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Whywekneadtoknowaboutcellularrespiration1

Author:EthanSelf
Datecreated:04/22/20162:30PMEDTDatemodified:05/26/20169:57AMEDT

Subject(s)

Science

Grade/Level

Grade10

Topic

Cellularrespiration,complexmacromolecules,scientificprocessandmethodology

Rationale/Context

Studentswillhavelearnedduringthepreviouslessonthebasicconceptsandproductsofcellularrespiration(i.e.
glycolysis,kreb'scycle,ETStransportsystem,CO2production,glucosedepletionandATPproduction).Studentswillhave
alsocompletedaminiunitthatexaminedtheroleofmacronutrientsinourdiets,bodies,andthefoodthatweeat.But
allofthoseconceptsareratherstaticandabstractwhenexaminingdiagramsofthemitochondria?Studentswillhave
learnedthatalmostallorganisms,fromunicellularbacteria,tocomplexeukaryoticorganisms,needoxygenandglucose
tosurviveandsustainlife.Thus,howcanwecellularrespirationinaction?Howcanwedemonstratethecomplexityof
energysourcesandcellularrespiration?Creatingdifferenttypesofbread,viayeastandaerobicrespiration,willhelp
answerthesequestion.
Thefollowinglessonswillexamineanaerobicrespiration,comparingandcontrastingthetwoformsofrespiration,and
howeithermethodproduceschemicalenergyforcellsindifferentenvironments.Further,studentswillutilizetheirdata
andbeginninghypothesestohelpunderstandhowdifferentsourcesofchemicalenergymightinfluencedifferent
organismsandtrophiclevels(synthesizinginformationwithpreviousbiologyandecologyunits).

EnduringUnderstandings

Alllivingthingsmustconsumeandtransformchemicalenergy,withinasystem,tosustainlife.
Chemicalreactionsandbiologicalprocessesarecomplex,withmultipleinputsandproducts.
Aerobicrespirationcanonlyoccurwithcertaininputsandenvironmentalconditions.

EssentialQuestions

Howdoesdifferentsourcesofchemicalenergyimpacttherelativeamountandspeedofcellularrespirationthatoccurs
foranorganism?
Howcantemperatureimpacttherateofchemicalreactions?
Howdoesalackofoxygenimpactcellularrespiration?

Standards

USANextGenerationScienceStandards(2013)
Grade/Level:
HighSchoolLifeSciences
Area:
HSLS1FromMoleculestoOrganisms:StructuresandProcesses
Standard:
HSLS17.Useamodeltoillustratethatcellularrespirationisachemicalprocesswherebythebondsoffood
moleculesandoxygenmoleculesarebrokenandthebondsinnewcompoundsareformedresultinginanettransferof
energy.
Area:
HSLS2Ecosystems:Interactions,Energy,andDynamics
Standard:
HSLS23.Constructandreviseanexplanationbasedonevidenceforthecyclingofmatterandflowofenergyin
aerobicandanaerobicconditions.

LearningTargets/Objectives

ForstandardsaboveseeMt.AbrahamCompetencyProblemSolving#2,specificallyA(understandingtheproblem),as
wellasCompetency#3Collaboration,specificallyA(interactsproductively),C(contributestotheprocess),D(monitorsand
evaluatesthegroup'seffectiveness).
Studentswillhaveamoreenrichedunderstandingofhowcellularrespirationoccurswithinanorganismandasystem,in
termsoftheenergeticandmolecularinputsandoutputs.Studentswillunderstandthephysicalandchemical
transformationsoccurringtoglucoseandoxygen(broadly)ascellularrespirationproducesATP,akeyrequirementfor
life.
Studentsattheendofthelessonwillbeabletoillustrate,model,anddescribehoworganismsproduceATPenergy,and
howaclosedsystem(i.e.limitedenergy)cannotendlesslysupportlife(i.e.cellularrespirationwillceasewhenglucose
and/oroxygenlevelsaredepleted).Thisexperimentwillnotonlyillustratetheprinciplesofcellularrespiration,butalso
chemicalreactionsandtheimportanceofthestandardized,scientificmethod.
Studentswillbeworkingcollaborativelyinsmallgroups,whilealsopresentingandrecordingdatafortheentire
classroom'suseforlateranalysisanddiscussion.Studentswillfurtherdevelopselfefficacyasscientists,astheyare
askedtofollowstandardizedmethods,develophypotheses,recordobservationsanddata,aswellasbringinoutside
informationtoguidetheproject.Studentswilltransferandsynthesizenewinformation,astheybringincontentfromthe
previousunitsonecology,biology,andthescientificmethod,allowingacohesiveandsummativeprojecttooccur.
Thislesson,overall,willtargetexplanationandinterpretation,asstudentsfurtherunderstandandexplainthe
processesofbiochemistrywithintheframeworkofacommon,tastyprocessthathighlightstheimportantreactantsand
productsofcellularrespiration.

