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English 11: ORAL COMMUNICATION IN CONTEXT (SHS)

TOPIC/ LESSON NAME


CONTENT STANDARD
PERFORMANCE
STANDARDS
LEARNING
COMPETENCIES
SPECIFIC LEARNING
OUTCOMES
TIME ALLOTMENT

Communication Models
The learner understands the nature and elements of oral communication in context.
The learner designs and performs effective controlled and uncontrolled oral
communication activities based on context.
Differentiates the various models of communication. (EN11/12OC-Ia-3)
The learner can make a comparison matrix of the various models of communication.
The learner can prepare and present a situation that illustrates their own model.
1.5 hours

LESSON OUTLINE
During the lesson, the learners will:
1. Introduction:
Discuss with the teacher previous learning about the Speech Communication
Transaction Model. (5 minutes)
2. Motivation:
Accomplish the Sender-Receiver Model Worksheet to enrich knowledge of the various
components of communication. (5 minutes)
3. Instruction/Delivery: Present ones researches on their assigned model of communication and discuss.
(40 minutes)
4. Practice:
Make a comparison matrix of the various models of communication. (15 minutes)
5. Enrichment:
Analyze the communication system in the family and choose a model that illustrates
it. (10 minutes)
6. Evaluation:
Prepare and present a situation that illustrates a model of communication of their choice.
(15 minutes)
MATERIALS

RESOURCES

Abulencia, Efren et.al Fundamentals of Speech Communication. Rex Bookstore. 2009


http://communicationtheory.org/aristotle%E2%80%99s-communication-model/
http://lms.oum.edu.my/econtent/OUMH1303KDP/content/24094922OUMH1303_OralCo
mmunication_v1/OUMH1303_Topic1/OUMH1303_1_2.html
http://thecommunicationprocess.com/models-of-communication/
Prepared by: KATRIN B. LUTAO, SHS Subject Teacher

May 2016

http://www.iacact.com/?q=modelshttp://communicationtheory.org/lasswells-model/
http://www.praccreditation.org/resources/documents/APRSG-Comm-Models.pdf
Accessed April 28, 2016
PROCEDURE
INTRODUCTION
1. Have a review of previous discussion on the nature of
communication.
2. Ask the students the following questions:
a. How can you define communication based on your own
understanding?
b. What did you learn about the Speech Communication
Transaction Model?

MEETING THE LEARNERS NEEDS

MOTIVATION
1. Provide the students with the Source-Receiver Model Worksheet.
Explain their task to create a specific example that shows how the
model illustrates the various components of communication. Let them
work in pairs. Afterwards, ask few students to answer this question:
a. How does this model help you understand the various
components of communication?
INSTRUCTION/DELIVERY
1. Students will share what they learned based from their researched
readings about their assigned model of communication. The teacher
will ask volunteers to draw the model on the board as the discussion is
going on.
2. The following are some information about the models of
communication.

Teacher Tip:
Briefly explain first to the students
the example given so they will find it
easy to create their own specific
example.

Teacher Tip:
While discussing, have students
identify some strengths and
weaknesses of each model of
communication. In addition, provide
concrete examples that apply to
each.

a. Aristotelian Model

Prepared by: KATRIN B. LUTAO, SHS Subject Teacher

May 2016

Aristotle, a great philosopher initiative the earliest mass communication


model called Aristotles Model of Communication. He proposed model
before 300 B.C who found the importance of audience role in communication
chain in his communication model. This model is more focused on public
speaking than interpersonal communication.
Aristotle Model of Communication is formed with 5 basic elements:

(i) Speaker, (ii) Speech, (iii) Occasion, (iv) Audience and (v) Effect.
Aristotle advises speakers to build speech for different audience on different
time (occasion) and for different effects.
Speaker plays an important role in Public speaking. The speaker must
prepare his speech and analysis audience needs before he enters into the
stage. His words should influence in audience mind and persuade their
thoughts towards him.
Example:

Prepared by: KATRIN B. LUTAO, SHS Subject Teacher

May 2016

Alexander gave brave speech to his soldiers in the war field to defeat Persian
Empire.
Speaker

Alexander

Speech

about his invasion

Occasion

War field

Audience

Soldiers

Effect

To defeat Persia

b. Laswells Model
Harold Dwight Lasswell, the American political scientist states that a
convenient way to describe an act of communication is to answer the
following questions

Who

Says What

In Which Channel

To Whom

With what effect?

