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Current Information

Testfield SolarVillage – October 2009


Imprint:
4th Auflage 10/2009
Text: Barbara Kovats, Dieter Duhm, Dieter Linke,
Jürgen Kleinwächter, Roland Luder, Uli Jung
Layout: Boris Bonjour
Photos and maps: Simon du Vinage, Roland Luder
Publisher: Projectgroup SolarVillage
Monte do Cerro
7630 Colos, Portugal
Tel: +351 / 283 635 313
solarvillage@tamera.org
“You never change anything
by fighting the existing.
To change something, build a new model
and make the existing obsolete.”
Buckminster Fuller

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Contents

Testfield for Tamera SolarVillage 7

The TTT-Platform 11
SolarVillage 11

Technology 11

Training 11

Transfer 12

Planning for the TTT Platform 13


I. Main Building 13

II. Extra Buildings 14

For a future without war – A message from Tamera 15

The Stirling Engine 17


What is a Stirling Engine? 17

How does a Stirling Engine work? 17

The Stirling process: 18

The Stirling research of Jürgen Kleinwächter 19

Construction of a Scheffler Mirror 23


What is a Scheffler Mirror? 23

How effective is this technology? 24

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Sunpulse Water 150 in Lörrach, 2008

First Hotoil-cooker in Tamera, 2006

First model of the TTT-Platform designed in cooperation with Peter Hübner, 2006

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They dreamt ideas and established will.
They brought the horses, birds and so many other beings.
But I never understood how they brought that star in sha-
pe of a white bird. It‘s so big. (But now there is one here.)
They came in baloons and zeppelins with many colours.
They built coloured tents and filled them with air.
And also the houses of wood and earth.
And heaven liked it.
They built lakes and the plants came back.
They talked to the clouds and they said: rain.
And the lakes were filled with water and fish.
Some swam, others were looking at each other,
but all had a different light.
Afterwards, they seeded flowers, and they blossomed,
the ideas in the rivers and they went.
And they still told the sun: Stay! And it stayed.
Poem by Pedro Portela

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Mounting of the ETFE-foil, 2009

Testfield for Tamera SolarVillage

T he Earth needs new models for settlements in also the ecology – permaculture according to the
which the fight of humans against each other and principles of Sepp Holzer - is tested in practice and
against nature can be ended effectively and susta- further developed.
inably. An essential contribution to this is research The core of the test field is the solar technology
into decentralised local energy systems using a developed by Juergen Kleinwaechter and his
solar technology which can also itself be produced team. In an energy greenhouse, solar radiation is
locally, thereby enabling an independent self- focused using Fresnel lenses or mirrors, to heat
sufficient economy. Decentralised means, in this plant oil which flows in a closed circuit and is
context, the construction of regional, relatively stored in a tank. The issue of energy storage is sol-
independent systems which are interconnected, ved completely differently from established solar
creating a new form of networked self-sufficiency. technologies, which often work with ecologically
The global interchange between such networks of problematic storage systems.
self-sufficiency will lead to a new form of globalisa- The energy greenhouse also serves as a parti-
tion under humane conditions which foster peace. cularly efficient, water-saving greenhouse for the
The SolarVillage is a planned model settlement in production of high quality organic food. In the
which trend-setting knowledge is researched and future it will also be possible to use it as an enve-
applied; knowledge which integrates and advan- lope around a house (house in house concept).
ces the basic concept of cooperation in the areas Multi-functionality is a concept which nature
of ecology, technology and architecture. Commu- shows us. The goal is to realise local self-sufficiency
nity and trust between humans provide the social regarding energy and food, in conjunction with a
foundation. high standard of living.
The SolarVillage is furthermore a training center The hot oil is used to power a kitchen for about
of the emerging Global Campus. Individuals and fifty people by passing the oil through double-
groups have the possibility to train here in techno- walled cooking pots so that the heat is used directly
logy and ecology and to live in the new surround- for cooking. Additionally steam is created through
ings and experience the basic ideas of community heat exchange with the hot oil – making possible
themselves. They can then communicate the in- steam-cooking, sterilisation of medical tools, water
sights that they have gained to their home regions desalination and many other applications.
so that the concepts can be further developed Furthermore the hot oil from the energy green-
and regionally adapted. Thus a global community house also drives a Stirling motor – the “Sunpulse
is growing at several locations around the world, Hotoil” - which thanks to the simple energy storage
working for a future worth living. technique, is able to provide 1.5 kW of electrical
In the so-called “Taldorf” of Tamera, the first energy, or mechanical or cooling energy, during
Testfield is emerging, in which the technology and the day or at night. Community tools such as a mill

