reflection technique

11

Tempering after case


hardening

12

Surface hardness in tooth area. Should meet the following characteristics:


Alternative method of inspection is case hardness.8) 9) 10)
-- Tooth flank

55--64 HRC
equivalent

or

58--64 HRC or equivalent

58--64 HRC or equivalent

-- Normal diametral pitch 3 53 HRC minimum or


(module 8) and coarser
equivalent

56 HRC minimum or equivalent

58 HRC minimum or equivalent

-- Normal diametral
finer than 3 (module 8)

58 HRC minimum or equivalent

58 HRC minimum or equivalent

-- Tooth root

13

pitch 55 HRC minimum or


equivalent

Case
depth
considering
subsequent stock removal

Should meet the following characteristics:

13.1

Effective case depth in finished Minimum and maximum effective case depth requirements for the tooth should be specified in
condition 10) 11)
accordance with the appropriate rating standard.

13.2

Effective case depth minimum Not specified.


at root radius, as determined by
bending strength rating.10) 11)

50% of minimum specified effective 66% of minimum specified effective


case at 1/2 tooth height case at 1/2 tooth height
recommended.
recommended.

Core hardness after case hardening 12) 13)


-- For pitting resistance rating
Not specified.
-- For bending strength rating
21 HRC minimum

21 HRC minimum
25 HRC minimum

12)

14

21 HRC minimum
30 HRC minimum14)

(continued)

18

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 923--B05

Table 2 (continued)
Item
Characteristic1) 2)
15 Surface carbon (typical)15)

Grade 1

For up to 2.5% total nominal 0.60 -- 1.10%C


alloy content
2.5% to 3.5% total nominal 0.60 -- 1.10%C
alloy content
Over 3.5% total nominal alloy 0.60 -- 1.10%C
content
16

16.1

16.2

Grade 2

Grade 3

0.60 -- 1.10%C

0.60 -- 1.00%C

0.60 -- 1.00%C

0.60 -- 1.00%C

0.65 -- 0.95%C

0.65 -- 0.95%C

Surface microstructure consid- The first 0.002 -- 0.003 inch (0.05 -- 0.08 mm) of case microstructure in the tooth area should
ering subsequent stock remov- meet the surface hardness requirement of the specific grade and also meet the following sural 12) 16)
face related characteristics and the requirements of Item 17:
Intergranular oxidation (IGO) Not specified.
(see figure 9)
Minimum specified effective
case depth
inch
(mm)
at
less
at
less
least
than
least
than
---0.030
---(0.75)
0.030 0.060 (0.75) (1.50)
0.060 0.090 (1.50) (2.25)
0.090 0.120 (2.25) (3.00)
0.120
---(3.00)
----

Maximum allowable depth


inch
(mm)
0.0007
(17)
0.0010
(25)
0.0015
(38)
0.0020
(50)
0.0025
(60)

Maximum allowable depth


inch
(mm)
0.0005
(12)
0.0008
(20)
0.0008
(20)
0.0010
(25)
0.0012
(30)

Maximum allowable depth


inch
(mm)
0.0007
(17)
0.0010
(25)
0.0015
(38)
0.0020
(50)
0.0025
(60)

Maximum allowable depth


inch
(mm)
0.0005
(12)
0.0008
(20)
0.0008
(20)
0.0010
(25)
0.0012
(30)

Non--martensitic transforma- Not specified.


tion products (see figure 10)17)
Minimum specified effective
case depth
inch
at
less
least
than
---0.030
0.030 0.060
0.060 0.090
0.090 0.120
0.120
----

16.3

(mm)
at
less
least
than
---(0.75)
(0.75) (1.50)
(1.50) (2.25)
(2.25) (3.00)
(3.00)
----

Decarburization. Any of the


following
methods
are
acceptable.
-- Method 1. File testing.

Not specified.

-- Method 2. Reduction of sur- Not specified.


face hardness by two load
method or reduction of case
hardness.10)

Maximum 3 HRC points or equivalent below maximum measured


hardness by conversion, but
measuring at least 58 HRC or
equivalent by conversion in the
finished state.

Maximum 1.5 HRC points or equivalent below maximum measured


hardness by conversion, but
measuring at least 58 HRC or
equivalent by conversion in the
finished state.

-- Method 3.
evaluation.

No partial decarburization apparent on active tooth profile. No ferrite (total decarburization) is permissible in the case microstructure
of the gear tooth.

No partial decarburization apparent on the gear tooth. No ferrite (total decarburization) is permissible
in the case microstructure of the
gear tooth.

Metallographic Not specified.