InstructionalMaterials

Iwillneedapproximately1015poundsofwholewheat,white,andryeflour(combined),aswellasseveralcontainersof
activebaker'syeast.Smallamountsoftablesugarandsaltwillbeneededforthebreaddough.Additionally,alipid,
perhapsoliveoilorbutter,willbeaddedtoonetable'sdoughtohighlightseveralbiologicalfactors/processes(slowerGI
index,potentiallysloweraerobicfermentation,highlightmultipledifferentmacromolecules).

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Iwillbebringingmyownkitchenstandmixertohelpstudentskneaddough,iftheyareunabletodoitthemselves.Iwill
beutilizinglarge,standardizedglassbeakers(600mlorso)toplacethedough(ecosystem)intoafterthekneading.
Digitalscaleswillhelpstandardizedtheweight(i.e.amountofglucose,water,yeast)andvolumeofthedoughbeforea
majorityoftheaerobicrespirationoccurs.
Studentswillbegivenastandardizedproceduretoconducttheirexperiment(withtheexceptionofthevarioussources
ofcarbohydratesand/orlipids),aswellastheabioticvariablesthatwillbeintroducedlater.Studentswilldevelopaclass
wide,onlinedatabaseforrecordingmeasurementsanddatathroughoutthe48hourtimeperiod,tohelpinsure
completeandaccuratemeasurements.Studentswillalsobeprovidedastandardizedpaperformfordatarecording,
beforeenteringtheelectronicdata.
https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=bread+kneading+techniques
Iftime:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g9GjtVp2ZUsforextraresource
Attachments:
1. BreadLabProcedure.docx

INSTRUCTIONALPROCEDURES:
a.StartUp/Motivator

Becauseoftherelativecomplexityandlengthoftheprocedureanddatameasurements,thestarterforthislessonwill
beaquickhistoricalandculturalpowerpointthegivesstudentsthecontextforbreadmaking.Whenwasbreadfirst
made?Howdodifferentculturesandcountriesprepareit?Howisbreadevenmade?I'llfrequentlycallonstudentsand
askthemquestionssuchas,'Whatdoyouthinkthefirsttypeofpreparedfoodwas?Howwasbreadmadethousandsof
yearsagowithoutjarredyeastandprocessedflour?Whatevenareyeast?"Hopefully,whilethesequestionsmightbe
difficulttoanswer,studentswillbegintodevelopquestionsorperspectivesabouthowdifficultitwastoproduceand
makefoodbeforegrocerystoresandcafeterias.
Theultimateaimofthisminilessonisto
a)introducethelab,andposethequestiononhowmakingbreadcanteachusaboutcellularrespiration
b)askstudentshowcanweincorporateconceptsfromotherunitsintothislab
c)alsoaskstudentswhatarethehealth,ecologicalandbiologicalimplicationsofusingdifferentsourcesofflourto
produceasingleloafofbread.