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Paul Gisler (technical coordinator SolarVillage) at work on the Sunray

or saw can be efficiently directly driven mechani- system range in terms of days without sun by hea-
cally. The heart of a new energy supply for future ting the oil.
settlements is developing here. The test field also integrates an experimental
Another module of the testfield is the “Sunpulse ecology area in which different aspects of Holzer‘s
Water”, a water pump based on the Stirling prin- permaculture techniques are demonstrated, tes-
ciple, which is directly powered by incident solar ted and developed. This includes a kitchen garden
radiation. See page 20. and healing plants and especially emphasises
Additionally a Scheffler Mirror (see page 23) has urban ecology for city backyards for the “citizens
been constructed, and serves for cooking and of the Earth without earth” (Sepp Holzer, www.
baking. The concentrated solar energy directed by krameterhof.at)
this mirror can also supply the hot oil storage of For the shaded village square, Martin Pietsch has
the whole system with energy. Further elements developed a generous membrane construction.
of the solar kitchen are a simple parabolic mirror Through the interaction of the membrane cons-
cooker SK14, several solar box cookers and a solar truction with the ecological design, various large
dryer. The kitchen teams which will work here in and small social meeting places develop and an
the future will get in touch with and experiment approach to semi-permeable architecture is ex-
with different solar cooking techniques to learn perienced; living spaces and nature are brought
from their own experience which technologies are closer together.
best for different situations.
A planned further addition is a biogas facility,
permitting cooking with gas and extending the

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Jürgen Kleinwächter explains the Sunpulse Water, Summer University 2009

“To invent is to lead the correct key idea


that you have peeled out of a long chain
of errors, through numerous failures and
compromises to its practical success.”

Rudolf Diesel

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Scetch of the TTT-Platform

T he planned SolarVillage will be closely in-


tegrated with the developing permaculture
water landscape constructed according to Sepp
Holzer‘s principles. Fire and water find power in
their mutual completion.

Planned SolarVillage

Testfield SolarVillage

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Scetch of the TTT-Platform

The TTT-Platform

SolarVillage
Tamera is planning the development of a model ment of social and human knowledge based on its
village on a 5-hectare (12 acres) piece of land: long-term community research.
the SolarVillage. A model applicable for all peace
villages, it must link research into energy techno- Technology
logy, architecture, ecology and social knowledge The main objective of the TTT-Platform is to de-
to produce practical and theoretical knowledge monstrate that the technological knowledge for
on sustainability and the greatest possible self- food and energy self-sufficient structures exists
sufficiency. The first pilot model will consist of a and is dynamically growing.
village with fifty people The TTT-Platform gathers together, intercon-
The planned SolarVillage lake where the village nects and disseminates technological knowledge
will be located will be linked to technological worldwide.
water experiments (for example, “Hot Lake” or re- The TTT-Platform provides the creative playg-
search into water currents). Together with all other round for a “Free Lab” to originate concepts for the
areas of the emerging Tamera water landscape it future, for example in the areas of vortices, storage
will serve the purpose of ecological regeneration. of light, the effect of fields on plants, and much
Jürgen Kleinwächter’s Solar Power Village forms more. The goal of all the research is the creation
the technological energy core of the SolarVillage. of self-sufficient, decentralized living structures
This research station has the special characteristic adaptable to all climate zones of the world.
that the technologies will be used, tested and con-
stantly developed by the same group of people in Training
a real life situation. “In this way practical solutions The knowledge developed at the TTT-Platform will
will emerge that are suitable for the future while be shared in the context of the initiative for peace
simultaneously improving the quality of life.” training of the “Global Campus” under the supervi-
(Jürgen Kleinwächter) sion of Sabine Lichtenfels.
The first specific step is the creation of the TTT- Techniques to build sustainable social structures
Platform: a Center for Technology, Training and suitable for peace must be learned and practiced.
Transfer. The training consists on the one hand of learning
The plan is to bring together forward-thinking peace-knowledge, in the context of a basic course
people from many disciplines, especially research while living together in community with people
pioneers whom are not often heard or are even from many countries. On the other hand Solarpo-
oppressed. Tamera is cooperating in the develop- wer Technology and other sustainable technolo-

