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Aesop's Fables
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Aesop's Fables or the Aesopica is a collection of fables credited to Aesop, a slave and
storyteller believed to have lived in ancient Greece between 620 and 564 BCE. Of diverse
origins, the stories associated with Aesop's name have descended to modern times through a
number of sources. They continue to be reinterpreted in different verbal registers and in popular
as well as artistic media.

Contents
1 Fictions that point to the truth
1.1 Fable as a genre
1.2 Origins A detail of the 13th-century Fontana Maggiore in
2 Translation and transmission Perugia with the fables of The Wolf and the Crane
2.1 Greek versions and The Wolf and the Lamb
2.2 Latin versions
3 Aesop's Fables in other languages
3.1 Europe
3.2 Asia and America
4 Versions in regional languages
4.1 Creole
4.2 Slang
5 Children
6 Religious themes
7 Dramatised fables
8 Musical treatments
9 List of some fables by Aesop
9.1 Titles A-L
9.2 Titles M-Z
9.3 Fables wrongly attributed to Aesop
10 References
11 Further reading

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12 External links

Fictions that point to the truth


Fable as a genre

Apollonius of Tyana, a 1st-century CE philosopher, is recorded as having said about Aesop:

... like those who dine well off the plainest dishes, he made use of humble incidents to teach great
truths, and after serving up a story he adds to it the advice to do a thing or not to do it. Then, too,
he was really more attached to truth than the poets are; for the latter do violence to their own
stories in order to make them probable; but he by announcing a story which everyone knows not
to be true, told the truth by the very fact that he did not claim to be relating real events.

— Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana, Book V:14

The Greek historian Herodotus mentioned in passing that "Aesop the fable writer" was a slave who lived in
Ancient Greece during the 5th century BCE.[1] Among references in other writers, Aristophanes, in his
comedy The Wasps, represented the protagonist Philocleon as having learnt the "absurdities" of Aesop from
conversation at banquets; Plato wrote in Phaedo that Socrates whiled away his jail time turning some of
Aesop's fables "which he knew" into verses. Nonetheless, for two main reasons – because numerous morals
within Aesop's attributed fables contradict each other, and because ancient accounts of Aesop's life contradict The beginning of 1485 Italian edition
of Aesopus Moralisatus
each other – the modern view is that Aesop was not the originator of all those fables attributed to him.[2]
Instead, any fable tended to be ascribed to the name of Aesop if there was no known alternative literary
source.[3]

In Classical times there were various theorists who tried to differentiate these fables from other kinds of narration. They had to be short and
unaffected;[4] in addition, they are fictitious, useful to life and true to nature.[5] In them could be found talking animals and plants, although humans
interacting only with humans figure in a few. Typically they might begin with a contextual introduction, followed by the story, often with the moral
underlined at the end. Setting the context was often necessary as a guide to the story's interpretation, as in the case of the political meaning of The
Frogs Who Desired a King and The Frogs and the Sun.

Sometimes the titles given later to the fables have become proverbial, as in the case of killing the Goose that Laid the Golden Eggs or the Town
Mouse and the Country Mouse. In fact some fables, such as The Young Man and the Swallow, appear to have been invented as illustrations of already

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existing proverbs. One theorist, indeed, went so far as to define fables as extended proverbs.[6] In this they have an aetiological function, the
explaining of origins such as, in another context, why the ant is a mean, thieving creature or how the tortoise got its shell. Other fables, also verging
on this function, are outright jokes, as in the case of The Old Woman and the Doctor, aimed at greedy practitioners of medicine.

Origins

The contradictions between fables already mentioned and alternative versions of much the same fable - as in the case of The Woodcutter and the
Trees, are best explained by the ascription to Aesop of all examples of the genre. Some are demonstrably of West Asian origin, others have analogues
further to the East. Modern scholarship reveals fables and proverbs of Aesopic form existing in both ancient Sumer and Akkad, as early as the third
millennium BCE.[7] Aesop's fables and the Indian tradition, as represented by the Buddhist Jataka Tales and the Hindu Panchatantra, share about a
dozen tales in common, although often widely differing in detail. There is some debate over whether the Greeks learned these fables from Indian
storytellers or the other way, or if the influences were mutual.

Loeb editor Ben E. Perry took the extreme position in his book Babrius and Phaedrus that

In the entire Greek tradition there is not, so far as I can see, a single fable that can be said to come either directly or indirectly from an
Indian source; but many fables or fable-motifs that first appear in Greek or Near Eastern literature are found later in the Panchatantra and
other Indian story-books, including the Buddhist Jatakas.[8]

Although Aesop and the Buddha were near contemporaries, the stories of neither were recorded in writing until some centuries after their death. Few
disinterested scholars would now be prepared to make so absolute a stand as Perry about their origin in view of the conflicting and still emerging
evidence.[9][10]

Translation and transmission


Greek versions

When and how the fables arrived in and travelled from ancient Greece remains uncertain. Some cannot be dated any earlier than Babrius and
Phaedrus, several centuries after Aesop, and yet others even later. The earliest mentioned collection was by Demetrius of Phalerum, an Athenian
orator and statesman of the 4th century BCE, who compiled the fables into a set of ten books for the use of orators. A follower of Aristotle, he simply
catalogued all the fables that earlier Greek writers had used in isolation as exempla, putting them into prose. At least it was evidence of what was
attributed to Aesop by others; but this may have included any ascription to him from the oral tradition in the way of animal fables, fictitious
anecdotes, etiological or satirical myths, possibly even any proverb or joke, that these writers transmitted. It is more a proof of the power of Aesop's
name to attract such stories to it than evidence of his actual authorship. In any case, although the work of Demetrius was mentioned frequently for the
next twelve centuries, and was considered the official Aesop, no copy now survives. Present day collections evolved from the later Greek version of

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Babrius, of which there now exists an incomplete manuscript of some 160 fables in choliambic verse. Current
opinion is that he lived in the 1st century CE. The version of 55 fables in choliambic tetrameters by the 9th
century CE Ignatius the Deacon is also worth mentioning for its early inclusion of tales from Oriental
sources.[11]

Further light is thrown on the entry of Oriental stories into the Aesopic canon by their appearance in Jewish
commentaries on the Talmud and in Midrashic literature from the 1st century CE. There is a comparative list of
these on the Jewish Encyclopedia website[12] of which twelve resemble those that are common to both Greek
and Indian sources, six are parallel to those only in Indian sources, and six others in Greek only. Where similar
fables exist in Greece, India, and in the Talmud, the Talmudic form approaches more nearly the Indian. Thus,
the fable "The Wolf and the Crane" is told in India of a lion and another bird. When Joshua ben Hananiah told
that fable to the Jews, to prevent their rebelling against Rome and once more putting their heads into the lion's
jaws (Gen. R. lxiv.), he shows familiarity with some form derived from India.

Latin versions

The first extensive translation of Aesop into Latin iambic trimeters was
performed by Phaedrus, a freedman of Augustus in the 1st century CE,
although at least one fable had already been translated by the poet
A Greek manuscript of the fables of
Ennius two centuries before, and others are referred to in the work of
Babrius
Horace. The rhetorician Aphthonius of Antioch wrote a technical
treatise on, and converted into Latin prose, some forty of these fables in
315. It is notable as illustrating contemporary and later usage of fables in rhetorical practice. Teachers of
philosophy and rhetoric often set the fables of Aesop as an exercise for their scholars, inviting them not only to
discuss the moral of the tale, but also to practise style and the rules of grammar by making new versions of
their own. A little later the poet Ausonius handed down some of these fables in verse, which the writer
Julianus Titianus translated into prose, and in the early 5th century Avianus put 42 of these fables into Latin
elegiacs.

The largest, oldest known and most influential of the prose versions of Phaedrus bears the name of an
otherwise unknown fabulist named Romulus. It contains 83 fables, dates from the 10th century and seems to
have been based on an earlier prose version which, under the name of "Aesop" and addressed to one Rufus,
12th-century pillar, cloister of the may have been written in the Carolingian period or even earlier. The collection became the source from which,
Collegiata di Sant'Orso, Aosta: the during the second half of the Middle Ages, almost all the collections of Latin fables in prose and verse were
Fox and the Stork wholly or partially drawn. A version of the first three books of Romulus in elegiac verse, possibly made
around the 12th century, was one of the most highly influential texts in medieval Europe. Referred to variously
(among other titles) as the verse Romulus or elegiac Romulus, it was a common Latin teaching text and was

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popular well into the Renaissance. Another version of Romulus in Latin elegiacs was made by Alexander Neckam, born at St Albans in 1157.

Interpretive "translations" of the elegiac Romulus were very common in Europe in the Middle Ages. Among the earliest was one in the 11th century
by Ademar of Chabannes, which includes some new material. This was followed by a prose collection of parables by the Cistercian preacher Odo of
Cheriton around 1200 where the fables (many of which are not Aesopic) are given a strong medieval and clerical tinge. This interpretive tendency,
and the inclusion of yet more non-Aesopic material, was to grow as versions in the various European vernaculars began to appear in the following
centuries.

With the revival of literary Latin during the Renaissance, authors began compiling collections of fables in
which those traditionally by Aesop and those from other sources appeared side by side. One of the earliest was
by Lorenzo Bevilaqua, also known as Laurentius Abstemius, who wrote 197 fables,[13] the first hundred of
which were published as Hecatomythium in 1495. Little by Aesop was included. At the most, some traditional
fables are adapted and reinterpreted: The Lion and the Mouse is continued and given a new ending (fable 52);
The Oak and the Reed becomes "The Elm and the Willow" (53); The Ant and the Grasshopper is adapted as
"The Gnat and the Bee" (94) with the difference that the gnat offers to teach music to the bee's children. There
are also Mediaeval tales such as The Mice in Council (195) and stories created to support popular proverbs
such as 'Still Waters Run Deep' (5) and 'A woman, an ass and a walnut tree' (65), where the latter refers back to
Aesop's fable of The Walnut Tree. Most of the fables in Hecatomythium were later translated in the second half
of Roger L'Estrange's Fables of Aesop and other eminent mythologists (1692);[14] some also appeared among
the 102 in H. Clarke's Latin reader, Select fables of Aesop: with an English translation (1787), of which there
were both English and American editions.[15]

There were later three notable collections of fables in verse, among which the most influential was Gabriele
Faerno's Centum Fabulae (1564). The majority of the hundred fables there are Aesop's but there are also
humorous tales such as The drowned woman and her husband (41) and The miller, his son and the donkey
(100). In the same year that Faerno was published in Italy, Hieronymus Osius brought out a collection of 294 Aesopus constructus etc., 1495
fables titled Fabulae Aesopi carmine elegiaco redditae in Germany. [16] This too contained some from edition with metrical version of
elsewhere, such as The Dog in the Manger (67). Then in 1604 the Austrian Pantaleon Weiss, known as Fabulae Lib. I-IV by Anonymus
Pantaleon Candidus, published Centum et Quinquaginta Fabulae. [17] The 152 poems there were grouped by Neveleti
subject, with sometimes more than one devoted to the same fable, although presenting alternative versions of
it, as in the case of The Hawk and the Nightingale (133-5). It also includes the earliest instance of The Lion, the Bear and the Fox (60) in a language
other than Greek.

