You are on page 1of 81

31

28

51

Vol. XXXIV

No. 2

February 2016

Corporate Office:
Plot 99, Sector 44 Institutional Area,
Gurgaon -122 003 (HR), Tel : 0124-4951200
e-mail : info@mtg.in website : www.mtg.in
Regd. Office:
406, Taj Apartment, Near Safdarjung Hospital,
Ring Road, New Delhi - 110029.
Managing Editor : Mahabir Singh
Editor
: Anil Ahlawat

71
18

contents

83
8

Maths Musing Problem Set - 158

10 Practice Paper - JEE Main


18 Ace Your Way CBSE XII

Subscribe online at

Practice Paper

28 JEE Work Outs


31 Concept Boosters (XI)

www.mtg.in

Individual Subscription Rates


Mathematics Today
Chemistry Today
Physics For You
Biology Today

1 yr.

2 yrs.

3 yrs.

330
330
330
330

600
600
600
600

775
775
775
775

Combined Subscription Rates

51 Concept Boosters (XII)

1 yr.

71 WB JEE 2016
Mock Test Paper

81 Math Musing Solutions


83 JEE Advanced 2016
Practice Paper

PCM
PCB
PCMB

900
900
1000

2 yrs.

3 yrs.

1500
1500
1800

1900
1900
2300

Send D.D/M.O in favour of MTG Learning Media (P) Ltd.


Payments should be made directly to : MTG Learning Media (P) Ltd,
Plot 99, Sector 44 Institutional Area, Gurgaon - 122 003, Haryana.
We have not appointed any subscription agent.
Owned, Printed and Published by Mahabir Singh from 406, Taj Apartment, New Delhi - 29 and
printed by Personal Graphics and Advertisers (P) Ltd., Okhla Industrial Area, Phase-II, New Delhi.
Readers are advised to make appropriate thorough enquiries before acting upon any advertisements
published in this magazine. Focus/Infocus features are marketing incentives MTG does not vouch
or subscribe to the claims and representations made by advertisers. All disputes are subject to
Delhi jurisdiction only.
Editor : Anil Ahlawat
Copyright MTG Learning Media (P) Ltd.
All rights reserved. Reproduction in any form is prohibited.

mathematics today | february 16

aths Musing was started in January 2003 issue of Mathematics Today with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Maths
Musing is to augment the chances of bright students seeking admission into IITs with additional study material.
During the last 10 years there have been several changes in JEE pattern. To suit these changes Maths Musing also adopted the new
pattern by changing the style of problems. Some of the Maths Musing problems have been adapted in JEE benefitting thousand of our
readers. It is heartening that we receive solutions of Maths Musing problems from all over India.
Maths Musing has been receiving tremendous response from candidates preparing for JEE and teachers coaching them. We do hope
that students will continue to use Maths Musing to boost up their ranks in JEE Main and Advanced.

Set 158
jee main

7. If a < b < 1, then f(x) has

1. Let a, b, c be an increasing sequence of positive

integers in which a = 2010 and b divides c. If N is


the number of such sequences where a, b, c are in
H.P., the last digit of N is
(a) 3
(b) 5
(c) 6
(d) 7

1
2. If 2 |z| 4 and a z + b, then a + b =
z
19
21
23
21
(b)
(c)
(d)
(a)
4
4
4
5
3. The alternate vertices of a regular octagon are joined
to form another octagon. The ratio of the areas of
the two octagons is
(b) 2 2
(a) 2 1
(c) 3 2 2

(d)

3 1

4. The determinant

2
a +b+c +d
ab+cd
a +b+c +d 2(a +b)(c +d ) ab(c + d )+cd(a +b) =0
ab+cd ab(c +d )+
+cd(a +b)
2abcd
for
(a) a + b + c + d = 0
(b) ab + cd = 0
(c) ab (c + d) + cd (a + b)
(d) any a, b, c, d
5. ABCD is a rectangle with A (1, 2), B (3, 7) and
AB : BC = 4 : 3. If d is the distance of the origin from
the centre of the rectangle, then [d] =
(a) 4
(b) 5
(c) 6
(d) 7
jee advanced

6. Let x 0, , f(x) = x tan(sin x), g(x) = x sin (tan x)


2
and h(x) = sin x tan x. Which one is greatest?
(a) f(x) (b) g(x)
(c) h(x)
(d) depends on x

( )

comprehension
(x 1)(x 2)
Let f(x) =
(x a)(x b)
8

mathematics today | february 16

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

neither maximum nor minimum


a maximum
a minimum
a maximum and a minimum

8. If 1 < a < b < 2, then f(x) has

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

neither maximum nor minimum


a maximum
a minimum
a maximum and a minimum
integer match

9. In a triangle ABC, if the angles are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 4,

then

sec2 A
co sec2 A

matching list

10. Match the following:

(a) If 4 dice are rolled, the probability of (p)


getting the sum 10, is

7
15

(b) If x and y are selected from the set (q)


of the first 10 natural numbers, the
probability that x2 y2 is divisible
by 3, is
(c) If 10 men are sitting in a row, the (r)
probability of choosing 3 of them so
that no two are from adjacent seats
is
(d) Triangles are formed with vertices (s)
of a regular octagon. If a triangle is
chosen at random, the probability
that it does not have any side
common with the octagon, is

2
7

(t)

8
15

5
27

5
81

See Solution set of Maths Musing 157 on page no. 81

1. Let a and b be the roots of x2 6x 2 = 0, with


a > b. Let tn = an bn for n N, then the value of
t22- 2t20
is
2t21
(a) 1

(b) 2

(c) 3

(d) 4

2. Let z be a complex number such that the imaginary


part of z is nonzero and a = z2 + z + 1 is real.
Then a cannot take the value
3
1
1
(a) 1
(b)
(c)
(d)
4
3
2
3. Let a1, a2, a3, ........ be in harmonic progression with
a1 = 5 and a20 = 25. If n is the least positive integer
for which an < 0 then the value of 4n 100 is
(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) 2
(d) 3
4. Six cards and six envelopes are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4,
5 and 6. Cards are to be placed in envelopes so that
each envelope contains exactly one card and no card
is placed in the envelope bearing the same number
and moreover the card numbered 1 is always placed
in envelope numbered 2. Then the number of ways
it can be done is
(a) 264
(b) 265
(c) 53
(d) 67
5. Let A = {a : sin a - cos a = 2 cos a} and
B = {a : sin a + cos a = 2 sin a} be two sets. Then
(a) A B and B A f (b) B A
(c) A B
(d) A = B
6. If the angles A, B and C of a triangle are in an
arithmetic progression and if a, b and c denote
the lengths of the sides opposite to A, B and C
a
c
respectively. If x = sin 2C + sin 2 A , then x is
c
a
root of the equation

(a) x 2 - ( 3 + 1)x + 3 = 0
(b) x 2 - ( 2 + 1)x + 2 = 0
(c) x 2 - ( 3 + 2 )x + 5 = 0
(d) None of these
7. Tangents drawn from the point M(1, 8) to the circle
x2 + y2 6x 4y 11 = 0 touch the circle at points
A and B. If C is the centre of the circle. Then the
equation of circumcircle of triangle ABC is
(a) x2 + y2 + 4x 6y + 19 = 0
(b) x2 + y2 4x 10y + 19 = 0
(c) x2 + y2 2x + 6y 20 = 0
(d) x2 + y2 6x 4y + 19 = 0
8. Let A and B be two distinct points on the parabola
y2 = 4x. If the axis of the parabola touches a circle of
radius r having AB as its diameter, then the slope of
the line joining A and B can be
2
1
3
1
(b)
(c)
(d)
(a) r
r
r
r
x2 y2
+
= 1 is inscribed in a
9
4
rectangle R whose sides are parallel to the coordinates
axes. Another ellipse E2 passing through the point
(0, 4) circumscribes the rectangle R. The eccentricity
of the ellipse E2 is
1
3
3
2
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
2
4
2
2

9. The ellipse E1 :

10. If sin (cot1 (1 + x)) = cos (tan1x), then the value of


2x + 3 is
(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) 2
(d) 3
11. If A is an 3 3 nonsingular matrix such that
AA = AA and B = A1A, then (BB)10 equals
(a) I + B (b) I
(c) B1
(d) (B1)

Contributed by : Sanjay Singh, Mathematics Classes, Chandigarh

10

mathematics today | february 16

12. The sum of values of l for which the system of linear


equations
2x1 2x2 + x3 = lx1
2x1 3x2 + 2x3 = lx2
x1 + 2x2 = lx3
has a nontrivial solution is
(a) 2
(b) 2
(c) 4
(d) None of these

13. Four fair dice D1, D2, D3, D4 each having six faces
numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are rolled simultaneously.
The probability that D4 shows a number appearing
on one of D1, D2 and D3 is
127
125
108
91
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
216
216
216
216
14. If a R and the equation 3(x [x])2 + 2(x [x])
+ a2 = 0 (where [x] denotes the greatest integer x)
has no integral solution, then all possible values of
a lie in the interval
(a) (1, 0) (0, 1)
(b) (1, 2)
(c) (2, 1)
(d) (, 2) (2, )

x2 + x + 1
15. If lim
- ax - b = 4 , then value of 2a b is

x +1
x
(a) 2
(c) 6

(b) 4
(d) None of these

16. If f(x) : [1, 10] Q be a continuous function. If f(x)


takes rational value for all x and f(2) = 5 then the
equation whose roots are f(3) and f( 10 ) is
(b) x2 3x + 2 =0
(a) x2 10x + 25 =0
2
(c) x 6x + 5 =0
(d) None of these
17. If f (x) = f (x) and g(x) = f (x).
2

x x
If F(x) = f + g and given that
2 2
F(5) = 5, then value of the expression (F(10))3
5(F(5))2 + F(2) is
(a) 5
(b) 10
(c) 0
(d) 15
18. The normal to the curve, x2 + 2xy 3y2 = 0, at (1, 1)
meets the curve again at (a, b) then the value of
(2a 3b) is
(a) 8
(b) 9
(c) 10
(d) None of these
19. The number of roots of the equation
x2 x sinx cosx = 0 is
(a) 6
(b) 4
(c) 2
(d) 0
12

mathematics today | february 16

ln3

20. The value of


(a)

x sin x 2

sin x 2 + sin(ln 6 - x 2 )
ln2

dx is

1 3
ln
2 2
1 3
(d) ln
6 2

1 3
ln
4 2

(b)

3
2
21. The area enclosed by the curves y = sinx + cosx and
y = | cosx sinx | over the interval [0, p/2] is given
as 2 a ( b - c) where a and b are prime number
then the value of a, b and c respectively.
(a) (2, 2, 1)
(b) (2, 2, 1)
(c) (3, 2, 1)
(d) None of these
(c) ln

22. Let f(x) be differentiable on the interval (0, ) such


t 2 f (x ) - x 2 f (t )
= 1 for each
t-x
t x

that f(1) = 1, and lim


x > 0. Then f(x) is
1 2x 2
+
3x
3
1 2
(c) - +
x x2

(a)

(b) (d)

1
x

1 4x2
+
3x
3

23. Let P, Q, R and S be the points on the plane with


position vectors -2i - j, 4i, 3i + 3j and - 3i + 2 j,
respectively. The quadrilateral PQRS must be a
(a) parallelogram, which is neither a rhombus nor
a rectangle
(b) square
(c) rectangle, but not a square
(d) rhombus, but not a square
24. The equation of a plane passing through the line
of intersection of the planes x + 2y + 3z = 2 and
2
from the point
x y + z = 3 and at a distance
3
(3, 1, 1) is
(a) 5x 11y + z = 17 (b) 2 x + y = 3 2 - 1
(c) x + y + z = 3
(d) x - 2 y = 1 - 2
25. Equation of the plane containing the straight
x y z
line
and perpendicular to the plane
= =
2 3 4
x y z
containing the straight lines
= = and
3 4 2
x y z
= = is
4 2 3
(a) x + 2y 2z = 0
(b) 3x + 3y 2z = 0
(c) x 2y + z = 0
(d) 5x + 2y 4z = 0

2.

26. If a , b and c are unit vectors, then


2
2
2
a - b + b - c + c - a does not exceed
(a) 4

(b) 9

(c) 8

(d) 6

27. Let O (0, 0), P (3, 4) and Q (6, 0) be the vertices of


triangle OPQ. The point R inside the triangle OPQ
is such that the triangles OPR, PQR, OQR are of
equal area. The coordinates of R are
4 2
2
4
4
(a) , 3 (b) 3, (c) 3, (d) ,
3 3

3
3
3
28. The tangents of angles subtended by a tower at
four points A, B, C and D on the ground are in H.P.
If O be the foot of the tower on the ground, then
(a) OA + OC = OB + OD
(b) OA + OB = OC + OD
(c) OA + OD = OB + OC
(d) AB + CD = BC + CD

3.

Let the common difference of A.P. be d, then


1
1
=
+ (20 - 1)d
a20 a1
1 1
1
1
- = 19d

= 19d
25
5
a20 a1
-4
1
1
d=

= + (n - 1) d < 0
19 25
an a1
1
-4
+ (n - 1)
<0

19 25
5

Statement 2 : The function x1/x (x > 0) has local


maximum at x = e.
(a) Statement I is true, Statement II is true ;
Statement II is a correct explanation for
Statement I.
(b) Statement I is true, Statement II is true ;
Statement II is not a correct explanation for
Statement I.
(c) Statement I is true, Statement II is false.
(d) Statement I is false, Statement II is true.
30. Statement I : ~(p ~ q)is equivalent to p q
Statement II : ~(p ~ q) is a tautology.
(a) Statement I is true, Statement II is true; Statement
II is a correct explanation for Statement I.
(b) Statement I is true; Statement I is true; Statement
II is not a correct explanation for Statement I.
(c) Statement I is true, Statement II is false.
(d) Statement I is false, Statement II is true.

4.

(ii) If card number 2 doesnt go in the envelope


1, then it is derangement of 5 things which can be
1 1 1 1
done in 5! - - + = 44 ways.
2 ! 3! 4 ! 5!
Hence, total 53 ways are there.
5.

solutions

14

= an bn

(c) : tn
Also a2 6a 2 = 0
Multiply with a20 on both sides
a22 6a21 2a20 = 0
Similarly, b22 6b21 2b20 = 0
Subtracting (2) from (1) we have
a22 b22 6(a21 b21) = 2(a20 b20)
t - 2t20
=3
t22 6t21 = 2t20 22
2t21
mathematics today | february 16

19 5
4(n - 1)
> 1 or n - 1 >
4
19 5
19 5
+ 1 or n 25.
or n >
4
Least positive value of n = 25
Hence the value of 4n 100 = 4 25 100 = 0
(c) : There are 2 possibilities
(i) If the card number 2 goes in the envelope 1
then it is derangement of 4 things which can be done
1 1 1
in 4! - + = 9 ways.
2 ! 3! 4 !
or

29. Statement 1 : ep > pe

1.

(d) : Given equation is z2 + z + 1 a = 0


Clearly this equation do not have real roots if D < 0
3
1 4(1 a) < 0 4a < 3 a <
4
(a) : a1, a2, a3, ..... are in H.P.
1 1 1
, , , ..... are in A.P.

a1 a2 a3

6.
... (1)
... (2)

(d) : In set A, sina = ( 2 + 1)cos a


or tan a = 2 + 1
In set B, ( 2 - 1) sina = cosa
1
= 2 +1 \ A = B
or tan a =
2 -1
(a) : Since angles of ABC are in A.P., 2B = A + C
Also, A + B + C = 180
\ B = 60
a
c
\ x sin 2C + sin 2 A = 2 sin C cos A + 2 sin A cos C
c
a

3
= 3
2
Clearly x is a root of the equation
x 2 - ( 3 + 1)x + 3 = 0
= 2 sin( A + C ) = 2 sin 2 B = 2

7.

(b) : The center of the circle is C(3, 2)


A

M(1, 8)

C(3, 2)
B

8.

Since, CA and CB are perpendicular to MA and MB,


CM is the diameter of the circumcircle of DABC.
Its equation is
(x 3)(x 1) + (y 2)(y 8) = 0
or x2 + y2 4x 10y + 19 = 0
y
(d) :
A

We have points A(t 12 , 2t 1) and B(t 22 , 2t 2) on the


parabola y2 = 4x
For circle on AB as diameter center is
t 2 +t 2
.
2
C 1
,(t1 + t2 )
2

Since circle is touching the xaxis, we have


r = |t1 + t2| or t1 + t2 = r
2t - 2t2
2
2
=
=
Also slope of AB, m = 21
r
t1 - t22 t1 + t2
9.

(c) : Let the ellipse be

x2

a2
through (0, 4) and (3, 2).

y2

b2

= 1 as it is passing

(0, 4)
y=2

(3, 2)

(3, 2)
x=3
x

x = 3
y = 2

(3, 2)

So, b2 = 16 and
or a2 = 12

9
a

(3, 2)

4
=1
16

So, 12 = 16(1 e2) or e =

1
2

10. (c) : sin[cot1 (x + 1)]


1
1

=
= sin sin -1

x 2 + 2x + 2
x 2 + 2x + 2

1
1

=
cos(tan -1 x ) = cos cos -1

1 + x2
1 + x2
1
1
=
Thus,
1 + x2
x 2 + 2x + 2
1
or x2 + 2x + 2 = 1 + x2 or x = 2
Hence the value of 2x + 3 = 2.
11. (b) : B = A1A AB = A
ABB = AB = (BA)= (A1AA) =(A1AA) = A
BB = I
Hence (BB')10 = I10 = I
12. (b) : System has nontrivial solution
l-2 2
-1
\ 2
-3 - l 2 = 0
-1
2
-l
2
(l 2)(3l + l 4)2(2l+2)1(43l) = 0
(l 2)(l 1)(l + 4)+ 4(l - 1)+ (l 1) = 0
(l 1)(l2 + 2l 8 + 5) = 0 (l 1)(l2 + 2l 3) = 0
(l 1)2 (l + 3) = 0 l = 1, 3
Hence the sum is 1 + (3) = 2
13. (a) : Required probability
= 1 P (Dice D4 shows none of D1, D2 and D3)
D4 can show any of six numbers.
If D4 shows a number x, then D1, D2, D3 shows any
number other than x.
3
1 5
\ Required probability = 1 -6 C1
6 6
3
125 91
65
=
= 1- 4 = 1216 216
6
14. (a) : Let t = x [x] = {x}
a2 = 3t2 2t, where t = {x} (0, 1)
2
1 1 1

= 3 t 2 - t = 3 t 2 - 2t. + -

3 9 9
2
1 2 1
1 1
= 3 t - - = 3 t - 3 3
3 9
Since 0 < t < 1
1
1 2
- <t - <
3
3 3
2
2
4
4
1
1
0 t - < 0 3 t - <
3
3
9
3
2
1
- 1 3 t - 1 - 1 < 1 - a2 < 1
3 3
3
3
2
0<a <1
or a (1, 0) (0, 1)
mathematics today | february 16

15

ln3

x2 + x + 1
15. (c) : lim
- ax - b = 4

x x + 1
1

- ax - b = 4
lim x +

x +1
x
lim ((1 - a)x - b) = 4
x

This is possible only when (1 a) = 0 and b = 4


a = 1 and b = 4
Hence 2a b = 6
16. (a) : Since f(x) is continuous in [1, 10].
f (x) will attain all values between f (1) and f (10).
If f(1) f (10), then f (x) will attain innumerable
irrational values between f(1) and f (10). But given
that f(x) attains rational values only, then we
must have f (1) = f(10), infact f(x) = constant for
x [1, 10]. Since f (2) = 5, f (x) = f (2) = 5, " x.
Hence the equation whose roots are f(3) and f ( 10 )
is x2 (5 + 5)x + 25 = 0.

1
sin(ln 6 - t )
...(2)
\ I=
dt
2 sin(ln6 - t ) + sin t
ln2
Using
b
b

f (x) = dx = f (a + b - x)dx and ln 2 + ln 3 = ln 6


a

a
Adding (1) and (2)
1
2I =
2

ln 3
ln 3

p
21. (a) : Since sin x and cos x > 0 for x 0, , the
2
graph of y = sinx + cosx always lies above the graph
p
of y = | cosx sinx |. Also cos x > sinx for x 0, 4
p p
and sinx > cosx for x , .
4 2
Area =

x x
F(x) = f + g
2 2
x x
x x
\ F (x) = f f + g g
2 2
2 2
x x
x
x
= f g + g f
2 2
2
2
x x
x x
= f g - g f = 0
2 2
2 2
Thus F(x) = c
Hence F(x) = F(5) = 5 = F(10) = F(2)

=2

x -

Therefore, it meets xaxis at two points.


Hence number of roots is 2.
20. (a) : Put x2 = t or 2x dx = dt

16

ln2

sin t
dt
sin t + sin(ln6 - t )

mathematics today | february 16

sin x dx + 2

p /2

cos x dx

p/ 4

= - [ 2 - 2] + [2 - 2 ] = 4 - 2 2 = 2 2 ( 2 - 1)
Hence by comparison a, b and c are respectively
(2, 2, 1)

19. (c) : Let f(x) = x2 x sinx cosx


\ f (x) = 2x x cosx = x(2 cosx)
Clearly f(x) is decreasing in (, 0), increasing in
(0, ).
Hence x = 0 is point of minima.
f(0) = 1 < 0 and lim f (x ) , lim f (x )

ln3

p/ 4

p/ 4

p/ 4
p /2
= [ -2 cos x ]0 + [2 sin x ]p/4

18. (b) :
(x y) (x + 3y) = 0
x y = 0 or x + 3y = 0
Equation of normal at (1, 1) to line x y = 0 is x + y 2 = 0,
which intersects the line x + 3y = 0 at (3, 1).
Hence the value of (2a 3b) = 2(3) 3(1) = 9

1
2

p /2

x2 + 2xy 3y2 = 0

\ I=

((sin x + cos x) - (cos x - sin x)) dx +


((sin x + cos x) - (sin x - cos x)) dx

p/ 4
0

17. (a) : Given f (x) = f(x) and g(x) = f (x)


2

1 3
or I = ln
4 2

1dt

...(1)

t 2 f (x ) - x 2 f (t )
=1
t-x
t x

22. (a) : lim

form
0

2tf (x ) - x 2 f (t )
=1
1
t x
(Applying L Hospitals Rule)
x2 f(x) 2xf(x) + 1 = 0
lim

x 2 f (x ) - 2 xf (x )
4

x
d f (x )
1
=

2
dx x
x4

=-

1
x4

1
f (x)
f (x )
1
= - 4 dx
=
+c
2
x
x
3x 3
x2
2
Since, f(1) = 1 c =
3
f (x )
1
2
1 2x 2

=
+
2
3 3 f (x ) =
+
3x
x
3x
3

23. (a) : Evaluating midpoint of PR and QS which gives


i

M = + j , same for both.