Minimum specified effective


case depth
inch
(mm)
at
less
at
less
least
than
least
than
---0.030
---(0.75)
0.030 0.060 (0.75) (1.50)
0.060 0.090 (1.50) (2.25)
0.090 0.120 (2.25) (3.00)
0.120
---(3.00)
---17

Gear tooth surfaces must be file hard to the minimum surface hardness.

Maximum allowable depth in root


inch
(mm)
0.0007
(17)
0.0010
(25)
0.0015
(38)
0.0020
(50)
0.0025
(60)

Case microstructure consider- The microstructure of the first 20% of the minimum specified effective case depth should be preing subsequent stock removal, dominantly tempered martensite. Additional requirements for the case microstructure are given
disregarding corner effects 12) in Item 16 and the following case related characteristics:

(continued)

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

19

AGMA 923--B05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Table 2 (continued)
Characteristic1) 2)

Item

Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3
Discontinuous carbides per figure
3 are not acceptable, but dispersed
carbides per figure 4 are acceptable.

17.1

Carbide precipitation in the Continuous carbide


case.
network per figure 1
is not acceptable,
but semi--continuous carbide network
per figure 2 is
acceptable.

Semi--continuous carbide network


per figure 2 is not acceptable, but
discontinuous carbides per figure 3
are acceptable. Maximum acceptable length of any carbide is 0.0008
inch (0.02 mm).

17.2

Retained
case.9)

Retained austenite 30% maximum determined metallographically by


comparison with figure 13. Rejection of piece parts shall only be based
on case hardness. The minimum microhardness at 0.004 inch (0.1 mm)
or through the area of highest retained austenite shall be 58 HRC (690
HK500).10) 16)

17.3

Microstructure of the case to a


depth of 0.010 inch (0.25 mm)
or the first 20% of the minimum
specified effective case depth,
whichever is smaller, along the
flank (for pitting resistance
rating). 18)

17.4

Microstructure of the case from Untempered mara depth of 0.010 inch (0.25 mm) tensite is acceptor the first 20% of the minimum able.
specified effective case depth,
whichever is smaller, to a depth
equal to 40% of the minimum
specified effective case depth
along the flank (for pitting
resistance rating). 18)

austenite

in

the Not specified.

Primarily tempered martensite with


5% maximum non--martensitic
structures, carbide precipitation
per Item 17.1, retained austenite
per Item 17.2, and other surface microstructures as defined under
Items 16.1 through 16.3.

Primarily tempered martensite with


only trace non--martensitic structures permissible, carbide precipitation per Item 17.1, retained austenite per Item 17.2, and other surface microstructures as defined under Items 16.1 through 16.3.

-- Normal diametral pitch 3 Not specified.


(module 8) and coarser.

Not specified.

Not specified.

-- Normal diametral pitch finer Not specified.


than 3 (module 8).

5% maximum
structures.

17.5

Microstructure of the case to a Not specified. Undepth of 0.010 inch (0.25 mm) tempered martenor the first 20% of the minimum site is acceptable.
specified effective case depth,
whichever is smaller, at the root
fillet (for bending strength
rating). 18)

Primarily tempered martensite with


10% maximum non--martensitic
structures, carbide precipitation
per Item 17.1, retained austenite
per Item 17.2, and other surface microstructures as defined under
Items 16.1 through 16.3.

Primarily tempered martensite with


5% maximum non--martensitic
structures, carbide precipitation
per Item 17.1, retained austenite
per Item 17.2, and other surface microstructures as defined under
Items 16.1 through 16.3.

17.6

Microstructure of the case from Untempered mara depth of 0.010 inch (0.25 mm) tensite is acceptor the first 20% of the minimum able.
specified effective case depth,
whichever is smaller, to a depth
equal to 40% of the minimum
specified effective case depth
at the root fillet (for bending
strength rating). 18)
-- Normal diametral pitch 3 Not specified.
(module 8) and coarser.

Not specified.

Not specified.

-- Normal diametral pitch finer Not specified.


than 3 (module 8).

10% maximum non--martensitic 5% maximum


structures.
structures.

17.7

Not specified.
Untempered martensite is acceptable.

Microcracks in case (cracks Not specified.


across more than one platelet)

non--martensitic Only
trace
structures.

non--martensitic

non--martensitic

10 maximum per 0.0001 in2 (0.064


mm2) field. 9) 19)

(continued)

20

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 923--B05

Table 2 (continued)
Item
Characteristic1) 2)
18 Core microstructure4) 12)