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Model of the TTT-Platform

“We have to build seed kernels of a new


development. Seeds which are so ready to
sprout that they lead to the creation of a
global field.”
Dieter Duhm

gies will be learned in concrete terms, in order to needed. This will build a foundation of worldwide
be able to implement them in whatever place one decentralized, sustainable systems.
wishes to work. This is a meaningful way to create A network of training places, called the “Global
work cycles and work places. Campus”, will be formed to pass on the basic know-
Undertaking the sponsorship of a project or ledge for the building of selfsufficient systems.
a person, for example from Israel /Palestine or Our co-workers will travel abroad with the goal
Columbia, will enable them to complete a basic of supporting the development of a subsistence
course or internship in the SolarVillage. economy (regional, self-sufficient economic areas)
or to participate in developing technology and
Transfer ecology.
After completing a sound training, the goal is to
bring the knowledge to the places where it is most

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Model of the TTT-Platform

Planning for the TTT Platform

I. Main Building
Seminar Room
Designed to hold approximately 100 visi- the roof movable from East to South, to
tors and 10 organizers, circular, diameter 15 West, independent from the roof rotati-
meters, clear ceiling approx. 6.5 meters, out- on
side height approx. 8 meters, roof surface -- Additional blinds at the first floor level
slightly inclined, inside without support, and the roof surface to enable full shad-
support outside Transparent roofing (in- ing
side & outside ETFE foil), transparent walls No design to fully darken the room, but
all around (Material used: heat protection projectors for evening presentations
glass or ETFE) Awning around the outside Flexible seating
at the height of an imaginary ceiling above Heat-storing back wall
the first floor Sliding doors on the lake-view side
Thermal control via: Access to the atrium and other parts of the
-- Fresnel receivers in a rotating roof sur- building across the lake road
face Generous green area, to be used as a lecture
-- Photovoltaic shield with a circumfe- room and creative retreat space
rence of more than 120°,
-- Height measurements between the
circumferential awning and the rail of

Drawings of the TTT-Platform from Dieter Linke and Martin Pietsch

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Lakeside Terrace in front of the Seminar Room Outdoor Test Area
Use: meetings and development of for locally built objects, or objects
visions brought by participants
Atrium Use: meetings and development of Construction Office with Workshop Office
visions Generous green area, seating for secretaries, engineers, workshop
and tables planning, drawings
Recreation Room
II. Extra Buildings for coworkers, changing room, meal
Main Entrance and Reception breaks, etc.
reception and telephone exchange Workshop for metal, synthetic material, wood,
Visitors’ Center and Office Center hydraulic workshop
for organization and conference par- Room for Electronics
ticipants and their external communi- Room for Chemistry
cation needs Dust-free Room
Office for Tamera Administration Room for Free Energy
for aprx. four people Lavatories II for workshop wing
Server Room Technology Room, Construction
Meeting and Presentation Room for conventional construction tech-
15 – 20 people, suitable for multime- nology
dia presentations,darkening possible Technology Room, Solar Systems
Room for Silence, Retreat & Encounters for the steering and regulation of
loving and living solar technologies with flexible re-
Tea Kitchen refreshments for seminar partici- structuring options
pants, meetings room users Technology Room, Energy Storage
Lavatories I for seminar and office wing for hot oil storage, batteries, flying
Temporary Exhibition Space wheel storage
for locally built objects, or objects
brought by participants
Technology Museum
for special permanent exhibits