2

PQ = SR = 6i + j

PS = QR = -i + 3j

So, PQ PS 0


PQ || SR, PS || QR and | PQ || SR | = 37 ,

| PS | = | QR | = 10
Hence, PQRS is a parallelogram but neither a
rhombus nor a rectangle.
24. (a) : Equation of required plane is
P (x + 2y + 3z 2) + l(x y + z 3) = 0
(1 + l) x +(2 l)y +(3 + l)z (2 + 3l) = 0
2
Its distance from (3, 1, 1) is
3
2
3(1 + l) + (2 - l) - (3 + l) - (2 + 3l)

=
3
(l + 1)2 + (2 - l)2 + (3 + l)2
(-2 l)2
4
3l2 + 4l + 14 = 3l2
=
3 3l2 + 4 l + 14
7
l=2
5
11
z 17
= 0
Required plane is - x + y - +
2
2
2 2
or 5x 11y + z = 17
x y z
25. (c) : Let the planes containing lines = = and
3 4 2
x y z
= = be P1.
4 2 3
i j k

Vector normal to plane P1 is n1 = 3 4 2


4 2 3
= 8 i - j - 10k
Now, required plane P 2 is perpendicular to this
x y z
plane and it contains the line = = .
2 3 4
Since all lines pass through the origin, plane P 2
passes through the origin.

Lets find vector n2 normal to plane P2.



n = n (2i + 3j + 4k )

i j
k
= 8 -1 -10 = 26i - 52 j + 26k
2 3 4

Thus equation of plane P2 having normal n2 and


passing through (0, 0, 0) is
26x 52y + 26z = 0 or x 2y + z = 0

26. (b) : a , b and c are unit vectors.


2
2
2
Now, x = a - b + b - c + c - a
= 2(a a + b b + c c ) - 2a b - 2b c - 2c a
= 6 - 2(a b + b c + c a )

... (1)

Also, a + b + c 0
\ a a + b b + c c + 2(a b + b c + c a ) 0
or 3 + 2(a b + b c + c a ) 0
or 2(a b + b c + c a ) -3
or -2(a b + b c + c a ) 3
or 6 - 2(a b + b c + c a ) 9
... (2)
From (1) and (2), x 9
Therefore, x does not exceed 9.
27. (c) : Centroid of triangle divides triangle into three
triangles of equal area. So, in given question R is
centroid of triangle OPQ, which is given by
3+6+0 4+0+0
4
R
,
or R 3,
3
3
3
28. (c) : If a, b, g d be the four angles such that tana,
tanb, tang, tand are in H.P., then cota, cotb, cotg,
cotd are in A.P.
h cota, h cotb, h cotg, h cotd are in A.P.
[h is height of tower]
OA, OB, OC, OD are in A.P.
OA + OD = OB + OC
29. (d) : Consider f(x) = x1/x
1 - ln x
f (x ) = x1/ x
x 2
f(x) increases on (0, e) and decreases on (e, )
f has local maximum at x = e
Since p > e and f decreases on (e, ) so f(p) < f(e)
pe > ep
30. (c) :
p

~q

T
T
F
F

T
F
T
F

F
T
F
T

p ~q ~(p ~q) p q
F
T
T
F

T
F
F
T

T
F
F
T

From the last two columns, we get


~ (p (~ q)) p q
\ Statement I is true.
But ~ (p ~ q) is not a tautology, so Statement II is
false.
nn
mathematics today | february 16

17

PRACTICE PAPER 2016


Time Allowed : 3 hours

Maximum Marks : 100


GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i) All questions are compulsory.


(ii) Please check that this Question Paper contains 26 Questions.
(iii) Marks for each question are indicated against it.
(iv) Questions 1 to 6 in Section-A are Very Short Answer Type Questions carrying one mark each.
(v) Questions 7 to 19 in Section-B are Long Answer I Type Questions carrying 4 marks each.
(vi) Questions 20 to 26 in Section-C are Long Answer II Type Questions carrying 6 marks each.
(vii) Please write down the serial number of the Question before attempting it.

section-a
2

1. If A is a square matrix satisfying A = I, then what is


the inverse of A?
2. Show that the points A(3, 5, 1), B(1, 0, 8) and
C(7, 10, 6) are collinear.
3. Equation of the plane passing through (2, 3, 1) and
is perpendicular to the vector 3i 4 j + 7 k .
4. Determine the order and degree of the differential
d2 y
equation 2 =
dx
p2

5. Evaluate :

2
dy
1 + .
dx

sin x cos2 x (sin2 x + cos x ) dx

p 2

6. Evaluate :

dx
9 25x 2
section-B

dy
, when y = a + a + a + x 2 , where a is a
dx
constant.

7. Find

18

mathematics today | february 16

8. Differentiate the function with respect to x :


a + b sin x
log
a b sin x
9. Find the probability of drawing a diamond card
in each of the two consecutive draws from a well
shuffled pack of cards, if the card drawn is not
replaced after the first draw.
OR
A clever student used a biased coin so that the head
is 3 times as likely to occur as tail. If the coin is
tossed twice, find the probability distribution and
mean of numbers of tails. Is this a good tendency?
Justify your answer.
10. Prove that :

sin cos
p
2 tan 1 tan tan = tan 1
4 2
2

sin + cos
11. Find the interval in which the value of the
determinant of the matrix A lies.
1
sin q
1

1
sin q
Given A = sin q
1
1
sin q

12. Prove that : x sin3 x dx =


0

Evaluate :

p/2

2p
.
3

OR

sin 2x tan

(sin x )dx

13. Find the length and the coordinates of the foot of


the perpendicular from the point (7, 14, 5) to the
plane 2x + 4y z = 2.
14. Let A = {1, 2, 3, ..., 9} and R be the relation in
A A defined by (a, b) R (c, d) if a + d = b + c for
(a, b), (c, d) in A A. Prove that R is an equivalence
relation.
OR
Let * be a binary operation on the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
a + b, if a + b < 6
and a * b =
a + b 6, if a + b 6
Find the identity element and the inverse element
of each element of the set for the operation *.

1 1 0

15. If A = 2 5 3 , then find A1, using elementary


0 2 1
row operations.


16. If a b = a c , a b = a c and a 0, then prove that

b = c.
3x + 1
17. Evaluate
dx.
5 2x x 2

18. Determine the values of a, b and c for which the


function
sin(a + 1)x + sin x
, x <0

f (x ) =
c
, x =0

x + bx 2 x
, x >0

b x3
may be continuous at x = 0.
OR
It is given that for the function f(x) = x3 + bx2 + ax + 5
1
on [1, 3], Rolles theorem holds with c = 2 +
.
3
Find the values of a and b.
19. Solve the differential equation :
dy
sec2 y + 2 x tan y = x 3
dx

section-c

20. Show that the cone of greatest volume which can


be inscribed in a given sphere is such that three
times its altitude is twice the diameter of the sphere.
Find the volume of the largest cone inscribed in a
sphere of radius R.
21. Three cards are drawn successively with replacement
from a well-shuffled deck of 52 cards. A random
variable X denotes the number of hearts in the three
cards drawn. Find the mean and variance of X.
OR
Assume that the chances of a patient having a heart
attack is 40%. Assuming that a meditation and yoga
course reduces the risk of heart attack by 30% and
prescription of certain drug reduces its chance by
25%. At a time a patient can choose any one of the
two options with equal probabilities. It is given that
after going through one of the two options, the
patient selected at random suffers a heart attack.
Find the probability that the patient followed a
course of meditation and yoga. Interpret the result
and state which of the above stated methods is more
beneficial for the patient.
22. A factory owner wants to purchase two types of
machines A and B, for his factory. The machine A
requires an area of 1000 m2 and 12 skilled men for
running it and its daily output is 50 units, whereas
the machine B requires 1200 m2 area and 8 skilled
men, and its daily output is 40 units. An area of
7600 m2 and 72 skilled men be available to operate
the machines.
(i) How many machines of each type should be
bought to maximize the daily output?
(ii) Write two advantages of keeping skilled men in
a firm.
23. Show that the lines

x y2 z+3
and
=
=
1
2
3

x2 y6 z3
=
=
are coplanar. Also, find the
2
3
4

equation of the plane containing these lines.


24. Let f : N R be a function defined as

f(x) = 4x2 + 12x + 15.


Show that f : N S is invertible, where S is the
range of f. Also, find inverse of f.
mathematics today | february 16

19

x4

OR
Prove that the curves y = x2 and x = y2 divide the
square bounded by x = 0, y = 0, x = 1 and y = 1 into
three parts which are equal in area.
26. Find the particular solution of the differential
equation
y
x
xe

dy
y
y
y sin + x sin = 0, given that y = 0,
x
x
dx
when x = 1.
solutions
2

1. We have A = I A1A2 = A1 I A = A1
^

2. Position vector of A = 3 i 5 j + 1 k
^

Position vector of B = 1i + 0 j + 8 k
^

Position vector of C = 7 i 10 j 6 k

AB = Position vector of B Position vector of A


^

= 4 i + 5 j + 7 k

AC = Position vector of C Position vector of A


= 4i 5j 7k

AC = AB
\ The points A, B and C are collinear.
3. The equation of the plane passing through (2, 3, 1)
and perpendicular to the vector 3i 4 j + 7 k is
3(x 2) + ( 4) (y 3) + 7(z ( 1)) = 0
or, 3x 4y + 7z + 13 = 0
4. The given equation can be written as
2

2
d2 y
dy
=
1
+
2
dx
dx

Clearly, it is an equation of order 2 and degree 2.


5.

p2

sin x cos2 x (sin2 x + cos x ) dx

p 2

p2

sin x cos x dx +

p 2

sin x cos3 x dx = 0

p 2

( sin x is an odd function)


\
20

sin x cos x and sin x cos3x are odd functions.


mathematics today | february 16

9 25x

dx =

1
5

1
2

3
2
x
5

dx

1 1 5x
1
x
= sin 1
+ C = sin + C

3
3/5
5
5
7. We have, y = a + a + a + x 2 , where a is a
constant.
1

2
y = a + a + a + x 2
dy 1

= a + a + a + x 2
dx 2

1
2

d
2
a + a + a + x
dx
1
2


1 a + a + x2 2

2
d
a + a + x2

dx
1
1


dy 1
2 2 1

= a + a + a + x
a + a + x2 2
2

dx 2
1
1

(a + x 2 ) 2 .2 x

dy 1

= a + a + a + x 2
dx 2

)(

dy 1
= x a + a + a + x 2 a + a + x 2 (a + x 2 )
dx 4

1
2

a + b sin x
.
8. Let y = log
a b sin x
Then, y = log(a + b sinx) log (a b sinx)
dy
1
d
1

=
(a + b sin x )
dx a + b sin x dx
a

b
sin x

(a b sin x )
dx

dy
1

=
(0 + b cos x )
dx a + b sin x
1

(0 b cos x )
a b sin x
dy
b cos x
b cos x

=
+
dx a + b sin x a b sin x

p2

6. Let I =

(x 1)(x 2 + 1) dx

25. Find

dy
1
1

= b cos x
+

dx
a
+
b
sin
x
a

b
sin
x

dy
a b sin x + a + b sin x
= b cos x

dx
(a + b sin x )(a b sin x )
2ab cos x
= 2 2 2
a b sin x

9. Let A be the event of drawing a diamond card in the


first draw and B be the event of drawing a diamond
card in the second draw. Then,
P ( A) =

13

C1

52

C1

13 1
=
52 4

After drawing a diamond card in first draw, 51 cards


are left out of which 12 cards are diamond cards.
\ P(B/A) = Probability of drawing a diamond card
in second draw when a diamond card has already
been drawn in first draw

P(B|A) =

12

C1

51

C1

Now, req. prob. = P(A B) = P(B|A) P(A)


4 1 1
= 17 4 = 17

P( x )

16

Mean =

1
2

= R.H.S.

2
0 sin2 q 1 0 + 1 (1 + sin q) 1 + 1
1 (1 + sin2 q) 2 2(1) 2(1 + sin2 q) 2(2)
2 2(1 + sin2 q) 4 2 | A | 4

| A | [2, 4]
So, the value of |A| lies in the interval [2, 4]
1
6
16

2
1
16

6 2
8 1
=0+ + = =
16 16 16 2

12. Let I = x sin3 x dx


0

...(1)

Then, I = (p x )sin3 (p x ) dx
0
p

I = (p x )sin3 x dx

or

...(2)

Adding (1) and (2), we get

Value :
1. No, it may be good once or twice but not forever.
2. Honesty pays in a long run.
10. L.H.S. = 2 tan

2 sin cos
sin cos
= tan 1
= tan 1

2 cos + 2 sin
sin + cos

=1(1 + sin2q) sinq( sinq + sinq) + 1(1 + sin2q)


= 2(1 + sin2q)
The value of sin2q lies in the range of 0 and 1.

9
6
1
Mean = SxP(x) = 0 + 1 + 2
16
16
16

2 sin cos

= tan 1
(1 + cos )(1 + sin ) (1 cos )(1 sin )

1
sin q
1
1
sin q
11. |A| = sin q
1
sin q
1

12 4
=
51 17

OR
P(H) = 3/4; P(T) = 1/4;
Event: Tails; n = 2; x = 0, 1, 2
3 3 9
3 1
6
P (0) = = , P (1) = 2 = ,
4 4 16
4 4
16
1 1 1
P(2) = =
4 4 16
x
0
\ Probability distribution is
9

1
p

sin sin

2
2
= tan 1

1 + cos 1 + sin 1 cos 1 sin


2
2
2
2

p
tan 2 tan 4 2

p
2 tan 2 tan 4 2
= tan 1

1 tan2 tan2 p
2
4 2

p
p
2 sin cos sin cos

4 2
4 2
2
2
= tan 1

cos2 cos2 p sin2 sin2 p


4 2
2
4 2
2

2 I = p sin3 x dx = p sin2 x sin x dx


0

2 I = p (1 cos2 x )sin x dx
0

Let cos x = t sinxdx = dt


x = 0 t = 1 and x = p t = 1
1

2 I = p (1 t 2 ) dt
1

t3
4p
2 I = p (1 t ) dt = p t =
.

3
1

1
Hence, I =

2p
3
mathematics today | february 16

21

Let I =

OR

p/2

sin 2x tan

(sin x )dx

p/2

2 sin x cos x tan

(sin x )dx

Let sinx = t cosx dx = dt


p
x = 0 t = 0, x = t = 1
2
1

\ I = 2t tan 1 t dt = 2 t tan 1 t dt
Integrating by parts, we have
1

1
t2

t2
dt
I = 2 tan 1 t 2
2
2
0
0 2(1 + t )
1

t2
1

= 2 tan 1 1 0
dt
2
0 (1 + t 2 )
1

t2 +11
1 p
dt
= 2
2 4 0 (1 + t 2 )
=

p
1
dt
1
4 0 (1 + t 2 )

p
p p
p
[t ]10 + [tan 1 t ]10 = 1 + = 1
4
4 2
4
13. Any line through P(7, 14, 5) and perpendicular to
the plane 2x + 4y z = 2 is given by
=

P(7, 14, 5)

x 7 y 14 z 5
=
=
= l(say).
2
4
1
Any point on this line is N(2l + 7, 4l + 14, l + 5).
If N is the foot of the perpendicular from P to the
given plane, then it must lie on the plane 2x + 4y z = 2.
\ 2(2l + 7) + 4(4l + 14) (l + 5) = 2 l = 3.
Thus, we get the point N(1, 2, 8) on the plane.
Hence, the foot of the perpendicular from P(7, 14, 5)
to the given plane is N(1, 2, 8).
\ Length of the perpendicular from P to the given
plane = PN = (7 1)2 + (14 2)2 + (5 8)2
= 189 = 3 21 units.
22

mathematics today | february 16

14. Given A = {1, 2, 3, 4, ...,9} N, the set of natural


numbers.
To show that R is an equivalence relation
Reflexivity :
Let (a, b) be an arbitrary element of A A. Then,
we have: (a, b) A A
a, b A
a + b = b + a (by commutativity of addition on
A N)
(a, b) R (a, b)
Thus, (a, b) R (a, b) for all (a, b) A A
So, R is reflexive.
Symmetry :
Let (a, b), (c, d) A A such that (a, b) R (c, d).
i.e., a + d = b + c
b+c=a+d
c + b = d + a (by commutativity of addition on
A N)
(c, d) R (a, b)
Thus, (a, b) R (c, d) (c, d) R (a, b) for all (a, b),
(c, d) A A. So, R is symmetric.
Transitivity :
Let (a, b), (c, d), (e, f) A A such that
(a, b) R (c, d)and (c, d) R (e, f)
Now, (a, b) R (c, d) a + d = b + c
...(1)
and (c, d) R (e, f) c + f = d + e
...(2)
Adding (1) and (2), we get
(a + d) + (c + f) = (b + c) + (d + e)
a + f = b + e (a, b) R (e, f)
Thus, (a, b) R (c, d) and (c, d) R (e, f)
(a, b) R (e, f) (a, b), (c, d), (e, f) A A
So, R is transitive on A A.
\ R is an equivalence relation.
OR
*
0
1
2
3
4
5

0
0
1
2
3
4
5

1
1
2
3
4
5
0

2
2
3
4
5
0
1

3
3
4
5
0
1
2

4
4
5
0
1
2
3

5
5
0
1
2
3
4

From the table, the second row and second column


are the same as the original set.
0*0 = 0, 1*0 = 0*1=1, 2*0 = 0*2 = 2, 3*0 = 0*3
= 3, 4*0 = 0*4 = 4, 0*5 = 5*0 = 5. Hence, 0 is the
identity element of the operation *.
Now, the element 0 appears in the cell 1*5 = 5*1
= 0, 2*4 = 4*2 = 0, 3*3 = 0 and 0*0 = 0
Inverse element of 0 is 0, inverse element of 1 is 5,
inverse element of 2 is 4, inverse element of 3 is 3,
inverse element of 4 is 2, inverse element of 5 is 1.
1 1 0

15. Given, A = 2 5 3
0 2 1
For finding the inverse, write A = IA
1 1 0 1 0 0

\ 2 5 3 = 0 1 0 A
0 2 1 0 0 1
Applying R2 R2 2R1, we get
1 1 0 1 0 0

0 7 3 = 2 1 0 A
0 2 1 0 0 1
Applying R2 R2 3R3, we get
1 1 0 1 0 0

0 1 0 = 2 1 3 A
0 2 1 0 0 1
Applying R1 R1 +R2 and R3 R3 2R2, we get
1 0 0 1 1 3

0 1 0 = 2 1 3 A
0 0 1 4 2 7
1 1 3

\ A = 2 1 3 [ A1 A = I ]
4 2 7


16. We have, a b = a c and a 0


a b a c = 0 and a 0


a (b c ) = 0 and a 0

b c = 0 or a (b c )

b = c or a (b c )



Again, a b = a c and a 0



(a b ) ( a c ) = 0 and a 0


a (b c ) = 0 and a 0

(b c ) = 0 or a ||(b c )

b = c or a ||(b c )
...(2)

From (1) and (2), we get b = c


[ a (b c ) and a ||(b c )
both cannot hold simultaneously].
17. Let I =

3x + 1

dx
5 2x x 2
This integral is of the form

...(1)

px + q
ax 2 + bx + c

dx

whose solution is
d
px + q = A (ax 2 + bx + c) + B
dx
Now, we write given integrand as
d
3x + 1 = A (5 2 x x 2 ) + B
dx
3x + 1 = A( 2 2x) + B
3x + 1 = 2Ax + (2A + B)
On equating the coefficients of x and constant term
both sides, we get
3
3 = 2 A A =
2
3
and 1 = 2 A + B 1 = 2 + B B = 2
2
\ Given integral can be rewritten as
3
(2 2 x )
2
2
I=
dx +
dx
2
5 2x x
5 2x x 2
1

+1
3 (5 2 x x 2 ) 2
2

=
dx

1
2

( 6 )2 (x + 1)2
+1

...(1)

x +1
3 ( 5 2x x 2 )
2 sin 1
+C
6
2
1/ 2

x +1
= 3( 5 2 x x 2 ) 2 sin 1
+C
6
18. Here, f(0) = c
L.H.L. at x = 0
sin(a + 1)x + sin x
Lt f (x ) = Lt

x
x 0
x 0
mathematics today | february 16

23

sin(a + 1)x sin x


= Lt
+

x
x
x 0

12
1
2b 2 +
+ a = 13

3
3
On solving, (1) and (2), we get
a = 11, b = 6

sin x
sin(a + 1)x
= Lt
(a + 1) + Lt
x 0 (a + 1)x
x 0 x
= (a + 1) + 1
( If x 0 (a + 1)x 0)
=a+1+1=a+2
R.H.L. at x = 0
x + bx 2 x

Lt f (x ) = Lt

x 0

x 0

b x

= Lt

x { 1 + bx 1}

x 0

bx x

1 + bx 1 1 + bx + 1
= Lt

bx
x 0
1 + bx + 1
1 + bx 1
= Lt
x 0 bx ( 1 + bx + 1)
1
1
1
= Lt
=
=
x 0 1 + bx + 1
1 +1 2
Now, f is continuous at x = 0 if
Lt f (x ) = f (0) = Lt f (x )
x 0

x 0

1
1
3
i.e., if a + 2 = c = a = and c =
2
2
2
Hence, for f to be continuous at x = 0, we must have
3
a = , c = 1 ; b may have any real value.
2
2
OR
We have, f(x) = x3 + bx2 + ax + 5
On differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
f (x) = 3x2 + 2bx + a
Since, the function satisfies the Rolles theorem
\ f(1) = f(3)
13 + b(1)2 + a(1) + 5 = (3)3 + b(3)2 + a(3) + 5
b + a = 26 + 9b + 3a 2a + 8b + 26 = 0
a + 4b = 13
...(1)
and f (c) = 0