Another voluminous collection of fables in Latin verse was Anthony Alsop's Fabularum Aesopicarum Delectus (Oxford 1698).[18] The bulk of the
237 fables there are prefaced by the text in Greek, while there are also a handful in Hebrew and in Arabic; the final fables, only attested from Latin
sources, are without other versions. For the most part the poems are confined to a lean telling of the fable without drawing a moral.

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Aesop's Fables in other languages


Europe

For many centuries the main transmission of Aesop's fables across Europe remained in Latin or else orally in various vernaculars, where they mixed
with folk tales deriving from other sources. This mixing is often apparent in early vernacular collections of fables in mediaeval times.

Ysopet, an adaptation of some of the fables into Old French octosyllabic couplets, was written by Marie de France in the 12th century.[19] The
morals with which she closes each fable reflect the feudal situation of her time.
In the 13th century the Jewish author Berechiah ha-Nakdan wrote Mishlei Shualim, a collection of 103 'Fox Fables' in Hebrew rhymed prose.
This included many animal tales passing under the name of Aesop, as well as several more derived from Marie de France and others.
Berechiah's work adds a layer of Biblical quotations and allusions to the tales, adapting them as a way to teach Jewish ethics. The first printed
edition appeared in Mantua in 1557.[20]
Äsop, an adaptation into Middle Low German verse of 125 Romulus fables, was written by Gerhard von Minden around 1370.[21]
Chwedlau Odo ("Odo's Tales") is a 14th-century Welsh version of the animal fables in Odo of Cheriton's Parabolae, not all of which are of
Aesopic origin. Many show sympathy for the poor and oppressed, with often sharp criticisms of high-ranking church officials.[22]
Eustache Deschamps included several of Aesop's fables among his moral ballades, written in Mediaeval French towards the end of the 14th
century,[23] in one of which there is mention of what 'Aesop tells in his book' (Ysoppe dit en son livre et raconte). In most, the telling of the
fable precedes the drawing of a moral in terms of contemporary behaviour, but two comment on this with only contextual reference to fables not
recounted in the text.
Isopes Fabules was written in Middle English rhyme royal stanzas by the monk John Lydgate towards the start of the 15th century.[24] Seven
tales are included and heavy emphasis is laid on the moral lessons to be learned from them.
The Morall Fabillis of Esope the Phrygian was written in Middle Scots iambic pentameters by Robert Henryson about 1480.[25] In the accepted
text it consists of thirteen versions of fables, seven modelled on stories from "Aesop" expanded from the Latin Romulus manuscripts.

The main impetus behind the translation of large collections of fables attributed to Aesop and translated into European languages came from an early
printed publication in Germany. There had been many small selections in various languages during the Middle Ages but the first attempt at an
exhaustive edition was made by Heinrich Steinhőwel in his Esopus, published c.1476. This contained both Latin versions and German translations
and also included a translation of Rinuccio da Castiglione (or d'Arezzo)'s version from the Greek of a life of Aesop (1448).[26] Some 156 fables
appear, collected from Romulus, Avianus and other sources, accompanied by a commentarial preface and moralising conclusion, and 205
woodcuts.[27] Translations or versions based on Steinhöwel's book followed shortly in Italian (1479), French (1480), Czech (1480) and English (the
Caxton edition of 1484) and were many times reprinted before the start of the 16th century. The Spanish version of 1489, La vida del Ysopet con sus
fabulas hystoriadas was equally successful and often reprinted in both the Old and New World through three centuries.[28]

Some fables were later treated creatively in collections of their own by authors in such a way that they became associated with their names rather than

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Aesop's. The most celebrated were La Fontaine's Fables, published in French during the later 17th century.
Inspired by the brevity and simplicity of Aesop's,[29] those in the first six books were heavily dependent on
traditional Aesopic material; fables in the next six were more diffuse and diverse in origin.[30] At the start of
the 19th century, some of the fables were adapted into Russian, and often reinterpreted, by the fabulist Ivan
Krylov.[31] In most cases, but not all, these were dependent on La Fontaine's versions.

Asia and America

Translations into Asian languages at a very early date derive originally from Greek sources. These include the
so-called Fables of Syntipas, a compilation of Aesopic fables in Syriac, dating from the 9/11th centuries.
Included there were several other tales of possibly West Asian origin.[32] In Central Asia there was a
10th-century collection of the fables in Uighur.[33] The fable of the farmer and his sons
from Caxton's edition, 1484
After the Middle Ages, fables largely deriving from Latin sources were passed on by Europeans as part of their
colonial or missionary enterprises. 47 fables were translated into Nahuatl in the late 16th century under the title
In sasanilli in Esopo. The work of a native translator, it adapted the stories to fit the Mexican environment, incorporating Aztec concepts and rituals
and making them rhetorically more subtle than their Latin source.[34]

Portuguese missionaries arriving in Japan at the end of the 16th century introduced Japan to the fables when a Latin edition was translated into
romanized Japanese. The title was Esopo no Fabulas and dates to 1593. It was soon followed by a fuller translation into a three-volume kanazōshi
entitled Isopo Monogatari ( 伊曾保物語 ).[35] This was the sole Western work to survive in later publication after the expulsion of Westerners from
Japan, since by that time the figure of Aesop had been acculturated and presented as if he were Japanese.[36] Coloured woodblock editions of
individual fables were made by Kawanabe Kyosai in the 19th century.[37]

張賡
The first translations of Aesop's Fables into the Chinese languages were made at the start of the 17th century, the first substantial collection being of
38 conveyed orally by a Jesuit missionary named Nicolas Trigault and written down by a Chinese academic named Zhang Geng (Chinese: ;
pinyin: Zhāng Gēng) in 1625. This was followed two centuries later by Yishi Yuyan 《意拾喻言》 (Esop's Fables: written in Chinese by the Learned
Mun Mooy Seen-Shang, and compiled in their present form with a free and a literal translation) in 1840 by Robert Thom[38] and apparently based on
the version by Roger L'Estrange.[39] This work was initially very popular until someone realised the fables were anti-authoritiarian and the book was
banned for a while.[40] A little later, however, in the foreign concession in Shanghai, A.B. Cabaniss brought out a transliterated translation in
Shanghai dialect, Yisuopu yu yan ( 伊娑菩喻言 , 1856). There have also been 20th century translations by Zhou Zuoren and others.[41]

Translations into the languages of South Asia began at the very start of the 19th century. The Oriental Fabulist (1803) contained roman script versions
in Bengali, Hindi and Urdu. Adaptations followed in Marathi (1806) and Bengali (1816), and then complete collections in Hindi (1837), Kannada
(1840), Urdu (1850), Tamil (1853) and Sindhi (1854).[42] Outside the British Raj, Jagat Sundar Malla's translation into the Newar language of Nepal
was published in 1915.

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In Burma, which had its own ethical folk tradition based on the Buddhist Jataka Tales, the reason behind the joint
Pali and Burmese language translation of Aesop's fables in 1880 is suggested by its being published from Rangoon
by the American Missionary Press.[43]

Versions in regional languages


The 18th to 19th centuries saw a vast amount of fables in verse being written in all European languages. Regional
languages and dialects in the Romance area made use of versions adapted from La Fontaine or the equally popular
Jean-Pierre Claris de Florian. One of the earliest publications was the anonymous Fables Causides en Bers
Gascouns (Selected fables in the Gascon language, Bayonne, 1776), which contains 106.[44] J. Foucaud's Quelques
fables choisies de La Fontaine en patois limousin in the Occitan Limousin dialect followed in 1809.[45]

Versions in Breton were written by Pierre Désiré de Goësbriand (1784–1853) in 1836 and Yves Louis Marie
Combeau (1799–1870) between 1836 and 1838. Two translations into Basque followed mid-century: 50 in J-B.
Archu's Choix de Fables de La Fontaine, traduites en vers basques (1848) and 150 in Fableac edo aleguiac The Nepalese Ishapan
Lafontenetaric berechiz hartuac (Bayonne, 1852) by Abbé Martin Goyhetche (1791–1859).[46] The turn of Daekatagu Bakhan, 1915
Provençal came in 1859 with Li Boutoun de guèto, poésies patoises by Antoine Bigot (1825–97), followed by
several other collections of fables in the Nîmes dialect between 1881 and 1891.[47] Alsatian (German) versions of La Fontaine appeared in 1879 after
the region was ceded following the Franco-Prussian War. At the end of the following century, Brother Denis-Joseph Sibler (1920–2002), published a
collection of adaptations into this dialect that has gone through several impressions since 1995.

There were many adaptations of La Fontaine into the dialects of the west of France (Poitevin-Saintongeais). Foremost among these was Recueil de
fables et contes en patois saintongeais (1849)[48] by lawyer and linguist Jean-Henri Burgaud des Marets (1806–73). Other adaptors writing about the
same time include Pierre-Jacques Luzeau (born 1808), Edouard Lacuve (1828–99) and Marc Marchadier (1830–1898). In the 20th century there have
been Marcel Rault (whose pen name is Diocrate), Eugène Charrier, Fr Arsène Garnier, Marcel Douillard[49] and Pierre Brisard.[50] Further to the
north, the journalist and historian Géry Herbert (1926–1985) adapted some fables to the Cambrai dialect of Picard, known locally as Ch'ti.[51] More
recent translators of fables into this dialect have included Jo Tanghe (2005) and Guillaume de Louvencourt (2009).