Tibetan monks with the Sunpulse Hotoil and Jürgen Kleinwächter demonstrating the Solar Organ, 2008

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For a future without war
A message from Tamera
Dieter Duhm, June 2009
The world is in a lot of pain. After a five- only be successful if it is in resonance with the
thousand-year history of war, of persecution higher laws of the “Sacred Matrix.” The longer
and displacement, humanity has lost its source. we keep researching, the more clearly we recog-
A collective trauma runs through populations nize the unity of the large family of life to which
and continents. This trauma is inherent in we all belong. The concepts for social, ecolo-
perpetrators and victims alike, in large catast- gical, technological and spiritual issues that
rophes as well as in individual hardships. Huma- evolve from this recognition appear unfamiliar
nity is one whole entity and her energies form a to us. They will first have to be tested on small
continuum. Emotional hardship of abandoned models before finding their way into the world.
children and chronic pain over failed love rela- What is maturing today in small communities
tionships reappear at another point in the form (up to 200 people) could lead to a new plane-
of violence and genocide. The central area of tary culture through building “morphogenetic
the crisis of our time is that of the relationship fields.” As soon as an interruption at only a few
between human beings, particularly between points in the traumatic chain of humanity is suc-
the genders. It is there, at the core of sexuality, cessful, new healing forces are released which
love, partnership and community where the will change the global cycles. The international
wound is deepest. It is there where deliverance cooperation for a “Future without War” is not as-
and healing has to happen. sociated with any religious or political systems,
The development of a global peace model is since the planetary future is based on a power
the goal we have been aiming at for the past that transcends all limitations. In this sense we
thirty years. New social forms of cohabitation work on the development of a “Global Campus”
are coupled with new developments in ecology with bases in many countries (Israel, Palestine,
and technology. We believe that a future wit- India, and Colombia thus far). We are thankful
hout war is possible for all human beings and all for all offers of support and cooperation. The
creations on Earth, if only we utilize the mental world needs our help.
and technical possibilities which are available to
us today. In the name of all those who are perse-
cuted and spurned,
At the center of the human work stands the In the name of all children,
recovery of trust - trust among human beings, In the name of the love of all creatures.
trust between humans and animals, and trust
in the divine world. We know that our work can

To give coherence between the Testfield 1 and the planned Testfield 2, we provide extracts from a free
speech of Dieter Duhm (10.10.2009, Tamera):

We have to build seed kernels of a new deve- Earth. We need decentral units which are able
lopment. Seeds which are so ready to sprout to sustain themselves using new methods. It
that they lead to the creation of a global field. is for this reason that we build the SolarVil-
The strategy to heal our world requires models. lage in Tamera. The first phase is now visible:​
(...) “Testfield 1”
To create a model one has to achieve an over-
view of our human needs today: 2) In conjunction with “Testfield 1” we need a
1) Humans need a different material basis for “Testfield 2”, where models are developed – I
their existence on this planet. We need different speak rather technically now – models for the
approaches for energy, water and food supply resolution of the war between the genders, for
as otherwise it is clear that we will destroy the resolution of the historical trauma in love and