20
21

22

23

Grade 2
Grade 3
Sound metallurgical practice dictates that the core microstructure requirements are maintained in the tooth area to a depth of twice the minimum specified effective case depth or 0.100 inch (2.5 mm), whichever
is less, below the minimum specified effective case depth. The microstructure in this zone should be predominantly tempered martensite.
This microstructure zone should be free of blocky ferrite, pearlite, and
measurable bainite. Below this zone the core microstructure should be
free of blocky ferrite and be primarily tempered martensite with some
acicular ferrite and bainite permissible.
Surface temper etch inspection Not specified.
FB2, which allows light tempering FB1, which allows light tempering
of ground teeth
on 25% of functional area.
on 10% of functional area.
Surface cracks20)
Cracks, bursts, seams and laps are not permissible in Cracks, bursts, seams and laps are
functional areas of finished gearing.21)
not permissible in any area of finished gearing.
Magnetic particle inspection of
Inspection recommended to the Inspection required to the following
finished gearing 7) 20) 21) 22)
following limits:
limits:
-- Below the pitch line
Not specified.
No indications.
No indications.
-- Above the pitch line
Normal
diametral pitch
Module
Indication, maximum
Indication, maximum
at
less
more
at
inch
mm
inch
mm
least
than
than
most
1/8
3.2
3/32
2.4
---3
8
-- -Not specified.
3/32
2.4
1/16
1.6
3
10
2.5
8
1/16
1.6
1/32
0.8
10
----- -2.5
Shot peening 23)

Grade 1
Not specified.

Shot peening per SAE/AMS--S--13165 may be used to increase surface residual compressive
stress.

NOTES:
1) See clause 3 for definitions and clause 4 for test methods.
2) The metallurgical requirements assume homogeneous composition. In practice, microsegregation and banding occurs in steels.
This microsegregation can produce variations in microstructure and properties that need to be assessed.
3) Intentional additions of calcium or calcium alloys for deoxidation or inclusion and shape control are not permitted unless specifically
approved by the purchaser. The use of lime or fluorspar, or both, in the steelmaking slag is acceptable.
4) The grade requirements for non--metallic inclusion, ultrasonic, and microstructure characteristics apply only to those portions of the
gear material where the teeth will be located to a depth below the finished tooth tip of at least 1.5 times the tooth height.
5) Care should be exercised when using Alternative D because of the risk of rejection after the expense of further manufacturing processes.
6) A 7 to 1 minimum reduction ratio is recommended. For large gearing where this reduction ratio is not physically obtainable, lesser
reduction ratios may be used down to a minimum of 3 to 1.
7) In--process ultrasonic and/or magnetic particle inspection of gearing blanks is recommended for large diameter parts to detect flaws
before incurring the expense of further machining.
8) Root hardness may be less than flank hardness, depending on the size of the gear and the quench process.
9) If cold treatment is performed, it is recommended that it be preceded by tempering at 300F (150C) minimum in order to minimize
formation of microcracks. Retempering is required after cold treatment. Cold treatment should not be used to transform large amounts of
retained austenite (e.g., 50%) to gain excessive improvements in hardness, even with prior tempering.
10) See ASTM A370, ASTM E140 or ISO 6336--5, annex C for hardness conversion tables.
11) When specifying minimum case depth, note that the optimum values for pitting resistance and bending strength capacity are not the
same. A maximum case depth is prescribed in order to minimize the risk of embrittlement in the tooth area, including the tips.
12) See clauses 3 and 4 for a discussion of test coupons.
13) Core hardness requirements for pitting resistance and bending strength are considered independently. The gear rating may be limited by either pitting resistance or bending strength for the selected metallurgical quality grade and its core hardness requirement.
14) Minimum hardness of 30 HRC for Grade 3 may be difficult to achieve on coarse pitch gearing. Due to the tooth section size of 3 normal
diametral pitch (8 module) gearing and coarser, the alternate (ISO) core hardness test location may be used provided documented testing or experience is available.

(continued)

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

21

AGMA 923--B05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Table 2 (concluded)
NOTES:
15) Optimum pitting resistance is best achieved at surface carbon levels above the eutectoid carbon for a given alloy chemistry.
16) If excessive, salvage may be possible by processes such as shot peening per Item 23 or by grinding provided the integrity of the
gearing is not compromised.
17) At maximum allowable depths the surface may not be file hard and may not have the expected residual stress profile.
18) Bainite, observable at 200X, that extends from the core microstructure into the case area is considered a ratable characteristic.
This bainite is the result of slower heat extraction rates due to part section size, mass of furnace load, marginal agitation, elevated
quenchant temperatures, and generally follows alloy segregation and material flow lines. The bainite that results in a fine pepper
structure at 400 -- 600X, but is still not resolvable at 800X, is considered nonratable (trace).
19) Maximum limit of microcracks (Item 17.5) for Grade 3 gearing may be difficult to achieve if cold treatment is used to transform the
retained austenite level to 30% maximum.
20) Removal of defects that exceed the stated limits is acceptable, provided the integrity of the gear is not compromised.
21) Cracks in nonfunctional areas require engineering disposition.
22) Limits: maximum of one indication per inch (25 mm) of face width with a maximum of five such indications on any one tooth flank.
Indications less than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) are not considered.
23) It is recommended that ANSI/AGMA 2004--B89 be reviewed to determine if the benefits of surface residual compressive stress
achieved by shot peening may be beneficial to the particular application. Shot peening of the flanks of gear teeth should be reviewed to
ensure that no detrimental effects are caused to the gear set.

