The First World War Origins

 

   



The rise of Germany: unification in 19 th century, 1870-71 a war with france, france looses, Alsace and Lorraine are taken, Bismarck ass ures good relations with Russia and Britain Wilhelm the 2 nd: Germany should have a powerful navy and colonies, aggressive foreign policy The arms race: Britain and Germany compete in the size of their navies ( british: Dreadnought and superdreadnought), france increases army and russia invests in military railways Alliences: 1) Central powers: 1879:allience between Germany and AustriaHungary 2)Allied powers: 1892; Russia and France,Britain originally thought about joining Germany but decided for an entente with the allies and joined France in 1904 and Russia in 1907 Sarajevo: 28th of June 1914, Franz Ferdinand is assasinated , AH wants revenge, pretext to crush Serbia but Serbia allied to Russia and Russia to France and great Britain and AH to Germany The german support the Ah in the war and urge them t o start it soon The British make it unclear whether they will fight Germany

The War 

  

Stalemate, trenches, tanks. New weapons, gas, new allies, aeroplanes Bulgaria joins war with Central powers and Italy on the side of the allies Usa enters the war in april 1917 and Russia aleaves in March 1918 Germany defeated, armistice signed on the 11 th 11 1918

The Peace treaties  



The Problems to face: Communisn in Russia, German strenght in the war ( amost defeated the allies single handed), new countries in Europ e, War ended faster then anticipated, central and eastern europe in chaos, secret treaties The Big three: Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenceau, L loyd George The fourteen points: 1. No secret treatties 2. Free navigation upon seas 3. free trade 4. Arms Reduction 5. Withdrawal of armies from Russia 6. Germans should leave Belgium 7. Invading armies should leave Balkan states 8. a League of Nations should be set up 9. Alsace Lorraine shold be returned to France 10. The Italian Borders hould be adjusted so that Italian people live in I taly

11. The Future o colonies should be reviewed and the wishes of locals considered 12. The people of Ah should be given their freedom 13. An independant Poland should be set up and have access to sea 14. Non turkish peopel living in the Turkish empire should be free t o set up their own governmets   The Europeans disliked the 14 points ( eg: Secret traties, fre navigation, colonies) and disagreed on points of Treaty Clemenceau: hars peace, reparations, rhinelan d, buffer zone, gain territory and colonies, make sure Germany never rises again, Strong Poland so Germany cannot rise Lloyd George: moderate treaty, not too weak germany so it can resist Communism and prevent France from dominating Europe, not too hars not to provoke need for revenge Woodrow Wilson: fair peace, jan 1918: the fourteen point, not a hars h treaty The colonies of France and Britain remained colonised so no self determination and the German and the Turkish Colonies were turned into mandates: looked after on behalf of the league of nations The 14 points: 1. Succesful: Germany to leave Belgium, return of alsace and lorraine, Independant Poland, Independance of the peoples of AH 2. Partiall Achieved: League of Nation, Italian borders, balkan states to be left alone 3. Failed: Ban of secret treaties, free tr ade, Free navigation, greater independace of the colonies, non -interference in Russia, independance for the non-turkish people of Turkey, General disarmament 
The Versailles Treaty : 1. Germany forced to disarm : 100 000 army, no tanks or airforce, demilitarised Rhineland, 6 warships no submarines 2. Loss of territory: To Poland: posen, west prussia so east prussia separated from Germany by the Polish Corridor, North Schelswig to Denmark, alsace and lorraine to France, Some land to Lithuania and Belgium, Danzig to the league of nations,Saarland controlled by the league of nations and used by France for 15 years , colonies lost 3. Reparations 4. War Guilt Clause 231  

 

Assesing the VT 1. Wrong to blame one nation of war guilt 2. Wrong to punish people and not leaders 3. Army reduced but generals left so they could rebuild army when needed 4. Weakening German economy would not help Europe 5. German Economy revived 6. Little land lost 7. Germany mocked 14 points and was hars when winning (eg Brest Litovsk0 8. germany was tricked: expected 14 points treatment that didnt talk about reparations or loss of territory