During the 19th century renaissance of literature in Walloon dialect, several authors adapted versions of the fables to the racy speech (and subject
matter) of Liège.[52] They included Charles Duvivier (in 1842); Joseph Lamaye (1845); and the team of Jean-Joseph Dehin (1847, 1851-2) and
François Bailleux (1851–67), who between them covered books I-VI.[53] Adaptations into other dialects were made by Charles Letellier (Mons, 1842)
and Charles Wérotte (Namur, 1844); much later, Léon Bernus published some hundred imitations of La Fontaine in the dialect of Charleroi (1872);[54]
he was followed during the 1880s by Joseph Dufrane, writing in the Borinage dialect under the pen-name Bosquètia. In the 20th century there has
been a selection of fifty fables in the Condroz dialect by Joseph Houziaux (1946),[55] to mention only the most prolific in an ongoing surge of
adaptation. The motive behind all this activity in both France and Belgium was to assert regional specificity against growing centralism and the

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encroachment of the language of the capital on what had until then been predominantly monoglot areas.

In the 20th century there have also been translations into regional dialects of English. These include the examples in Addison Hibbard's Aesop in
Negro Dialect (USA, 1926) and the twenty six in Robert Stephen's Fables of Aesop in Scots Verse (Peterhead, Scotland, 1987). The latter were in
Aberdeenshire dialect (also known as Doric). Glasgow University has also been responsible for R.W. Smith's modernised dialect translation of Robert
Henryson's The Morall Fabillis of Esope the Phrygian (1999, see above).[56] The University of Illinois likewise included dialect translations by
Norman Shapiro in its Creole echoes: the francophone poetry of nineteenth-century Louisiana (2004, see below).

Creole

Caribbean creole also saw a flowering of such adaptations from the middle of the 19th century onwards –
initially as part of the colonialist project but later as an assertion of love for and pride in the dialect. A version
of La Fontaine's fables in the dialect of Martinique was made by François-Achille Marbot (1817–66) in Les
Bambous, Fables de la Fontaine travesties en patois (1846).[57] In neighbouring Guadeloupe original fables
were being written by Paul Baudot (1801–70) between 1850 and 1860 but these were not collected until
posthumously. Some examples of rhymed fables appeared in a grammar of Trinidadian French creole written
by John Jacob Thomas (1840–89) that was published in 1869. The start of the new century saw the publication
of Georges Sylvain's Cric? Crac! Fables de la Fontaine racontées par un montagnard haïtien et transcrites en
vers créoles (La Fontaine's fables told by a Haiti highlander and written in creole verse, 1901).[58]

On the South American mainland, Alfred de Saint-Quentin published a selection of fables freely adapted from
La Fontaine into Guyanese creole in 1872. This was among a collection of poems and stories (with facing
translations) in a book that also included a short history of the territory and an essay on creole grammar.[59] On
the other side of the Caribbean, Jules Choppin (1830–1914) was adapting La Fontaine to the Louisiana slave
creole at the end of the 19th century. Three of these versions appear in the anthology Creole echoes: the
francophone poetry of nineteenth-century Louisiana (University of Illinois, 2004) with dialect translations by
Norman Shapiro.[60] All of Choppin's poetry has been published by the Centenary College of Louisiana
Cover of the French edition of Les
(Fables et Rêveries, 2004).[61] The New Orleans author Edgar Grima (1847–1939) also adapted La Fontaine
Bambous into both standard French and into dialect.[62]

Versions in the French creole of the islands in the Indian Ocean began somewhat earlier than in the Caribbean.
Louis Héry (1801–56) emigrated from Brittany to Réunion in 1820. Having become a schoolmaster, he adapted some of La Fontaine's fables into the
local dialect in Fables créoles dédiées aux dames de l'île Bourbon (Creole fables for island women). This was published in 1829 and went through
three editions.[63] In addition 49 fables of La Fontaine were adapted to the Seychelles dialect around 1900 by Rodolphine Young (1860–1932) but
these remained unpublished until 1983.[64] Jean-Louis Robert's recent translation of Babrius into Réunion creole (2007)[65] adds a further motive for
such adaptation. Fables began as an expression of the slave culture and their background is in the simplicity of agrarian life. Creole transmits this

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experience with greater purity than the urbane language of the slave-owner.

Slang

Fables belong essentially to the oral tradition; they survive by being remembered and then retold in one's own words. When they are written down,
particularly in the dominant language of instruction, they lose something of their essence. A strategy for reclaiming them is therefore to exploit the
gap between the written and the spoken language. One of those who did this in English was Sir Roger L'Estrange, who translated the fables into the
racy urban slang of his day and further underlined their purpose by including in his collection many of the subversive Latin fables of Laurentius
Abstemius.[66] In France the fable tradition had already been renewed in the 17th century by La Fontaine's influential reinterpretations of Aesop and
others. In the centuries that followed there were further reinterpretations through the medium of regional languages, which to those at the centre were
regarded as little better than slang. Eventually, however, the demotic tongue of the cities themselves began to be appreciated as a literary medium.

One of the earliest examples of these urban slang translations was the series of individual fables contained in a single folded sheet, appearing under
the title of Les Fables de Gibbs in 1929. Others written during the period were eventually anthologised as Fables de La Fontaine en argot (Etoile sur
Rhône 1989). This followed the genre's growth in popularity after World War II. Two short selections of fables by Bernard Gelval about 1945 were
succeeded by two selections of 15 fables each by 'Marcus' (Paris 1947, reprinted in 1958 and 2006), Api Condret's Recueil des fables en argot (Paris,
1951) and Géo Sandry (1897–1975) and Jean Kolb's Fables en argot (Paris 1950/60). The majority of such printings were privately produced leaflets
and pamphlets, often sold by entertainers at their performances, and are difficult to date.[67] Some of these poems then entered the repertoire of noted
performers such as Boby Forest and Yves Deniaud, of which recordings were made.[68] In the south of France, Georges Goudon published numerous
folded sheets of fables in the post-war period. Described as monologues, they use Lyon slang and the Mediterranean Lingua Franca known as
Sabir.[69] Slang versions by others continue to be produced in various parts of France, both in printed and recorded form.

Children
The first printed version of Aesop's Fables in English was published on March 26, 1484, by William Caxton. Many others, in prose and verse,
followed over the centuries. In the 20th century Ben E. Perry edited the Aesopic fables of Babrius and Phaedrus for the Loeb Classical Library and
compiled a numbered index by type in 1952.[70] Olivia and Robert Temple's Penguin edition is titled The Complete Fables by Aesop (1998) but in fact
many from Babrius, Phaedrus and other major ancient sources have been omitted. More recently, in 2002 a translation by Laura Gibbs titled Aesop's
Fables was published by Oxford World's Classics. This book includes 359 and has selections from all the major Greek and Latin sources.

Until the 18th century the fables were largely put to adult use by teachers, preachers, speech-makers and moralists. It was the philosopher John Locke
who first seems to have advocated targeting children as a special audience in Some Thoughts Concerning Education (1693). Aesop's fables, in his
opinion are

apt to delight and entertain a child. . . yet afford useful reflection to a grown man. And if his memory retain them all his life after, he will

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not repent to find them there, amongst his manly thoughts and serious business. If his Aesop has
pictures in it, it will entertain him much better, and encourage him to read when it carries the
increase of knowledge with it For such visible objects children hear talked of in vain, and without
any satisfaction, whilst they have no ideas of them; those ideas being not to be had from sounds,
but from the things themselves, or their pictures.

— [71]

That young people are a special target for the fables was not a particularly new idea and a number of ingenious
schemes for catering to that audience had already been put into practice in Europe. The Centum Fabulae of
Gabriele Faerno was commissioned by Pope Pius IV in the 16th century 'so that children might learn, at the
same time and from the same book, both moral and linguistic purity'. When King Louis XIV of France wanted
to instruct his six-year-old son, he incorporated the series of hydraulic statues representing 38 chosen fables in Walter Crane title page, 1887
the labyrinth of Versailles in the 1670s. In this he had been advised by Charles Perrault, who was later to
translate Faerno's widely published Latin poems into French verse and so bring them to a wider audience.[72]
Then in the 1730s appeared the eight volumes of Nouvelles Poésies Spirituelles et Morales sur les plus beaux airs, the first six of which incorporated
a section of fables specifically aimed at children. In this the fables of La Fontaine were rewritten to fit popular airs of the day and arranged for simple
performance. The preface to this work comments that 'we consider ourselves happy if, in giving them an attraction to useful lessons which are suited
to their age, we have given them an aversion to the profane songs which are often put into their mouths and which only serve to corrupt their
innocence.'[73] The work was popular and reprinted into the following century.

In the UK various authors began to develop this new market in the 18th century, giving a brief outline of the story and what was usually a longer
commentary on its moral and practical meaning. The first of such works is Reverend Samuel Croxall's Fables of Aesop and Others, newly done into
English with an Application to each Fable. First published in 1722, with engravings by Elisha Kirkall for each fable, it was continuously reprinted
into the second half of the 19th century.[74] Another popular collection was John Newbery's Fables in Verse for the Improvement of the Young and the
Old, facetiously attributed to Abraham Aesop Esquire, which was to see ten editions after its first publication in 1757.[75] Robert Dodsley's three-
volume Select Fables of Esop and other Fabulists is distinguished for several reasons. First that it was printed in Birmingham by John Baskerville in
1761; second that it appealed to children by having the animals speak in character, the Lion in regal style, the Owl with 'pomp of phrase';[76] thirdly
because it gathers into three sections fables from ancient sources, those that are more recent (including some borrowed from Jean de la Fontaine), and
new stories of his own invention.