1
f 2 +
=0

3
2

1
1
3 2 +
+ 2b 2 +

+a =0

3
3

1 4
1
34 + +
+ 2b 2 +

+a =0

3
3
3
13 +
24

12
3

1
+ 2b 2 +
+a =0

mathematics today | february 16

... (2)

dy
+ 2 x tan y = x 3
dx
dy dt
Let tan y = t sec2 y
=
dx dx
dt

+ 2tx = x 3
dx
This is a linear differential equation of the form,
dt
+ Pt = Q,
dx
where P = 2x and Q = x3
Therefore, integrating factor

19. We have, sec2 y

2
Pdx
2 xdx
IF = e
= e
= ex
Solution of the differential equation is given by
2

t e x = x 3e x dx + C

...(1)

To solve x 3e x dx

Let x2 = z 2x dx = dz
2
1
x 3e x dx = ze z dz
2
1 z
= ze e z dz + C

2
1
= ze z e z + C

2
2
1
= (x 2 1)e x + C
2

...(2)

Thus, we have,
2
2
1
t e x = (x 2 1)e x + C [from (1) and (2)]
2
2
1
t = (x 2 1) + Ce x
2
2
1
tan y = (x 2 1) + Ce x
[ t = tan y]
2
20. R is the radius of the given sphere with centre O and
let V be the volume of the inscribed cone, h be its
height and r be the radius of the base.
In the given figure, we have OD = AD AO = (h R).
In DODC,
\ R2 =(h R)2 + r2 or r2 = h(2R h)
...(1)
Now, V = 1 pr 2h = 1 ph2 (2R h)
[using (1)].
3
3

O
B

dV 1
d 2V 4

= ph(4 R 3h), and 2 = pR 2 ph .

dh 3
3
dh
dV
For maxima or minima, we have
= 0.
dh
dV
1
Now,
= 0 ph(4 R 3h) = 0
dh
3
4
h = 0 or (4R 3h) = 0 h = R [... h 0]
3
d 2V
p
4
R
And,
=
< 0.
2
3
dh
\

h=( 4/3)R

4
So, V is maximum when h = R i.e., when 3h = 2(2R)
3
i.e., 3 times the height = 2 times the diameter of the
sphere
Now, volume of the largest cone
1
16R2
4 R 32 pR3
= p
2R
=

3
9
3
81
21. Let E = event of drawing a heart.
13 1
1 3
Then, P (E ) = = and P (E ) = 1 =
4 4
52 4
\ X denotes the number of hearts in three cards
drawn.
Then, X = 0, 1, 2 or 3
X = xi
pi
3 3 3
27

=
0
4 4 4
64
1 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 1 = 27
1
+ +
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 64
1 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 1
9
+ + =
2
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 64
1
1 1 1
=

3
64
4 4 4
\ Mean (m) = Sxi pi
9
1 3
27 27
= 0 + 1 + 2 + 3 =
64 64 64 64 4

OR
Let A, E1 and E2 respectively denotes the event that
the person suffers a heart attack, the selected person
followed the course of yoga and meditation and the
person adopted the drug prescription
40
P(A) =
= 0.40
100
1
P(E1) = P(E2 ) =
2
P(A/E1) = 0.40 0.70 = 0.28
P(A/E2) = 0.40 0.75 = 0.30
Probability that the patient suffering heartattack
followed course of meditation and yoga is
P(E1)P(A | E1)
P(E1 | A) =
P(E1)P(A | E1) + P(E2 )P(A | E2 )
1
0.28
0.14
14
2
=
=
=
1
1
0.14 + 0.15 29
0.28 + 0.30
2
2
P(E2 )P(A | E2 )
Now, P(E2 | A) =
P(E1)P(A | E1) + P(E2 )P(A | E2 )
1
0.30
0.15
15
2
=
=
=
1
1
0.14 + 0.15 29
0.28 + 0.30
2
2
Since P(E1|A) < P(E2|A), the course of yoga and
meditation is more beneficial for a person having
heart attack.
22. (i) If x machines of type A and y machines of type
B are bought, then our problem is to maximize
Z = 50x + 40y subject to constraints
x 0, y 0
1000x + 1200y 7600 5x + 6y 38
12 + 8y 72 3x + 2y 18
Feasible region is shown shaded in the figure.

Variance, s2 = Sxi pi m2

27
9
1 9
9
27
= 0 + 12 + 22 + 32 =
64
64
64
64 16 16
mathematics today | february 16

25

Value of Z = 50x + 40y

Let g : S N be defined by

O(0, 0)

50 0 + 40 0 =0

g ( y) =

19
B 0,
3
E(4, 3)

19
=253.3
3
50 4 + 40 3= 320

Points

50 0 + 40

C(6, 0)
50 6 + 40 0 = 300
i.e., when 4 machines of type A and 3 machines
of type B are bought, the daily output would be
maximum
(ii) (a) High productivity
(b) Time management
(c) Efficiency
23. We know that the lines
x x1 y y1 z z1
x x2 y y2 z z 2
=
=
=
=
and
a1
b1
c1
a2
b2
c2
are coplanar

x2 x1
a1
a2

y2 y1
b1
b2

z2 z1
c1 = 0,
c2

and the equation of the plane containing these lines is


x x1
a1
a2

y y1
b1
b2

z z1
c1 = 0.
c2

Here, x1 = 0, y1 = 2, z1 = 3; x2 = 2, y2 = 6, z2 = 3; a1 = 1,
b1 = 2, c1 = 3; a2 = 2, b2 = 3, c2 = 4.
x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1 2 4 6
\
a1
b1
c1 = 1 2 3 = 0.
2 3 4
a2
b2
c2
Hence, the given two lines are coplanar.
The equation of the plane containing these lines is

x 0 y 2 z +3
x y 2 z +3
1
2
3 =0 1
2
3 =0
2
3
4
2
3
4
x(8 9) (y 2)(4 6) + (z + 3)(3 4) = 0
x + 2 (y 2) (z + 3) = 0 x 2y + z + 7 = 0
24. Let y = f(x) = 4x2 + 12x + 15, xN
Now, firstly find the range of y.
Consider y = (2x)2 + 2 2x 3 + 9 + 6
y = (2x + 3)2 + 6 (2x + 3)2 = y 6
2 x + 3 = y 6 [taking positive square root]
x=
26

y 6 3 [
2

y 6 is defined for y > 6]

mathematics today | february 16

( y 6) 3
...(1)
2
Now, gof (x) = g(4x2 + 12x + 15) = g[(2x + 3)2 + 6]
=

(2 x + 3)2 + 6 6 3
2

[from (1)]

gof (x) = IN

y 6 3
and fog ( y ) = f

2{ ( y 6) 3}
2
=
+ 3 + 6 = ( y 6 ) + 6 = y

2
fog(y) = IS
Hence, f is invertible and inverse of f is
( x 6) 3
2
x 4 dx
25. Let I =
(x 1)(x 2 + 1)
f 1 (x ) =

x4
(x 1)(x 2 + 1)
1
x4
... (1)
= (x + 1) +
2
(x 1)(x + 1)
(x 1)(x 2 + 1)
1
A
Bx + C
... (2)
=
+
(x 1)(x 2 + 1) (x 1) (x 2 + 1)
1 = A(x2 + 1) + (Bx + C) (x 1)
= (A + B)x2 + (C B)x + A C
A + B = 0, C B = 0 and A C = 1,
1
1
A = ,B =C =
2
2
Substituting the values of A, B and C in (2), we have,
1
1
1 x
1
...(3)
=

2
2
2
2
1
2
(
x

)
(x 1)(x + 1)
(x + 1) 2(x + 1)
Consider the expression

x4
(x 1)(x 2 + 1)
1
1 x
1
= (x + 1) +

2(x 1) 2 (x 2 + 1) 2(x 2 + 1)
[From (1) and (3)]
4
1
x
(x 1)(x 2 + 1) dx = (x + 1)dx + 2(x 1) dx
x
1
dx
dx

2
2
2(x + 1)
2(x + 1)

1
1
x2
1
+ x + log | x 1 | log(x 2 + 1) tan 1 x + C
2
4
2
2

OR

From equation (1), we get

1
X

vx
xe x

dv vx
vx

+x v+x
sin
=0
x

dx x
dv
xe v vx sin(v ) + vx sin v + x 2 sin v
=0
dx
1
dv
v
x 2 sin v
= xe v e sin vdv = dx
x
dx
On integrating both sides, we get

x2 = y

I
II

(1, 1)
III
1

1
y2 = x

The points where the two parabolas meet in the first


quadrant are obtained by solving the two equations
y = x2 ... (1) and x = y2 ...(2)
From (1) and (2), we get
x = (x2)2

x = x4 x4 x = 0, i.e. x(x3 1) = 0 x = 0, 1

So, y = 0, 1
\ The points where the two parabolas meet in the
first quadrant are (0,0) and (1,1). The area gets divided
into 3 parts as shown in the figure.
Area I =

1
3/ 2

x
(1 x ) dx = x 3 / 2 0

Area II =

(
0

x 3/ 2 x 3
x x ) dx =

3 / 2 3 0
2

Area III =

(
0

\ The curves y = x2 and x = y2 divide the square


bounded by x = 0, y = 0, x = 1 and y = 1 into three
parts which are equal in area.
26. Given differential equation is

dy
dv
=v+x
dx
dx

II

= e v sin v + cos v e v dv cos v e v dv dv


dv

[using integration by parts]


I1 = e v sin v e v cos v e v sin v dv
I1 = evsinv evcosv I1

... (3)

e v
(sin v + cos v ) = log | x | + C1
2

e y/x
2

y
y
sin x + cos x = log | x | + C1

put v = x
y
y
e y / x sin + cos = 2 log x 2C1
x
x

Area I = Area II = Area III

I1 = e v sin v + e v cos v dv

dy
y
y
xe( y /x ) y sin + x sin = 0
x
x
dx
Put y = vx

I1 = sin v e v dv (sin v ) e v dv dv
dv

[using integration by parts]

x3 1
x dx = = sq. units
3 0 3
2

II

... (2)

e v
(sin v + cos v )
2
From equation (2) and (3), we get

2 1 1
= = sq. units
3 3 3
1

I1 =

2 1
= 1 = sq. units
3 3
1

1
sin vdv = dx
x
Let I1 = e v sin vdv

vx sin

...(1)

[multiplying both sides by 2]


y
y
e y / x sin + cos = log x 2 + C

x
x

[put C = 2C1]
Also, given that y = 0 and x = 1
\ e0(sin (0) + cos(0)] = log 12 + C
1[0 + 1] = 0 + C C = 1
\ Required particular solution is
y
y
e y / x sin + cos = log x 2 + 1
x
x
mathematics today | february 16

nn
27

1.

y=

sin x + sin x + sin x + ... , then

2y 1
(a)
cos x

dy
=
dx

cos x
(b)
2y 1
cos y
2x 1
(c)
(d)
2
y 1
cos y
2. The equation of the hyperbola referred to its axis
as axis of coordinate and whose distance between the
foci is 16 and eccentricity is 2 , is
(a) x2 y2 = 16
(b) x2 y2 = 32
(c) x2 2y2 = 16
(d) x2 y2 = 16
3. If a1, a2, a3, a4 are the coefficients of any four
consecutive terms in the expansion of (1 + x)n, then
a3
a1
+
=
a1 + a2 a3 + a4
a2
a2
(a)
(b)
a2 + a3
2(a2 + a3 )
2a2
2a3
(c) a + a
(d)
a2 + a3
2
3
4.
(a)
(c)

d
[ tan1 log10 x ] =
dx
1
2

[1 + (log10 x ) ] x log e 10
1
[1 + log10 x 2 ] x log10 e

(b)

1
1 + log10 x 2

(d) None of these

5. If e, e be the eccentricities of two conics S = 0 and


S = 0 and if e2 + e2 = 3 then both S and S' are
(a) hyperbolas
(b) ellipses
(c) parabolas
(d) None of these

6.

x
1+ | 1 t |dt , x > 2
, then
If f(x) = 0
5x 7
, x 2

(a) f(x) is not continuous at x = 2


(b) f is differentiable everywhere
(c) RHL at x = 2 doesn't exist

(d) f is continuous but not differentiable at x = 2


7. The length of normal at q on the curve x = acos3q,
y = asin3q is
(a) |asin2q|

(b) |asin2q tanq|

(c) |asin2q cosq|

(d) |asin3q tanq|

8. If A, B, C are the angles which a directed line


makes with the positive directions of the coordinate
axes, then sin2A + sin2B + sin2C =
(a) 1

(b) 2

(c) 3

(d) None of these

3
3
3
3
3
3
9. Sum of the series 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 + 3 + ...
1
1+ 3
1+ 3 + 5
to 16 terms is

(a) 346

(b) 446

(c) 546

(d) None of these

x
10. If f (x) = 1
2
x

:x <0
: x = 0 ,then lim f (x ) =
x 0
:x >0

(a) 0

(b) 1

(c) doesn't exist

(d) 2

By : Vidyalankar Institute, Pearl Centre, Senapati Bapat Marg, Dadar (W), Mumbai - 28. Tel.: (022) 24306367

28

mathematics today | febrUArY 16

11. The tangent at any point on the curve x4 + y4 = a4


cuts off intercepts p and q on the coordinate axes, then
the value of p4/3 + q 4/3 is equal to
(a) a4/3

(b) a1/2

(c) a1/2

(d) None of these

dx

12.

0 (x

+ 1)3/2

1
2

(b)

(c) 1

(d)

(a)

4
(b) 3 3 + 1
(3 3 1)
13
1
(c)
(d) None of these
(2 + 7 3 )
3
19. A candidate appearing for the competitive test
finds the following information on seeing the question
paper :
(a)

(i) The total time is 3 hours

(ii) The paper has two sections section A and section B.

2
1
2

(iii) To answer atleast two questions from section A


and atleast three question from section B.

(a) 113

(b) 1/6

(v) Time to answer a question of section A is 15


minutes and that of section B is 25 minutes.

(c) 1/9

(d) 1/12

13. The sum of the series


1
1
1
+
+
+ ... is
3 7 7 11 11 15

(iv) A question of first section carries 10 marks and


that of section B carries 15 marks

14. If [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal


to x, then the value of l im (1 x + [x 1] + [1 x]) is

(vi) The maximum number of question to be answered


is 10.
The maximum marks he can secure is
(a) 115

(b) 125

(a) 0

(b) 1

(c) 100

(d) None of these

(c) doesn't exist

(d) 1

20. Equation of a line which is parallel to the line


common to the pair of lines given by 6x2 xy 12y2 = 0 and
15x2 + 14xy 8y2 = 0 and the sum of whose intercepts
on the axes is 7, is

x 0

15. x log x dx =
x n+1
[n log x 1] + C
n
x n+1
[(n + 1)log x 1] + C
(b)
n +1
x n+1
[(n + 1)log x 1] + C
(c)
(n + 1)2
(a)

(d) None of these


16. The orthogonal trajectories of the family of curves
an1 y = xn are given by
(a) xn+ n2y = constant (b) ny2+ x2 = constant
(c) n2x+ yn = constant (d) n2x yn = constant
17. If each observation of a raw data, whose variance is
s2, is multiplied by l, then the variance of the new set is
(a) s2

(b) l2 s2

(c) l + s2

(d) l2 + s2
x3

y3

18. If the line y = x 3 cuts the curve + + 3yx +


5x2 + 3y2 + 4x + 5y 1 = 0 at the points A, B and C, then
OA . OB . OC (where O is (0, 0)) is

(a) 2x 3y = 42

(b) 3x + 4y = 12

(c) 5x 2y = 10

(d) None of these

x
l
21. The roots of l
l

a
x
m
m

b
b
x
v

1
1
1 = 0 are independent of
1

(a) l, m, v

(b) a, b

(c) l, m, v, a, b

(d) None of these

22. The incentre of the triangle formed by the


co-ordinate axes and 3x + 4y = 12 is
(a) (1/2, 1/2)

(b) (1, 1)

(c) (1, 1/2)

(d) (1/2, 1)

xe x

dx =
(x + 1)2
(a) ex /(x + 1) + C

(b) ex /(x + 1)2 + C

(c) ex /(x + 1)3 + C

(d) None of these

23.

mathematics today | febrUArY 16

29

24. The equation of the circle passing through (1, 0),


(0, 1) and having smallest possible radius is
(a) x2 + y2 x y = 0 (b) x2 + y2 + x + y = 0
(c) x2 + y2 2x y = 0 (d) x2 + y2 x 2y = 0
25. If a, b are roots of x2 + px + 1 = 0 and g, d are the
roots of x2 + qx + 1 = 0, the value of (a g) (b g) (a + d)
(b + d) is
(a) p2 q2

(b) q2 p2

(c) p2

(d) q2

26. A line meets the coordinate axes in A and B. A


circle is circumscribed about the AOB. The distance
from the end points of the side AB to the line touching
the circle at origin O are equal to p and q respectively.
The diameter of the circle is
(a) p(p + q)

(b) q(p + q)

p+q
2
27. Area between the curves y = x3 and y =
(c) p + q

(d)

(a) 5/12

(b) 5/3

(c) 5/4

(d) None of these

x is

28. The equation of the directrix of the parabola


x2 4x 3y + 10 = 0 is
(a) y = 5/4

(b) y = 5/4

(c) y = 3/4

(d) x = 5/4

29. If acos2(3a) + bcos4a = 16cos6a + 9cos2a is an


identity, then
(a) a = 1, b = 24

(b) a = 3, b = 24

(c) a = 4, b = 2

(d) a = 7, b = 18

30. Tangents are drawn to the circle x2 + y2 = 25 from


the point (13, 0). They include an angle
(a)

tan1(5/12)

tan1(12/5)

(b)

(c)

2tan1(5/12)

(d) None of these

31. 1 + 4 + 13 + 40 + ... n terms is


3n+1 3 2n
(a)

3n+1 + 3 2n
(b)

3n+1 + 3 + 2n
(c)
(d)

4
32. The eccentric angle of
x2 y2
+
= 1 whose distance
6
2
ellipse is 2, is
30

3n1 3 + 2n

4
a point on the ellipse
from the centre of the

mathematics today | febrUArY 16

(a) p/4

(b) 3p/2

(c) 5p/3

(d) 7p/6

33. Two teams are to play a series of 5 matches between


them. A match ends in a win or loss or draw for a team.
A number of people forecast the result of each match
and no two people make the same forecast for the series
of matches. The smallest group of people in which
one person forecasts correctly for all the matches will
contain n people, where n is
(a) 81

(b) 243

(c) 486

(d) None of these

34. Odds 8 to 5 against a person who is 40 years old


living till he is 70 and 4 to 3 against another person now
50 till he will be living 80. Probability that one of them
will be alive next 30 years is
(a) 59/91

(b) 44/91

(c) 51/91

(d) 32/91

35. Solution of the differential equation


(a)

yx
=k
1 + xy

(c) x2 y2 = k

dy 1 + y 2
is
=
dx 1 + x 2

(b) xy = k
(d) None of these

36. The number of ways in which 6 different balls can


be put in two boxes of different sizes so that no box
remains empty is
(a) 62

(b) 64

(c) 36

(d) None of these

37. The number of even proper divisors of 1008 is


(a) 23

(b) 24

(c) 22

(d) None of these

38. The solution of the differential


dy
2x +
y = 3; given y(0) = 1 represents
dx
(a) straight line
(b) circle
(c) parabola
(d) ellipse

equation

39. If the three consecutive coefficients in the expansion


of (1 + x)n are 28, 56 and 70, then n equals
(a) 6

(b) 4

(c) 8

(d) 10
Contd. on page no. 80

*ALOK KUMAR, B.Tech, IIT Kanpur

This column is aimed at Class XI students so that they can prepare for competitive exams such as JEE Main/Advanced, etc. and
be also in command of what is being covered in their school as part of NCERT syllabus. The problems here are a happy blend
of the straight and the twisted, the simple and the difficult and the easy and the challenging.

ConiC SeCtion
The locus of a point, which moves so that its distance
from a fixed point is always in a constant ratio to its
distance from a fixed straight line, not passing through
the fixed point is called a conic section.
z
The fixed point is called the focus.
z
The fixed straight line is called the directrix.
z
The constant ratio is called the eccentricity and is
denoted by e.
z
When the eccentricity is unity i.e., e = 1, the conic
is called a parabola ; when e < 1 the conic is called
an ellipse and when e > 1, the conic is called a
hyperbola.
z
The straight line passing through the focus and
perpendicular to the directrix is called the axis of
the parabola.
z
A point of intersection of a conic with its axis is
called vertex.

Now the middle point of SZ, say A, will lie on the locus
of P, i.e., AS = AZ. Take A as the origin, the x-axis
along AS, and the y-axis along the perpendicular to
AS at A, as in the figure.
Let AS = a, so that ZA = a. Let (x, y) be the coordinates
of the moving point P.
Then MP = ZN = ZA + AN = a + x. But by definition
MP = PS MP2 = PS2.
So that, (a + x)2 = (x a)2 + y2.
Hence, the equation of parabola is y2 = 4ax.

parabola

Vertex

(0 , 0)

(0, 0)

(0, 0)

(0, 0)

Focus

(a, 0)

(a, 0)

(0, a)

(0, a)

Eqn. of the x = a
directrix

x=a

y=a

y=a

Eqn. of y = 0
the axis

y=0

x=0

x=0

Tangent at x = 0
the vertex

x=0

y=0

y=0

Standard equation of a parabola


Let S be the focus, ZM be
the directrix and P be
the moving point. Draw
SZ perpendicular from
S on the directrix. Then
SZ is the axis of the
parabola.

latus rectum
In the given figure, LSL is the latus rectum.
Also LSL = 2 4a.a = 4a = double ordinate through
the focus S.
note :
z
Any chord of the parabola y2 = 4ax perpendicular
to the axis of the parabola is called double ordinate.
Four common forms of a parabola
y2 = 4ax y2 = 4ax x2 = 4ay x2 = 4ay

* Alok Kumar is a winner of INDIAN NATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD (INMO-91).