5.3 Induction or flame hardened gearing


The major metallurgical characteristics that affect
induction or flame hardened gearing performance
are shown in table 3. The minimum acceptable
requirements for each factor for metallurgical quality

Grades 1, 2 and 3 are specified. Grade 3 is restricted


to contour spin induction Type A (Contour) hardening only. All criteria in any given grade must be met to
qualify for the stress number associated with that
metallurgical quality grade.

Table 3 -- Metallurgical characteristics for induction or flame hardened gearing


Item

3
4

Characteristic1) 2)

Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3
Spin induction Type A
(Contour) only
Material chemistry
Not specified or Test report only.
Test report only.
verified.
0.025% maximum sulfur for 0.015% maximum sulfur for
wrought.
wrought.
Grain size
Predominantly 5
Predominantly 5 or finer. Test report only.
or finer. Verification not required.
Hardenability
Not specified.
A minimum hardenability which is appropriate for part size and quench
severity should be specified.
Non--metallic
inclusions Not specified.
Wrought gearing
Wrought gearing
(cleanliness, steelmaking) 3)
Capable of meeting (certification Capable of meeting (certification
not required) SAE/AMS 2301, not required) SAE/AMS 2301,
ASTM A866 or SAE J422 S2--O2 ASTM A866 or SAE J422 S2--O2
Cast gears
Cast gears
Only permissible if primarily Not permitted

round (Type 1) sulfide inclusions.


5.1

5.2
6

Material form

Forgings per either ASTM A290 or ASTM A291


Bar stock per ASTM A29, ASTM A304 or ISO 683--1
Tubing per ASTM A519
Castings per ASTM A148.
Castings not permitted.
Material reduction ratio
Not specified.
-- At least 7 to 1 for strand or continuous cast
(wrought only)
-- At least 3 to 1 for ingot cast4) 5)
Heat treatment prior to surface Not specified.
Quench and temper
hardening
900F (480C) minimum temper.

(continued)

22

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 923--B05

Table 3 (continued)
Item

Characteristic1) 2)

Grade 1

Mechanical properties prior to Not specified.


surface hardening. See also
Item 14. 6) 7)

Microstructure prior to surface Not specified.


hardening3)

Grade 2

Grade 3
Spin induction Type A
(Contour) only
28 HRC minimum. Other mechani- 30 HRC minimum. Other mechanical testing is required only if speci- cal testing is required only if specified.
fied.
Sound metallurgical practice dictates that the core microstructure requirements are maintained in the tooth area to a depth twice the minimum
specified effective case depth or 0.100 inch (2.5 mm), whichever is less,
below the minimum specified effective case depth. The microstructure
in this zone should be predominantly tempered martensite that is free of
blocky ferrite, pearlite, and measurable bainite observable at 400--600X.
Below this zone the core microstructure should be primarily tempered
martensite and free of blocky ferrite with the following limits:
Controlling section size,
inch
at least
less than
---5
5
10
10
15
15
---Controlling section size,
mm
at least
less than
---125
125
250
250
375
375
----

Non--martensitic structures,
maximum
5%
10%
20%
Hardness must be obtained at
roots with 900F minimum temper
Non--martensitic structures,
maximum
5%
10%
20%
Hardness must be obtained at
roots with 480C minimum temper

Ultrasonic inspection3) 5)
Wrought material.
Either method is acceptable.

Inspection recommended to the Inspection required to the following


following limits:
limits:

-- Flat bottom hole (FBH) Not specified.


technique

-- No indications giving a signal response greater than an 8/64 inch


(3.18 mm) reference standard.
-- No indications giving a signal
response greater than 50% of the
reference standard if accompanied
by a 50% loss of back reflection.
-- No indications which are
continuous over an area twice the
diameter of the search unit.
-- No indications giving a signal response greater than 15% of back
reflection.
-- No multiple indications that lower
the amplitude of the first back reflection by more than 40%.
-- No traveling indications whose
amplitude is greater than 10% of
back reflection and length is greater than 0.75 inch (19 mm).

-- Back reflection technique

Not specified.

Castings
-- Back reflection technique

Not specified.