The other peace treaties: 1. 1919 Saint-Germain : treaty with Austria: loss of territory to Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia and Poland, no anschluss, 30 000 army 2. 1919 Neuilly: Bulgaria: land lost to greece, romania and yugoslavia, 20 000 man army 3. 1920 Trianon: Hungary: loss of territory to Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Romania, 35 000 army, no acces to sea, after communist putch failed, General Horthy came to power 4. 1923 Lausanne: Turkey ± reviewed from 1920 sevres treaty: no reparations, took back land from greece that it gave to it under sevres traety Consequences of the Peace  

 

Weimar Republic has problems, inflation,reparations, unrespect, seen as Stab in the back of the German people, the treaty was a dictat and Weimar the November criminals, clause 231 disliked,loss of land hated Poland: wars and a revolution in 1926, conquered Part of ukraine and belarus, took Vilna of Lithuania Czechoslovakia: Ethnic tensions Hungary: Problems, tension, want to get back land

League Of nations: 

      

League covenant: the rules Started in January 1920 Commissions: deals with particular problems: eg disarmament, mandates, Commitees: WHO, ILO, Conference of Ambassadors: insight into putting peace traties into practice League Assembly: discusses League Council:decides, veto, Most be unanimousm led by Britain, france, Italy and Japan Problems: 1. European Club: caused war and should lead? 2. Racial Discrimination: Japanese request againt it, put down due to colonies 3. Lack of members: no loosing powers so no Hungary, Austria or Germany, No Us due to senate decision, No Russia due to communism 4. Tension between France and Britain causes Problems Collective security: all for one and one for all, one attacked tha same as all attacked Means of supporting decisios: 1. World Public Opinion but not in dictatorshps, varies in world, can be ignored 2. Reducing armaments but cannot be imposed or checked and how to define minimum level 3. trade Embargos but Usa can fill the gap 



4. Force but will countries take the risk The achievement od the League: 1. Refugees and homes ( The refugee Organisation) 2. Fridjof Nansen helped War prisoners return home 3. Ilo improved some working conditions 4. Health org reduced cases og illnesses and leprosy 5. 1920: settles the dispute over Aland islands between Finland and Sweden 6. 1920s: Led Danzig and Saarland fairly 7. 1922: Austrian Economy helped 8. 1925: Stopped a conflict between Bulgaria and Greece 9. 1926-Germany becomed member of league 10. 1934- The USSR becomes member The Failures of the League 1. 1920: unable to settle dispute between Poland and Lithuaninia 2. Did not take part inthe settlement of the dispute over corfu 3. 1931-Manchuria 4. 1933-Italy leaves the League? 5. 1934- Germany leaves the League 6. 1936-Abyssinia Why did the League Fail? 1. Some countries were not members ( USA, USSR till 1934, Germany 1926 1934, ) 2. Britain and Francce quarelled 3. Depression weakened the League ( less concern for faraway places, 4. The League lacked teeth: Collective security did not work
Gemany, the dawes plan and the youngs plan

The terms of the dawes plan  Reduce the level of reparations  Freeze on the payement for a period of 2 years  The usa borrowed money to Germany  The french agreed to get their forces out of the Ruhr  Agreed in April of 1924 The Young plan:  1929  Was to reduce the levels of payement  Depression and the opposition of the extremists caused it to never take place

Locarno 

1921-1922-The Washington conferences: limit the tensions in the Pacific ocean and sizes of navies on a to b to J in the ration 5:5:3, showed that the League s influence is limited 

  

  