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The Energy Power Greenhouse under construction, 2009

sexuality, for Eros without lies, for partnership ars and what the male patriarchal society did to
without masquerade; a place where we want to women, especially to attractive women. If you
build models for a new concept of love. look at the way a horrible human trauma was
carved into the area of love; if you see that, then
Here things are to be learned which we have you know that the resolution of our conflicts in
never learned. When I would be able to endu- partnership is not an issue between two people
ringly love a human being, a woman, even if but an issue of humankind. (...) Through history,
she ignores me; when I am able to still love her a traumatic film has developed, which perma-
when she goes with another man, then one day nently runs unconsciously between men and
she will love me as I love her. This is the law of women. There is no exception.(…)
spiritual symmetry.
And sometime, when one has understood all of
It is so. But who has the endurance and who this, it is enough. Then you tell yourself and also
has the knowledge? Where can one learn such others: Enough, these times are over. We have
things? We need a school of love where the to do something and we have the possibility
fundamental laws of love are learned, just as in today to end this war globally by using the right
“Testfield 1”, the fundamental laws of physics means in ecology, in technology, in the school
have to be learned. of love, in spirituality and in economy. But we
need places where all this knowledge is gathe-
Becoming aware, knowing participants in the red together. Such a place is Tamera. Tamera
mystery of love; this is the entrance into a new was built as a model where the necessary know-
epoch. If you want to know what one is dealing ledge and energies come together to develop a
with in the area of love and partnership, you comprehensive model about which we can say,
have to know what happened with love and this is how it could function globally.
partnership and sexuality for five thousand ye-

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Sunpulse water beside lake 1, 2008

The Stirling Engine

T he Stirling engine was invented in 1816 by the mainly in the context of solar power stations and
Scottish Reverend Robert Stirling, about 50 years small co-generation units.
after the invention of the steam engine. Mainly
driven by ethical considerations, he developed What is a Stirling Engine?
this alternative for the work in coal pits and stone Stirling engines are nearly ideal thermal engines,
quarries. The steam engines that were used to meaning that they convert thermal energy very
pump water in this areas often exploded and many efficiently into mechanical energy. Based on its
children working in the pits were injured. The first thermodynamic principle the Stirling engine has
Stirling engine worked as a water pump to drain a an higher conversion efficiency than the steam
stone quarry in Scotland. The Stirling engine saw a engine or the Otto or Diesel engines. A Stirling
first boom at the end of the 19th Century as a de- engine can use any possible heat source and heat
centralized energy source for the private houses of sink as its “fuel” as the heat is provided externally
the rapidly growing middle class. At the beginning from various sources. The Stirling engine doesn‘t
of the 20th Century, about 250,000 Stirling engines depend on burning fossil fuel internally like the
were in use worldwide, for example driving ven- Otto or Diesel motors, but can work with nearly
tilators, water pumps or sewing machines. They every heat source, in the ideal case with biomass
can provide mechanical energy to private homes and/or the radiation of the sun.
and small manufactures. When Otto and Diesel
electro-generators came into use, Stirling engines How does a Stirling Engine work?
were nearly completely replaced. Since the mid- The Stirling engine is driven by the temperature
1970s, the Stirling engine is regaining acceptance, fluctuation of its working gas (typically air) which

Sunpulse Hotoil, 2004 First Stirling motor, 1816

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The Stirling process:
The Stirling engine works in 4 cycles:
Cycle 1: isothermal expansion: In the lower part
of the cylinder the air is heated and the
resulting pressure moves the power pis-
ton upwards.
Cycle 2: the displacer piston with a phase shift
of one fourth of a period moves down-
ward and thereby displaces the air in the
upper part of the cylinder. Here the air
cools down in an isocoric way and the
pressure diminishes.
Cycle 3: isothermal compression: The power pis-
ton moves downwards and compresses
the air. The compression heat is extrac-
ted through the cooler.
Cycle 4: the displacer piston pushes the air again
into the lower part of the cylinder where
it is heated isocorically.