-- No indications giving a signal response greater than a 5/64 inch


(1.98 mm) reference standard.
-- No indications giving a signal
response greater than 50% of the
reference standard if accompanied
by a 50% loss of back reflection.
-- No indications which are
continuous over an area twice the
diameter of the search unit.
-- No indications giving a signal response greater than 10% of back
reflection.
-- No multiple indications that lower
the amplitude of the first back reflection by more than 20%.
-- No traveling indications whose
amplitude is greater than 10% of
back reflection and length is greater than 0.50 inch (13 mm).

-- ASTM A609 Level 1 from outside


surface to 1.5 times tooth height
below finished tooth tips.
-- ASTM A609 Level 2 greater than
1.5 times tooth height below finished tooth tips.

(continued)

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

23

AGMA 923--B05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Table 3 (continued)
Item

10
11
12

13

13.1

13.2

14

17

17.3

17.5

19

20
21
22

Characteristic1) 2)

Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3
Spin induction Type A
(Contour) only
Overheating, especially at the Avoid surface temperatures that result in grain growth, incipient melting or unfavorable
tooth tips and end faces 8)
residual stresses. Larger chamfers minimize this problem.
Tempering
after
surface
1 hour minimum at temperature furnace temper is required.9)
hardening
Surface hardness on a repre- 50 HRC minimum or 54 HRC minimum as required by 58--64 HRC or equivalent
sentative surface. Alternative rating standard.
method of inspection is case
hardness. 7) 8)
Case depth considering subseShould meet the following characteristics:
quent stock removal. Also see
Item 19. 7) 8) 10)
Effective case depth in finished Minimum and maximum effective case depth should be Minimum and maximum effective
condition
specified in accordance with the rating standard. A case depth should be specified in
hardening pattern per figure 14 shall be specified.
accordance with the rating standard. Figure 14 Type A contour
pattern only shall be specified.
Effective case depth minimum Not specified.
50% of minimum specified effective 100% of minimum specified effecat root radius, or on representacase at 1/4 tooth height above the tive case at 1/4 tooth height above
tive
sample
with
same
root recommended.
the root recommended, and 66% of
geometry and material as work
minimum specified effective case
piece, as determined by
at the root.
bending strength rating.
Base hardness after surface Not specified.
28 HRC minimum
30 HRC minimum
hardening.
Also see Item 7. 6) 7) 8) 10)
Case microstructure consider- The first 20% of the case microstructure should be predominantly tempered martensite. The
ing subsequent stock removal, microstructure should be free of undissolved pearlite observable at 100X and measurable
disregarding corner
bainite observable at 400 -- 600X.
effects8) 10) 11)
The following case microstructure characteristics for each grade must be met:
Microstructure of case along Primarily
fine Primarily fine acicular tempered Primarily fine acicular tempered
flank (for pitting resistance acicular marten- martensite. Non--martensitic struc- martensite with no non--martensitic
rating).
site.
tures anywhere in the case should structures.
not exceed 5%.
Microstructure at root (for Primarily
fine Primarily fine acicular tempered Primarily fine acicular tempered
bending strength rating).
acicular marten- martensite. Non--martensitic struc- martensite. Non--martensitic strucsite.
tures anywhere in the case should tures anywhere in the case should
not exceed 10%.
not exceed 5%.
Heat affected zone. Also see Induction and flame hardening heat treatments have a characteristic heat affected zone that
Item 13. 8) 10)
is caused by the surface heating process. This zone can have lower hardness and different
microstructure than the base material. The case depth specification should be established
to avoid gear failure which might initiate in this zone.
Surface temper etch inspection Not specified.
FB2, which allows light tempering FB1, which allows light tempering
of ground teeth
on 25% of functional area.
on 10% of functional area.
Surface cracks 12) 13)
Cracks, bursts, seams and laps are not permissible in functional areas of finished gearing.
Magnetic particle inspection of
Inspection to the following limits:
finished gearing5) 12) 13) 14)
-- Below the pitch line
Not specified.
No indications.
No indications.
-- Above the pitch line
Normal
diametral pitch
Module
Indication, maximum
Indication, maximum
at
less
more
at
inch
mm
inch
mm
least
than
than
most
1/8
3.2
3/32
2.4
---3
8
-- -Not specified.
3/32
2.4
1/16
1.6
3
10
2.5
8
1/16
1.6
1/32
0.8
10
----- -2.5

(continued)

24

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 923--B05

Table 3 (concluded)
Item

23

Characteristic1) 2)
Shot peening 15)

Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3
Spin induction Type A
(Contour) only
Shot peening per SAE/AMS--S--13165 may be used to increase surface residual
compressive stress.