Genoa 1922: meeting between F and G over the disagreement concerning the reparations and the disarmamne, failed Rapallo 1922: Soviet-German treaty, Friendly terms, co-operation on military planning, shocking, against the rules of the league so reduces its authority 1925- Locarno treaties: Germany (streseman), France(Briand) and B ritain (chamberlain) agree that 1. Germany, Belgium and France agreed to to accept thei r existing borders as set up by the VT 2. Italy and Great Britain were to quarantee the main agreement and take action if one of the countries attacked each other 3. The traety did not talk about the eastern borders of Germany as set up by the VT 4. Germany was to join the League 5. France promised to defend Belgium, Poland and Czechoslovakia should they be attacked by Germany Seen as the beginning of a period of stability and peace bu t humiliated the Leagues colective secutiry system German view of Locarno: Eastern borders not included in discussions o can be overrun, beginning of the end of VT, Streseman wants more French view of Locarno: limits possibility of intervention in Germany like in 1923,feel insecure since Rhineland will be returned to Germany one day making it stroger, build Maginot line in 1927 August 1928: the Kelogg -Briand pact: countries agree that they will not use warfare to get what they want, irrelevant , useless, br oken by Japan and Italy

The Rise of Hitler 

 

    

Hitler was born in Austria in 1889, he served in the army and dislike the treaty of Versailles He took and lead the German Workers Party and renamed it to the National Socialist German Workes party and organised the paramilitary into the SA (sturmabteilung) 1923 - Problems, the Ruhr invasions, strikes, inflation, value of money collapsed, November 1923; the Beer Hall Putch, Fails and Hitler arrested but gains publicity Mein Kampf: Jews are wicked, Communism is wicked, Tv is unjust, Weimar are criminals, Lebensraum needed 1924 -Streseman comes to power, dawes plan, new curency, trade, economic recovery October 1929- Depression, higher import taxes to protect local industry increased so trade falls, USA becomes isolationist, this encourages Hitler, more support for Hitler and the communists 1933-Hitler claims that only he can stop the communists, made chancellor, reichstag fire an excuse to crush opposition and threw elections, won , passes enabling act and bans other parties and closes newspapers, leaves League of nations and rearms

The depression In Britain 



Industry hit very badly Pound no longer a key curremcy in internatuional trade and not lin ked to price of gold, reduces spending on defence and is cautious towards Germany since it cant defend its colonies against J apan and fight Germany at the same time

The depression in France  Crushes industry and national income  Rise in support of communists and right wing extremists
Manchuria  Attacked in Septembre 1931, need for an empire, at the time of the depression  Lytton Commitee send by the League, Slow to carry out its work  Japan leaves the League in 1933 for being criticised, the League itself is criticised Rise of Mussolini and Fascism in Italy 

        

VT seen as mutilated peace, did not get all the land that they wanted Unstable, Parliaments keep changing ( 5 between 1919 and 1922) 1922- Formes fascists, alters policies to please, march on Rome to gain publicity, king asks for help aga inst commnists, Mussolini ascednds to power, 1925 Mussolini becomes dictator 1929-agreement with the pope 1935-1936- Italy attacks Abyssinia 1936- The Rome Berlin axis, The anti-comintern Pact 1943-Italy invaded by allies 1945-Mussolini overthrown Key Ideas of Italian Fascism: War is good for a country, a country should be self-sufficient, Empire in Africa should be set up, Communism is the enemy of fascism,Democracy is useless

Abyssinian War 

  

1896- First war against Abyssinia 1935- The stresa front: the grouping of Italy, France and Britain, anti -German 1935- Stresa Front weakened by the Anglo -German naval pact, breached the VT 1935-Italy attacks Abyssinia, he Hoare-Laval pact planned but not put into practice, a ban finally imposed on Italy but to late a nd Italy won

Results of the Crisis 1. The League was discredited 2. Mussolini and Hitler drew closer together ( axis, the anti -cintern pact) 3. Hitler able to get away with agression

Appeasement and The Road to war Appeasement: the countries refused to use force to stop aggression and often made deals and gave in to the agressor states    