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The Energy Power Greenhouse and the Sunpulse Water under construction, 2009

is caused by the heat source and heat sink. The air reflectors for the destruction of kidney stones,
repeatedly expands (when heated) and shrinks rocket guidance systems and the most advanced
(when cooled). Between the heating of the gas, anthropomorphic robot syntelman (Synchronous
causing expansion and the cooling of the gas, telemanipulators). Most of these genius inventions
causing contraction, there needs to be a technical were used in the arms and nuclear industries and
solution to create the fluctuation between hot and therefore father and son made the ethical decision
cold. Robert Stirling who created this hot air engi- to subsequently bring their scientific knowledge
ne found a superb solution. His idea was to create only into the service of the solar future. Beside
separated temperature zones: a permanently hot many other research areas ( e.g.  the first German
and a permanently cold zone within the engine. solar car 1978) they concentrated mainly on the
A displacer piston is used to periodically shift the development of thermodynamic and especially
air back and forth between the hot and cold zones Stirling engines and light weight concentrator
where it can expand and contract. A connected optics — in which sunlight is concentrated with
power piston is moved when the air expands in the help of thin metallised, pneumatically defor-
the hot zone and consequently provides positive med foil concentrators, or more simply: reflective
mechanical energy as the pressure rises. plastic sheets curved with air pressure. These are
the two key components to realize their basic idea:
The Stirling research of Jürgen Kleinwächter to combine relatively simple modules into a super
In 1971 father Hans and son Jürgen Kleinwächter lightweight and economic solar power station.
extended their private research institute KLERA
(Kleinwächter research & development for space In the year 1980 they founded the Bomin Solar
and nuclear technology) more and more into the lnstitute as joint venture with the German oil com-
growing field of solar energy. Until this time, Hans pany Bomin. The subsequent intensive research on
Kleinwächter had developed many technologies Stirling engines resulted in the innovative system
such as novel microwave antennas, shock wave of a magnetically coupled high temperature Stir-

Solar power station SKK, Lörrach 1981

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ling engine, which offers the technical solution for low and medium temperatures should result
for hermetically sealed high efficiency Ses using in efficiencies comparable to high temperature
Helium as the working gas. Already in the early engines, however with greatly simplified and more
Eighties they created a light weight solar power economical materials and much lower mecha-
station SKK (Solar Kuppel Kraftwerk) on their test- nical tolerances. The reduction of temperatures,
field in Lörrach. This consisted of a 10m foil para- pressures and frequencies make novel efficiency
boloid coupled with a 10 kW el free-piston Stirling, enhancing geometries and materials possible for
protected under a 17m high transparent dome. both the engines and the necessary optical con-
centrators. The Croatian Professor Ivo Kolin and
In the mid-Nineties Jürgen Kleinwächter and his the Nürnberg based inventor Eckart Weber inspire
team continued working after Hans Kleinwächter’s the Kleinwächter team with theoretical bases and
death in 1979. They concentrated increasingly function models of low temperature Stirling engi-
on the development of low (around 100 degrees nes.
centigrade) and medium temperature (from 100
to maximum 500 degrees centigrade) Stirling En- A completely novel Stirling technology is born,
gines. The target is to develop a simple technology working with relatively low temperatures, high
independent from large production facilities, for efficiencies and simple heat storage solutions for
decentralized energy production for the benefit of round-the-clock operation of the Stirling engine.
large populations. This technology offers an answer to the enormous
worldwide requirement for small power engines in
The high pressures and temperatures of classical the range from approximately 100 Watt to approxi-
Stirling engines require expensive special mate- mately 2 kilowatts. Consequently two models have
rials and high precision and are therefore very been developed and are continually optimized,
expensive. In comparison, a simplified technology the “Sunpulse Water” and the “Sunpulse Hotoil” .