NOTES:
1) See clause 3 for definitions and clause 4 for test methods.
2) The metallurgical requirements assume homogeneous composition. In practice, microsegregation and banding occurs in steels.
This microsegregation can produce variations in microstructure and properties that need to be assessed.
3) The grade requirements for non--metallic inclusion, ultrasonic, and microstructure characteristics apply only to those portions of the
gear material where the teeth will be located to a depth below the finished tooth tip of at least 1.5 times the tooth height.
4) A 7 to 1 minimum reduction ratio is recommended. For large gearing where this reduction ratio is not physically obtainable, lesser
reduction ratios may be used down to a minimum of 3 to 1.
5) In--process ultrasonic and/or magnetic particle inspection of gearing blanks is recommended for large diameter parts to detect
flaws before incurring the expense of further machining.
6) Mechanical properties, including core hardness, may not be the same after induction or flame hardening as they were before induction or flame hardening.
7) See ASTM A370, ASTM E140 or ISO 6336--5, annex C for hardness conversion tables.
8) See clauses 3 and 4 for a discussion on test coupons.
9) Induction tempering is recommended for Grade 3 as a crack preventing stress relief heat treatment prior to furnace tempering.
10) The hardness pattern, depth, facilities and process method must be established, documented and verified to be repeatable. The
process equipment and methods must be sufficiently accurate to reproduce the specified results. Excessive case depth can generate
unfavorable residual stress conditions.
11) Microstructure analysis of induction hardened test specimens have shown indications of undissolved pearlite or ghost pearlite.
This is especially true with rapid (short) heating cycles. This ghost pearlite should not be present.
12) Removal of defects that exceed the stated limits is acceptable, provided the integrity of the gear is not compromised.
13) Cracks in non--functional areas require engineering disposition.
14) Limits: maximum of one indication per inch of face width with a maximum of five such indications on any one tooth flank. Indications
less than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) are not considered.
15) It is recommended that ANSI/AGMA 2004--B89 be reviewed to determine if the benefits of surface residual compressive stress
achieved by shot peening may be beneficial to the particular application. Shot peening of the flanks of gear teeth should be reviewed to
ensure that no detrimental effects are caused to the gear set.

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

25

AGMA 923--B05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Inductor coil

Spin hardening
Induction coil
or flame head

Type A
(Contour)
Grades 1, 2 and 3

Type A
(Non--contour)
Grades 1 and 2 only

Induction coil
or flame head

Type B
Grades 1 and 2 only

Flank hardening (tooth to tooth)


Inductor or flame head

Inductor or flame head

Type B
Grades 1 and 2 only

Type B
Grades 1 and 2 only

Flank and root hardening (tooth to tooth)


Inductor or flame head

Top lands are not fully hardened

Type A
Grades 1 and 2 only
NOTE:
-- Type A indicates that flanks and roots are hardened for contour or non--contour patterns.
-- Only spin hardening Type A (Contour) is applicable to Grade 3.
-- Type B indicates that the flanks are hardened only to the form diameter.
-- For Type B the full active profile must be hardened with the transition zone not in the root fillet area.

Figure 14 -- Variations in hardening pattern obtainable on gear teeth with flame or induction
hardening
5.4 Nitrided gearing
The major metallurgical characteristics that affect
nitrided gearing performance are shown in table 4.
These characteristics are not necessarily applicable
to carbonitrided or nitrocarburized gearing, neither

26

of which are covered by this document. The


minimum acceptable requirements for each factor
for metallurgical quality Grades 1, 2 and 3 are
specified. All criteria in any given grade must be met
to qualify for the stress number associated with that
metallurgical quality grade.

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 923--B05

Table 4 -- Metallurgical characteristics for nitrided gearing


Item

Characteristic1) 2)
chemistry3)

Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Not specified or
verified.

Test report only. Medium carbon


alloy steel. 0.025 % maximum
sulfur .

Test report only. Medium carbon


alloy steel. 0.015 % maximum
sulfur .

Material

Grain size

Hardenability

Non--metallic
inclusions Not specified.
(cleanliness, steelmaking) 4)

5.1

Material form

5.2

Material
reduction
(wrought only)

Predominantly 5 or finer. Test report only.


Not specified.

A minimum hardenability which is


appropriate for part size and
quench severity should be specified.

A minimum hardenability verified


by certification, calculation or test
which is appropriate for part size
and quench severity should be
specified.

Wrought gearing
Wrought gearing
Capable of meeting (certification Certified to SAE/AMS 2304,
not required) SAE/AMS 2301, ASTM A866 or SAE J422 S2--O2
ASTM A866 or SAE J422 S2--O2
Cast gears
Cast gears
Not permitted.
Not permitted.
Forgings per either ASTM A290 or ASTM A291
Bar stock per ASTM A29, ASTM A304 or ISO 683--1
Tubing per ASTM A519
Castings not permitted.

ratio Not specified.

-- At least 7 to 1 strand or continuous cast


-- At least 3 to 1 ingot cast5) 6)

Heat treatment prior to case Quench and temper with tempering temperature 900F (480C) minimum and 50F (28C)
hardening
minimum above the nitriding temperature.