1936- Hitler sends troops to the Rhineland, risky, Germans cannot afford a war, France reluctant to intervene, British think the mo ve rightful, Hitler makes propositions: 25 year non-agression pact, Germany rejoin the league, demilitarised zones in France and Germany along the borders The Anschlus with Austria, March 1938, Schusnigg, local nazis cause trouble, Hitler threatens invasion and use of force, Schusnigg organises a plebiscite, Hitler invades Austria before itis carried out Czechoslovakia: Sudetendland, 3 million Germans, Konrad Henlein ( sudeten German Party) claims these are treated unfairly, Impossible demands, Hitler furious, France reluctant to fullfill Locarno, britain refuses to helt, pushes Czechoslovakia to make concessions and send Lord Runciman , Hitler is ready to go to war, The KH organises unrest and leaves Czechoslovakia, Chamberlain appeals for a deal to be made , Hitler agrees later refuses, agreement n the Munich Treaty, decision taken on September 29 th of 1938 October 1938- Sudetenland land taken

Appeasement 1. Chamberlain : believed that Hitler is a reasonable man who wil hold his promises ank satisfy with Czechoslovakia the last of his territorial demands 2. The Empire: The dominions were unwilling to help, colonies may be taken away, Japan and Germany cannot be fought at the same time 3. The Missing powers:  The USA was isolationist, army was small and poorly eq uipped due to cuts in military spending , the Senate passed a Neutrality pact in 1935  The USSR was seen as unreliable ( Purges) 4. Playing for time : Camberlain needed time to re -arm and prepare Britain for a potential war
The nazi-Soviet Pact 1939 

 

Stalin is perfectly happy to do a deal with either the Allies or Germany, to him they are all capitalists, wants to avoid them from joinig against USSR Tries for a deal with Germany in 1934 but fails, joins League and turns to Allies, They are slow, Litvinov+Stalin despise apeasement, distrust france and Britain, suspect they want a war between Germany and the USSR The deal with Allies April 1939: took 6 weeks to reply, cannot quarantee right of passage through Poland and R omania,promise to protect East European Countries from Germany and help each other when attacked, no senior to sign a treaty 

The deal with Germany: In moscow, Molotov and Ribbentrop, High level taslks, proposals, Secret Proto col-gain land of Baltic states, Ukraine, part of Poland and Belarus

The second World War¶     Causes 1. The treaty of Versailles 2. The Failure of the League 3. The Depression ( Isolationism , protectioni sm, Extremists supported,Political turmoil in F and GB, Ital + Jap want to diverge the minds of the people from thei suffering) 4. The Appeasementv 5. The Nazi Soviet Pact
The development of the war

March 1938- the rest of Czechoslovakia is taken Hitler demands Danzig, Allies see Appeasement failed, ready to go to war over Poland Allies not worried by the Nazi ±soviet pact, Japan and Italy dislike it and refuse to suport Hitler, Dominions agree to help GB Hitler s advisors say Gb and F will not fight, they have no reason and nothing to gain 

  

         

The Blitkrieg in Poland, the use of overwhelming force, Poland taken The USSR invades Poland and the Baltic states, Fights Finland and wins The Phoney war October 1939- April 1940: the Alies try to block the Scandinavian Iron ore from reaching Hitler, Stop trade completely, Hitler invades denmark and Norway, Chamberlain and Daladier have to resign ( April 1940) May 1940- Belgium , Netherlands and France are attacked and fall, the British leave in Dunkirk evacuation, Italy joins the war in june 1940 The Battle of Britain: The RAF vs the Luftwaffe, the RAF wins Italy defeated in Africa and fails to invade Greece, needs help form Hitler June 1941- Hitler invades the USSR, succesful at first, invasion slowed down December 1941- Pearl Harbor attacked, the USA joins the war but Japan still controls most of the Pacific 1942-Germans attack Stalingrad, Japan pushed back by USA, Allies recapture Africa, 1943- Allies push G+J+I back 1943- Italy Invaded 1944- Germans retreat across USSR D DAY- June 1944 April 1945- War ends in europe August 1945- atomic bomb used, Japan surrenders