He trains IIT and Olympiad aspirants.

mathematics today | february 16

31

parametric Coordinates
Any point on the parabola y2 = 4ax is (at2, 2at) and we
refer to it as the point t. Here, t is a parameter, i.e., it
varies from point to point.
Focal Chord
Any chord to y2 = 4ax
which passes through
the focus is called a focal
chord of the parabola
y2 = 4ax .
L e t y 2 = 4 a x b e t he
equation of a parabola
and (at2 , 2at) a point P on it. Suppose the coordinates
of the other extremity Q of the focal chord through P
are (at12 , 2at1).
Then, PS and SQ, where S is the focus (a, 0) have the
same slopes.
2at 0 2at1 0

=
tt12 t = t1t2 t1
at 2 a at12 a
(tt1 + 1)(t1 t) = 0
Hence t1 = 1/t, i.e. the point Q is (a/t2 , 2a/t).
The extremities of a focal chord of the parabola
y2 = 4ax may be taken as the points t and 1/t.
Focal Distance of
Y
P
any point : The focal
M
distance of any point
N
P on the parabola
X
A
2
Z
S
y = 4ax is the
distance between the
point P and the
focus S, i.e. PS.
Thus the focal distance = PS = PM = ZN = ZA + AN
=a+x
poSition oF a point relative to the
parabola
P(x1, y1)
Consider the parabola
Y
y 2 = 4ax. If (x 1 , y 1 )
L
is a given point and
2
M
y 1 4ax 1 = 0, then
X
A
S
the point lies on the
p ar ab o l a . B ut w h e n
y12 4ax1 0, we draw
the ordinate PM meeting the curve at L. Then P will
lie outside the parabola if PM > LM,
i.e., PM2 LM2 > 0.
Now, PM 2 = y 12 and LM 2 = 4ax 1 by virtue of the
32

mathematics today | february 16

parabola. Substituting these values in equation of


parabola, the condition for P to lie outside the parabola
becomes y12 4ax1 > 0.
Similarly, the condition for P to lie inside the parabola
is y12 4ax1 < 0.
general equation oF a parabola
Let (h, k) be the focus S and lx + my + n = 0, the
equation of the directrix ZM of a parabola. Let (x, y)
be the coordinates of any point P on the parabola.

Then the relation, PS = distance of P from ZM, gives


(x h)2 + (y k)2 = (lx + my + n)2/(l2 + m2)
(mx ly)2 + 2gx + 2fy + d = 0
This is the general equation of a parabola. It is clear
that second-degree terms in the equation of a parabola
form a perfect square. The converse is also true, i.e.
if in an equation of the second degree, the second
degree terms form a perfect square then the equation
represents a parabola, unless it represents two parallel
straight lines.
note : The general equation of second degree i.e.
ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 represents a
parabola if D 0 and

h2

a
= ab, D = h
g

h
b
f

g
f
c

Special case
Let the vertex be (h, k) and the axis be parallel to
the x-axis. Then the equation of parabola is given by
(y k)2 = 4a(x h) which is equivalent to x = Ay2 + By + C
If three points are given we can find A, B and C.
Similarly, when the axis is parallel to the y-axis, the
equation of parabola is y = Ax2 + Bx + C.
tangent Drawn at a point lying on a
given parabola
z
If P(x1, y1) be a point on the parabola y2 = 4ax, then
z

the equation of the tangent at P is yy1 = 2a(x + x1)


If P(at 2 , 2at) be any point on the parabola
y 2 = 4ax, then slope of the tangent at P

2a 1
=
2at t
and hence its equation is
1
y 2at = (x at 2 )
t
=

\ Discriminant of (3) = 0
4(mc 2a)2 4m2c2 = 0
4amc + 4a2 = 0
a
c= , m0
m

dy 2a
dx = y

i.e. yt = x + at2
.... (1)
If we substitute m for 1/t, in equation (1), we have
the following result. The equation
a
y = mx +
m
.... (2)
z

point of intersection of tangents at t1 & t2


Equations of the tangents at the points (at12, 2at1)
and (at22 , 2at2) are
yt1 = x + at12
.... (3)
and yt2 = x + at22
.... (4)
respectively.
Solving equations (3) and (4) gives the coordinates
of the intersection point of these two tangents as
(at1t2, a(t1 + t2))
note:
z If the tangents at t1 & t2 are at right angles then
t1t2 = 1.
z If the chord joining t1, t2 subtends a right angle
at the vertex then t1t2 = 4

interSeCtion oF a line anD a parabola


Let the parabola be y2 = 4ax
.... (1)
and the given line be y = mx + c
.... (2)
Eliminating y from (1) and (2), then
(mx + c)2 = 4ax
or m2 x2 + 2x(mc 2a) + c2 = 0
.... (3)
This equation is quadratic in x, gives two values of x
which shows that every straight line will cut the parabola
in two points may be real, coincident or imaginary
according as discriminant of (3) > , = , < 0
i.e. 4(mc 2a)2 4m2c2 > , = , < 0
or 4a2 4amc > , = , < 0
or a > , = , < mc
.... (4)
note : If m = 0 then equation (3) gives
c2
4a
which gives only one value of x and so every line parallel
to x-axis cuts the parabola only in one real point.
z
Condition of tangency
If the line (2) touches the parabola (1), then
equation (3) has equal roots
4ax + c 2 = 0 or x =

....(5)

so, the line y = mx + c touches the parabola


a
y 2 = 4ax if c =
(w hich is condit ion of
m
tangency).
Substituting the value of c from (5) in (2) then
a
....(6)
y = mx + , m 0
m
a
Hence the line y = mx + will always be a tangent
m
to the parabola y2 = 4ax.
The point of contact
The point of contact of the tangents at t is
(at2 , 2at). In terms of slope m of the tangent the
a 2a
point of contact is
, (m 0).
,
m2 m

equation oF normal to the parabola


If P(at2 , 2at) be any point on the parabola y2 = 4ax,
then
dy 2a
2a 1
=
=
Slope of the tangent at P =

2at t
dx y
Therefore, slope of the normal at P = t and its
equation is
y 2at = t(x at2)
i.e. y = tx + 2at + at3
....(1)
If we substitute m for t in equation (1), we have the
following result.
the equation
y = mx 2am am3
....(2)
is a normal. Real or imaginary can be drawn from any
point to a given parabola and the algebraic sum of the
ordinates of the feet of these three normals is zero.
If the normal (2) passes through the point (x1, y1),we
have
y1 = mx1 2am am3
i.e. am3 + (2a x1) m + y1 = 0
....(3)
The equation (2) gives three values of m, real or
imaginary, If m1, m2 and m3 be the roots of equation
(3), then we have m1 + m2 + m3 = 0.
Hence, the sum of the ordinates of the feet of these
normals = 2a(m1 + m2 + m3) = 0
mathematics today | february 16

33

note:
z
If normal at the point t1 meets the parabola again
2
at t2 then t2 = t1
t1
z
If the normals at t1& t2 meet again on the parabola
then t1t2 = 2
z
The point of intersection of the normals to the parabola y2 = 4ax at t1 and t2 is
[2a + a(t12 + t22 + t1t2), at1t2 (t1 + t2)].
rule For tranSForming an equation For
the variouS FormS oF the parabola
If any equation derived for the parabola y 2 = 4ax,
(a > 0) is given by
E(x, y, a) = 0
....(1)
then the same equation for the parabola y 2 = 4ax
will be
E(x, y, a) = 0
....(2)
For the parabola x2 = 4ay will be
E(y, x, a) = 0
....(3)
2
and for the parabola x = 4ay will be
E(y, x, a) = 0
....(4)
If the coordinates of the vertex be (h, k), then substitute
(x h) and (y k) for x and y respectively.
Using the above rule for the equation of general tangent
to the parabola y2 = 4ax, equation is
a
y = mx ,
....(5)
m
and to the parabola (y k)2 = 4a(x h), equation is
a
(y k) = m(x h) + ,
....(6)
m
and to the parabola x2 = 4ay, equation is
a
x = my +
....(7)
m
Similarly, equation of a general normal to the parabola
y2 = 4ax is
y = mx + 2am + am3,
....(8)
to the parabola x2 = 4ay, equation is
x = my 2am am3
....(9)
and so on.
equation oF the ChorD whoSe miD-point
iS given
Equation of the chord of
Y
B
the parabola y2 = 4ax whose
mid-point is (x1, y1) is given by
P
yy1 2a(x + x1) = y12 4ax1

or T = S1
34

mathematics today | february 16

ChorD oF ContaCt
If PA & PB be the tangents
through point P(x 1 , y 1 )
to the parabola y 2 = 4ax,
then the equation of the
chord of cont ac t AB is
yy1 2a(x + x1) = 0 or T = 0

Y
P

X
A

Some StanDarD propertieS oF the


parabola
z
The portion of a tangent to a parabola intercepted
between the directrix and the curve subtends a right
angle at the focus.

The tangent at any point P of a parabola bisects the


angle between the focal chord through P and the
perpendicular from P to the directrix.

The foot of the perpendicular from the focus on


any tangent to a parabola lies on the tangent at the
vertex.
If S be the focus of the parabola and tangent and
normal at any point P meet its axis in T and G
respectively, then ST = SG = SP.

If S be the focus and SH be perpendicular to the


tangent at P, then H lies on the tangent at the vertex
and SH 2 = OSSP, where O is the vertex of the
parabola.

The tangents at the extremities of a focal chord


intersect at right angles on the directrix, and
hence a circle on any focal chord as diameter touches
the directrix. Also a circle on any focal radii of a
point P(at2 , 2at) as diameter touches the tangent at

Y
M
X

the vertex and intercepts a chord of length a 1 + t


on a normal at the point P.
z
Any tangent to a parabola and the perpendicular
on it from the focus meet on the tangent at
the vertex.
z
If the tangents at P and Q meet at T, then
1. TP and TQ subtend equal angles at the focus S.
2. ST2 = SPSQ
3. The triangles SPT and STQ are similar.
z
Tangents and Normal at the extremities of the
latus rectum of a parabola y 2 = 4ax constitute
a square, their points of intersection being (a, 0)
and (3a, 0).
z
Semi latus rectum of the parabola y2 = 4ax, is the
harmonic mean between segments of any focal chord
1 1 1
2bc
of the parabola is 2a =
i.e + = .
b c a
b+c
z
The circle circumscribing the triangle formed
by any three tangents to a parabola passes
through the focus.
z
The orthocenter of any triangle formed by
three tangents to a parabola y 2 = 4ax lies on the
directrix and has the coordinates
( a, a(t1 + t2 + t3 + t1 t2 t3)).
z
The area of the triangle formed by three points
on a parabola is twice the area of the triangle
formed by the tangents at these points.
z
If normal drawn to a parabola passes through
a point P(h, k), then k = mh 2am am 3 i.e.
am3 + m(2a h) + k = 0.
Then it gives m1 + m2 + m3 = 0; m1m2 + m2m3 + m3m1
k
2a h
=
; m1 m2 m3 = , where m1, m2 and m3 are
a
a
the slopes of the three concurrent normal.
Note that the algebraic sum of the
1. slopes of three concurrent normal is zero.
2. ordinates of the three co-normal points on the
parabola is zero.
3. centroid of the D formed by three co-normal
points lies on the x-axis.
reFleCtion property oF a parabola
The tangent (PT) and normal (PN) of the parabola
y2 = 4ax at P are the internal and external bisectors of
SPM and BP is parallel to the axis of the parabola and
BPN = SPN.

ent
Tang

Light ray

Normal

Reflected ray

Light ray
Light ray
Light ray

ELLIPSE

DeFinition
An ellipse is the locus of a point which moves in a plane
such that its distance from a fixed point is in a constant
ratio (less than one) to its distance from a fixed line. The
fixed point is called the focus and fixed line is called the
directrix and the constant ratio is called the eccentricity
of the ellipse.
equation oF an ellipSe
Standard equation of ellipse

SP
= e or, (SP)2 = e2(PM)2
PM
2
a

(x ae)2 + (y 0)2 = e2 x
e

x2 (1 e2) + y2 = a2 (1 e2)
\

x2

y2

x2 y2
= 1 or
+
= 1,
a2 a2 (1 e 2 )
a 2 b2
where b2 = a2 (1 e2)
This is the standard equation of an ellipse. AA and BB
are called the major and minor axes of the ellipse and
their lengths will be given by 2a and 2b respectively.
The minor axis and major axis taken together are called
principal axes.
Here b < a and A(a, 0) and A (a, 0) are the vertices of
the ellipse.
various terms related with an ellipse

x2 y2
Let the equation of the ellipse be 2 + 2 = 1, a > b
a
b
mathematics today | february 16

35

Centre : The point which bisects each chord of the


ellipse is called the centre (0, 0).
Directrix : ZM and ZM are two directrices
a
x=
and their equations are
and
e
a respectively.
x=
,
e
Focus : S(ae, 0) and S(ae, 0) are two foci of the
ellipse.
length of latus rectum : Length of latus rectum is
2b2
.
a
Relation between constant a, b and e
b2 = a2 (1 e2)
given by

a 2 b2
a
Focal distances : The focal distance of the
\ e=

point (x, y) on the ellipse


a + ex and a ex.
another form of ellipse

x2

a2

y2

b2

= 1 are

x2 y2
The standard equation of ellipse is 2 + 2 = 1 when
a
b
a<b
In this case, major axis is BB = 2b which is along y-axis
and minor axis is AA= 2a which is along x-axis. Foci
are S(0, be) and S(0, be) and directrices are y = b/e and
y = b/e.

general equation of the ellipse


The general equation of an ellipse, whose focus is
(h, k),the directrix is the line ax + by + c = 0 and the
eccentricity e is given by
(x h)2 + (y k)2 =

e 2 (ax + by + c)2
2

a +b
T h e C o n d i t i o n f o r a s e c o n d d e g r e e e q u at i o n
ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 in x and y to represent
an ellipse is given by
36

mathematics today | february 16

h2 ab < 0 and

a
D= h
g

h
b
f

g
f
c

= abc + 2fgh af 2 bg2 ch2 0


auxiliary Circle and eccentric angle :
A circle described on major axis of an ellipse as diameter
is called the auxiliary circle. Equation of the auxiliary
circle is x2 + y2 = a2. Let Q be a point on the auxiliary circle
x2 + y2 = a2 such that QP produced is perpendicular to
the x-axis then P and Q are called as the Corresponding
Points on the ellipse and the auxiliary circle respectively
and 'q' is called the Eccentric Angle of the point P on the
ellipse (0 q < 2p).
l(PN ) b Semi minor axis
Note that
= =
.
l(QN ) a Semi major axis
Hence "If from each point of a circle perpendiculars are
drawn upon a fixed diameter then the locus of the points
dividing these perpendiculars in a given ratio is an ellipse
of which the given circle is the auxiliary circle".
parametriC equation oF an ellipSe
Clearly x = a cos q, y = b sin q satisfy the equation
x2

y2

= 1 f o r a l l r e a l v a l u e s o f q. Mo r e ov e r,
a 2 b2
any p oint on t he el lips e c an b e repres ente d as
(a cos q, b sin q), 0 q < 2p. Hence the parametric
x2

y2

= 1 are x = a cos q,
a 2 b2
y = b sin q, where q is the parameter.
equations of the ellipse

Equation of the chord of the ellipse whose eccentric


angles are q and f is
x
q+f y
q+f
qf
cos
+ sin
= cos

2 b
2
2
a
point anD ellipSe

x2 y2
Let P(x 1 , y 1 ) be any point and let
+
= 1 be the
a 2 b2
equation of an ellipse.
The point lies outside, on or inside the ellipse according

x2 y2
as S1 = 1 + 1 1 > 0, = 0, < 0 respectively.
a 2 b2
ellipSe anD line
Let the equation of an ellipse be
given line be y = mx + c.
Solving the line and ellipse, we get
x

b2

a 2 x b2 y

= a 2 b2
x1
y1
a 2 b2
The equation of the normal at ' f' is
ax sec f by cosec f = a2 b2
the ellipse

= 1 and the

(mx + c)

=1
a2
b2
i.e., (a2m2 + b2)x2 + 2mca2 x + a2 (c2 b2) = 0
above equation being a quadratic in x.
Its discriminant = 4m2 c2a4 4a2 (a2 m2 + b2)(c2 b2)
= 4a2b2 {c2 (a2 m2 + b2)} = 4a2b2 {(a2m2 + b2) c2}
Hence the line intersects the ellipse in 2 distinct
points if a2m2 + b2 > c2, in one point if c2 = a2m2 + b2 and
does not intersect if a2m2 + b2 < c2.
\ y = mx (a2m2 + b2 ) touches the ellipse and
condition for tangency is c2 = a2m2 + b2

x2

y2

= 1 is

equation oF ChorD with miD point (x1, y1)


x2

y2

=1,
a 2 b2
whose mid point is (x 1, y 1) is given by T = S 1 , where
xx
yy
x2 y2
T 1 + 1 1 and S1 1 + 1 1 .
a2
b2
a 2 b2
ChorD oF ContaCt
If PA and PB be the tangents through point P(x1, y1) to
The equation of the chord of the ellipse

x2 y2
the ellipse 2 + 2 = 1, then the equation of the chord
a
b
xx1 yy1
of contact AB is
+
= 1 or T = 0 at (x1, y1)
a2
b2
Y

Moreover the line y = mx (a2m2 + b2 ) touches


x2

y2

the ellipse 2 + 2 = 1 at
a
b
a 2 m

b2
,

a2m2 + b2 a2m2 + b2 .
note:
z
x cos a + y sin a = p is a tangent if
p2 = a2 cos2 a + b2 sin2 a.
z
lx + my + n = 0 is a tangent to the ellipse if
n2 = a2 l2 + b2m2.
equation oF the tangent
The equation of the tangent at any ( x1, y1) on the
xx
yy
x2 y2
ellipse
+
= 1 is 1 + 1 = 1
2
2
2
a
b
a
b2

The equation of tangent at 'f' is


y
x
cos f + sin f = 1
a
b

Point of intersection of tangents to ellipse at 'q' and

q+f
q+f
a cos 2 b sin 2
,
'f' is

cos q f cos q + f
2
2

equation oF the normal


z
The equation of the normal at any point (x1, y1) on

P(x1, y1)

X
B

pair oF tangentS

x2

y2

= 1,
a 2 b2
and let a pair of tangents PA, PB be drawn to it from P.
Then, the equation of pair of tangents of PA and PB is
given by
Let P(x1, y1) be any point outside the ellipse

x2 y2
SS1 = T2 , where S 2 + 2 1,
a
b
2
2
xx
yy
x
y
S1 1 + 1 1 and T 21 + 21 1
2
2
a
b
a
b

note: The locus of the point of intersection of the tangents


x2 y2
to an ellipse
+
= 1 which are perpendicular to each
a 2 b2
mathematics today | february 16

37

other is called the director circle and its equation is given by


x2 + y2 = a2 + b2 .
DireCtor CirCle
Locus of the point of intersection of the tangents which
meet at right angles is called the Director Circle. The
equation to this locus is x2 + y2 = a2 + b2 i.e. a circle whose
centre is the centre of the ellipse and whose radius is
the length of the line joining the ends of the major and
minor axis.
HYPERBOLA

DeFinition
A hyperbola is the locus of a point which moves such
that its distance from a fixed point called focus is always
e times (e > 1) its distance from a fixed line is called
directrix.
variouS FormS oF hyperbola
Standard equation of hyperbola

transverse axis: The line segment AA is called


transverse axis of the hyperbola. Length of transverse
axis is 2a.
Conjugate axis: The line segment BB is called the
conjugate axis of the hyperbola. Length of conjugate
axis is 2b.
The transverse axis & the conjugate axis of the hyperbola
together are called principal axes of the hyperbola.
length of latus rectum :

b2
2b2
Length of latus rectum =
and L ae, ,
a

a
b2
L ae,
are end points of latus rectum.

a
auxiliary Circle
A circle drawn with centre C and AA as a diameter is
called the Auxiliary Circle of the hyperbola. Equation of
the auxiliary circle is x2 + y2 = a2.

SP
= e or SP 2 = e 2 PM2
PM
(x ae)2 + y2 = e2 (x a/e)2
or x2(1 e2) + y2 = a2 (1 e2) i.e.,
x2

y2

=1
....(i)
a2 a2 (e 2 1)
Since e > 1, e2 1 is positive. Let a2 (e2 1) = b2. Then the
equation (i) becomes

x2

a2

y2

b2

=1.

The eccentricity e of the hyperbola


b2
by the relation e 2 = 1 + .
a2

x2
a2

y2
b2

= 1 is given

variouS termS relateD with hyperbola


Foci: S (ae, 0) and S (ae, 0)
Directrices: ZM and ZM are two directrices and their
a
a
equations are x = and x = respectively.
e
e
vertices: A = (a, 0) and A = (a, 0)
38

mathematics today | february 16

note : From t h e f i g u re, P an d Q are c a l l e d t he


Corresponding Points on the hyperbola and the
auxiliary circle. 'q' is called the eccentric angle of the
point 'P' on the hyperbola .
parametric Coordinates
The equations x = a sec q and y = b tan q together
x2 y2
represents the hyperbola

= 1 where q is a
a 2 b2
parameter. In other words, (a sec q, b tan q) is a point on
p
the hyperbola for all values of q (2n + 1) , n I . The
2
point (a sec q, b tan q) is briefly called the point q.
note: Equation of a chord joining q1 & q2 is
q q
q +q
q +q
y
x
cos 1 2 sin 1 2 = cos 1 2 .
2
2
2
a
b
note : Since the fundamental equation to the hyperbola
only differs from that to the ellipse is having b2 instead
of b 2 it will be found that many proposition for the
hyperbola are derived from those for the ellipse by simply
changing the sign of b2.

general equation of hyperbola


The equation of hyperbola, whose focus is point (h, k),
directrix is lx + my + n = 0 and eccentricity e is given by
(x h)2 + (y k)2 =

e 2 (lx + my + n)2

(l 2 + m2 )
Conjugate hyperbola
The hyperbola whose transverse and conjugate axes are
respectively the conjugate and transverse axes of a given
hyperbola is called the conjugate hyperbola of the given
hyperbola.
x2 y2

= 1
and

=1
a 2 b2
a 2 b2
are conjugate hyperbolas of each other.
note: If e1 and e2 are the eccentricities of the hyperbola
1 1
and its conjugate then 2 + 2 = 1.
e1 e2
aSymptoteS
Definition: If the length of perpendicular drawn from
a point on the hyperbola to a straight line tends to zero
as the point moves to infinity. The straight line is called
asymptotes.
e.g.,

x2

y2

Y
Q

B P

A
R

B S

x y
\ The equation of asymptotes are + = 0 and
a b
x y
=0.
a b
Obviously angle between the asymptotes is 2 tan1(b/a).
If we draw lines through B, B parallel to the transverse
axis and through A, A parallel to the conjugate axis,
then P(a, b), Q(a, b), R(a, b) and S(a, b) all lie on the
asymptotes x2/a2y2/b2 = 0 so asymptotes are diagonals
of the rectangle PQRS. This rectangle is called associated
rectangle.
x2 y2
x2 y2

note: H
= 1 , C
= 1 and
2
2
2
2
a
a

b
b
x2 y2
A = 0
a 2 b2
Clearly, C + H = 2A
{H = hyperbola, C = Conjugate hyperbola,
A = Asymptotes.}

particular Case :
When b = a, the asymptotes of the rectangular hyperbola
x2 y2 = a2 is y = x which are at right angles.
z
Equilateral hyperbola rectangular hyperbola.
z
If a hyperbola is equilateral, then the conjugate is
also equilateral.
z
A hyperbola and its conjugate have the same
asymptote.
z
The equation of the pair of asymptotes differ from
the hyperbola and the conjugate hyperbola by the
same constant only.
z
The asymptotes pass through the centre of the
hyperbola and the bisectors of the angles between
the asymptotes are the axes of the hyperbola.
z
The asymptotes of a hyperbola are the diagonals of
the rectangle formed by the lines drawn through the
extremities of each axis parallel to the other axis.
z
Asymptotes are the tangent to the hyperbola from
the centre.
z
A simple method to find the coordinates of the
centre of the hyperbola expressed as a general
equation of degree 2 should be remembered as,
df
let f(x, y) = 0 represents a hyperbola. Find
and
dx
df
df
df
. Then the point of intersection of
= 0 and
dy
dy
dx
= 0 gives the centre of the hyperbola.
reCtangular or equilateral hyperbola
A hyperbola is called rectangular if its asymptotes are at
right angles. The asymptotes of x2/a2 y2/b2 =1 are y =
(b/a)x, so they are perpendicular if b2/a2 = 1 i.e., b2 =
a2, i.e., a = b. Hence equation of a rectangular hyperbola
can be written as x2 y2 = a2
Some important observations of rectangular hyperbola
are as under :
z
z
z

z
z

a2 = a2 (e2 1) gives e2 = 2 i.e., e = 2 .