Mechanical properties prior to


case hardening. Also see Item
14.7) 8)

Microstructure prior to case Not specified.


hardening. Also see Item
16.3.4)

Hardness testing is required. Other mechanical testing required only if specified.

Sound metallurgical practice dictates that the core microstructure requirements are maintained in the tooth area to a depth twice the minimum
specified effective case depth or 0.100 inch (2.5 mm), whichever is less,
below the minimum specified effective case depth. The microstructure
in this zone should be predominantly tempered martensite. This microstructure should be free of blocky ferrite, pearlite, and measurable bainite
observable at 400--600X. Below this zone the core microstructure
should be free of blocky ferrite and be primarily tempered martensite with
the following limits:
Controlling section size,
inch
at least
less than
---5
5
10
10
15
15
---Controlling section size,
mm
at least
less than
---125
125
250
250
375
375
----

Non--martensitic structures,
maximum
5%
10%
20%
Hardness must be obtained at
roots with 900F minimum temper
Non--martensitic structures,
maximum
5%
10%
20%
Hardness must be obtained at
roots with 480C minimum temper

(continued)

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

27

AGMA 923--B05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Table 4 (continued)
Characteristic1) 2)

Item
9

Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

inspection4) 6)

Ultrasonic
Wrought material.
Either method is acceptable.

Inspection recommended to the Inspection required to the following


following limits:
limits:

-- Flat bottom hole (FBH) Not specified.


technique

-- No indications giving a signal re- -- No indications giving a signal response greater than an 8/64 inch sponse greater than a 5/64 inch
(3.18 mm) reference standard.
(1.98 mm) reference standard.
-- No indications giving a signal
-- No indications giving a signal
response greater than 50% of the response greater than 50% of the
reference standard if accompanied reference standard if accompanied
by a 50% loss of back reflection.
by a 50% loss of back reflection.

-- No indications which are


-- No indications which are
continuous over an area twice the continuous over an area twice the
diameter of the search unit.
diameter of the search unit.
-- Back reflection technique

12

Not specified.

-- No indications giving a signal response greater than 10% of back


reflection.
-- No multiple indications that lower
the amplitude of the first back reflection by more than 20%.
-- No traveling indications whose
amplitude is greater than 10% of
back reflection and length is greater than 0.50 inch (13 mm).

Surface hardness on a representative surface. Alternative


method of inspection is case
hardness. 7)
-- Specialty nitriding steels9)

13

-- No indications giving a signal response greater than 15% of back


reflection.
-- No multiple indications that lower
the amplitude of the first back reflection by more than 40%.
-- No traveling indications whose
amplitude is greater than 10% of
back reflection and length is greater than 0.75 inch (19 mm).

Either 89 -- 93 HR15N, 650 -- 900 HV or 690 -- 900 HK

-- Through hardening steels

Either 83 min HR15N, 450 min HV or 470 min HK

Case depth considering subsequent stock removal10)

Should meet either of the following characteristics:

13.1

Effective case depth in finished Minimum effective case depth requirements for the tooth should be specified in accordance
condition
with the appropriate rating standard.

13.3

Total case depth in finished Minimum total case depth requirements for the tooth should be specified in accordance with
condition
the appropriate rating standard.

14

Core hardness after case hardening. Also see item 7.7)

16

Surface
microstructure The first 0.002 -- 0.003 inch (0.05 -- 0.08 mm) of case microstructure in the tooth area should
considering subsequent stock meet the surface hardness requirement of the specific grade and also meet the following surremoval 10)
face related characteristics and the requirements of Item 17:

16.3

28 HRC minimum

Decarburization.

32 HRC minimum

No decarburization permitted on surface to be nitrided.

-- Method 1. Not applicable.

16.4

-- Method 2. Reduction of hard- Not specified.


ness by two load method. 7)

Maximum 2 HRC points or equiva- No reduction in hardness below


lent below maximum measured maximum measured hardness by
hardness by conversion.
conversion is permissible.

-- Method 3.
evaluation.

No partial decarburization appar- No


partial
ent except in unground roots.
apparent.