The loss of the Colonies 1. 2. 3. 4. The impact of the Depression The Europeans suffered losses in the war- not infaillible The European powers couldnt afford to pay for the colonies There was a rise in nationalism in the colonies and a fall in imperialism in Europe

Consequences 1. Weak economy 2. Turmoil 3. Decline of European powers
The Cold War Who to blame? 1. The USSR was to blame 2. The USA was to blame 3. Neither was to blame, the situation was beyond their control

The Origins 1. The USA and the USSR had different believes 2. Bot the USA and the USSR thought they were right and other counrtires should follow their example 3. They both envisaged a different future for European countries The Yalta Agrement Feb 1945       Discussions over post war development, mailn ly Poland, its government Churchill: no communism Roosevelt: ill , wants deemocracy, but insists on maintaining good realtions between USA and USSR Stalin: worried for the USSR security, wants to keep occupied territory and set up friendly governments Lublin Poles London Poles: exiled government, Landowners and catholics, dislike communism and the pact with Hitler, anti communist, dislike Katyn, crushed in Warsaw uprising in 1944 

Decisions taken 1. Declaration on Liberated Europe: each liberated country will have an emergency government composed of all non -fascist parties and will hold free elcetions as soon as possible 2. Poland will be given German land in exc hange for giving land to USSR 3. Polish government will include some London Poles and free elections will be held as soon as possible 4. The USSR prisoners of war are to be returned to the USSR 5. Germany will be divided into occupation zones 6. USSR will help to fight Japa n in exchange fo gaining some islands

7. United Nations will be set up
Weaknesses of the agreement 1. Stalin and Rossevelt interpreted democracy and free elections differently 2. The USA expected Stalin to enable western like governments to be set up, this did not happen 3. Compromise over Poland was not possible, Stalin could only achieve what he wanted by destroying free speech as Polish people did not want communism

April 1945- Truman becomes the US president  Truman takes an aggresive approach to the USSR , he is aggressive towards Molotov and shouts at him to carry out the Yalta agreement, unfair since USSR suffered more then the USA and Poland served as a corridor for the invasion of USSR 3 times Potsdam Conference July - August 1945  Attlee, Stalin and Truman Agreements 1. Reparations to be takne form zones of occupation, USSR to receive equipment form the west 2. Polish and German borders fixed 3. Nazi Party stamped out 4. USSR wanted an occupation zone in Japan -put down 5. USSR wanted to help the running of Ruhr ±put down 6. GB + USA wanted a say in the development of t he Eastern countries- put down Churchill supports hard line approach to the communist and talks of the iron curtain The soviet takeover of Eastern Europe      Set up coallition of anti -fascist governments, communists undermine opposition, nationalisation,rigg ed elections Poland: Government of lublin Poles accepted by allies, rigged election, london poles flee Poland 1947 Bulgaria and Romania: abolished monarchy and communists acsend to power 1946+1947 Hungary: rigged elections 1947 Czechoslovakia: 1948, harvest risis, milicias, Benes, Gottwald and Masaryk

Russian view 1. Russia triumphed, contributed to victory more then other allies, Communism beaten german capitalism 2. The level of losses and suffering should never repeat 3. USSR should not be threatened byt the anti-soviet leaders of neighbouring countries 4. American Capitalism should not conquer Europe 1946- the relations deteriorate 1. Council of foreign ministers: every soviet proposal blocked by US representative 2. Black Sea straits base: forbidden by us, t hreats to use force

3. US forced USSR to withdraw form Iran 1947:Problems in Europe: poor harvest, shortages, extreme winter, support for communism grows The Truman Doctrine feb 1947  The USA support was available to any people that decided to fight communism  The USA would use its wealth and power to stop or contain the spread of communism The Marshall Plan 1947  Economical rebuilding of Europe to help it resist Communism and buil up American markets The Berlin Blockade The Berlin Airlift Creation of Western germany Nato Cominform Comecon Creation of Estern germany China becomes communist Warsaw pact USSR gets atom bomb

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