Asymptotes are y = x.
Rotating the axes by an angle p/4 about the same
origin, equation of the rectangular hyperbola
x 2 y 2 = a 2 is reduced to xy = a 2 /2 or xy = c 2 ,
(c2 = a2/2).
In xy = c2, asymptotes are coordinate axes.
Rectangular hyperbola is also called equilateral
hyperbola.
Rectangular hyperbola referred to its asymptotes as
axis of coordinates.
Equation is xy = c2 with parametric representation
c
x = ct, y = , t R ~ {0}.
t
mathematics today | february 16

39

z
z

Equation of a chord joining the points P(t 1) and


Q (t2) is x + t1t2 y = c (t1 + t2)
y
x
+ =2
Equation of the tangent at P(x1, y1) is
x1 y1
x
and at P(t) is + ty = 2c .
t
Chord with a given middle point as ( h, k) is
kx + hy = 2hk.
Equation of the normal at P(t) is xt3 yt = c(t4 1).
Vertex of this hyperbola is (c, c) and (c, c); focus
is ( 2c, 2c) and ( 2c, 2c) , the directrices are
x + y = 2c and l(L.R.) = 2 2c = T.A. = C.A.

poSition oF a point P w.r.t hyperbola


Let S = 0 be the hyperbola and P(x1, y1) be the point and
S1 S(x1, y1).
Then
S1 < 0 P is in the exterior region
S1 > 0 P is in the interior region
S1 = 0 P lies on the hyperbola

the point (a sec q, b tan q) is


normal :

x sec q y tan q

= 1.
a
b

The equation of the normal to the hyperbola

x2
a2

y2
b2

=1

a 2 x b2 y 2 2 2 2
=a +b =a e .
+
x1
y1
The equation of the normal at the point P(a sec q, b tan q) on the
at point P(x1, y1) on the curve is

x2 y2
by
ax
+
hyperbola 2 2 = 1 is
= a2 + b2 = a2 e2.
sec q tan q
a
b
In general, four normals can be drawn to a hyperbola
from any point and if a, b, g, d be the concentric angles
of these four co-normal points, then a + b+ g + d is an
odd multiple of p.
Chord of Contact of tangents Drawn from a point
outside the hyperbola
Chord of contact of tangents drawn from a point outside
the hyperbola is T = 0 i.e., (xx1/a2) (yy1/b2) = 1.
ChorD oF hyperbola with SpeCiFieD
miDpoint
Chord of hyperbola with specified midpoint (x1, y1) is T
= S1, where S1 and T have usual meanings.

pair oF tangentS
Equation of pair of tangents from point (x1, y1) to the
hyperbola
line anD a hyperbola
The straight line y = mx + c is a secant, a tangent or passes
x2 y2
outside the hyperbola

= 1 according as c2 >, = ,<


2
2
2
2
2
a
b
a m b .
tangent anD normal
tangent :

x2 y2
Equation of the tangent to the hyperbola

= 1 at
a 2 b2
xx1 yy1
the point (x1 y1) is 2 2 = 1.
a
b
In general two t angents can b e drawn f rom an
external point (x 1, y 1) to the hyperbola and they are
y y1 = m1(x x1) and y y1 = m2(x x2) , where m1 and
m2 are roots of the equation (x12 a2)m2 2x1y1m + y12 +
b2 = 0. If D < 0, then no tangent can be drawn from (x1,
y1) to the hyperbola.
x2

Equation of the tangent to the hyperbola 2


a
40

mathematics today | february 16

y2

b2

= 1 at

x2

y2

= 1 is SS1 = T2 i.e.,

2
x 2 y 2 x 2 y 2 xx

1
1
1 yy1
2 2 1 2 2 1 = 2 2 1
a
a
a

b
b
b

DireCtor CirCle
The locus of the point of intersection of two perpendicular
tangents to a hyperbola is called its director circle. Its
equation is x2 + y2 = a2 b2.
Equation of any tangent to x2/a2 y2/ b2 = 1 is
2 2
2
y = mx (a m b )

....(i)

Tangent perpendicular to (i) is


1
....(ii)
x [(a2 /m2 ) b2 ]
m
Locus of point of intersection of these perpendicular
tangents i.e., equation of the director circle can be
obtained by eliminating m between (i) and (ii).
\ (y mx)2 + (my + x)2 = a2m2 b2 + a2 b2 m2
or (m2 + 1) x2 + (m2 + 1) y2 = (a2 b2) (m2 + 1)
Cancelling (m2 + 1), we get the equation of director circle
as x2 + y2 = a2 b2.
y=

Problems
Section-i
Single correct Answer type
1. A straight line through A(6, 8) meets the curve
2x2 + y2 = 2 at B and C. P is a point on BC such that
AB, AP, AC are in H.P., then the minimum distance
of the origin from the locus of P is
1
5
10
15
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
52
52
52
52

2. Let A(0, 2), B and C are points on parabola y2 = x + 4


p
such that CBA = , then the range of ordinate
2
of C is
(a) (, 0) (4, )
(c) [0, 4]
2

(b) (, 0] [4, )
(d) (, 0) [4, )

3. If 2p 3q + 4pq p = 0 and a variable line


px + qy = 1 always touches a parabola whose axis is
parallel to x-axis, then equation of the parabola is
(a) (y 4)2 = 24(x 2)
(b) (y 3)2 = 12(x 1)
(c) (y 4)2 = 12(x 2)
(d) (y 2)2 = 24(x 4)
4. The locus of point of intersection of tangents to the
parabola y2 = 4ax, the angle between them being
always 45 is
(a) x2 y2 + 6ax a2 = 0
(b) x2 y2 6ax + a2 = 0
(c) x2 y2 + 6ax + a2 = 0
(d) x2 y2 6ax a2 = 0
5. The locus of the vertex of the family of parabolas

a3 x 2 a2 x
+
2a, (a is parameter) is
3
2
105
3
(a) xy =
(b) xy =
64
4
35
64
(c) xy =
(d) xy =
16
105
6. Tangents are drawn from the point (1, 2) to the
parabola y2 = 4x. The length of the intercept made
by the line x = 2 on these tangents is
(a) 6
(b) 6 2
2
6
(c)
(d) None of these
y=

7. The triangle PQR of area A is inscribed in the


parabola y2 = 4ax such that P lies at the vertex of
the parabola and base QR is a focal chord. The
numerical difference of the ordinates of the points Q
and R is
A
A
2A
4A
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
a
2a
a
a

8. If a variable tangent of the circle x2 + y2 = 1 intersects


the ellipse x2 + 2y2 = 4 at P and Q, then the locus of
the points of intersection of the tangents at P and Q is
(a) a circle of radius 2 units
(b) a parabola with focus as (2, 3)
3
4
(d) an ellipse with length of latus rectum as 2 units
(c) an ellipse with eccentricity

9. A circle S = 0 touches a circle x2 + y2 4x + 6y 23 = 0


internally and the circle x2 + y2 4x + 8y + 19 = 0
externally. The locus of centre of the circle S = 0 is
1
conic whose eccentricity is k then is, where []
k
denotes G.I.F.
(a) 7

(b) 2

(c) 0

(d) 3

10. If circumcentre of an equilateral triangle inscribed


x2 y2
in 2 + 2 = 1 with vertices having eccentric angles
a
b
a, b, g respectively is (x1, y1), then
Scos a cos b + Ssin a sin b =
(a)
(c)

9 x12
2

a
9 x12
2a2

+
+

9 y12
2

b
9 y12
2b2

3
2
3

(b) 9x12 9y12 + a2b2

(d)

9 x12
a2

9 y12
b2

+3

11. The ratio of the area enclosed by the locus of


mid-point of PS and area of the ellipse where P is
any point on the ellipse and S is the focus of the
ellipse, is
(a) 1 : 2 (b) 1 : 3 (c) 1 : 5 (d) 1 : 4
12. How many tangents to the circle x2 + y2 = 3 are
x2 y2
+
=1
there which are normal to the ellipse
9
4
(a) 3
(b) 2
(c) 1
(d) 0
y2
= 1 is inscribed in a
a2 3 a + 4
square of side length a 2, then a is
(a) 4
(b) 2
(c) 1
(d) None of these

13. If the ellipse

x2

14. Let O be the centre of ellipse for which A, B are


end points of major axis and C, D are end points of
minor axis, F is focus of the ellipse. If inradius of
DOCF is 1, then |AB| |CD| =
(a) 65
(b) 52
(c) 78
(d) 47
mathematics today | February 16

41

15. The points of intersection of the two ellipse x2 + 2y2


6x 12y + 23 = 0, 4x2 + 2y2 20x 12y + 35 = 0
8
(a) lie on a circle centred at , 3 and of radius
3
1 47
3 2
8

(b) lie on a circle centred at , 3 and of radius


3

1 47
3 3
(c) lie on a circle centred at (8,9) and of radius
1 47
3 2
(d) are not concyclic.
16. In a model, it is shown that an arc of a bridge is semi
elliptical with major axis horizontal. If the length of
the base is 9 m and the highest part of the bridge is
3 m from the horizontal, then the height of the arch,
2 m from the centre of the base is (in meters)
8
65
56
9
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
3
3
3
3
17. If a chord joining P(a sec q, a tan q),
Q(a sec a, a tan a) on the hyperbola x2 y2 = a2 is
normal at P, then tan a =
(a) tan q (4 sec2 q + 1) (b) tan q (4 sec2 q 1)
(c) tan q (2 sec2 q 1) (d) tan q (1 2 sec2 q)
18. A variable straight line of slope 4 intersects the
hyperbola xy = 1 at two points. The locus of the
point which divides the line segment between these
two points in the ratio 1 : 2 is
(a) 16x2 + 10xy + y2 = 2
(b) 16x2 10xy + y2 = 2
(c) 16x2 + 10xy + y2 = 4
(d) 16x2 10xy + y2 = 4
19. Which of the following is incorrect for the hyperbola
x2 2y2 2x + 8y 1 = 0
(a) Its eccentricity is 2
(b) Length of the transverse axis is 2 3
(c) Length of the conjugate axis is 2 6
(d) Latus rectum is 4 3
20. The area of the triangle formed by the asymptotes
and any tangent to the hyperbola x2 y2 = a2 is
(a) 4a2
42

(b) 3a2

(c) 2a2

(d) a2

mathematics today | February 16

x2

y2

= 1.
a 2 b2
If the normal at the point P intersects the x-axis at
(9, 0), then the eccentricity of the hyperbola is
3
5
(a)
(b)
(c) 2 (d) 3
2
2
22. Equation of a common tangent to the curves
y2 = 8x and xy = 1 is
(a) 3y = 9x + 2
(b) y = 2x + 1
(c) 2y = x + 8
(d) y = x + 2
21. Let P(6, 3) be a point on the hyperbola

23. If PQ is a double ordinate of the hyperbola


x2 y2

= 1 such that OPQ is an equilateral


a 2 b2
triangle, O being the centre of the hyperbola. Then
the eccentricity e of the hyperbola, satisfies
(a) 1 < e < 2/ 3
(b) e = 2/ 3
(c) e = 3 / 2
(d) e > 2/ 3
24. The locus of a point, from where tangents to the
rectangular hyperbola x2 y2 = a2 makes an angle
of 45, is
(a) (x2 + y2) + a2(x2 y2) = 4a2
(b) 2(x2 + y2) + 4a2(x2 y2) = 4a2
(c) (x2 + y2)2 + 4a2(x2 y2) = 4a4
(d) (x2 + y2)2 + a2(x2 y2) = a4
25. If a circle cuts the rectangular hyperbola xy = 1 in
4 points (xr, yr) where r = 1, 2, 3, 4. Then
orthocentre of triangle with vertices at (xr,yr)where
r = 1, 2, 3 is
(a) (x4, y4)
(b) (x4, y4)
(c) (x4, y4)
(d) (x4, y4)
Section-ii
Multiple correct Answer type

26. If PQ and RS are normal chords of the parabola


y2 = 8x and the points P, Q, R, S are concyclic then
(a) Tangents at P and R meet on x-axis
(b) Tangents at P and R meet on y-axis
(c) PR is parallel to y-axis
(d) PR is parallel to x-axis
27. A(at12, 2at1), B(at22, 2at2), C(at32, 2at3) be 3 points
on the parabola y2 = 4ax. If the orthocentre of
DABC is focus S of the parabola, then
(a) t1t2 + t3t2 + t3t1 = 5
1
1
1
(b)
+
+
= 1
t1t2 t2t3 t3t1
(c) If t1 = 0, then t2 + t3 = 0
(d) (1 + t1)(1 + t2)(1 + t3) = 4

28. Consider the parabola represented by the parametric


equations x = t2 2t + 2, y = t2 + 2t + 2. Then which
of the following is/are true?
(a) Auxiliary circle of the parabola is x2 + y2 = 4
(b) Vertex of the parabola is (2, 2)
(c) Director circle of the parabola is x2 + y2 = 6
(d) Focus of the parabola is (3, 3)
29. The equations of the common tangents of the curves
x2 + 4y2 = 8 and y2 = 4x are
(a) x + 2y + 4 = 0
(b) x 2y + 4 = 0
(c) 2x + y = 4
(d) 2x y + 4 = 0
30. Let PQ be a chord of the parabola y2 = 4x. A circle
is drawn with PQ as diameter passes through the
vertex V of the parabola. If area of triangle PVQ is
20 sq. units, then the coordinates of P are
(a) (16, 8)
(b) (16, 8)
(c) (16, 8)
(d) (16, 8)
31. If Ay2 + By + Cx + D = 0, (ABC 0) be the equation
of parabola, then
C
(a) the length of latusrectum is
A
(b) the axis of the parabola is a vertical line
B
(c) y-coordinate of the vertex is
2A
B2 4 AD
(d) x-coordinate of the vertex is
4 AC
32. An ellipse whose major axis is parallel to x-axis is
such that the segments of a focal chord are 1 and
3 units. The lines ax + by + c = 0 are the chords of
the ellipse such that a, b, c are in A.P and bisected
by the point at which they are concurrent. The
equation of auxiliary circle is x2 + y2 + 2ax + 2by
2a 1 = 0. Then
(a) The locus of perpendicular tangents to the
ellipse is x2 + y2 = 7
(b) Length of the double ordinate which is conjugate
to directrix is 3
(c) Area of the auxiliary circle is 2p
1
(d) Eccentricity of the ellipse is
2
33. If foci of an ellipse be (1, 2) and (2, 3) and its
tangent at a point A is 2x + 3y + 9 = 0, then
(a) Length of the minor axis of the ellipse will be
2 14

(b) C o o r d i n at e s o f t h e p o i nt A w i l l b e
32 17
,

9
27
(c) Distance between the foci is 2 2
(d) Product of the perpendiculars from foci to any
tangent is 56
34. Let P(x1, y1), Q(x2, y2), y1 > 0, y2 > 0 be the end
points of the latus rectum of the ellipse 3x2 + 4y2 = 12.
The equations of the parabolas with latus rectum
PQ are
(a) x2 2y 2 = 0 (b) x2 2y + 2 = 0
(c) x2 + 2y 4 = 0
(d) x2 2y + 4 = 0
35. If the chord through the points whose eccentric
x2 y2
+
= 1 passes
25 9
q
f
through a focus, then tan tan is
2
2
1
1
(a)
(b) 9
(c)
(d) 9
9
9
1
36. If a tangent of slope
of the ellipse
3
2
2
y
x
+
= 1 (a > b) is normal to the circle
2
a
b2
x2 + y2 + 2x + 2y + 1 = 0, then
2
(a) maximum value of ab is
3

2
(b) a , 2
5
2
(c) a , 2
3
(d) maximum value of ab is 1
angles are q and f on the ellipse

37. A point on the ellipse x2 + 3y2 = 37 where the


normal is parallel to the line 6x 5y = 2 is
(a) (5, 2)
(b) (5, 2)
(c) (5, 2)
(d) (5, 2)
38. If the normal at P to the rectangular hyperbola
meets the axes in G and g, and C is centre of the
hyperbola, then
(a) PG = PC
(b) Pg = PC
(c) PG = Pg
(d) Gg = 2PC
x2

y2

= 1 , let n be the number of


a 2 b2
points on the plane through which perpendicular
tangents are drawn

39. For hyperbola

mathematics today | February 16

43

(a) If n = 1, then e = 2
(b) If n = 0, then e < 2
(c) If n > 1, then 0 < e < 2
(d) None of these
40. A rectangular hyperbola of latus rectum 4 units
passes through (0, 0) and has (2, 0) as its one focus.
The equation of locus of the other focus is
(a) x2 + y2 = 36
(b) x2 + y2 = 4
(c) x2 y2 = 4
(d) x2 + y2 = 9
41. The equation of tangent to the hyperbola 5x2 y2 = 5
passing through the point (2, 8) is/are
(a) 3x y + 2 = 0
(b) 3x + y 14 = 0
(c) 23x 3y 22 = 0 (d) 3x 23y + 178 = 0
Section-iii
comprehension type

Paragraph for Question No. 42 to 43


Let R(h, k) be the middle point of the chord PQ of the
parabola y2 = 4ax, then its equation will be ky 2ax
+ 2ah k2 = 0. The locus of the mid-point of chords of
the parabola which
42. Subtend a constant angle a at the vertex is
(y2 2ax + 8a2)2 tan2 a = la2(4ax y2), where l =
(a) 4
(b) 8
(c) 16
(d) 32
43. Are such that the focal distances of their extremities
are in the ratio 2: 1 is
9(y2 2ax)2 = la2(2x a)(4x + a), where l =
(a) 4
(b) 8
(c) 16
(d) 12
Paragraph for Question No. 44 to 46
The normal at any point (x1, y1) of curve is a line
perpendicular to tangent at the point (x1, y1). In
case of parabola y2 = 4ax, the equation of normal is
y = mx 2am am3 (m is slope of normal). In case of
rectangular hyperbola xy = c2, the equation of normal
at (ct, c/t) is xt3 yt ct4 + c = 0. The shortest distance
between any two curves always exist along the common
normal.
44. If normal at (5, 3) of rectangular hyperbola
xy y 2x 2 = 0 intersect it again at a point
(a) (1, 0)
(b) (1, 1)
(c) (0, 2)
(d) (3/4, 14)
45. The shortest distance between the parabolas
2y2 = 2x 1, 2x2 = 2y 1 is
36
1
(a) 2 2 (b)
(c) 4
(d)
5
2 2
44

mathematics today | February 16

46. Number of normals drawn from


y2 = 2x 1 is
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 3

7
6 , 4 to parabola
(d) 4

Paragraph for Question No. 47 to 49


Conic possesses enormous properties which can
be proved by taking their standard forms. Unlike
circle these properties rarely follow geometrical
considerations. Most of the properties of conic are
proved analytically. For example, the properties of a
parabola can be proved by taking its standard equation
y2 = 4ax and a point (at2, 2at) on it
47. If the tangent and normal at any point P on the
parabola whose focus is S, meets its axis in T and G
respectively, then
(a) PG = GT
(b) S is mid-point of T and G
(c) ST = 2SG
(d) None of these
48. The angle between the tangents drawn at the
extremities of a focal chord must be
(a) 30
(b) 60
(c) 90
(d) 120
49. If the tangent at any point P meets the directrix at
K, then KSP must be
(a) 30
(b) 60
(c) 90
(d) None of these
Paragraph for Question No. 50 to 51
A sequence of ellipse E1, E2...En are constructed as
follows:
Ellipse En is drawn so as to touch ellipse En1 at the
extremities of the major axis of En1 and have its foci at
the extremities of the minor axis of En1.
50. If En is independent of n, then eccentricity of the
ellipse En2 is
5 1
3 5
(a)
(b)
2
2
2 3
3 1
(d)
2
2
51. If eccentricity of ellipse En is independent of n, then
the locus of the mid-point of chords of slope 1 of
En (If the axis of En is along y-axis)
(c)

(a) ( 5 1)x = 2 y

(b) ( 5 + 1)x = 2 y

(c) (3 5 )x = 2 y

(d) (3 + 5 )x = 2 y

Paragraph for Question No. 52 to 54


C1 : x2 + y2 = r2 and C2 :

x2 y2
+
= 1 intersect at four
16 9

distinct points A, B, C and D. Their common tangents


form a parallelogram ABCD.
52. If ABCD is a square, then r is equal to
12
12
2
(a)
(b)
5
5
12
(c)
(d) None of these
5 5
53. If ABCD is a square, then r is equal to
(a) 20
(b) 12
(c)