Thomas Bewick's editions from Newcastle upon Tyne are equally distinguished for the quality of his woodcuts. The first of those under his name was
the Select Fables in Three Parts published in 1784.[77] This was followed in 1818 by The Fables of Aesop and Others. The work is divided into three
sections: the first has some of Dodsley's fables prefaced by a short prose moral; the second has 'Fables with Reflections', in which each story is
followed by a prose and a verse moral and then a lengthy prose reflection; the third, 'Fables in Verse', includes fables from other sources in poems by
several unnamed authors; in these the moral is incorporated into the body of the poem.[78]

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In the early 19th century authors turned to writing verse specifically for children and included fables in their output. One of the most popular was the
writer of nonsense verse, Richard Scrafton Sharpe (died 1852), whose Old Friends in a New Dress: familiar fables in verse first appeared in 1807 and
went through five steadily augmented editions until 1837.[79] Jefferys Taylor's Aesop in Rhyme, with some originals, first published in 1820, was as
popular and also went through several editions. The versions are lively but Taylor takes considerable liberties with the story line. Both authors were
alive to the over serious nature of the 18th century collections and tried to remedy this. Sharpe in particular discussed the dilemma they presented and
recommended a way round it, tilting at the same time at the format in Croxall's fable collection:

It has been the accustomed method in printing fables to divide the moral from the subject; and children, whose minds are alive to the
entertainment of an amusing story, too often turn from one fable to another, rather than peruse the less interesting lines that come under
the term "Application". It is with this conviction that the author of the present selection has endeavoured to interweave the moral with the
subject, that the story shall not be obtained without the benefit arising from it; and that amusement and instruction may go hand in hand.

— [80]

Sharpe was also the originator of the limerick, but his versions of Aesop are in popular song measures and it
was not until 1887 that the limerick form was ingeniously applied to the fables. This was in a magnificently
hand-produced Arts and Crafts Movement edition, The Baby's Own Aesop: being the fables condensed in
rhyme with portable morals pictorially pointed by Walter Crane.[81]

Some later prose editions were particularly notable for their illustrations. Among these was Aesop's fables: a
new version, chiefly from original sources (1848) by Thomas James, 'with more than one hundred
illustrations designed by John Tenniel'.[82] Tenniel himself did not think highly of his work there and took the
opportunity to redraw some in the revised edition of 1884, which also used pictures by Ernest Henry Griset
and Harrison Weir.[83] Once the technology was in place for coloured reproductions, illustrations became
ever more attractive. Notable early 20th century editions include V.S. Vernon Jones' new translation of the
fables accompanied by the pictures of Arthur Rackham (London, 1912)[84] and in the USA Aesop for
Brownhills alphabet plate, Aesop's
Children (Chicago, 1919), illustrated by Milo Winter.[85]
Fables series, The Fox and the Grapes
c.1880 The illustrations from Croxall's editions were an early inspiration for other artefacts aimed at children. In the
18th century they appear on tableware from the Chelsea, Wedgwood and Fenton potteries, for example.[86]
19th century examples with a definitely educational aim include the fable series used on the alphabet plates issued in great numbers from the
Brownhills Pottery in Staffordshire. Fables were used equally early in the design of tiles to surround the nursery fireplace. The latter were even more
popular in the 19th century when there were specially designed series from Mintons,[87] Minton-Hollins and Maw & Co. In France too, well-known
illustrations of La Fontaine's fables were often used on china.[88]

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Religious themes
In Classical times there was an overlap between fable and myth, especially where they had an aetiological function.[89] Among those are two which
deal with the difference between humans and animals. According to the first, humans are distinguished by their rationality.[90] But in those cases
where they have a bestial mentality, the explanation is that at creation animals were found to outnumber humans and some were therefore modified in
shape but retained their animal souls.[91]

Such early philosophical speculation was also extended to the ethical problems connected with divine justice. For example, it was perceived as
disproportionate for an evil man to be punished by dying in a shipwreck when it involved many other innocent people. The god Hermes explained this
to an objector by the human analogy of a man bitten by an ant and in consequence stamping on all those about his feet.[92] Again, it was asked why
the consequences of an evil deed did not follow immediately it was committed. Hermes was involved here too, since he records men's acts on
potsherds and takes them to Zeus piled in a box. The god of justice, however, goes through them in reverse order and the penalty may therefore be
delayed.[93] However, where the fault is perceived as an act of defiance, as happens in the fable of Horkos, retribution arrives swiftly.[94]

Some fables may express open scepticism, as in the story of the man marketing a statue of Hermes
who boasted of its effectiveness. Asked why he was disposing of such an asset, the huckster explains
that the god takes his time in granting favours while he himself needs immediate cash. In another
example, a farmer whose mattock has been stolen goes to a temple to see if the culprit can be found
by divination. On his arrival he hears an announcement asking for information about a robbery at the
temple and concludes that a god who cannot look after his own must be useless.[95] But the contrary
position, against reliance on religious ritual, was taken in fables like Hercules and the Wagoner that
illustrate the proverb "god helps those who help themselves". The story was also to become a
favourite centuries later in Protestant England, where one commentator took the extreme position that
to neglect the necessity of self-help is "blasphemy" and that it is "a great sin for a man to fail in his
A Japanese woodblock print illustrates the trade or occupation by running often to prayers".[96] While scepticism remains, it is superstition
moral of Hercules and the Wagoner rather than true belief that is the target.

As the fables moved out of the Greek-speaking world and were adapted to different times and
religions, it is notable how radically some fables were reinterpreted. Thus one of the fables collected under the title of the Lion's share and originally
directed against tyranny became in the hands of Rumi a parable of oneness with Allah and obedience to divine authority.[97] In the Jewish 'fox fables'
of Berechiah ha-Nakdan, the humorous account of the hares and the frogs was made the occasion to recommend trust in God,[98] while Christian
reinterpretation of animal symbolism in Mediaeval times turned The Wolf and the Crane into a parable of the rescue of the sinner's soul from Hell.[99]

In Mediaeval times too, fables were collected for use in sermons, of which Odo of Cheriton's Parobolae is just one example. At the start of the
Reformation, Martin Luther followed his example in the work now known as the Coburg Fables.[100] Another source of Christianized fables was in
the emblem books of the 16th-17th centuries. In Georgette de Montenay's Emblemes ou devises chrestiennes (1571), for example, the fable of The

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Oak and the Reed was depicted in the context of the lines from the Magnificat, "He hath put down the mighty from their seats and exalted them of low
degree" (Luke 1.52, AV).[101]

Once the fables were perceived as primarily for the instruction of children, a new generation of Christian writers began putting their own construction
on them, often at odds with their original interpretation. An extreme example occurs in a compilation called Christian Fables from the Victorian era,
where The North Wind and the Sun is referred to Biblical passages in which religion is compared to a cloak. Therefore, says the author, one should
beware of abandoning one's beliefs under the sun of prosperity.[102] Demonstrably, the essence of fables is their adaptability. Beginning two and a half
millennia ago with aetiological solutions to philosophical problems, fresh religious applications were continuing into the present.

Dramatised fables
The success of La Fontaine's fables in France started a European fashion for creating plays around them. The originator was Edmé Boursault, with his
five-act verse drama Les Fables d'Esope (1690), later retitled Esope à la ville (Aesop in town). Such was its popularity that a rival theatre produced
Eustache Le Noble's Arlaquin-Esope in the following year. Boursault then wrote a sequel, Esope à la cour (Aesop at court), a heroic comedy that was
held up by the censors and not produced until after his death in 1701.[103] Some forty years later Charles Stephen Pesselier wrote two one-act pieces,
Esope au Parnasse and Esope du temps.

Esope à la ville was written in alexandrine couplets and depicted a physically ugly Aesop acting as adviser to Learchus, governor of Cyzicus under
King Croesus, and using his fables to solve romantic problems and quiet political unrest. One of the problems is personal to Aesop, since he is
betrothed to the governor's daughter, who detests him and has a young admirer with whom she is in love. There is very little action, the play serving
as a platform for the recitation of free verse fables at frequent intervals. These include The Fox and the Weasel, The Fox and the Mask, The
Nightingale, The Belly and the Other Members, the Town Mouse and the Country Mouse, the Lark and the Butterfly, the Fox and the Crow, the Crab
and her Daughter, the Frog and the Ox, the Cook and the Swan, the Doves and the Vulture, the Wolf and the Lamb, the Mountain in Labour, and The
Man with two Mistresses.[104]

Esope à la cour is more of a moral satire, most scenes being set pieces for the application of fables to moral problems, but to supply romantic interest
Aesop's mistress Rhodope is introduced.[105] Among the sixteen fables included, some four derive from La Fontaine – The Heron and the Fish, the
Lion and the Mouse, the Dove and the Ant, the Sick Lion – a fifth borrows a moral from another of his but alters the details, and a sixth has as
apologue a maxim of Antoine de La Rochefoucauld. After a modest few performances, the piece later grew in popularity and remained in the
repertory until 1817.[106] Boursault's play was also influential in Italy and twice translated. It appeared from Bologna in 1719 under the title L'Esopo
in Corte, translated by Antonio Zaniboni, and as Le Favole di Esopa alla Corte from Venice in 1747, translated by Gasparo Gozzi. The same
translator was responsible for a version of Esope à la ville (Esopo in città, Venice, 1748); then in 1798 there was an anonymous Venetian three-act
adaptation, Le Favole di Esopa, ossia Esopo in città.[107] In England the play was adapted under the title Aesop by John Vanbrugh and first performed
at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane in London in 1697, remaining popular for the next twenty years.[108]

In the 20th century individual fables by Aesop began to be adapted to animated cartoons, most notably in France and the United States. Cartoonist

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Paul Terry began his own series, called Aesop's Film Fables, in 1921 but by the time this was taken over by
Van Beuren Studios in 1928 the story lines had little connection with any fable of Aesop's. In the early 1960s,
animator Jay Ward created a television series of short cartoons called Aesop and Son which were first aired as
part of The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show. Actual fables were spoofed to result in a pun based on the original
moral. Two fables are also featured in the 1971 TV movie Aesop's Fables in the U.S.A. Here Aesop is a black
story teller who relates two turtle fables, The Tortoise and the Eagle and the Tortoise and the Hare to a couple
of children who wander into an enchanted grove. The fables themselves are shown as cartoons.[109]

Between 1989 and 1991, fifty Aesop-based fables were reinterpreted on French television as Les Fables
géométriques and later issued on DVD. These featured a cartoon in which the characters appeared as an
assembly of animated geometric shapes, accompanied by Pierre Perret's slang versions of La Fontaine's
original poem.[110] In 1983 there was an extended manga version of the fables made in Japan, Isoppu
monogatari,[111] and there has also been a Chinese television series for children based on the stories.[112]