Prepared by: KATRIN B. LUTAO, SHS Subject Teacher

May 2016

This model is about process of communication and its function to society,


According to Lasswell there are three functions for communication:
1.
Surveillance of the environment
2.
Correlation of components of society
3.
Cultural transmission between generation
Lasswell model suggests the message flow in a multicultural society with
multiple audiences. The flow of message is through various channels. And
also this communication model is similar to Aristotles communication model.
In this model, the communication component who refers the research area
called Control Analysis,
Says what is refers to Content Analysis,
In which channel is refers to Media Analysis,
To Whom is refers to Audience Analysis
With What Effect is refers to Effect Analysis
Example:
CNN NEWS A water leak from Japans tsunami-crippled nuclear power
station resulted in about 100 times the permitted level of radioactive
material flowing into the sea, operator Tokyo Electric Power Co said on
Saturday.
Who TEPC Operator
What Radioactive material flowing into sea
Prepared by: KATRIN B. LUTAO, SHS Subject Teacher

May 2016

Channel CNN NEWS (Television medium)


Whom Public
Effect Alert the people of japan from the radiation.
Advantage of Lasswell model:

It is Easy and Simple

It suits for almost all types of communication

The concept of effect


Disadvantage of Lasswell model:

Feedback not mentioned

Noise not mentioned

Linear Model
c. The Shannon and Weaver Model
The original model was designed to mirror the functioning of radio and
telephone technologies. Their initial model consisted of three primary
parts: sender, channel, and receiver. The sender was the part of
a telephone a person spoke into, the channel was the telephone itself, and
the receiver was the part of the phone where one could hear the other
person.
Shannon and Weaver also recognized that often there is static that interferes
with one listening to a telephone conversation, which they deemed noise.
The noise could also mean the absence of signal. In a simple model, often
referred
to
as the
transmission
model or standard
view
of
communication, information or content (e.g. a message in natural language)
is sent in some form (as spoken language) from an emisor/
sender/ encoder to a destination/ receiver/ decoder. This common conception
of communication views communication as a means of sending and receiving
information.

Prepared by: KATRIN B. LUTAO, SHS Subject Teacher

May 2016

The strengths of this model are simplicity, generality, and quantifiability.


Social scientists Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver structured this model
based on the following elements: An information source, which produces a
message. A transmitter, which encodes the message into signals. A channel,
to which signals are adapted for transmission. A receiver, which 'decodes'
(reconstructs) the message from the signal. A destination, where the
message arrives. Shannon and Weaver argued that there were three levels of
problems for communication within this theory. The technical problem: how
accurately can the message be transmitted? The semantic problem: how
precisely is the meaning 'conveyed'? The effectiveness problem: how
effectively does the received meaning affect behavior?

d. Berlos SMCR Model

Prepared by: KATRIN B. LUTAO, SHS Subject Teacher

May 2016

In 1960, David Berlo expanded on Shannon and Weavers (1949) linear model
of communication and created the SMCR Model of Communication. The
Sender-Message-Channel-Receiver Model of communication separated the
model into clear parts and has been expanded upon by other scholars.
e. Schramms Model
Communication is usually described along a few major dimensions: Message
(what type of things are communicated), Source / emisor /
sender / encoder (by whom), Form (in which form), Channel (through
which medium), Destination / receiver / target /decoder (to whom), and
Receiver.

Schramm's Model of Commnunication was postulated by Wilbur Schramm in


Prepared by: KATRIN B. LUTAO, SHS Subject Teacher

May 2016

1954, where he suggested that communication is a two way process where


both sender and receiver take turns to send and receive a message. The
message is only sent after encoding so the sender is also called Encoder and
the encoded message is decoded under receipt by the receiver, making him
the Decoder.
Schramm's Model has different components for communications where

Sender (transmitter) is the person who sends the message.


Encoder is the person who converts the message to be sent into
codes.
Decoder is the person who gets the encoded message which has
been sent by the encoder and converts it into the language
understandable by the person.
Interpreter is the person who tries to understand and analyze the
message. Message is received after interpretation. Interpreter
and receiver is the same person.
Receiver is the person who gets the message. He/she decodes and
interprets the actual message.
Message is the data sent by the sender and information that the
receiver gets.
Feedback is the process of responding to the received message by
the receiver.
Medium or media is the channel used to send the message.
Noise is the interference and interruptions caused during the process.
It is also created when the intended meaning of the message sent by the
sender and the meaning interpreted by the receiver is different which
is known as Semantic Noise.

PRACTICE
1. Divide the class into five groups. Tell each to make a comparison table

Teacher Tip:
Students may also perform a task of

Prepared by: KATRIN B. LUTAO, SHS Subject Teacher

May 2016

of the various models of communications. The characteristics will be


presented to guide them in analyzing the similarities and differences of
the models. They will be given 10 minutes to work on the task and 5
minutes to present in the class their output.
ENRICHMENT
1. Ask students to analyze the communication system in their own family.
They will choose a model that illustrates the communication. They will
share to the class their analysis.
EVALUATION
1. The students will prepare and present a situation that illustrates a
model of communication of their choice. They will be given 10
minutes to prepare and 5 minutes for presentation.

analyzing
posts
of
famous
personalities,
focusing
on
the
message, and check which model
suits the communication.

Teacher Tip:
The teacher may provide/assign
students with contexts/setting from
which they will think of a situation to
present.

Prepared by: KATRIN B. LUTAO, SHS Subject Teacher

May 2016