15

(d) None of these

54. If ABCD is a square, then the ratio of area of the


circle C1 to the area of the circumcircle of DABC
is
9
3
(a)
(b)
16
4
1
(c)
(d) None of these
2
Paragraph for Question No. 55 to 56
If H : x2 y2 = 9; P : y2 = 4(x 5), L : x = 9

55. If L is the chord of contact of the hyperbola H, then


the equation of the corresponding pair of tangents is
(a) 9x2 8y2 + 18x 9 = 0
(b) 9x2 8y2 + 18x + 9 = 0
(c) 9x2 8y2 18x + 9 = 0
(d) 9x2 8y2 18x 9 = 0
56. If R is the point of intersection of the tangents to
H at the extremities of the chord L, then equation
of the chord of contact of R with respect to the
parabola P is
(a) x = 7 (b) x = 9 (c) y = 7 (d) y = 9
Paragraph for Question No. 57 to 58
In hyperbola portion of tangent intercept between
asymptotes is bisected at the point of contact. Consider
a hyperbola whose centre is at origin. A line x + y = 2
touches this hyperbola at P(1,1) and intersects the
asymptotes at A and B such that AB = 6 2 units.
57. Equation of asymptotes are
(a) 5xy + 2x2 + 2y2 = 0 (b) 3x2 + 2y2 + 6xy = 0
(c) 2x2 + 2y2 5xy = 0 (d) 2x2 + 3x2 + 5x = 0
7

58. Equation of the tangent to the hyperbola at 1, is

2
(a) 5x + 2y = 2
(b) 3x + 2y = 4
(c) 3x + 4y = 11
(d) 3x + 2y = 6

Section-iV
Matrix-Match type
59. Consider the parabola
(12 x 5 y + 3)2
(x 1)2 + ( y 2)2 =
169

Column - I
Column - II
(A) Locus of point of
(p) 12x 5y 2 = 0
intersection of
perpendicular tangent
(B) Locus of foot of
(q) 5x + 12y 29 = 0
perpendicular from
focus upon any
tangent
(C) Line along which
(r) 12x 5y + 3 = 0
minimum length of
focal chord occurs
(D) Line about which
(s) 24x 10y + 1 = 0
parabola is
symmetrical
60. Match the following
Column - I
Column - II
(A) If the distances of two points (p) 8
P and Q lie on the parabola
y2 = 4ax from the focus S of
the same parabola are 4 and 9
respectively, then the distance
of the point of intersection R of
tangents at P and Q from the
focus is equal to
(B) The normal chord of a parabola (q) 4
y 2 = 4ax at the point whose
ordinate is equal to the abscissa,
t h e n a n g l e s u bt e n d e d by
normal chord at the focus, is
cosec1 (?)
(C) The distance between a tangent (r) 6
to the parabola y2 = 4ax (a > 0) and
parallel normal with gradient 1,
is pa , then p =
(D) If the normal to a parabola y2 = (s)
4ax at P meets the curve again
at Q and if PQ and the normal
at Q makes angles a and b
respectively, then |2tan a(tan
a + tan b)| equals to
mathematics today | February 16

45

61. Match the following

63. Match the following

Column - I
Column - II
(A) The eccentricity of the conic (p) 7
represented by x2 y2 4x +
4y + 16 = 0 is
2

y
x
+
=1
16 b2
x2 y2 1
and the hyperbola

=
144 81 25
coincide, then b2 is

(B) The foci of the ellipse

(q) 0

(C) The pro duc t of lengt hs of (r)


perpendiculars from any point
t of the hyperbola x2 y2 = 8 to
its asymptotes is
(D) The number of points outside (s)
2

Section-V

Column - II

(B) y = x + 2 is a tangent to the (q) (2, 0)


parabola y2 = 8x. The point on
this line, the other tangent from
which is perpendicular to this
tangent is
(C) The point on the ellipse x2 + 2y2 (r)
= 6 whose distance from the line
x + y = 7 is least is

2,

(s) (2, 8)
x 2 h2
+
=1
25 9
are S and S. P is a point on the
ellipse whose eccentric angle is
p/3. The incentre of the triangle
SPS is
The foci of the ellipse

(t) (2, 2)
mathematics today | February 16

(D) The product of the lengths of the (s) 12


perpendiculars drawn from the
foci of 3x2 4y2 = 12 on any of
its tangents is

64. Consider the parabola y2 = 4x. Let P and Q be two


points (4, 4) and (9, 6) respectively on the parabola.
Let R be a moving point on the arc of the parabola
between P and Q. If the maximum area of DRPQ is

(A) The coordinates of the point


(p) (2,1)
on the parabola y = x2 + 7x + 2,
which is nearest to the straight line
y = 3x 3 are

46

(B) The product of the perpendiculars (q) 3


drawn from any point on the
hyperbola x 2 2y 2 = 2 to its
asymptotes is
(C) The length of the transverse axis (r) 32
of the hyperbola xy = 18 is
3

integer Answer type

62. Match the following

(D)

Column - II

(A) The length of the latus rectum of (p) 2


the hyperbola 16x2 9y2 = 144 is
3

y
x

=1
the hyperbola
25 36
from where two perpendicular
tangents can be drawn to the
hyperbola is/are
Column - I

Column - I

S, then (4S) 3 equals


65. Two tangents are drawn from point (1, 4) to the
parabola y2 = 4x. Angle between these tangents is
p
, then K =
K
66. If the line x 1 = 0 is the directrix of the parabola
y2 kx + 8 = 0, then k(> 0) is
67. If x + y = k is normal to y2 = 12x, then k is
68. If the angle between the asymptotes of hyperbola
p
x2 y2
. Then the eccentricity of

= 1 is
2
2
3
a
b
conjugate hyperbola is
69. The distance between the directrices of the ellipse
K
is
(4 x 8)2 + 16 y 2 = (x + 3 y + 10)2 is K, then
2
x2 y2
70. Number of points on the ellipse
+
= 1 from
50 20
which pair of perpendicular tangents are drawn to
the ellipse

x2 y2
+
= 1 is
16 9

71. If L be the length of common tangent to the ellipse


2

y
x
+
= 1 and the circle x2 + y2 = 16 is intercepted
25 4
3L
by the coordinate axis, then
is
2
72. If P and Q are the ends of a pair of conjugate
diameters and C is the centre of the ellipse
4x2 + 9y2 = 36, then the area of DCPQ in square
units is
x2

y2

+
= 1 is
a 2 b2
normal to the circle x2 + y2 + 4x + 1 = 0, then the
maximum value of ab is

73. If a tangent of slope 2 of the ellipse

74. Acute angle between the asymptotes of the hyperbola


x2 + 2xy 3y2 + x + 7y + 9 = 0 is q. Then tan q =
SolutionS
1. (a) : (6 + r cos q, 8 + r sin q) lies on 2x2 + y2 = 2
(2 cos2 q + sin2 q)r2 + 2(12 cos q + 8 sin q)r
+ 134 = 0
2 AB + AC
AB, AP, AC are in HP =
r AB AC
1
(6 cos q + 4 sin q)
=
6x + 4 y 1 = 0

r
67
1
Minimum distance from O =
52
2. (b) : A(0, 2), B(t12 4, t1), C (t2 4, t)
2 t1 t1 t
1
1

= 1

= 1

2 2
2
2 + t1 t + t1
4 t1 t1 t

t12

+ (2 + t)t1 + (2t + 1) = 0

For real t1, (2 + t)2 4(2t + 1) 0 t2 4t 0


t (, 0]) [4, )
3. (c) : The parabola be (y a)2 = 4b(x c)
p
bq
Equation of tangent is ( y a) = (x c)
q
p
Comparing with px + qy = 1, we get
cp2 bq2 + apq p = 0
c b a
\ = = =1
2 3 4
The equation is (y 4)2 = 12 (x 2)
4. (c) : Equation of tangent is y = mx +
m2x my + a = 0 m1 + m2 =

a
m

y
a
,m m =
x 1 2 x

m m2
y
a a
tan 45 = 1
4 = 1 +

1 + m1m2
x
x x

x2 y2 + 6ax + a2 = 0
5. (a) : y =
y=

a3 x 2 a2 x
+
2a
3
2

2a3 2 3
12a
x + x 3

6
2a
2a

2a3 2
3
9
9
12a
x + 2. x +

2
2
6
4a
16a 16a
2a
2
2a3
3 105a
y=
x +

6
4a
16a3
y=

105a 2a3
3

y +
=
x +
48
6
4a
y=

105a
3
, x=
48
4a

yx =

105a 3 105

=
48 4a 64

6. (b) : Equation of pair of tangent is


SS1 = T2
(y2 4x)(8) = 4(y x + 1)2
y2 2y(1 x) (x2 + 6x + 1) = 0
Put x = 2
y2 + 2y 17 = 0
y1 y2 = 6 2
7. (c) : QR is a focal chord
a 2a
R(at2 , 2at) and Q 2 ,
t
t
2a
1
= 2a t +
d = 2at +
t
t
at 2
1 a
Now A =
2 t2
0

2a t +

2at 1
2a
1

1 = a2 t +
t
t
0
1

1 2A
=
t
a

8. (d) : x2 + y2 = 1, x2 + 2y2 = 4
Let R(x1, y1) be point of intersection of tangents
drawn at P, Q to ellipse
PQ is chord of contact of R(x1, y1)
xx1 + 2yy1 4 = 0
mathematics today | February 16

47

This touches circle r2 (l2 + m2) = n2


1(x12 + 4y12) = 16
x2 + 4y2 = 16 is ellipse with e =
Length of latus rectum = 2 units

2 (a2 3) + (a + 4) = 2a2 + 2a2

3
;
2

2 a2 + a + 1 = 2a a = 1

9. (a) : c1(2, 3)r1 = 6


c2 (2, 4)r2 = 1
Let c is the centre and r be the radius of S = 0
cc1 = r1 r
cc1 + cc2 = r1 + r2
cc2 = r2 + r
\
\ Locus is an ellipse whose foci are (2, 3) and
(2, 4)
2ae c1c2
1
1
e=
=
= k=
2a r1 + r2 7
7
a cos a b sin a
10. (c) : (x1 , y1 ) =
,

3
3
3x1
a
3 y1
sina = b

cos a =

....(1)
....(2)

Squaring and adding, we get the answer.


11. (d) : Equation of ellipse is

y2
+
= 1 , Area = pab
a 2 b2

h = ae + a cos q ; k = b sin q
Locus of (h, k) is ellipse

ae

h
2

r=

(a2 / 4)

k2
(b2 / 4)

=1

12. (d) : Equation of normal at P(3 cos q, 2 sin q) is


3x sec q 2y cosec q = 5
5
= 3
9 sec2 q + 4cosec2q
But min. of 9 sec2 q + 4 cosec2 q = 25
\ No such q exists.
13. (d) : Sides of the square will be perpendicular
tangents to the ellipse. So, vertices of the square
will lie on director circle. So diameter of director
circle is
mathematics today | February 16

64
27 1 47
+9
=
9
2 3 2

16. (b) : Let the equation of the semi elliptical arc be


x2

y2
+
= 1( y > 0)
a 2 b2

Length of the major axis = 2a = 9 a = 9/2

a b 1
Area = p = pab
22 4

48

(l + 4)x 2 + 2(l + 1) y 2 2(3l + 10)x


12(l + 1) y + (23l + 35) = 0
For it to be a circle, choose l such that the
coefficients of x2 and y2 are equal.
\ l=2
This gives the equation of the circle as
6(x2 + y2) 32x 36y + 81 = 0
16
27
x2 + y2 x 6 y + = 0
3
2
8
Its centre is C , 3 and radius is
3

x2

Let P = (a cos q, b sin q)


S = (ae, 0)
M(h, k) be the mid-point of PS

But for ellipse a2 > 3 and a > 4


So a cannot take the value 1.
14. (a)
15. (a) : If S1 = 0 and S2 = 0 are the equations, then
lS 1 + S 2 = 0 is a second degree curve passing
through the points of intersection of S1 = 0 and
S2 = 0

So the equation of the arc becomes

4x2 y2
+
=1
81
9

65
1
65
If x = 2, then y 2 = y =
9
3
17. (b) : Slope of chord joining P and Q = slope of
normal at P
tan a tan q
tan q
=
tan a tan q = k tan q
sec a sec q
sec q
and sec a sec q = k sec q
\ (1 k) tan q = tan a and (1 + k)sec q = sec a
[(1 + k)sec q]2 [(1 k)tan q]2 = sec2 a tan2 a
k = 2(sec2 q + tan2 q) = 4 sec2 q + 2
tan a = tan q(1 + 4 sec2 q 2) = tan q(4 sec2 q 1)
18. (a) : Let P(h, k)
y k = 4(x h)
Let it meets xy = 1 at A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2)

4h k
1
, x1x2 =
4
4
2 x1 + x2
(2h + k)
8h + k
= h x1 =
, x2 =
Also
3
4
2
16x2 + 10xy + y2 = 2
\

x1 + x2 =

19. (a) : The equation of the hyperbola is


x2 2y2 2x + 8y 1 = 0
or (x 1)2 2(y 2)2 + 6 = 0
or
or
or

(x 1)2 ( y 2)2
+
=1
6
3
( y 2)2 (x 1)2

=1
3
6

...(1)

Y 2 X2

= 1,
3
6
[where X = x 1 and Y = y 2]

...(2)

The length of the conjugate axis = 2 6


Length of latus rectum = 4 3
2

20. (d) : Equation of any tangent to x y = a


y2

y
x
....(1)
sec q tan q = 1
a
a
a
a
or x sec q y tan q = a
The two asymptotes of the hyperbola x2 y2 = a2
are x y = 0 and x + y = 0
\ Equation of other two sides of the triangle are
xy=0
....(2)
x+y=0
....(3)
Solving (1), (2) and (3) in pairs, the coordinates of the
vertices of the triangle are (0, 0)
2

= 1 is

a
a

sec q + tan q sec q + tan q


a
a

and
sec q tan q sec q tan q

1
Let P t , be any point on xy = 1
t

1
Equation of the tangent to xy = 1 at P t , is
t
x
+ yt = 2
t
....(1)

If (1) is tangent to the parabola y2 = 8x, then


2
2
=
t 3 = 1
t 1/ t2

The length of the transverse axis = 2 3

x2

9a2
3
b2
= a 2 + b2 = 1 + 2
6
2
a
2
b
1
1
3
= e2 1 = e =
2 2
2
2
a

x 2
y= 2 +
t
t

a 2 x b2 y
+
= a 2 + b2
6
3
It passes through (9, 0) also

22. (d) : y2 = 8x, xy = 1

b= 6 .
But b2 = a2 (e2 1)

i.e.

1 ( 2 2 ) [ sec2 q tan2 q = 1]
a +a
2
= a2
=

6 = 3(e2 1) e2 = 3 or e =

1
a 2
a2

2 sec2 q tan2 q sec2 q tan2 q

21. (b) : Normal at (6, 3) is

\ The centre = (0, 0) in the X-Y coordinates


\ The centre = (1, 2) in the x-y coordinates using (2)
If the transverse axis be of length 2a, then a = 3 ,
since in the equation (1) the transverse axis is parallel
to the y-axis. If the conjugate axis is of length 2b, then

Area of triangle =

t=1
\ Common tangent is y = x + 2
23. (d) : If OPQ is equilateral triangle, then OP makes
30 with x-axis.
3r r
, , lies on hyperbola

2 2

r2 =

16a2b2

12b2 4a2

x2

y2

=1
a 2 b2

>0

b2 4
12b2 4a2 > 0 2 >
12
a
1
e2 1 >
3
e2 >

4
2
e>
3
3
mathematics today | February 16

49

24. (c) : Equation of tangent to the hyperbola is

On subtracting (2) from (1), we get


t12t2 + t12t3 t22t1 t22t3 + 4(t1 t2) = t2 t1
t1t2(t1 t2) + t3(t12 t22) = 5(t2 t1)
t1t2 + t3 (t1 + t2) = 5
\ t1t2 = 5
So, option (a) is true

y = mx m2a2 a2
Let P(x1, y1) be the point
y1 mx1 = m2a2 a2
S.B.S.
m2(x12 a2) 2 y1x1m + y12 + a2 = 0
\

Now, t12(t2 + t3) + 4t1 = t3 + t2

y 2 + a2
, m1m2 = 1
x12 a2
x12 a2
m m2
tan 45 = 1
1 + m1m2

m1 + m2 =

t1(t1t2 + t3t1) + 4t1 = t2 + t3

2 x1 y1

t1(5 t2t3) + 4t1 = t2 + t3


t1t2t3 t1 = t2 + t3
t1t2t3 =t1 + t2 + t3

(1 + m1m2) = (m1 m2) = (m1 + m2) 4 m1m2


2

y 2 + a2
y 2 + a2
2 x1 y1
1
1
1 + 2 2 = 2 2 4 2 2

x
a
x
a
x

1 a
1

25. (b) : xy = 1 cuts the circle in 4 points, then


x1x2x3x4 = 1, y1y2y3y4 = 1
Orthocentre of triangle with vertices (x1, y1),
(x2, y2), (x3, y3)

1
, ( y1 y2 y3 )1 i.e. (x4, y4)
i.e.,

x1x2 x3
26. (a, c) : Equation of normal chords at P(2t12, 4t1) and
R(2t22 , 4t2) are y + t1x 4t1 2t13 = 0 and
y + t2x 4t2 2t23 =0
Equation of curve through P, Q, R, S is
(y + t1x 4t1 2t13) (y + t2x 4t2 2t23) + l(y2 8x) = 0
P, Q, R, S are concyclic, t1 + t2 = 0 and t1 t2 = 1 + l
Points of intersection of tangents (at1t2, a(t1 + t2))
z
lies on x-axis, slope of PR =
t1 + t2
\ PR is parallel to y-axis.
27. (a, b, c) : Slope of AS =

2at1

at12

a
2
=
Slope of BC =
2
2
t
+
a(t3 t 2 )
3 t2
2t1
2

= 1
\
2
t1 1 t 3 + t2
2a(t3 t2 )

4t1 = t3t12 + t12t2 t3 t2


If t1 = 0 t3 + t2 = 0
So, option(c) is correct.
t12(t2 + t3) + 4t1 = t3 + t2
Similarly t22(t1 + t3) + 4t2 = t1 + t3
50

mathematics today | February 16

2t1

t12

...(1)
...(2)

1
1
1
+
+
= 1
t1t2 t2t3 t3t1
So, (b) is correct.
(a, b, d) 29. (a, b)
30. (a, b) 31. (a, c, d)
(b, d)
33. (a, b)
34. (b, c) 35. (b, c)
(a, b)
37. (b, d)
38. (a, b, c, d)
(a, c)
40. (a)
41. (a, c) 42. (c)
(a) 44. (d) 45. (b) 46. (a) 47. (b)
(c) 49. (c) 50. (b) 51. (b) 52. (a)
(d) 54. (c) 55. (c) 56. (b) 57. (a)
(b) 59. a r; b s; C p; d q
a r; b s; C p; d q
a r; b p; C s; d q
a s; b q; C p; d r
a r; b p; C s; d q
(5) 65. (3) 66. (4) 67. (9) 68. (2)
(8) 70. (4) 71. (7) 72. (3) 73. (4)
(2)
nn

28.
32.
36.
39.
43.
48.
53.
58.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
69.
74.

*ALOK KUMAR, B.Tech, IIT Kanpur

This column is aimed at Class XII students so that they can prepare for competitive exams such as JEE Main/Advanced,
etc. and be also in command of what is being covered in their school as part of NCERT syllabus. The problems here
are a happy blend of the straight and the twisted, the simple and the difficult and the easy and the challenging.

DEFINITION
A scalar is a quantity, which has only magnitude but
does not have any direction. For example time, mass,
temperature, specific gravity etc. are scalars.
A vector is a quantity which has magnitude as well as
direction. For example displacement, force, acceleration
are vectors.

(a) There are different ways of denoting a vector : a or a

or a. We use for our convenience a , b , c etc. to denote


vectors and a, b, c to denote their magnitudes. Magnitude

of a vector a is also written as | a | .

(b) A vector a may be represented by a line segment


OA and arrow gives direction of this vector. Length of
the line segment gives the magnitude of the vector.
O

Here O is the initial point and


A is the terminal point of OA

PROPERTIES

z
(Vector addition is commutative)
a + b = b + a,


z
(Vector addition is
a + (b + c ) = (a + b ) + c ,
associative)

| a + b | | a | + | b |, equality holds when a and b are


z
like vectors.

| a + b | || a | | b ||, equality holds when a and b


z
are unlike vectors.

z
a +0 =a =0+a



a + (a ) = 0 = (a ) + a
z
TYPES OF VECTORS
Equal vectors : Two vectors are said to be equal if
and only if they have equal magnitudes and same
direction.

ADDITION OF TWO VECTORS


z



Let OA = a , AB = b and OB = c .

Here c is sum (or resultant) of vectors


a
and
b
. It is to

be noticed that the initial point of b coincides with

the terminal point of a and the line joining the initial

point
of a to the terminal point of b represents vector

a + b in magnitude and direction.

Zero Vector (nu l l


C
vector): A vector whose
initial and terminal
p oints are same, is
called the null vector.
Such vector has zero
m a g n itu d e a n d n o A
direction, and denoted

by 0.


AB + BC + CA = AA or AB + BC + CA = 0

* Alok Kumar is a winner of INDIAN NATIONAL MATHEMATICS OLYMPIAD (INMO-91).


He trains IIT and Olympiad aspirants.

mathematics today | february 16

51

Like and Unlike Vectors: Two vectors are said to


be
(i) Like, when they are in same direction.
(ii) Unlike, when they are in opposite directions.

a and a are two unlike vectors as their directions are

opposite, a and 3a are like vectors.


z
Unit Vector : A unit vector is a vector whose
magnitude is unity. We write, unit vector in the
a

direction of a as a^ . Therefore a^ = .
|a |
z
Parallel vectors:

a
Tw o o r m o r e O
A

vectors are said to


b
C
B

be parallel, if they
c
E
D
have the same
support or parallel support. Parallel vectors may
have equal or unequal magnitudes and direction
may be same or opposite.
z
Position Vector: If P is any point in the space, then

the vector OP is called position vector of point P,


where O is the origin of reference. Thus for any two

points A and B in the space, AB = OB OA .
z
Co-initial vectors: Vectors having same initial
point are called co-initial vectors.
z

Here OA, OB, OC and OD are co-initial vectors.