Draft of the Sunpulse Water 300 Cross-section of the Sunpulse Hotoil 1500

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The Sunpulse Water is a water pump which directly useful mechanical systems; also electrical genera-
converts the incident energy of the incoming solar tors to produce electricity. The hot oil is heated by
radiation into hydraulic energy and therefore of- concentrated solar radiation and is used directly as
fers ideal conditions for decentralized applications. both the heat transportation and storage medium.
The enormous potential of such simple efficient Thus the Sunpulse Hotoil acts as a solar power
directly driven solar pumps becomes most evident station able to provide around-the-clock energy of
when considering the situation in India: About several kW.
50% (!) of the total electrical energy produced is
used to drive water pumps in rural areas. Since The direct conversion of heat to mechanical energy
the population in these areas is poor and cannot without the use of electric generators and motors
afford the normal price of electricity, the central is a most elegant and economic way to produce
government is strongly subsidizing this electricity. decentralized power. When an environmental-
Therefore Sunpulse Water engines offer the Indian neutral biomass/biogas burner is added to the
economy a huge opportunity. As they can be pro- system, the round-the-clock operation can also
duced locally with simple tools and materials this be maintained during sun-poor seasons. Jürgen
solution has the potential to create stable employ- Kleinwächter and his team are continuing to op-
ment and drastic environmental improvements in timize Stirling engines. One of the key elements is
these areas. to develop optimal fluid dynamic configurations
to enable efficient and extremely low cost heat
The Sunpulse Hotoil is driven by two fluid circuits; exchangers – a key challenge for Stirling engines.
hot oil on the hot side and water on the cold side. It Amongst the newest developments are the Sun-
directly drives such mechanical systems as cooling pulse Hotoil 1000 with a power delivery of 1kWel,
compressors, grain mills, saws and many other which since 2008 is operating at the Centre of​

Installation of the Sunpulse Hotoil 1500 in the Testfield

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Scheffler Mirror in Tamera, 2008

“Recreation of trust is the human core of


the work. Trust amongst humans,
trust between humans and animals,
trust in the divine world. ”
Dieter Duhm

Excellence of Bill Arrington in Greencastle, India- hydraulic bellows pump with 150 Watt power (this
na). In Lörrach, 2009 an optimized Sunpulse Water can lift 1 liter of water per second about 15m high).
with 300 Watt hydraulic power is in operation. This engine was built in 2008 in cooperation with
the solar team of Tamera.
To extend the power output of the Sunpulse Ho-
toil engine to the 10kW power range, a modified 2. The Sunpulse Hotoil 1500, a medium tempera-
extremely compact medium temperature Stirling ture engine delivering 1.5kW electricity with a hot
engine – the “Y-engine” is currently under develop- oil circuit. The hot oil is produced in the Fresnel
ment. lens system of the neighbouring energy-power
greenhouse and is used as the heat transportation
In Tamera, two Sunpulse Stirling engines currently medium whose heat content is stored in a large
operate on the solar TestField. hot oil/gravel heat storage tank to extend the ope-
ration of the engine around the clock.
1. The Sunpulse Water 150, a low temperature
Stirling engine with integrated solar collector and

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Scheffler Mirror in Tamera, 2008

Construction of a Scheffler Mirror


Under the guidance of Alec Gagneux, a seminar took place in April - June 2008 for the construction of
a Scheffler Mirror in cooperation with the Tamera-Technology-Team, Monte Cerro students and invited
experts.