There have also been several dramatic productions for children based on elements of Aesop's life and including
the telling of some fables, although most were written as purely local entertainments. Among these was
Canadian writer Robertson Davies' A Masque of Aesop (1952), which was set at his trial in Delphi and allows
the defendant to tell the fables The Belly and the Members, The Town Mouse and the Country Mouse and The
Cock and the Jewel while challenging prevailing social attitudes.[113]
Dramatisation of a different sort: the
Musical treatments former statues of "The Fox and the
Crane" in the labyrinth of Versailles
While musical settings of La Fontaine's Fables began appearing in France within a few decades of their
publication, it was not until the 19th century that composers began to take their inspiration directly from Aesop. One of the earliest was Charles
Valentin Alkan's Le festin d'Ésope ("Aesop's Feast", 1857), a set of piano variations in which each variation is said to depict a different animal or
scene from Aesop's fables.[114] In England there was the anonymous A Selection of Aesop's Fables Versified and Set to Music with Symphonies and
Accompaniments for the Piano Forte, published in London in 1847. It was a large selection containing 28 versified fables.[115] Mabel Wood Hill's
Aesop's Fables Interpreted Through Music (New York 1920) was less ambitious, setting only seven prosaic texts.[116]

There have also been song-settings, including Bob Chilcott's five Aesop’s Fables (2008),[117] and some works have been used to interest young people
in music. Edward Hughes set his Songs from Aesop's fables for children's voices and piano (1965)[118] while Arwel Hughes’s similarly titled work is
for unison voices. More recently, the American composer Robert J. Bradshaw (b.1970) dedicated his 3rd Symphony (2005) to the fables. A
programme note explained that "the purpose of this work is to excite young musicians and audiences to take an interest in art music".[119]

Werner Egk's early settings in Germany were aimed at children too. His Der Löwe und die Maus (The Lion and the Mouse 1931) was a singspiel
drama for small orchestra and children's choir; aimed at 12- to 14-year-olds, it was built on an improvisation by the composer's own children.[120] He

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followed this with Der Fuchs und der Rabe (The Fox and the Crow) in 1932. Hans Poser's Die Fabeln des Äsop (Op. 28, 1956) was set for
accompanied men's chorus and uses Martin Luther's translation of six.[121] Others who have set German texts for choir include Herbert Callhoff
(1963) and Andre Asriel (1972).

The commonest approach in building a musical bridge to children has involved using a narrator with musical backing. Following the example of
Sergei Prokoviev in "Peter and the Wolf" (1936), Vincent Persichetti set six for narrator and orchestra in his Fables (Op. 23 1943).[122] Richard Maltz
also composed his Aesop’s Fables (1993) to introduce the instruments of the orchestra to elementary students and to teach them about the elements of
music,[123] and Daniel Dorff’s widely performed 3 Fun Fables (1996) has contrasting instruments interpreting characters: in "The Fox and the Crow"
it is trumpet and contrabass; in "The Dog and its Reflection" it is trombone and violin, harp and percussion; in "The Tortoise and the Hare" it is
contrabassoon and clarinet.[124] Others simply adapt the narrator’s voice to a musical backing. They include Scott Watson’s Aesop's Fables[125] and
Anthony Plog’s set of five for narrator, horn and piano (1989).[126]

William Russo’s approach to popularising his Aesop’s Fables (1971) was to make of it a rock
opera.[127] This incorporates nine, each only introduced by the narrator before the music and
characters take over. Instead of following the wording of one of the more standard fable collections,
as other composers do, the performer speaks in character. Thus in “The Crow and the Fox” the bird
introduces himself with, “Ahm not as pretty as mah friends and I can’t sing so good, but, uh, I can
steal food pretty goddam good!”[128] Other composers who have created operas for children have
been Martin Kalmanoff in Aesop the fabulous fabulist (1969),[129] David Ahlstom in his one-act
Aesop’s Fables (1986),[130] and David Edgar Walther with his set of four "short operatic dramas",
Finale of an American performance of "Aesop's some of which were performed in 2009 and 2010.[131] There have also been local ballet treatments
Fables"
of the fables for children in the USA by such companies as Berkshire Ballet[132] and Nashville
Ballet.[133]

Another musical, Aesop's Fables by British playwright Peter Terson, first produced in 1983,[134] was lifted into another class by Mark
Dornford-May's adaptation for the Isango Portobello company at the Fugard Theatre in Cape Town, South Africa, in 2010.[135] The play tells the story
of the black slave Aesop, who learns that freedom is earned and kept through being responsible. His teachers are the animal characters he meets on his
journeys. The fables they suggest include the Tortoise and the Hare, the Lion and the Goat, the Wolf and the Crane, the Frogs Who Desired a King
and three others, brought to life through a musical score featuring mostly marimbas, vocals and percussion.[136] Another colourful treatment was
Brian Seward's Aesop's Fabulous Fables (2009) in Singapore, which mixes a typical musical with Chinese dramatic techniques.[137]

Use of other languages elsewhere in the world have included a setting of four Latin texts in the Czech composer Ilja Hurník's Ezop for mixed choir
and orchestra (1964) and the setting of two as a Greek opera by Giorgos Sioras (b.1952) in 1998.[138] And in 2010 Lefteris Kordis launched his
'Aesop Project', a setting of seven fables which mixed traditional East Mediterranean and Western Classical musical textures, combined with elements
of jazz. After an English recitation by male narrator, a female singer's rendition of the Greek wording was accompanied by an octet.[139]

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List of some fables by Aesop


Titles A-L

Aesop and the Ferryman The Deer without a Heart The Frightened Hares
The Ant and the Grasshopper The Dog and its Reflection The Frog and the Mouse
The Ape and the Fox The Dog and the Wolf The Frog and the Ox
The Ass and his Masters The dogs and the lion's skin The Frogs and the Sun
The Ass and the Pig The Dove and the Ant The Frogs Who Desired a King
The Ass Carrying an Image The Eagle Wounded by an Arrow The Goat and the Vine
The Ass in the Lion's Skin The Farmer and his Sons The Goose that Laid the Golden Eggs
The Astrologer who Fell into a Well The Farmer and the Sea The Hare in flight
The Bird-catcher and the Blackbird The Farmer and the Stork Hercules and the Wagoner
The Bear and the Travelers The Farmer and the Viper The Honest Woodcutter
The Beaver The Fir and the Bramble Horkos, the god of oaths
The Belly and the Other Members The Fisherman and the Little Fish The Horse and the Donkey
The Bird in Borrowed Feathers The Fowler and the Snake The Impertinent Insect
The Boy Who Cried Wolf The Fox and the Crow The Lion and the Fox
The Cat and the Mice The Fox and the Grapes The Lion and the Mouse
The Cock and the Jewel The Fox and the Mask The Lion in Love
The Cock, the Dog and the Fox The Fox and the Sick Lion The Lion's Share
The Crow and the Pitcher The Fox and the Stork The Lion, the Bear and the Fox
The Crow and the Sheep The Fox and the Weasel
The Crow and the Snake The Fox and the Woodman

Titles M-Z

The Man with two Mistresses The Old Man and Death The Shipwrecked Man and the Sea
The Mischievous Dog The Old Man and his Sons The Sick Kite
The Miser and his Gold The Old Man and the Ass The Snake and the Crab
Momus criticizes the creations of the gods The Old Woman and the Doctor The Snake and the Farmer
The Mountain in Labour The Old Woman and the Wine-jar The Snake in the Thorn Bush
The Mouse and the Oyster The Rivers and the Sea The Statue of Hermes
The North Wind and the Sun The Rose and the Amaranth The Swan and the Goose
The Oak and the Reed The Satyr and the Traveller The Tortoise and the Birds

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The Tortoise and the Hare The Two Pots The Wolf and the Crane
Town Mouse and Country Mouse Venus and the Cat The Wolf and the Lamb
The Travellers and the Plane Tree The Walnut Tree The Woodcutter and the Trees
The Trees and the Bramble War and his Bride The Young Man and the Swallow
The Trumpeter Taken Captive Washing the Ethiopian white Zeus and the Tortoise

Fables wrongly attributed to Aesop

An ass eating thistles The drowned woman and her husband Jumping from the frying pan into the fire
The Bear and the Bees The Eel and the Snake The milkmaid and her pail
The Bear and the Gardener The Elm and the Vine The miller, his son and the donkey
Belling the cat (also known as The Mice The Fox and the Cat The Monkey and the Cat
in Council) The Gourd and the Palm-tree The Priest and the Wolf
The Blind Man and the Lame The Hawk and the Nightingale The Shepherd and the Lion
The Boy and the Filberts The Hare and many friends Still waters run deep
Chanticleer and the Fox The Hedgehog and the Snake The Wolf in Sheep's Clothing
The Dog in the Manger The Heron and the Fish

References
1. The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus. trans. George Rawlinson, 6. Francisco Rodríguez Adrados, History of the Graeco-Latin Fable vol.1,
Book I, p.132 (http://www.omphaloskepsis.com/ebooks/pdf/hrdts.pdf) Leiden 1999. p.7 (https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=093Gl8KEktMC&
2. Aesop's Fables, ed. D.L. Ashliman, New York 2005, pp. xiii-xv and lpg=PA7&vq=%22an%20extended%20proverb.%22%20Theocritus&
xxv-xxvi pg=PA7#v=snippet&q=%22an%20extended%20proverb.
3. Christos A. Zafiropoulos, Ethics in Aesop's Fables, Leiden 2001, pp.10-12 %22%20Theocritus&f=false)
(https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=-blOQAp553IC& 7. John F. Priest, "The Dog in the Manger: In Quest of a Fable," in The
dq=%22Aesop%27s+Fables%22+corpus& Classical Journal, Volume 81, No. 1, (October–November, 1985), pp.
q=%22The+term+Aesopic+that%22#v=snippet& 49-58.
q=%22The%20term%20Aesopic%20that%22&f=false) 8. Perry, Ben E. "Introduction", Babrius and Phaedrus, 1965, p. xix.
4. Zafiropoulos, Ethics in Aesop's Fables, p.4 9. van Dijk, Gert-Jan. Ainoi, Logoi, Mythoi: Fables in Archaic, Classical, and
5. G. J. Van Dijk, Ainoi, Logoi, Mythoi, Leiden 1997, p.57 Hellenistic Greek Literature, Brill, Leiden, Netherlands, 1997.
(https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=QKQFJduPIdcC&lpg=PP1& 10. Adrados, Francisco Rodríguez; van Dijk, Gert-Jan. History of the
pg=PA57#v=onepage&q=%22Hermog.%20Prog.%201%22&f=false) Graeco-Latin Fable, 3 Volumes, Brill, Leiden, Netherlands, 1999.
11. Ashliman, D.L. "Introduction", Aesop's Fables, 2003, p. xxii.
12. "ÆSOP'S FABLES AMONG THE JEWS - JewishEncyclopedia.com".
Retrieved 4 October 2014.
13. "Accessible online". Aesopus.pbworks.com. Retrieved 2012-03-22.