Metallographic Not specified.

decarburization

Epsilon () nitride (white layer)


along flank or in root
Minimum specified
effective case depth
inch
at
less
least
than
---0.015
0.015
----

(mm)
at
less
least
than
---(0.37)
(0.37)
----

M i
Maximum
allowable depth
inch
(mm)
0.0010 (0.025)
0.0010 (0.025)

Maximum allowable depth


inch
(mm)
0.0008
(0.019)
0.0008
(0.019)

Maximum allowable depth


inch
(mm)
0.0005
(0.012)
0.0008
(0.019)

(continued)

28

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 923--B05

Table 4 (concluded)
Characteristic1) 2)

Item
17 Case microstructure considering subsequent stock removal,
disregarding corner effects
20 Surface temper inspection

21

22

Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
The first 20% of the case microstructure should be predominantly tempered martensite with
interspersed nitride. The microstructure should be free of blocky ferrite, pearlite, and measurable bainite.
The normal inspection methods, as defined in ANSI/AGMA 2007--B92 or ISO 14104, are not
applicable to nitrided gearing. Care must be taken when grinding nitrided surfaces to ensure
that no harmful surface conditions are produced in the grinding process.
11)
12)
Surface cracks
Cracks, bursts, seams and laps are not permitted in Cracks, bursts, seams and laps are
functional areas of finished gearing.
not permitted in any area of finished
gearing.
Magnetic particle inspection of
Inspection recommended to the Inspection required to the
finished gearing 6) 11) 12) 13)
following limits:
following limits:
-- Below the pitch line
-- Above the pitch line
Normal
diametral pitch
Module
at
less
more
at
least
than
than
most
-- -3
8
-- -3
10
2.5
8
10
-- --- -2.5

Not specified.

Not specified.

No indications.

Indication, maximum
inch
mm
1/8
3.2
3/32
2.4
1/16
1.6
Not recommended.

No indications.

Indication, maximum
inch
mm
3/32
2.4
1/16
1.6
1/32
0.8

23 Shot peening
NOTES:
1) See clause 3 for definitions and clause 4 for test methods.
2) The metallurgical requirements assume homogeneous composition. In practice, microsegregation and banding occurs in steels.
This microsegregation can produce variations in microstructure and properties that need to be assessed.
3) Chemistry must include adequate nitridable alloying elements such as chromium, aluminum, vanadium or molybdenum.
4) The grade requirements for nonmetallic inclusion, ultrasonic and microstructure characteristics apply only to those portions of the
gear material where the teeth will be located to a depth below the finished tooth tip of at least 1.5 times the tooth height.
5) A 7 to 1 minimum reduction ratio is recommended. For large gearing where this reduction ratio is not physically obtainable, lesser
reduction ratios may be used down to a minimum of 3 to 1.
6) In--process ultrasonic and/or magnetic particle inspection of gearing blanks is recommended for large diameter parts to detect
flaws before incurring the expense of further machining.
7) See ASTM A370, ASTM E140 or ISO 6336--5, annex C for hardness conversion tables.
8) Mechanical properties including core hardness may not be the same after nitride hardening as they were before nitride hardening.
9) Specialty nitriding steels are typically alloyed with 1% aluminum to provide higher surface hardness after nitriding than normally
attained with nitrided through hardening steels.
10) For a discussion of test coupons see clauses 3 and 4.
11) Removal of defects that exceed the stated limits is acceptable, provided the integrity of the gear is not compromised.
12) Cracks in non--functional areas require engineering disposition.
13) Limits: maximum of one indication per inch (25 mm) of face width with a maximum of five such indications on any one tooth flank.
Indications less than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) are not considered.

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

29

AGMA 923--B05

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

(This page is intentionally left blank.)

30

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AGMA 923--B05

Bibliography

The following documents are either referenced in the text of AGMA 923--B05, Metallurgical Specifications for
Steel Gearing, or indicated for additional information.

ANSI/AGMA 6033--B98, Materials for Marine Propulsion Gearing


ASM Handbook, Volume 1 -- Properties and selection: Irons, steels and high--performance alloys,
ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, 1990
ASM Handbook, Volume 4 -- Heat treating, ASM
International, Materials Park, Ohio, 1991
Boyer, Howard E., Ed., Hardness Testing, ASM
International, Materials Park, Ohio, 1987
Doane, D.V. and Semchyshen, M., Modern carburized nickel alloy steel, Nickel Development Institute,
Toronto, 1990
Heat Treaters Guide -- Practices and procedures for
irons and steels, ASM International, Materials Park,
Ohio, 1995

AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved

Kern, Roy F. and Suess, Manfred E., Steel Selection


-- A guide for improving performance and profits,
John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1979
Krauss, G., Steels: Heat Treatment and Processing
Principles, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio,
1996
Parish, Geoffrey, Carburizing: Microstructures and
Properties, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio,
1999
Practical Data for Metallurgists, 14th edition, The
Timken Company, Canton, Ohio, 1999
Reed--Hill, R.E., Physical Metallurgy Principles, D.
Van Nostrand, New York, 1973
Totten, G.E., and Howes, M.A.H., Steel Heat Treatment Handbook, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1997

31

PUBLISHED BY
AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION
500 MONTGOMERY STREET, SUITE 350
ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA 22314