What is a Scheffler Mirror? instance, can be run without needing any manual
A Scheffler Mirror is a sun reflector with a fixed adjustment.
focus, meaning that the sunlight is focused on a Through the fixed focus of the Scheffler Mirror
fixed point whereby the adjustment is designed the construction of solar kitchens is possible, since
in such a way that the burning point remains the mirror supplies continued condensed light
fixed and does not wander. For this adjustment energy. The distance between the burning point
mechanism the inventor of this technology, (for instance the baking oven of a house) and the
Wolfgang Scheffler, has developed an intelligent centre of the reflector (mirror in front of the house)
construction which is related to the principles of is defined by the curve chosen for the mirror.
the workings of a mechanical clock. The mirror Where are Scheffel Mirrors useful?
adjusts automatically to follow the course of the For the past 20 years the mirrors have been used
sun with the help of a technology which is built in many Southern countries. The construction
from parts of bicycles. This technology has also plans are an Open Source (not patented but feely
been adopted and is being taught by the Barefoot accessible). The Barefoot College for instances,
College in Tilonia, India, one of the Global Campus hold regular courses to capacitate village women
cooperation partners (www.barefootcollege.org). to create their own independent and environment-
On a sunny day the fixed focus for a solar oven, for friendly source of energy.

Cooking with the Scheffler Mirror

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Framework for the slit receiver, 2009

The basic idea which led to the development of How effective is this technology?
the Scheffler Mirror was the desire to make solar The output of a reflector with a surface of 10 m2
cooking as comfortable as possible. At the same varies depending on the season of the year (i.e.
time the apparatus should be such that - after a high or low sun level) from between 2.2 kW during
given period of instruction – it ought to be pos- summer and 3.3 kW during winter with a sunbeam
sible for it to be produced with locally available input of 700 Watt per m2.
materials at any rural welding workshop. Since the How does Tamera want to use the Scheffler Mir-
construction of a Scheffler Reflector does not have ror?
to rely on building parts from large industries, it With the surface of 10 m2 the mirror itself is an im-
constitutes a step towards independence. pressive sight apart from being a “shining” examp-
In India, the energy for large kitchens in some of le – in the true sense of the word – for a technology
the Ashrams is produced with Scheffler Mirrors. usually associated with third world development
The largest such installation provides meals for up to be part of energy solutions in European coun-
to 18.000 persons. tries.
Instead of a cooking stove it is also possible to
direct the burning focus to a backing oven, a stea-
mer or heat storage.

Second reflector in the cooking box Scheffler Mirror in the Testfield

24
Architecture in the Testfield 2009

For financial support:


Portugal:
Account holder: Associação para um Mundo Humanitário
Bank: Caixa Crédito Agrícola S. Teotónio
NIB: 0045 6332 4021 9980 8662 0
IBAN: PT50 0045 6332 4021 9980 8662 0 BIC: CCCMPTPL

Germany:
Account holder: Karl-Rainer Ehrenpreis - Forschungsgemeinschaft Tamera
Bank: GLS Gemeinschaftsbank Bochum
Account-No.: 400 635 2400, Bank Code (BLZ): 430 609 67
IBAN: DE02 4306 0967 4006 3524 00, BIC: GENODEM1GLS

Switzerland:
Account holder: Stiftung FGB, Verein Netzwerk - Tamera
Bank: Freie Gemeinschaftsbank, Basel
Account-No.: 400.631.3, Clearing-No.: 8392, Postcheque Basel: 40-963-0
IBAN: CH20 0839 2000 0040 0631 3, BIC: RAIFCH22XXX
Tax deductible receipts are available for donations made to this account in Switzerland .

USA:
Through the IHC (International Humanities Center), a non-profit organisation with 501 [c],
you can get a donation invoice for the USA.
Cheques:
please send them directly to: IHC - International Humanities Center, PO Box 923, Malibu, CA 90265, USA.
As reason for payment, please write: IHC/IGF
Credit cards:
please call: +1-310-579.2069; Fax: + 1-206-333.1797,
Steve Sugarman: steve@ihcenter.org

Thank you for your support


The Projectgroup SolarVillage

25
For further information:

www.tamera.org
solarvillage.tamera.org

Tamera, Monte do Cerro, 7630-932 Colos, Portugal


Tel. Office Tamera: +351 / 283 635 306
Tel. Office SolarVillage: +351 / 283 635 313
Fax.: +351 / 283 635 316

Your contact person: Barbara Kovats


solarvillage@tamera.org