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14. "Accessible online". Mythfolklore.net. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 27. Several versions of the woodcuts can be viewed at PBworks.com
15. "Archived online". Archive.org. Retrieved 2012-03-22. (http://aesopus.pbworks.com/steinhowel)
16. "Accessible online". Aesopus.pbworks.com. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 28. A translation is available at Google Books. Books.google.co.uk.
17. "Pantaleon". Aesopus.pbworks.com. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 1993-04-22. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
18. "Fabularum Aesopicarum Delectus". google.co.uk. 29. "Préface aux Fables de La Fontaine". Memodata.com. Retrieved
19. The Fables of Marie de France translated by Mary Lou Martin, 2012-03-22.
Birmingham AL, 1979; limited preview to p.51 at Google Books 30. An English translation of all the fables can be accessed online
(https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=6iHIlvyXpNQC&pg=PA51& (http://oaks.nvg.org/fontaine.html)
lpg=PA51& 31. Kriloff's Fables, translated into the original metres by C. Fillingham
dq=marie+de+france++the+town+mouse+and+the+country+mouse& Coxwell, London 1920; the book is archived online (https://archive.org
source=bl&ots=oTM-vAx8LP& /stream/kriloffsfables00kryl#page/n3/mode/2up)
sig=jj_0PdH1d4V3h16ZDQRyPRU4LlQ&hl=en& 32. Francisco Rodríguez Adrados, History of the Graeco-Latin Fable 1, Leiden
ei=QOj4S4SiBIXu0wSJssXpBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result& NL 1999, pp.132-5 (https://books.google.co.uk
resnum=1&ved=0CBkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false) /books?id=093Gl8KEktMC&lpg=PA133&ots=u46NHirhnk&dq=Syntipas
20. An English translation by Moses Hadas, titled Fables of a Jewish Aesop, %20%20Syriac&pg=PA133#v=onepage&q=Syntipas%20%20Syriac&
first appeared in 1967. A limited preview is available at Google Books. f=false)
Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 33. Susan Whitfield, Life Along the Silk Road, University of California 1999,
21. There is a discussion of this work in French in Épopée animale, fable, p.218 (https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=uauW9cvqKGYC&
fabliau, Paris, 1984, pp.423-432; limited preview at Google Books lpg=PA218&ots=tO4Nju1xa_&
(https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=HeY9wVDpM80C&pg=PA423& dq=%22a%20Uighur%20version%20of%20Aesop's%20fables%22&
lpg=PA423&dq=Gerhard+von+Minden&source=bl&ots=TIfJE6ErSk& pg=PA218#v=onepage&
sig=VX5J4fyWARq0L_8x0BXo8gO0xas&hl=en& q=%22a%20Uighur%20version%20of%20Aesop's%20fables%22&
ei=Ve74S7WSEZHw0wTc1tXpBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result& f=false)
resnum=6&ved=0CCsQ6AEwBTgU#v=onepage& 34. Gordon Brotherston, Book of the Fourth World: Reading the Native
q=Gerhard%20von%20Minden&f=false) Americas Through Their Literature, Cambridge University Press 1992,
22. There is a translation by John C. Jacobs: The Fables of Odo of Cheriton, pp.315-9 (https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=kSY4AAAAIAAJ&
New York, 1985; a limited preview on Google Books lpg=PA315&ots=XRsvSuNZ1u&dq=Aesop%20%20%22Nahuatl%22&
(https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=8_3W9cYwNWkC& pg=PA315#v=onepage&q=Aesop%20%20%22Nahuatl%22&f=false)
printsec=frontcover&dq=%22the+fables+of+odo+of+cheriton%22& 35. Yuichi Midzunoe, "Aesop's arrival in Japan in the 1590s", Online version
source=bl&ots=DqCy5xgUMn&sig=nmCBskyFFDVuRgoHfY- (http://pweb.sophia.ac.jp/britto/xavier/midzunoe/midzuyui.pdf)
rcz2WKpo&hl=en&ei=ZvYHTPqTNpi80gTe0Y1e& 36. Lawrence Marceau, From Aesop to Esopo to Isopo: Adapting the Fables in
sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2& Late Medieval Japan (2009); an abstract of this paper appears on p.277
ved=0CBsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false) (http://jsaa-icjle2009.arts.unsw.edu.au/common/papers_final_090722.pdf)
23. Poésies morales et historiques d'Eustache Deschamps, Paris 1832, Fables 37. A print of the fable of the two pots appears on artelino.com
en ballades pp. 187-202 (http://booksnow2.scholarsportal.info/ebooks (http://www.artelino.com/archive/artist_catalog_show.asp?alp=&
/oca4/25/posiesmoralese00descuoft/posiesmoralese00descuoft_bw.pdf) art=1325&cay=1&pp=7&pp1=1&rp=68&rp1=1&rp2=68&lvl=2&
24. "The text is available here". Xtf.lib.virginia.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-22. sea=&tie=Kyosai%20Kawanabe%201831-1889%20-%20Two%20Vases%
25. "A modernised version is available here". Arts.gla.ac.uk. Retrieved 20-%20Tales%20of%20Aesop%20-%20artelino#)
2012-03-22. 38. Kaske, Elisabeth (2007). The Politics of Language in Chinese Education,
26. A reproduction of a much later edition is available at Archive.org 1895–1919. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-16367-6. p. 68
(https://archive.org/stream/steinhwelssop01phaegoog#page/n7/mode/1up)

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39. Chinese Repository, Vol. 7 (October 1838), p. 335. Thom was based in 51. A reading of two of these can be found on YouTube: The ant and
Canton and his work was issued in three octavo tracts of seven, seventeen, grasshopper (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YKxUpVbS1pU) and The
and twenty-three pages respectively crow and the fox (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YKxUpVbS1pU&
40. Tao Ching Sin, "A critical study of Yishi Yuyan", M.Phil thesis, University feature=related)
of Hong Kong, 2007 Available online 52. Anthologie de la littérature wallonne (ed. Maurice Piron), Liège, 1979;
(http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:2RrPMc- limited preview at Google Books Google Books
exF8J:repository.hku.hk/bitstream/10722/54498 (https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=zhpx-DbBkBkC&pg=PR9&
/1/FullText.html+Aesop+in+China+Zhou+Zuoren&cd=10&hl=en& lpg=PR9&dq=anthologie+de+la+litterature+wallonne&source=bl&
ct=clnk&gl=uk&source=www.google.co.uk) ots=ZqnjqFmhYP&sig=jIj9KaM_5R8iPQfiuIf6NhKhSwA&hl=en&
41. "A comparative study of translated children's literature by Lu Xun and ei=dOv4S-faNIn80wS2-5jqBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&
Zhou Zuoren", Journal of Macao Polytechnic Institute, 2009 available resnum=5&ved=0CC0Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&
online (http://www.ipm.edu.mo/p_journal/2009/09eng_3/69_b.pdf) q=anthologie%20de%20la%20litterature%20wallonne&f=false)
42. Sisir Kumar Das, A History of Indian Literature 1800–1910: Western 53. There is a partial preview at Google Books (https://books.google.fr
impact, Indian response, Sahitya Akademi 1991 /books?id=pscTAAAAQAAJ&printsec=titlepage#v=onepage&q&f=false)
(https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=sHklK65TKQ0C&lpg=PA109& 54. The text of four can be found at Walon.org (http://rifondou.walon.org
dq=translated%20%22Aesop's%20Fables%22&pg=PA75#v=onepage& /bernus-rif.html)
q=%22Aesop's%20Fables%22&f=false) 55. "Lulucom.com". Lulucom.com. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
43. National Library of Australia (http://192.102.239.158 56. "© - The thirteen moral fables of Robert Henryson (a modernised edition) -
/work/2443682?q&sortby&c=music&l-language=Burmese& R.W.Smith". Retrieved 4 October 2014.
sort=holdings+desc&_=1457864621819&versionId=36808378) 57. The complete text is at BNF.fr (http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148
44. Versions of The Ant and the Grasshopper and The Fox and the Grapes are /bpt6k54261407)
available at Sadipac.com (http://www.sadipac.com/templates 58. Examples of all these can be found in Marie-Christine Hazaël-Massieux:
/sadipac.php?id_page=242) Textes anciens en créole français de la Caraïbe, Paris, 2008, pp259-72.
45. The entire text with the French originals is available as an e-book at Partial preview at Google Books (https://books.google.co.uk
Archive.org (https://archive.org/details/quelquesfablesc00fontgoog) /books?id=nWI7ct3uJlsC&pg=PA259&lpg=PA259&
46. The sources for this are discussed at lapurdum.revues.org dq=Marbot++++bambous&source=bl&ots=XUnLKaLT1c&
(http://lapurdum.revues.org/index916.html?file=1) sig=wJxaWGAk6VElgztIuxLpbP5ZDqU&hl=en&
47. His version of The Ant and the Grasshopper is available at ei=HXAGTOX0FIuI0wTRvoytDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&
Nimausensis.com (http://www.nimausensis.com/Patois/LaFontaine1.htm) resnum=2&ved=0CBgQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Marbot%20%20
48. The 1859 Paris edition of this with facing French translations is available %20%20bambous&f=false)
on books.google.co.uk (https://books.google.co.uk 59. Available on pp.50-82 at Archive.org (https://archive.org/stream
/books?id=U785AAAAcAAJ&printsec=frontcover& /IntroductionHistoireDeCayenne/creole_cayenne#page/n117/mode
dq=%22henri+BURGAUD+des+MARETS%22&source=bl& /2up/search/fable)
ots=r8d9ZL98W0&sig=zRRh4bUCJgFOJTQp7NsbqxuJaRs&hl=en& 60. They are available on Google Books (https://books.google.co.uk
ei=aXwLTKLaKJLw0gT_o8hq&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result& /books?id=zgYGhRqBlTgC&pg=PA23&lpg=PA23&dq=jules+choppin&
resnum=4&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false) source=bl&ots=FpDMjVj-lb&sig=au85_S0rxTOUFdD5iDSHhhYnSmo&
49. His chapbook of ten fables, Feu de Brandes (Bonfire, Challans, 1950) is hl=en&ei=XYIsTNbeA5DesAbn9vSnAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&
available on the dialect site Free.fr (http://parlange.free.fr/pages ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&
/feu_de_brande.html) q=jules%20choppin&f=false)
50. A performance of Brisard's La grolle et le renard is available at SHC44.org 61. "Centenary.edu". Centenary.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
(http://www.shc44.org/La-grolle-et-le-renard#forum602)