b.LearningComponents

Thesmallgroupworkwillbeconductedafterabriefsetofinstructionsandexplanations.Iwillhandoutthevarious
papersformethodologyanddatacollection,andalsoposequestionstostudentsaboutthevariablesinourlab.
1)Whataresomedifferenttypesofbreadthatwecouldmakewiththefloursprovided?
2)Whatabioitcfactorscouldwecontrolorintroducetopossiblyinfluenceourecosystem(i.e.howsuccessfulouryeast
areinconvertingglucoseintocarbondioxide,ATP,etc).
Somepossibleoutcomesfromthisshortdiscussioncouldbemodifyingthetemperatureandlightconditionssomedough
isplacedunder,orperhapsmakingdifferentdoughfromeitheracombinationofdifferentflours,orcomparingtheriseof
thedoughbetweensingleflourdough(ryevswheatvswhiteflour).
Studentswillthenbegintoconstructtheirecosystemsusingaprovidedmethodology.Wewillgooverthebasic
techniquesforproofingyeast,slowlymixingdough,thecorrecttemperatureforwater,andhowtoknead.Theseareall
importantproceduralstepsthatrequireteamcollaboration.Studentswillbeassigneddifferentdoughtypes/abiotic
environmentsaftertheproceduralexplanationsoccur.Forconsistency,eachgroupwillweighoutequalamountsofflour,
yeast,water,salt(watermaybeslightlyvariableduetothenatureofmorehearty,fibrousflours).
Asstudentspreparetheirdough,theywillbeaskedtorecordobservationsinpartoftheirlaboratorygraphicjournal.
Thissheetwillalsohaveroomforinitialmeasurements,aswellasspaceforstudentstoillustrateinpictures/diagrams
thechemicalreactionsandprocessesoccurring.Thesestepswillhelpstudentsnotonlysolidifyandexpandtheirlearning
abouttheexperiment'ssignificance,buttoalsokeyonimportantscientificskillssuchasdatacollection,conciseand
detailedobservations,anddiagrammingideas/processesininformationotherthantext.
Someofthescientificinformationanddatathatstudentswillcollectwillbetheinitialmassoftheflour,yeast,water,salt
and/oranyothercomponentsofthedoughrecipe,aswellastheinitialheightofthedough.Thiswillbeaccomplishedby
placingthefinished,kneadeddoughintotransparent,largegraduatedbeakers,andformingthedoughintoarelatively
homogenous,flatobject.Studentswillthenmeasuretherelativeheightofthedough,(aswellastheinnerdiameterof
thebeakerbeforeplacingthedoughinthecylinder)allowingarelativelyaccuratedoughvolumemeasurementtobe
obtained.Studentswillthancovertheircylinderswithapapertowel(allowingsomeoxygenin,andtrappingadditional
heat)andmeasurethevolumeatleastonemoretimeduringorafterthelab.

c.Homework/SelfDirected
Lear

Studentswillbeaskedtocomeandrecorderseveralroundsofdata/observationsinbetweenthelaboratoryandthe
followingclass.Howhighhasyourdoughrisen?Whatsmells,sights,soundsareyouobserving?Whatchangeshave
happenedsinceyourlastobservation.Thesequalitativeandquantitativedatawillbecollectedbygroupmembersand
thanbetranscribedintoagoogledocumentthattheentireclasswillutilize.
Studentswillbeexpectedtocompletethesedatameasurementsthoroughlyandaccuratelyforthefollowingclass.
Ashortwritingassignmentwillbeassignedattheendofclassinwhichstudentswillwriteasimplescientificquestion,
andcorrespondinghypothesis,astoacomponentofthelab.Itcaneitherspecificallyexaminetheirowndough
ecosystem,orexaminetheclass'soveralldata.Soanexamplemightbe:"Howdoesdifferenttypesofflourinfluencethe
amountofrisethatadoughexperiences,andhencetheamountofcellularrespiration,followedby:Ifyeastprimarily
utilizesimplesugarsforcellularrespiration,thanIpredictthatwhiteflourbreaddoughwillhavethegreatestrise,as
thisflouristhemostprocessed,withthesimplestformsofcarbohydrates."

