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NON-WESTERN

RHETORICAL
TRADITIONS
ENG 211: RHETORIC
T U E S D AY M A R C H 2 2 2 0 1 6

RHETORIC AND CULTURE


Culture refers to the process by which
meanings are created in a society of people as
well as the products of this process.
Rhetoric has a reciprocal relationship to
culture; it both influences culture and is
influenced by culture.
Culture-centered criticism avoid ethnocentrism
by examining a cultures rhetoric from its own

AFROCENTRICITY: THE USE OF AFRICAN CULTURE


AND EXPERIENCES AS FOUNDATION FOR
RHETORIC/KNOWLEDGE
Rhetoric is the use of language to create harmony and balance in the midst of disharmony.
Afrocentric rhetoric includes several factors.
Rhetoric is related to the speakers and audiences frame of mind.
Rhythm is used to create a relationship with the audience.
Styling is another technique that creates a bond between speaker and audience.

Afrocentric rhetoric considers the context of the rhetorical act.


Linguistic features are a prominent part of Afrocentric rhetoric.
Lyrical quality refers to the narrative structure of the rhetoric.
Vocal artifact is the use of vocal cues to communicate.
Indirection is a style of speaking that avoids directness.

Delivery is the performance, in which the audience is invited to participate.

KNOWLES-BORISHADES MODEL OF
AFROCENTRIC RHETORIC
The caller is the speaker, who creates and initiates the rhetorical act.
The chorus are those audience members who anticipate the speakers
message.
Spiritual entities are invoked to create a spiritual environment for the
rhetorical act.
Nommo is the force of words in the oratory as well as how those words
sound.
The responders are the audience members, who play an active role in the
event.
Spiritual harmony is the ultimate goal of the Afrocentric rhetoric and is
achieved through the interaction of the previous elements.

CHINESE RHETORIC
China has a rich rhetorical tradition.
Rhetoric has been used to communicate with spirits.
Rhetoric has been used for governmental persuasion.

Mingjia and Confucianism are two schools of thought in Chinese history.


Mingjia focused on political language and rational thought.
Confucianism accounted for moral and political uses of rhetoric.

RHETORIC IN CHINESE HISTORY


Rhetoric has been defined in a variety of ways in Chinese history.
Yan refers to oral speech and language.
Ci refers to eloquence or embellished language.
Jian describes political speech for gaining power or used in self-defense.
Shui is a political speech that lists the advantages and disadvantages of a
proposed policy.
Shuo refers to an idea, thought, or explanation.
Ming refers to the correct naming of objects or people.
Bian is a type of argumentation.

MAIN IDEAS IN CHINESE RHETORIC


The Chinese used rhetoric for persuasion.
Chinese rhetoric emphasizes morality.
Chinese rhetoric addresses issues of epistemology.
Chinese philosophers have addressed rhetorics
relationship to dialectic.
Chinese rhetoric has elements of rationality.

NATIVE AMERICAN RHETORIC


Traditional theories of rhetoric fail to recognize the goals of Native American protest rhetoric
and the Red Power movement.
The Red Power movement seeks to restore Native American religious beliefs and ancient ways
of life.
In keeping with traditional ways of life, Native Americans face two constraints in using rhetoric.
Native Americans do not see people or rhetoric as primary change agents.
Native American culture emphasizes spoken rhetoric over written rhetoric.

Rhetoric is used not to address individuals, but Power.


Power is a supernatural force discovered by individuals through their experiences.
Ritual language addresses Power.
While appearing to be traditional strategies of protest movements, Native American sit-ins and
occupations are thought by Native Americans to instead address Power.