MULTIPLICATION OF VECTOR BY SCALARS

If a is a vector and m is a scalar, then ma is a vector

parallel to a whose magnitude is | m | times that of a .


This multiplication is called scalar multiplication. If

a and b are vectors and m, n are scalars, then :

m(a ) = (a )m = ma
m(na ) = n(ma ) = (mn)a

(m + n)a = ma + na
m(a + b ) = ma + mb
LINEAR COMBINATION

Given a finite set of vectors a , b , c ,...... then the vector

r = xa + yb + zc +........ is called a linear combination



of a , b , c ,...... for any x, y, z .....R. We have the
following results:

z
If a , b are non zero, non-collinear vectors then

xa + yb = x a + y b x = x ; y = y
52

mathematics today | february 16


Fundamental Theorem : Let a , b be non zero,

non collinear
vectors . Then any vector r coplanar

with a , b can be expressed
uniquely as a linear

combination of a , b i.e. there exist some unique

x,y R such that xa + yb = r .


If a , b , c are non-zero, non-coplanar
vectors then

xa + yb + zc = x a + y b + z c
x = x, y = y, z = z

Fundamental Theorem in Space : Let a , b , c be
non-zero, non-coplanar vectors in space. Then

any vector r , can be


uniquely expressed as a linear

combination of a , b , c i.e. there exist some unique


x,y,z R such that xa + yb + zc = r .

If x1 , x2 ,....., xn are n non-zero vectors and


k 1 , k 2 , ....., k n are n scalars and if the linear

c o m b i n a t i o n k1x1 + k2 x2 + ...... + kn xn = 0
k1 = 0, k2 = 0.....kn = 0, then we say that vectors

x1 , x2 ,....., xn are linearly independent vectors.


If x1 , x2 ,....., xn are not linearly independent, then


they are said to be linearly dependent vectors, i.e.,

if k1x1 + k2 x2 + ........ + kn xn = 0 and if there exists


at least one kr 0, (r = 1, 2, .....n) then x1 , x2 ,....., xn


are said to be linearly dependent.

LINEARLY DEPENDENT VECTOR


If kr 0;

k1x1 + k2 x2 + k3 x3 + ....... + kr xr + ...... + kn xn = 0

kr xr = k1x1 + k2 x2 + ... + kr 1.xr 1 +

kr +1.xr +1 + ... + kn xn
1
1
1
kr xr = k1 x1 + k2 x2 + ... +
kr
kr
kr
1
1
kr 1. xr 1 + ... + kn xn
kr
kr

xr = c1x1 + c2 x2 + .... + cr 1xr 1 + cr xr +1 + ....

+ cn 1xn

i.e. xr is expressed as a linear combination of vectors


x1 , x2 ,...., xr 1 , xr +1 ,...., xn

Hence, xr with x1 , x2 ,...., xr 1 , xr +1 , ...., xn forms a


linearly dependent set of vectors .

j + 5k, then a is expressed as


z
If a = 3i+ 2
a l i n e a r c o m b i n at i o n o f v e c t o r s i,
j,k.

Also, a , i ,j,k form a linearly dependent set of
vectors. In general , every set of four vectors is a
linearly dependent system.

i,
j,k are linearly independent set of vectors.
For K1i+ K 2
j + K 3k= 0 K1 = K 2 = K 3 = 0.

C OLLINEARIT Y AND C OPL ANARIT Y OF


POINTS
The necessary and sufficient condition for three points

with position vectors a , b and c to be collinear is


that there exist scalars x, y, z (not all zero) such that

xa + yb + zc = 0 , where x + y + z = 0
The necessary and sufficient condition for four points


with position vectors a , b , c and d to be coplanar is that
there exist scalars x, y, z ,u (not all zero) such that

xa + yb + zc + ud = 0 where x + y + z + u = 0.

^
^
^
r
x i + y j+ z k
^
^
^
r= =
= l i + m j + nk
2
2
2
|r |
x + y +z
^

r = l i + m j + nk

AC n
=
CB m

or, m AC = n CB or, m AC = nCB


(As vectors are in same direction)

Now, OA + AC = OC AC = r a

r + CB = b CB = b r

ma + nb
Using (i), we get r =
m+n

SECTION FORMULA
Let A, B and C
be three collinear
points in space
having position

vectors a , b and r
respectively.
Let

^ ^ ^

Let i , j, k denote unit vectors along OX, OY and OZ


respectively.


^
^
^
^
^
We h a v e r = OP = x i + y j + z k as OA = x i , OB = y j

^
and OC = z k

ON = OA + AN ; OP = ON + NP


So, OP = OA + OB + OC
NP = OC , AN = OB

r = | r | = | OP | = x 2 + y 2 + z 2

...(i)
...(ii)
...(iii)

ORTHOGONAL SYSTEM OF UNIT VECTORS


Let OX, OY and OZ be three mutually perpendicular
straight lines. Given any point P(x, y, z) in space, we
can construct the rectangular parallelopiped of which
OP is a diagonal and OA = x, OB = y, OC = z.
Here A, B, C are (x, 0, 0), (0, y, 0) and (0, 0, z)
respectively and L, M, N are (0, y, z),(x, 0, z) and
(x, y, 0) respectively.

SCALAR PRODUCT OF TWO VECTORS (DOT


PRODUCT)

The scalar product, a b of two non-zero vectors

a and b is defined as | a || b | cos q , where q is the


angle between the two vectors, when drawn with same
initial point.
Note that 0 q p .


If at least one of a and b is a zero vector, then a b is
defined as zero.
PROPERTIES

z
a b = b a (scalar product is commutative)


z
a 2 = a a =| a |2



z
(ma ) b = m(a b ) = a (mb ) (where m is a scalar)

a b

1
z
q = cos
| a || b |


z
a b = 0 Vectors a and b are perpendicular to

each other. [provided a , b are non-zero vectors]
z
z
z
z

z
z

^^

^ ^

^ ^

i j = j k = k i = 0


a (b + c ) = a b + a c

(a + b ).(a b ) = | a |2 | b |2

^
^
^
^
^
^
Let a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k , b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k .

^
^
^
^
^
^
Then a.b = (a1 i + a2 j + a3 k ).(b1 i + b2 j + b3 k )
= a 1b 1 + a 2b 2 + a 3b 3

Maximum value of a b =| a || b |


Minimum value of a b = | a || b |
mathematics today | february 16

53

Any vector a can be written as,


^^ ^^ ^ ^
a = (a. i ) i + (a. j) j + (a. k ) k

Algebraic projection of a vector along some other


vector :

a.b

ON = OB cos q = | b | = a^ .b
| a || b |

B
z

N a

PROPERTIES


z
a b = (b a )



(ma ) b = m(a b ) = a (mb ) (where m is a scalar)
z


z
a b = 0 vectors a andb are parallel.

(provided a and b are non-zero vectors)


^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
z
i i = j j = k k = 0
z

54

^ ^

i j = k = ( j i ), j k = i = (k j) ,
^

k i = j = ( i k )

a (b + c ) = a b + a c

^
^
^
^
^
^

Let a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k and b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k ,
then
mathematics today | february 16

k
a3
b3
^

= i (a2b3 a3b2 ) + j(a3b1 a1b3 ) + k(a1b2 a2b1 )



|a b |
sin q =
| a || b |
1 1
Area of DOAB = | a b | = ab sin q
2
2

VECTOR (CROSS) PRODUCT

The vector product of two non-zero vectors a and b ,


whose modulus are a and b respectively, is the vector
whose modulus is absinq, where q(0 q p)is the

angle between the vectors a and b . Its direction is that

of a vector n perpendicular to both a and b , such that


a , b , n are in right-handed orientation.
By the right-handed
orientation we mean that, if

b
we turn the vector a into

the vector b through the

O
a
angle q, then n points in
the direction in which a right handed screw would move

if turned in the same manner. Thus a b =| a || b | sin q n^ .


If at least one of a and b is a zero vector, then a b is
defined as the zero vector.

i
j

a b = a1 a2
b1 b2

z
z


Area of parallelogram OACB = ab sin q =| a b |.


ab b a
Unit vector

a and b is

(not commutative)
perpendicular
to the plane of

a b
.
a b

A vector of magnitude r and perpendicular to the



r a b

plane of a and b is .
a b

Area of any quadrilateral whose diagonal vectors

1
are d1 and d2 is given by d1 d2 .
2

Lagrange's Identity : For any two vectors a and b ;



2 2 2 . 2 a . a a .b
a b = a b (a b ) = .
a .b b .b

SCALAR TRIPLE PRODUCT ( BOx PRODUCT


)

The scalar triple product


of three vectors a , b and c

is defined as (a b ) c =| a || b ||c |sin q cos where q

is the angle between a and b and is the angle

between a b and c . It is also defined as [a b c ]

^
^
^
^
^
^
Let a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k , b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k,

^
^
^
c = c1 i + c2 j + c3 k

i
j

Then a b = a1 a2
b1 b2
^a
=i 2
b2

a2

(a b ).c = c1
b2

k
a3
b3

a3 ^ a1 a3 ^ a1 a2
j
+k
b3
b1 b3
b1 b2
a3
a1 a3
a1 a2
c2
+ c3
b3
b1 b3
b1 b2

a1 a2 a3
= b1 b2 b3
c1 c2 c3

Therefore, (a b ) c = (b c ) a = (c a ) b



= (b a ) c = (c b ) a = (a c ) b

Note that (a b ).c = (b c ).a = a.(b c ), hence in scalar
triple product, dot and cross are interchangeable.

Therefore, we denote (a b ).c by [a b c ].


PROPERTIES

z
|(a b ).c | re pre s e nt s t h e v o lu m e of t h e
parallelopiped, whose adjacent sides are represented

by the vectors a , b and c in magnitude and



direction. Therefore three vectors a , b , c are

coplanar if and only if [a b c ] = 0.


a1 a2
i.e., b1 b2
c1 c2
z

z
z

a3
b3 = 0
c3

In a scalar triple product the position of dot and




cross can be interchanged i.e. a . (b c ) = (a b ) . c

i.e., [ a b c ] = [ b c a ] = [ c a b ]

a . (b c ) = a . (c b ) i.e. [ a b c ] = [ a c b ]

In general, if a = a1l + a2m + a3n;

b = b1l + b2m + b3n and c = c1l + c2m + c3n


a1 a2 a3

then a b c = b1 b2 b3 l mn ;

c1 c2 c3

where l , m and n are non-coplanar vectors.


Scalar product of three vectors, two of which are
equal or parallel is 0.

Note : If a , b , c are non - coplanar then [ a b c ] > 0

for right handed system and [ a b c ] < 0 for left handed


system.
^ ^ ^

[ i j k] = 1.

z
[ K a b c ] = K[ a b c ].



z
[(a + b ) c d ] = [ a c d ] + [ b c d ]
z
The position vector of the centroid of a tetrahedron


if the pvs of its angular vertices are a , b , c and d
1
a+b +c +d .
are given by
4
Note that this is also the point of concurrence of the
lines joining the vertices to the centroids of the opposite
faces and is also called the centre of the tetrahedron.
In case the tetrahedron is regular it is equidistant from
the vertices and the four faces of the tetrahedron.

Remember that : a b b c c a = 0

and a + b b + c c + a = 2 a b c .
z

VECTOR TRIPLE PRODUCT


The vector triple product of three vectors a , b and c

is defined as a (b c ). If at least one a , b and c is a

zero vector or b and c are collinear vectors or a is

perpendicular to both b and c , only then a (b c ) = 0.



In all other cases a (b c ) will be a non-zero vector in
the plane of non-collinear vectors and perpendicular

to the vector a.

Thus we can take a (b c ) = lb + mc , for some scalars


l and m.


Since, a a (b c ) a (a (b c )) = 0

l(a.b ) + m(a.c ) = 0

l = (a.c )a, m = (a.b )a , for some scalar a.




Hence, a (b c ) = a[(a c )b (a b )c )], for any vectors

a , b and c satisfying the conditions given in the


^ ^
beginning. In particular if we take, a = b = i , c = j ,
then a = 1.


Hence, a (b c ) = (a.c )b (a.b )c
RECIPROCAL SYSTEM OF VECTORS

Let a , b and c be a system of three non-coplanar


vectors. Then the system of vectors a, b and c which


satisfies a a = b b = c c = 1 and a b = a c = b a

= b c = c a = c b = 0, is called the reciprocal system to
mathematics today | february 16

55




the vectors a , b , c . In terms of a , b , c the vectors a, b, c



b c c a a b
are given by a = , b = , c = .
[a b c ]
[a b c ]
[a b c ]
PROPERTIES

a.b = a.c = b .a = b .c = c .a = c .b = 0
z

z
The scalar triple product [a b c ] formed from three

non-coplanar vectors a , b , c is the reciprocal of
the scalar triple product formed from reciprocal
system.
SOLVING OF VECTOR EqUATION
Solving a vector equation means determining an
unknown vector (or a number of vectors satisfying
the given conditions)
Generally, to solve vector equations, we express the
unknown as the linear combination of three noncoplanar vectors as




r = xa + yb + z (a b ) as a , b and a b are non-coplanar
and find x, y, z using given conditions. Sometimes we
can directly solve the given conditions it would be
more clear from some examples.
THREE - DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY

RECTANGULAR COORDINATE SYSTEM IN


SPACE
Let O be any point in space and three lines are
perpendicular to each other. These lines are known as
coordinate axes and O is called origin. The planes XY,
YZ, ZX are known as the coordinate planes.

COORDINATES OF A POINT IN SPACE


Consider a point P in space whose position is given by
triad (x, y, z) where x, y, z are perpendicular distance
from YZ-plane, ZX-plane and XY-plane respectively.

If we assume ^i , ^j, ^k unit vectors along OX, OY,


OZ respectively, then position vector of point P is
^

x i + y j + z k or simply (x, y, z).


56

mathematics today | february 16

SHIFTING OF ORIGIN
Shifting the origin to another point without changing
the directions of the axes is called the translation of
axes.
Let the origin O be shifted to another point without
changing the direction of axes.

Let the new coordinate frame be O X Y Z. Let


P(x, y, z) be a point with respect to the coordinate
frame OXYZ. Then, coordinate of point P w.r.t. new
coordinate frame O X Y Z is (x1, y1, z1), where,
x1 = x x, y1 = y y , z1 = z z where O is shifted
at O(x, y, z)
DIRECTION COSINES & DIRECTION RATIOS OF
A LINE
If a, b, g be the angles which a given directed line
makes with the positive direction of the x, y, z
coordinate axes respectively, then cosa, cosb, cosg are
called the direction cosines of the given line and are
generally denoted by l, m, n respectively. Thus l = cosa,
m = cosb, n = cosg. By definition it follows that
the direction cosine of the x-axis is cos 0, cos 90,
cos 90 i.e. (1, 0, 0). Similarly direction cosines of
the y-axis and z-axis are respectively (0, 1, 0) and
(0, 0, 1).

Note :
z
The unit vector along the line can be written as
^
^
^
l i + m j + nk
z

If d . cs of line AB is (l, m, n), then d . cs of line BA


will be (l, m, n)
Let OP be any line through the origin O which has
direction cosines l, m, n. Let P(x, y, z) and OP = r.

Result : We have

2
2
2
2
2
2
sin2 q = 1 cos2 q = (l1 + m1 + n1 )(l2 + m2 + n2 )

(l1l2 + m1m2 + n1n2 )2


= (l1m2 l2m1 )2 + (m1n2 m2n1 )2 + (n1l2 n2l1 )2
sin q =

(l1m2 l2m1 )2

CONDITION OF PERPENDICULARITY
If the given lines are perpendicular, then q = 90 i.e.
cosq = 0
l1l2 + m1m2 + n1n2 = 0 or a1 a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0
CONDITION OF PARALLELISM
If the given lines are parallel, then q = 0 i.e. sinq = 0
l
m
n
a
b
c
1 = 1 = 1 or 1 = 1 = 1
l2 m2 n2
a2 b2 c2

Then OP2 = x2 + y2 + z2 = r2
...(1)
From P draw PA, PB, PC perpendicular on the
coordinate axes, so that OA = x, OB = y, OC = z
Also, POA = a, POB = b and POC = g.
x
From DAOP, l = cos a = x = l r
r
Similarly, y = mr and z = nr
Hence from (1)
r2(l2 + m2 + n2) = r2 l2 + m2 + n2 = 1
If the coordinates of any point P be (x, y, z) and l, m,
n be the direction cosines of the line OP, O being the
origin, then (lr, mr, nr) will give us the coordinates
of a point on the line OP which is at a distance r
from (0, 0, 0).

ANGLE BETWEEN TWO LINES


C
Let q be the angle between
two straight lines AB and
B
AC whose direction cosines
are l1, m1, n1 and l2, m2, n2

respectively, is given by
A
cosq = l1l2 + m1m2 + n1n2.
If direction ratios of two lines are a1, b1, c1 and a2, b2,
c2 are given, then angle between two lines is given by
a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2
by cos q =
a12 + b12 + c12 . a22 + b22 + c22

DIRECTION COSINES OF A LINE PASSING


THROUGH TWO POINTS
The direction ratios of line PQ joining P(x1, y1, z1) and
Q(x2, y2, z2) are x2 x1 = a(say), y2 y1 = b(say) and
z2 z1= c(say). Then direction cosines are
Q(x2, y2, z2)

P(x1, y1, z1)


O

l=
n=

(x2 x1 )

(x2 x1 )2

, m=

( y2 y1 )

( y2 y1 )2

(z2 z1 )

(z2 z1 )2

THE STRAIGHT LINE


Straight line in three dimensional geometry is defined
as intersection of two planes. So general equation of
straight line is stated as the equations of both planes
together i.e. general equation of straight line is
a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0, a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 ....(1)
So, equation (1) represents straight line which is
obtained by intersection of two planes.
mathematics today | february 16

57

EqUATION OF STRAIGHT LINE IN DIFFERENT


FORMS
Equation of straight line passing through point
P(x1, y1, z1) and whose direction cosines are l, m, n is
x x1 y y1 z z1
=
=
= r.
l
m
n

Vector equation of straight line is r = r1 + lb where r1 is


the position vector of a point in the straight line and

b is a vector parallel to the straight line.


Equation of straight line passing through two points
P(x1, y1 , z1) and Q(x2, y2, z2) is
x x1
y y1
z z1
=
=
.
x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1
Vector form : Equation of straight line passing through



two points P (r1 ) and Q(r2 ) is r = r1 + l(r2 r1 )
Note : The general coordinates of a point on a line is
given by (x1 + lr, y1 + mr, z1 + nr) where r is distance
between the point (x 1 , y 1 , z 1 ) and point whose
coordinates is to be written.
PROjECTION OF A LINE SEGMENT ON A GIVEN
LINE
Projection of the line joining two points P(x1, y1, z1) and
Q(x2, y2, z2) on another line whose direction cosines
are l, m, n is AB = |l(x2 x1) + m(y2 y1) + n(z2 z1)|.
Here PQ and AB need not be coplanar.
Q(x2, y2, z2)
P(x1, y1, z1)

COPLANARITY OF TWO LINES


In vector form



If the lines r = a1 + lb1 and r = a2 + lb2 are coplanar,
then


a1 b1 b2 = a2 b1 b2

and the equation of plane containing them is






r b1 b2 = a1 b1 b2 or r b1 b2 = a2 b1 b2

In cartesian form, if the lines are


x x1 y y1 z z1
x x2 y y2 z z 2
and
=
=
=
=
l1
m1
n1
l2
m2
n2
58

mathematics today | february 16

then condition of coplanarity is


x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1
l1
m1
n1 = 0
l2
m2
n2
and the
x x1
l1
l2

equation of plane containing them is


y y1 z z1
x x2 y y2 z z 2
m1
n1 = 0 or l1
m1
n1 = 0
m2
n2
l2
m2
n2

SHORTEST DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO SkEW


LINES (NON-PARALLEL, NON-INTERSECTING
LINES)
Two non-parallel, non-intersecting lines are called
skew lines. The shortest distance between these two
lines is the distance of the intercepting portion of a
line perpendicular to both the lines.
Method : Let the equation of two non-intersecting
lines be
x x1 y y1 z z1
...(1)
=
=
= r1(say )
l1
m1
n1
and

x x2 y y2 z z 2
=
=
= r2 (say )
l2
m2
n2

...(2)

Any point on line (1) is P(x1 + l1r1, y1 + m1r1, z1 + n1r1)


and on line (2) is Q(x2 + l2r2, y2 + m2r2, z2 + n2r2).
Let PQ be the line of shortest distance, its direction
ratios will be
[(l1r1 + x1 x2 l2r2), (m1r1 + y1 y2 m2r2),
(n1r1 + z1 z2 n2r2)]
This line is perpendicular to both the given lines. By
using condition of perpendicularity we obtain two
equations in r1 and r2.
So by solving these, values of r1 and r2 and subsequently
point P and Q can be found. The distance PQ is the
shortest distance.
Note : The shortest distance between two lines can be
given by
x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1
1
l1
m1
n1
2
(
l
m

l
m
)
1 2 2 1
l2
m2
n2
The shortest distance between two lines

(a2 a1 ) . b1 b2



r = a1 + lb1 and r = a2 + mb2 is
| b1 b2 |

If any straight line is given in general form then it can


be transformed into symmetrical form and we can
further proceed.
SHORTEST DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO
PARALLEL LINES
If two lines l1 and l2 are parallel, then they are coplanar.



Let the lines be given by r = a1 + lb and r = a2 + mb ,

where a1 is the position vector of a point on l1 and

a2 is the position vector of a point on l2.


The shortest distance between the given parallel lines

b ( a2 a1 )

is d =
|b |
EqUATION OF THE PLANE THROUGH A GIVEN
LINE
z

If equation of line is given in general form as


a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0, a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 then
the equation of plane passing through this line is
(a1x + b1y + c1z + d1) + l(a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 ) = 0.

If equation of the line is given in symmetrical form


x x1 y y1 z z1
as
, then equation of plane
=
=
l
m
n
is a(x x1) + b(y y1) + c(z z1) = 0, where a, b, c
are given by al + bm + cn = 0.