d.Summary/Closure

Duringthelast10minutesofclass,studentswillhavecompletedseveraldifferentmeasurementsfortheirlab.I'llgather
theclasstogetherandleadashortconversationaboutwhatexactlywelearnedfrominitiationandcreationofbread
dough.Whatcanweexpecttohappenoverthenext48hours,whileweletthebreadriseandtheyeastcontinuesto
utilizeglucose?Whatotherimplicationsmightweconsiderwhenitcomesdifferentsourcesofcarbohydrates?Thismight

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bringinideasaboutlocallysourcedgrain(ecology),glucoseanddiabetes(homeostasis)andmore!Thewrapupis
meanttobringanddiscussthebroaderbiologicalconnectionstothislab,helpingstudentsdiscoverandtalkabout
personalrelevancyandinterest.
I'llendtheconversationbytellingtheclassroomthatoneofthedoughwillbeselectedforaspecialabioticenvironment.
Whatwillhappenwhenwecloseoffthedoughfromtheexternalenvironment?Whatwillhappentotheoxygenlevels?
Whataboutthecarbondioxidelevels?Willcellularrespirationoccurwithoutoxygen?I'llleavestudentswiththese
questionsforthenextclass,wherewewillexaminethatparticulardoughandlearnaboutanaerobicrespiration.
e.Accommodations/
Differentiation

Thisisarelativelyhand'sonexperiment,withagreatdealofscientificdetailandprocedurestobecompleted.Thereare
alsocomponentsofvisualandquantitativeobservations/datawithinthislesson.Overall,thesecomponentsmakethe
lessonadetailed,dynamic,butalsopotentiallyproblematiclesson.Studentswillneedscaffoldingtosuccessfullyachieve
thelesson'sobjectivesinatimely,butengagedmanner.
Studentswillbeprovidedwithadetailedprocedure,aswellasmodeling/instructionsbymyself,intermsofassembling
theirdough,aswellasthedataandvariablesthatwillbemeasuredduringthelab.Theprocedurewillbegiveninclear,
bulletedsentences,aswellaspictures/diagramstohelpstudentsunderstandthecomplexity/purposeofeachstep.
Studentswillhaveaccesstoavideoononeoftheclass'scomputersthatteacheskneadingtechniques,orstudentscan
askformyhelp/placedoughinthestandmixer.
Thegraphicorganizerprovidedforeachstudentwillbeorganizedinathreecolumnmanner.Thefirstcolumnwillbefor
studentstorecordquantitativedata,suchasthemassoftheflour,etc.Thesecondcolumnwillaskstudentstoeither
draworillustrateobservationstheyseethroughoutthelab,whilealsoutilizingkeyworkstohelpmyselfand/orotherto
understandtheirillustrations.Thelastcolumnwillbeforstudentstoaskquestionsorwritecommentsthroughoutthe
lab.Thiswillhelpguideeachstudent,regardlessofcapabilityorlearningstyle,tocriticallythinkabouttheexperimentas
itishappening."Whyisitimportantthatthewateriswarm?Whatistherationalforkneadingthedough?Whatmight
happenifIaddedmoresalttotherecipe?"

ASSESSMENT
AssessmentA

Studentswillbeevaluatedthroughouttheexperiment,aswellasproceedinglessonsinwhichgroupactivitiesare
completed,withthelearninghabitsrubric(seeattachedintaskstream).Byobservingandinteractingwithgroups,as
wellasdocumentingandassessingmaterials,datacompletion,etc.,itwillbeimportanttohelpdirectandchallenge
studentstobecomemoreeffectiveteammembersinagroupproject.

AssessmentB

SeeHomework/Extendedworkabove.Studentswillalsobeassessedbytheproficiencyintheirstudy
questions/hypothesis,aswellastheirabilitytorespond/interactwithinthegroupdiscussionattheendofthe
experiment,aswellasthefollowinglesson.Werestudentsabletocompletefullyformed,thoughtfulstudyquestions?
Weretheyabletorecordandcompletealloftheirdatacollections,includingdetailedobservations?

Reflection

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