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62. Creole echoes, pp 88-9 (https://books.google.co.uk 75. There is a description of the 5th edition, now in the Douce Collection at
/books?id=zgYGhRqBlTgC&dq=jules+choppin& Oxford University's Bodleian Library, online
q=Le+loup+et+la+cigogne#v=snippet& (http://www.rarebookroom.org/pdfDescriptions/heafab.pdf)
q=Le%20loup%20et%20la%20cigogne&f=false); Écrits Louisianais du 76. See the introductory "An Essay on Fable"p.lxx (https://books.google.co.uk
19e siècle, Louisiana State University 1979, pp.213-5 /books?id=ZUwPAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&
(http://lit.alexanderstreet.com/v4/services/get.pdf.aspx?id=1000165157) dq=robert+dodsley+esop&source=bl&ots=kAaGtqkndO&sig=z1K3zPv-
63. Georges GAUVIN. "Temoignages.re". Temoignages.re. Retrieved ybsUwjOzyYqrYFmMA5o&hl=en&ei=y0WTTePNOs3r4AbR3JSWAg&
2012-03-22. sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&sqi=2&
64. Fables de La Fontaine traduites en créole seychellois, Hamburg, 1983; ved=0CBYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=pomp%20of%20phrase&f=false)
limited preview at Google Books (https://books.google.co.uk 77. The 1820 edition of this is available on Google Books.
/books?id=sM-5aGQHv2UC&printsec=frontcover& Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
dq=rodolphine+young&source=bl&ots=AwfXgePKos& 78. "Google Books". Archive.org. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
sig=2zUKu6jMVkb4q2A9Jl5HylNCxDQ&hl=en& 79. "The 1820 3rd edition". Archive.org. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
ei=VGcHTLfFIpaI0wThv8hl&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result& 80. See the preface on page 4 (https://archive.org/stream
resnum=3&ved=0CB4Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false); there is also a /oldfriendsinnewd00shariala#page/n3/mode/2up)
selection at Potomitan.info (http://www.potomitan.info/atelier/contes) 81. "Children's Library reproduction". Childrenslibrary.org. Retrieved
65. "Potomitan.info". Potomitan.info. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 2012-03-22.
66. "His ''Aesop. Fables'' (1692)". Mythfolklore.net. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 82. Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
67. A bibliography is available on the Langue Française site 83. "Mythfolklore.net". Mythfolklore.net. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
(http://www.languefrancaise.net/?n=Accueil.Accueil&action=search& 84. Holeybooks.org (http://www.holyebooks.org/authors/aesops/fables
q=la+fontaine) /aesops_fables.html)
68. "Three fables are available on YouTube". Youtube.com. 2010-11-13. 85. "Mainlesson.com". Mainlesson.com. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
Retrieved 2012-03-22. 86. "The Victoria & Albert Museum has many examples".
69. "A bibliography of his work". Pleade.bm-lyon.fr. Retrieved 2012-03-22. Collections.vam.ac.uk. 2009-08-25. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
70. See the list at mythfolklore.net (http://mythfolklore.net/aesopica/perry 87. "Creighton.edu". Creighton.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
/index.htm) 88. See several examples at creighton.edu (http://www.creighton.edu/aesop
71. "Paragraph 156". Bartleby.com. Retrieved 2012-03-22. /artifacts/tableware/specifickindsoftableware/plates/epinaldepellerin
72. The 1753 London reprint of this and Faerno's original Latin is available /index.php)
online (https://books.google.com/books?id=wlATAAAAQAAJ& 89. H.J.Blackham, The Fable as Literature, Bloomsbury Academic 1985,
printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage& p.186 (https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=p79MAgAAQBAJ&
q&f=false) pg=PA186&lpg=PA186&dq=fable+as+aetiological+myth&source=bl&
73. John Metz, The Fables of La Fontaine, a critical edition of the 18th ots=AZIcFB5Y_C&sig=R7otoJ3vLSBUlkaYxSl6zxqkudg&hl=en&
century settings, New York 1986, pp.3-10; available on Google Books sa=X&ei=EQdfVeCGLMz5Uuy4gMgF&
(https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=vVHRlG34Ub4C&pg=PA3& ved=0CCEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&
lpg=PA3&dq=Louis-Nicolas+Cl q=fable%20as%20aetiological%20myth&f=false)
%C3%A9rambault++Fables+de+la+fontaine&source=bl& 90. "ZEUS AND PROMETHEUS". mythfolklore.net.
ots=EvNKcajVDr&sig=w425tjQ8hB5DqTHcBHvhf1cjqeU&hl=en& 91. "ZEUS AND MAN". mythfolklore.net.
ei=PIJ9Ta7CDcjDhAf1oKXvBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result& 92. "HERMES, THE MAN AND THE ANTS". mythfolklore.net.
resnum=8&ved=0CE4Q6AEwBzgK#v=onepage&q&f=false) 93. "ZEUS AND THE POTSHERDS". mythfolklore.net.
74. The 1835 edition is available on Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. 94. "The Oath's Punishment", Perry Index (http://mythfolklore.net/aesopica
Retrieved 2012-03-22. /perry/239.htm)

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95. "THE FARMER AND HIS MATTOCK". mythfolklore.net. 107. Giovanni Saverio Santangelo, Claudio Vinti, Le traduzioni italiane del
96. Samuel Croxall, Fables of Aesop, Fable 56 (https://books.google.co.uk teatro comico francese dei secoli XVII e XVIII, Rome 1981, p.97, available
/books?id=vjYXAAAAYAAJ&lpg=PA100&ots=7ReEPlHWWt& on books.google.co.uk (https://books.google.co.uk
dq=croxall%20%20Hercules%20and%20the%20Carter& /books?id=G6af7qli7XcC&pg=PA97&lpg=PA97&
pg=PA100#v=onepage&q=croxall dq=Gasparo+Gozzi:+Esopo+alla+Corte+%281747%29&source=bl&
%20%20Hercules%20and%20the%20Carter&f=false) ots=rCsBkc0R2S&sig=sib4rtnEaapOf215wcpTcSaTO0Y&hl=en&
97. Laura Gibbs, "Rumi's fable of the Lion's Share", Journey to the Sea, ei=NqCYTbLsKImqhAeM6vHhCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&
October 1, 2008 (http://journeytothesea.com/rumi-lion) resnum=1&sqi=2&ved=0CBYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&
98. Fables of a Jewish Aesop, Columbia University 1967,Fable 38 q=Gasparo%20Gozzi%3A%20Esopo%20alla%20Corte
(https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=s6EjsopJmp4C& %20%281747%29&f=false)
printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=Hounds&f=false) 108. "The play is archived online". Archive.org. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
99. Evans, E. P. Animal Symbolism in Ecclesiastical Architecture, London, 109. The 24-minute feature is divided into three parts on YouTube
1896, p. 107 (http://www.scribd.com/doc/9075621/evans-animal- (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jON9jB6KPws)
symbolism-in-ecclesiastical-architecture) 110. Le corbeau et le renard is available on YouTube (http://www.youtube.com
100. Jason D. Lane, review of Luther's Aesop, Logia, December 30, 2013 /watch?v=pUu7fqvCImw)
(http://www.logia.org/logia-online/653) 111. "imdb.com". IMDb. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
101. "French Emblems: Emblem: DEPOSUIT POTENT ET EXALTAVIT.". 112. /00:00 (2010-01-22). "Aesop's Theater". V.youku.com. Retrieved
gla.ac.uk. 2012-03-22.
102. Rev. Samuel Lysons, Christian Fables, or the fables of Aesop, and other 113. Susan Stone-Blackburn, Robertson Davies, playwright, University of
writers, Christianized and adapted with Christian morals for the use of British Columbia 1985, pp. 92-6 (https://books.google.co.uk
young people, London 1850, p.6 (https://play.google.com/books /books?id=2wSfrq9cM_QC&lpg=PA93&dq=%22Aesop%20at%20%22&
/reader?id=AtcxAQAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&output=reader& pg=PA92#v=onepage&q=Masque&f=false)
hl=en&pg=GBS.PA6,) 114. There is a performance on YouTube (http://www.youtube.com
103. Honoré Champion, Répertoire Chronologique des Spectacles à Paris, /watch?v=n97AMizsHrs)
1680–1715, (2002); georgetown.edu (http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty 115. Joachim Draheim, Vertonungen antiker Texte vom Barock bis zur
/spielmag/finderegne/repertoire2.htm#top) Gegenwart, Amsterdam 1981, Bibliography, p. 111
104. The text is available on books.google.co.uk (https://books.google.co.uk (https://books.google.com/books?id=axS10XF46tsC&pg=PA111&
/books?id=CmQ8AAAAcAAJ&printsec=frontcover& dq=%22the+satyr+and+the+traveller%22&hl=en&
dq=%22les+fables+d%27Esope%22++boursault&source=bl& ei=eKPuTZnzBsea8QPI_cyPBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&
ots=IeGmOInEOL&sig=C88oOKzoXRiZQWPSkOud3E-zVB4&hl=en& resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwADhu#v=onepage&
ei=qlCXTfuuN4iGhQfl2fTkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result& q=%22the%20satyr%20and%20the%20traveller%22&f=false)
resnum=10&ved=0CFUQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q&f=false) 116. The score can be downloaded here (https://urresearch.rochester.edu
105. The text is available on books.google.co.uk (https://books.google.co.uk /institutionalPublicationPublicView.action;jsessionid=30700D0F9F7E51E
/books?id=rm0_DWd5jPoC&printsec=frontcover& B09864FD05D437FB8?institutionalItemId=20901)
dq=%22Boursault%22++Esope&source=bl&ots=4AwpHQxgVy& 117. A choir performance on YouTube (https://www.youtube.com
sig=5q1A7sZbyPPsgB-0L1G9WFh6XSg&hl=en& /playlist?list=PLLqL1yKEQmsdSyi3hkikb5Mcsrm7Irb_t)
ei=zFyXTebaNcGHhQf4m7WCCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result& 118. World Cat (http://www.worldcat.org/title/songs-from-aesops-fables
resnum=6&ved=0CDQQ6AEwBTgK#v=onepage&q&f=false) /oclc/681853115) fable list
106. Lancaster, H.C. "Boursault, Baron, Brueys, and Campistron" (PDF). A 119. Jason Scott Ladd, An Annotated Bibliography of Contemporary Works,
history of French Dramatic Literature in the 17th Century. pp. 185–188. Florida State Uni 2009 p.113 (http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available
Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. /etd-07132009-101243/unrestricted/Ladd_J_Dissertation_2009r.pdf)

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120. Joachim Draheim, p.10 (https://books.google.co.uk 129. Operas in English, p.5 (https://books.google.co.uk
/books?id=axS10XF46tsC&lpg=PA111& /books?id=Y8bQAwAAQBAJ&lpg=PA5&ots=ZjhhQBhkT9&
dq=%22the%20satyr%20and%20the%20traveller%22& dq=Martin%20Kalmanoff%2C%20%20%22Aesop%22&
pg=PA10#v=onepage&q=maus&f=false) pg=PA5#v=onepage&q=Martin%20Kalmanoff,%20%20%22Aesop%22&
121. The piano score is available online (http://www.notenpost.de/out/media f=false)
/Musterseiten-eres_20371_Hans-Poser-Die-Fabeln-des-Aesop.pdf) 130. Operas in English, p.5 (https://books.google.co.uk
122. Archivegrid (https://beta.worldcat.org/archivegrid/collection /books?id=Y8bQAwAAQBAJ&lpg=PA5&
/data/53180868) fable list dq=Aesop%20David%20Ahlstom&pg=PA5#v=onepage&
123. Composer’s site (http://richardmaltz.com/Hare.html) with recordings and q=Aesop%20David%20Ahlstom&f=false)
fable list 131. "Operatic Drama". David Edgar Walther, Composer.
124. Excerpts on the composer’s website (http://www.danieldorff.com 132. Bershire Ballet site (http://www.berkshireballet.org/bbpnotes.html#Aesop)
/pn-3ff.htm) 133. "The Nashville Scene". Nashville Scene. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
125. There is a performance at Alfred Music (http://www.alfred-music.com 134. "Playwrights and Their Stage Works: Peter Terson". 4-wall.com.
/player/ConcertBandMusic05-063/23314/player.html) 1932-02-24. Retrieved 2012-03-22.
126. The Tortoise and the Hare (https://www.youtube.com 135. whatsonsa.co.za (http://whatsonsa.co.za/news/index.php/whats-on/in-
/watch?v=xNQL9pGisVo); The Mouse and the Lion cape-town/17-theatre/653-aesops-fables-at-the-fugard-10-june-10-july-
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wDHY-oRIh_4); The Wind and the 2010.html) Archived (https://web.archive.org/web/20110902075300/http:
Sun (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fxqCfvmPYVo); The Dove and //whatsonsa.co.za/news/index.php/whats-on/in-cape-town/17-theatre
the Ant (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KLFAYFp1An0); and The /653-aesops-fables-at-the-fugard-10-june-10-july-2010.html) September 2,
Mule (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CNm9Nvv2qVM) are all 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
available on YouTube 136. There is a brief excerpt on YouTube (http://www.youtube.com
127. Margaret Ross Griffel, Operas in English: A Dictionary, Scarecrow Press /watch?v=VoTfCFCCBmY)
2013, p.5 (https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Y8bQAwAAQBAJ& 137. "Brian Seward - Playwright". doollee.com.
lpg=PA5&ots=ZjheQBilY8&dq=Aesop's%20Fables%20%22opera%22& 138. Virtual Museum (http://virtualmuseum.nationalopera.gr/en/collection-
pg=PA5#v=onepage&q=Aesop's%20Fables%20%22opera%22&f=false) items/sioras-aesop's-fables-19107)
128. The performance is on (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LZZN9jjtHgI) 139. There is a YouTube version of four fables; the whole work is now available
on CD under the title "Oh Raven, If You Only Had Brains!...songs for
Aesop's Fables"

Further reading
Anthony, Mayvis, 2006. The Legendary Life and Fables of Aesop
Caxton, William, 1484. The history and fables of Aesop, Westminster. Modern reprint edited by Robert T. Lenaghan (Harvard University Press:
Cambridge, 1967)
Clayton, Edward. "Aesop, Aristotle, and Animals: The Role of Fables in Human Life" (http://www.nhinet.org/clayton21-1.pdf). Humanitas,
Volume XXI, Nos. 1 and 2, 2008, pp. 179–200. Bowie, Maryland: National Humanities Institute.
Gibbs, Laura (translator), 2002, reissued 2008. Aesop's Fables. Oxford University Press
Gibbs, Laura, "Aesop Illustrations: Telling the Story in Images" (http://journeytothesea.com/aesop-illustrations/)
Rev. Thomas James M.A., Aesop's Fables: A New Version, Chiefly from Original Sources (https://books.google.com/books?id=-

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Aesop's Fables - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aesop's_Fables

w1m4ABbyk4C&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false), 1848. John Murray. (includes many pictures by John Tenniel)


McKendry, John, ed. (1964). Aesop, Five Centuries of Illustrated Fables. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. - online version
Perry, Ben Edwin (editor), 1952, 2nd edition 2007. Aesopica: A Series of Texts Relating to Aesop or Ascribed to Him. Urbana: University of
Illinois Press
Perry, Ben E. (editor), 1965. Babrius and Phaedrus, (Loeb Classical Library) Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965. English translations
of 143 Greek verse fables by Babrius, 126 Latin verse fables by Phaedrus, 328 Greek fables not extant in Babrius, and 128 Latin fables not
extant in Phaedrus (including some medieval materials) for a total of 725 fables
Temple, Olivia; Temple, Robert (translators), 1998. Aesop, The Complete Fables, (https://books.google.com/books?id=-w1m4ABbyk4C&
printsec=frontcover) New York: Penguin Classics. (ISBN 0-14-044649-4)

External links
Aesop's Fables (https://librivox.org/search?title=Aesop's+Fables&author=Aesop&reader=&
Wikimedia Commons has
keywords=&genre_id=0&status=all&project_type=either&recorded_language=& media related to Aesop's
sort_order=catalog_date&search_page=1&search_form=advanced) public domain audiobook at Fables.
LibriVox
Aesop's fables (http://www.aesops-fables.com/): all Aesop fables online. Wikisource has original
Aesopica (http://www.mythfolklore.net/aesopica/index.htm): over 600 English fables, plus Caxton's text related to this article:
Aesop, Latin and Greek texts, Content Index, and Site Search. Aesop's Fables
Children's Library, a site with many reproductions of illustrated English editions of Aesop
(http://www.childrenslibrary.org/icdl/BookPreview?bookid=crababy_00150086&tab=creator662& Greek Wikisource has
original text related to this
route=text&lang=English&msg=&ilang=English#creator662)
article:
Carlson Fable Collection at Creighton University (http://www.creighton.edu/aesop/) Includes online Μῦθοι
catalogue of fable-related objects
Vita et Aesopus moralisatus (http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.rbc/rosenwald.0242) [Aesop's Fables, Italian and Latin.] Naples: [Germani fidelissimi for]
Francesco del Tuppo, 13 Feb. 1485. From the Rare Book and Special Collections Division (http://www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook/) at the Library of
Congress
Esopus [Moralisatus]. (http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.rbc/rosenwald.0280.1) Venice, Manfredus de Bonellis, de Monteferrato, 17 Aug. 1493. From the
Rare Book and Special Collections Division (http://www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook/) at the Library of Congress
Fabulae. (http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.rbc/rosenwald.0306.1) Naples, Cristannus Preller, ca. 1495. From the Rare Book and Special Collections
Division (http://www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook/) at the Library of Congress
Esopo con la uita sua historiale euulgare. (http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.rbc/rosenwald.0335.1) Milan, Guillermi Le Signerre fratres, 15 Sept. 1498.
From the Rare Book and Special Collections Division (http://www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook/) at the Library of Congress
Fabule et vita Esopi, cum fabulis Auiani, Alfonsij, Pogij Florentini, et aliorum, cum optimo commento, bene diligenterque correcte et emendate.
(http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.rbc/rosenwald.0539.1) Antwerp, Gerardus Leeu, 26 Sept. 1486. From the Rare Book and Special Collections Division

24 of 25 26-Apr-16 13:27
Aesop's Fables - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aesop's_Fables

(http://www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook/) at the Library of Congress


Esopus constructus moralicatus Uenetijs, Impressum per B. Benalium (http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.rbc/Rosenwald.0779), 1517. From the Rare Book
and Special Collections Division (http://www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook/) at the Library of Congress
Esopus cõnstructus moralizat (http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.rbc/rosenwald.0826.1). Taurini, B. Sylva, 1534 From the Rare Book and Special
Collections Division (http://www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook/) at the Library of Congress
Aesopi Fabvlae cvm vvlgari interpretatione: Brixiae, Apud Loduicum Britannicum (http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.rbc/Rosenwald.0832), 1537. From the
Rare Book and Special Collections Division (http://www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook/) at the Library of Congress
Aesop's fables. Latin. Esopi Appologi siue Mythologi cum quibusdam carminum et fabularum additionibus (http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.rbc
/rosenwald.0889) 1501. From the Rare Book and Special Collections Division (http://www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook/) at the Library of Congress
Aesop's fables. Spanish Libro del sabio [et] clarissimo fabulador Ysopu hystoriado et annotado. Sevilla, J. Cronberger (http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.rbc
/rosenwald.1279), 1521 From the Rare Book and Special Collections Division (http://www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook/) at the Library of Congress
Aesop's fables (http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.rbc/rosenwald.0075). German. Vita et Fabulae. Augsburg, Anton Sorg, ca. 1479. From the Rare Book and
Special Collections Division (http://www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook/) at the Library of Congress

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