AREA OF A TRIANGLE
y1
1
D x = y2
2
y3

z1 1
x1
1
z 2 1 , D y = x2
2
z3 1
x3

x1
1
D z = x2
2
x3

y1 1
y2 1
y3 1

z1 1
z2 1 ,
z3 1

A(x1, y1, z1)

B(x2, y2, z2)

C(x3, y3, z3)

So, area of DABC is given by the relation


D2 = D x 2 + D y 2 + D z 2

VOLUME OF TETRAHEDRON

Let a , b , c be 3 coterminous edges of a tetrahedron.

^
^
^
^
^
^
Let a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k , b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k

^
^
^
and c = c1 i + c2 j + c3 k
1
Volume of tetrahedron = volume of parallelopiped
6

with coterminous edges a , b ,c
a1 a2
1 =1 b b
= a b c
1
2
6
6
c1 c2

a3
b3
c3

THE PLANE
Consider the locus of a point P(x, y, z). If x, y, z are
allowed to vary with any restriction for their different
combinations, we have a set of points for P. The surface
on which these points lie, is called the locus of P. It
may be a plane or any curved surface. If Q be any other
point on its locus and all points of the straight line PQ
lie on it then it is a plane. In other words for the plane
the straight line PQ, however small and in whatever
direction will completely lie on the locus, otherwise it
will be a curved surface.
EqUATION OF A PLANE IN NORMAL FORM,
PASSING THROUGH A FIxED POINT
General equation of a plane is ax + by + cz + d = 0.
(where a, b, c gives the direction ratios of the normal
to the plane).
Equation of the plane in normal form is lx + my + nz = p
where p is the length of the normal from the origin
to the plane and (l, m, n) be the direction cosines of
the normal .
Vector form : Equation of the plane in vector form,

r . n^ = d , where n^ is a unit vector perpendicular to the


plane and d is length of perpendicular drawn from
origin to the plane.
Equation of YZ plane is x = 0,
equation of plane parallel to YZ plane is x = d.
Equation of ZX plane is y = 0,
equation of plane parallel to ZX plane is y = d.
Equation of XY plane is z = 0,
equation of plane parallel to XY plane is z = d.
Four points namely A(x 1 , y 1 , z 1 ), B(x 2 , y 2 , z 2 ),
C(x3, y3, z3) and D(x4, y4, z4) will be coplanar if one
point lies on the plane passing through other three
points.
mathematics today | february 16

59

EqUATION OF A PLANE PERPENDICULAR TO A


GIVEN LINE AND PASSING THROUGH A GIVEN
POINT
The equation to the plane passing through P(x1, y1, z1)
and is perpendicular to given line having direction ratios
(a, b, c) is a(x x1) + b(y y1) + c(z z1) = 0.
Vector form : The equation to the plane passing through

a point whose position vector is r1 and unit vector


^
perpendicular to the plane is n^ , is (r r1 ). n = 0

The plane and the straight line will be parallel if


al + bm + cn = 0
The plane and the straight line will be perpendicular
a b c
if = = .
l m n

(x x1 ) ( y y1 ) (z z1 )
is (x2 x1 ) ( y2 y1 ) (z2 z1 ) = 0.
(x3 x1 ) ( y3 y1 ) (z3 z1 )

ANGLE BETWEEN TWO PLANES


Angle between the planes is defined as angle between
normals to the planes drawn from any point. Angle
between the planes a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 z + d 1 = 0 and
a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 is

EqUATION OF A PLANE PASSING THROUGH


THREE NON COLLINEAR POINTS
The equation of the plane passing through three noncollinear points (x1, y1, z1), (x2, y2, z2) and (x3, y3, z3)

INTERCEPT FORM OF THE EqUATION OF A


PLANE
Intercept form of the equation of a plane is given by
x y z
+ + = 1 where a, b, c are x-intercept, y-intercept,
a b c
z-intercept respectively .
DISTANCE OF A POINT FROM A PLANE
The length of the perpendicular of the point
P(x 1, y 1, z 1) from the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0
ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d
is
.
a 2 + b2 + c 2
Vector form : The length of the perpendicular from

the point P (r1 ) to the plane r . n^ = d is | r1 . n^ d |


Note :
The distance between two parallel planes is the algebraic
difference of perpendicular distances on the planes
from origin.
Let two parallel planes be ax + by + cz + d1 = 0 and
ax + by + cz + d2 = 0
| d2 d1 |
Then distance between them is given by
a 2 + b2 + c 2
ANGLE BETWEEN A LINE AND A PLANE
If equation of a plane is ax + by + cz + d = 0, then
direction ratios of normal to this plane are a, b, c.
x x1 y y1 z z1
The equation of straight line is
,
=
=
l
m
n
then angle between normal to the plane and straight
al + bm + cn
,
line is given by sin q =
a2 + b2 + c 2 l 2 + m2 + n2
where q is the angle between the plane and the line.
60

mathematics today | february 16

POSITION OF TWO POINTS W.R.T. A PLANE


Two points P(x1, y1, z1) and Q(x2, y2, z2) on the same
or opposite sides of a plane ax + by + cz + d = 0
according to ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d and ax2 + by2 + cz2 + d
are of same or opposite signs. The plane divides the
line joining the points P and Q externally or internally
according to P and Q are lying on same or opposite
sides of the plane.

cos 1

.
a21 + b21 + c 21 a22 + b22 + c 22

a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2

)(

Vector form : Angle between the planes is



1 n1 .n2
cos
| n1 || n2 |

where n1 and n2 are vectors perpendicular to the planes.


Note : If a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0, then the planes are
perpendicular to each other.
a
b
c
If 1 = 1 = 1 then the planes are parallel to each other.
a2 b2 c2
PLANE PASSING THROUGH THE
INTERSECTION OF TWO GIVEN PLANES
Equation of plane passing through the line of intersection of two planes u = 0 and v = 0 is u + lv = 0.
PRObLEMS
SEcTION-I
Single correct Answer Type

1. The length of the perpendicular from the origin to

the plane passing through the point a & containing the

line r = b + lc is

[a b c ]
[a b c ]
(a)
(b)

|a b + b c + c a |
|a b + b c |

[a b c ]
[a b c ]
(c)
(d)
|c a + a b |
|b c + c a |

2.

Equation of the plane through (3, 4, 1) which is


^ ^ ^
parallel to the plane r (2 i 3 j + 5 k) + 7 = 0 is
^ ^ ^
(a) r (2 i 3 j + 5 k) + 11 = 0
^ ^ ^
(b) r (3 i + 4 j k ) + 11 = 0
^ ^ ^
(c) r (3 i + 4 j k) + 7 = 0
^ ^ ^
(d) r (2 i 3 j + 5 k) 7 = 0
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
3. Let a = i + j + k, b = i j + 2 k

^
^ ^
and c = x i + (x 2) j k . If the vector c lies in the

plane of a and b, then x equals


(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) 4
(d) 2
4.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
5.

Equation of the plane containing the lines


^ ^ ^
^
^ ^
r = i + 2 j k + l( i + 2 j k ) and
^ ^ ^
^ ^
^
r = i + 2 j k + m( i + j + 3 k ) is
^ ^ ^
r (7 i 4 j k ) = 0
7(x 1) 4(y 1) (z + 3) = 0
^ ^ ^
r (i + 2 j k) = 0
^ ^ ^
r (i + j + 3 k) = 0

The cartesian equation of the plane passing through


^ ^ ^
the line of intersection of the planes r (2 i 3 j + 4 k) = 1
^ ^
and r ( i j) + 4 = 0 and perpendicular to the plane
^ ^ ^
r (2 i j + k ) + 8 = 0 is
(a) 3x 4y + 4z = 5
(b) x 2y + 4z = 3
(c) 5x 2y 12z + 47 = 0 (d) 2x + 3y + 4 = 0



6. If a (a b ) + b(b c ) + g(c a ) = 0, then

(a) a , b , c are coplanar only if none of a, b, g is
zero

(b) a , b , c are coplanar if atleast one of a, b, g is non
zero

(c) a , b , c are non-coplanar for any a, b, g
(d) none of these


7. If ((a b ) (c d )) (a d ) = 0, then which of the
following
is always true

(a) a , b , c , d arenecessarily coplanar

c
(b) either a or d must lie in the plane of b or

(c) either b or c must lie in plane of a and d

(d) either a or b must lie in plane of c and d





8. Let r = (a b )sin x + (b c ) cos y + 2(c a ), where

a , b , c are three non-coplanar vectors. If r is

perpendicular to a + b + c , then minimum value of


2
2
x + y is

(a) p2
(c)

(b)

5 p2
4

p2
4

(d) none of these

9. If the two adjacent sides of two rectangles are



represented by the vectors p = 5a 3b ; q = a 2b



and r = 4a b ; s = a + b respectively, then the angle
1
1
between the vectors x = ( p + r + s ) and y = (r + s ) is
3
5

19

19
(a) cos1
(b) cos1

5
43

5 43
19
(c) p cos1

5 43

(d) cannot be evaluated

10. The lengths of two opposite edges of a tetrahedron


are a, b. Their shortest distance is d and the angle
between them is q. Then its volume is
1
1
abd sin q
(a)
(b) abd cos q
2
3
1
1
abd cos q
(c)
(d)
abd sin q
6
6
11. The position vectors of the points A and B with
^

^ ^

respect to a fixed point O (origin) are 2 i + 2 j + k and


^
^
^
2 i + 4 j + 4 k . The length of the internal bisector of
BOA of DAOB is
20
217
136
136
(b)
(c)
(d)
3
9
9
3
12. Equation of a plane bisecting the angle between the
planes 2x y + 2z + 3 = 0 and 3x 2y + 6z + 8 = 0 is
(a) 5x y 4z 45 = 0
(b) 5x y 4z 3 = 0
(c) 23x + 13y + 32z 45 = 0
(d) 23x 13y + 32z + 5 = 0
(a)

13. If the perpendicular distance of a point P other


than the origin from the plane x + y + z = p is equal
to the distance of the plane from the origin, then the
coordinates of P are
(a) (p, 2p, 0)
(b) (0, 2p, p)
(c) (2p, p, p)
(d) (2p, p, 2p)
y 1 z 2
14. If the angle q between the line x + 1 =
=
1
2
2
and the plane 2 x y + l z + 4 = 0 is such that
sinq = 1/3, then the value of l is
(a) 3/4
(b) 4/3 (c) 5/3
(d) 3/5
mathematics today | february 16

61


15. If l1, m1, n1 and l2, m2, n2, are d.c.s of OA, OB such
that AOB = q, where O is the origin, then the d.c.s of
the internal bisector of the angle AOB are
l1 + l2 m1 + m2 n1 + n2
,
,
(a)
2 sin q / 2 2 sin q / 2 2 sin q / 2
l1 + l2
m + m2 n1 + n2
, 1
,
(b)
2 cos q / 2 2 cos q / 2 2 cos q / 2
(c)

l1 l2 m1 m2 n1 n2
,
,
2 sin q / 2 2 sin q / 2 2 sin q / 2

l1 l2
m m2 n1 n2
, 1
,
2 cos q / 2 2 cos q / 2 2 cos q / 2
16. If a line with direction ratios 2 : 2 : 1 intersects the
x 1 y +1 z +1
x 7 y 5 z 3
=
=
=
=
line
and
at A
2
4
3
3
2
1
and B respectively, then AB =
(a)
(b) 2
(c)
(d) 3
2
3
(d)

17. The plane x y z = 4 is rotated through 90 about


its line of intersection with the plane x + y + 2z = 4 and
equation in new position is Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 where
A,B,C are least positive integers and D < 0 then
(a) D = 10
(b) ABC = 20
(c) A + B + C + D = 0 (d) A + B + C = 10
18. The reflection of the point P(1, 0, 0) in the line
x 1 y + 1 z + 10
is
=
=
2
8
3
(a) (3, 4, 2)
(b) (5, 8, 4)
(c) (1, 1, 10)
(d) (2, 3, 8)
19. Equation of the plane containing the straight line
x y z
and perpendicular to the plane containing
= =
2 3 4
x y z
x y z
the straight lines = = and
= = is
3 4 2
4 2 3
(a) x + 2y 2z = 0
(b) 3x + 2y 2z = 0
(c) x 2y + z = 0
(d) 5x + 2y 4z = 0
20. The two lines whose direction cosines are
connected by the relations al + bm + cn = 0 and
ul2 + vm2 + wn2 = 0 are perpendicular, then
(a) a2(v w) + b2(w u) + c2(u v) = 0
2
2
2
(b) a + b + c = 0
u
v w
(c) a(v2 + w2) + b(w2 + u2) + c(u2 + v2) = 0

(d) a2(v + w) + b2 (w + u) + c2(u + v) = 0


62

mathematics today | february 16

21. Through a point P(h, k, l) a plane is drawn at right


angles to OP to meet the co-ordinate axes in A, B and C.
If OP = p, then the area of DABC is
p 3l
p2 l 2
p2hk
p5
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
3hk
2hk
2hkl
l2
22. If li2 + mi2 + ni2 = 1 i {1, 2, 3} and
lilj + mimj + ninj = 0 i, j {1, 2, 3} (i j),
l1
D = l2
l3

m1
m2
m3

n1
n2 then
n3

(a) |D| = 3 (b) |D| = 2 (c) |D| = 1 (d) D =0


SEcTION-II
Multiple correct Answer Type

23. Let a and b be two non-collinear


unit vectors. If



|v | =
u = a (a b )b and v = a b , then

(a) | u |
(b) | u | + | u a |


(c) | u | + | u b |
(d) | u | +u (a + b )

24. If a and b are two unit vectors perpendicular


to each other and c = l1a + l2b + l3 (a b ), then the
following is (are ) true


(a) l1 = a c
(b) l2 =| b a |

(c) l3 =|(a b ) c |

(d) l1 + l2 + l3 = (a + b + a b ) c

25. If a vector r satisfies the equation

^ ^ ^ ^ ^
r ( i + 2 j + k) = i k, then r is equal to
^
^
^
(a) ^i + 3 ^j + k^
(b) 3 i + 7 j + 3 k
(c)

^ ^

j + t ( i + 2 j + k ), where t is any scalar

^ ^

(d) i + (t + 3) j + k, where t is any scalar


26. In a four-dimensional space, where unit vectors

^ ^ ^
along axes are i , j, k and ^l and a1 , a2 ,a3 ,a4 are four
non-zero vectors such that no vector can be expressed

as linear combination of others and (l 1)(a1 a2 )

+ m(a2 + a3 ) + g(a3 + a4 2a2 ) + a3 + da4 = 0, then


2
(a) l = 1
(b) m =
3
1
2
(c) l =
(d) d =
3
3
27. Identify the statement(s) which is/are incorrect ?

2
(a) a [a (a b )] = (a b )(a )

(b) If a , b , c are non-zero, non coplanar vector and

v a = v b = v c = 0 , then v must be a null vector.

(c) I f a and b l i e i n a p l a n e n o r m a l t o t h e

plane containing the vectors c and d , then



(a b ) (c d ) = 0


(d) If a , b , c and a, b, c are reciprocal system of

vectors, then a b + b c + c a = 3

28. The position vector of a point P is r = x ^i + y ^j + z k^,



^ ^ ^
when x, y, z N and a = i + j + k . If r a = 10, the
number of possible position of P is
(a) 36
(b) 72
(c) 66
(d) 9C2
29. The projection of line 3x y + 2z 1 = 0
= x + 2y z 2 on the plane 3x + 2y + z = 0 is
x +1 y 1 z 1
(a)
=
=
11
9
15
(b) 3x 8y + 7z + 4 = 0 = 3x + 2y + z
x + 12 y + 8 z + 14
(c)
=
=
11
15
9
y
+
8
x + 12
z + 14
=
=
(d)
11
15
9
30. The equation of three planes are x 2y + z = 3,
5x y z = 8 and x + y z = 7, then
(a) they form a triangular prism
(b) all three plane have a common line of intersection
y
(c) line x = = z is parallel to each plane
1 2 3
x y z
(d) line = = intersect all three plane
1 3 4
31. If the median through A of DABC having vertices
A (2, 3, 5), B (1, 3, 2) and C (l, 5, m) is equally
inclined to the axes, then
(a) l = 7 (b) m = 10 (c) l = 10 (d) m = 7
32. Consider the planes 3x 6y + 2z + 5 = 0 and
4x 12y + 3z = 3. The plane 67x 162y + 47z + 44 = 0
bisects that angle between the given planes which
(a) contains origin
(b) is acute
(c) is obtuse
(d) none of these
33. The plane lx + my = 0 is rotated about its line of
intersection with the plane z = 0, through an angle a,
then equation of plane in its new position may be
(a) lx + my + z l 2 + m2 tan a = 0
(b) lx + my z l 2 + m2 tan a = 0
(c) data is not sufficient
(d) none of these

SEcTION-III
comprehension Type

Paragraph for question No. 34 to 35


Consider the equations of planes
^ ^ ^
^ ^ ^
P1 r ( i + 2 j + k) 3 = 0, P2 r (2 i j + k) 5 = 0
34. The equation of plane passing through the
intersection of P1 = 0, P2 = 0 and through the point
A(1, 1, 1) is
^ ^ ^
^ ^ ^
(a) r (5 i 4 j + 5 k ) = 6 (b) r (5 i + 5 j 4 k) = 6
^ ^ ^
(c) r (5 i + 5 j + 4 k) = 14 (d) none of these
35. The line of intersection of planes P1 = 0, P2 = 0 is
parallel to
^

^ ^

^ ^

(a) 3 i 5 j k

(b) 3 i + j 5 k

(c) 2 i j k

(d) none of these

^ ^ ^

Paragraph for question No. 36 to 38

^
^
^
^
^
^

a = 2 i + 3 j 6 k, b = 2 i 3 j + 6 k
L e t
a n d

^
^
^

c = 2 i + 3 j + 6 k . Let a1 be the projection of a on b

and a2 be the projection of a1 on c. Then

36. a2 =
943 ^ ^ ^
943 ^ ^ ^
(2 i 3 j 6 k )
(2 i 3 j 6 k ) (b)
(a)
49
492
^
^
^
943
(2 i + 3 j + 6 k)
(c) 943 (2 ^i + 3 ^j + 6 k^) (d)
2
49
49

37. a1 b =
41
(a) 41
(b)
(c) 41
(d) 287
7
38. Which of the following is true?

(a) a and a2 are collinear

(b) a1 and c are collinear



(c) a , a1 , b are coplanar

(d) a , a1 , a2 are coplanar

Paragraph
for question No. 39 to 42

Three vectors a , b and c are forming a right handed


s y st e m , i f a b = c , b c = a , c a = b . If v e c t o r s

a , b and c are forming a right handed system, then


answer the following question.



39. If x = a + b c , y = a + b 2c , z = a + 2b c ,


x + y and y + z is
then a unit vector normal to the vector

(a) a
(b) b

(c) c
(d) none of these
mathematics today | february 16

63



40. Vector 2a 3b + 4c , a + 2b c and xa b + 2c are
coplanar, then x =
(a) 8/5
(b) 5/8
(c) 0
(d) none of these


41. Let x = a + b , y = 2a b , then the point of

intersection of straight lines r x = y x , r y = x y is
8
5
(a)
(b)
5
8

(c) 3a
(d) none of these

47. The distance of the point (1, 2, 0) from the plane


P1 is
(a) 2 units (b) 3 units (c) 5 units (d) 7 units
48. The coordinates of the foot of perpendicular drawn
from point (1, 2, 3) to the plane P2 are
(a) (0, 0, 0)
(b) (1, 0, 2)
(c) (1, 0, 2)
(d) (2, 0, 4)
49. The distance between parallel planes P1 and P2 is
(a) 2 units (b) 3 units (c) 5 units (d) 7 units
SEcTION-IV


42. a (b c ) + b (c a ) + c (a b ) is equal to

50. Match the following.

(a) 1

(b) 3

(c) 0

(d) none of these

Paragraph for question No. 43 to 46


The vertices of a triangle ABC are A ( 2, 0, 2 ),
B (1,1 ,1 ) and C ( 1, 2 , 4). The points D
and E divide the side AB and CA in the ratio 1 : 2
respectively. Another point F is taken in space such
that perpendicular drawn from F on DABC, meets the
triangle at the point of intersection of the line segment
CD and BE, say P. If the distance of F from the plane
of the DABC is

2 units, then

43. The position vector of P, is


^ ^

(a) ^i + ^j + 3 k^
^ ^

(b) i j + 3 k
^

(c) 2 i j 3 k

(d) none of these

44. The vector is


(a) 7 ^j + 7 k^
^ ^

(c) ( j + k)

(b)

7 ^ ^
( j + k)
2

(d) none of these

45. The volume of the tetrahedron ABCF, is


(a) 7 cubic units
(b) 3/5 cubic units
(c) 7/3 cubic units
(d) none of these
46. The equation of the line AF, is
(a) r = (2 ^i + 2 k^) + l(^i + 2 k^)
(b) r = (2 ^i + 2 k^) + l(^i 2 k^)
(c) r = (^i + k^) + l(^i + 2 k^)
^
^
^
^

(d) r = (2 i + 2 k ) + l( i + 2 k)
Paragraph for question No. 47 to 49
Let a plane P1 passes through the point (1, 2, 3) and
is parallel to the plane P2 given by 2x 2y + z = 0
64

Matrix-Match Type

mathematics today | february 16

Column I
Column II
(A) The area of the triangle whose (P) 0
vertices are the points, with
rectangular cartesian coordinates
(1, 2, 3), (2, 1, 4), (3, 4, 2) is

(B) The value of (a b ) (c d ) +


(Q) 1


(b c ) (a d ) + (c a ) (b d ) is
(C) A square PQRS of side length p (R)
1218
is folded along the diagonal PR
8
so that planes PRQ and PRS are
perpendicular to each other, the
shortest distance between PQ and
p
then k =
RS is,
k 2
^
^ ^
^
^
^
(D)
(S) 21
a = 2 i + 3 j k, b = i + 2 j 4 k,

^ ^ ^
^
^ ^
c = i + j + k and d = 3 i + 2 j + k

then (a b ) (c d ) =

51. If a and b are two unit vectors inclined at angle a


to each other, then match the following.

(A)

Column I

| a + b |< 1if

Column II
(P)

2p
<ap
3

(B)



| a b | = | a + b | if

(Q)

p
<ap
2

(C)


| a + b | < 2 if

(R) a =

(D)


| a b | < 2 if

(S) 0 a <

p
2
p
2

52. Match the following

SEcTION-V

Column I
(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

Column II

^
^ ^

If
a = x i + (x 1) j + k a n d

^ ^
^
b = (x + 1) i + j + a k always make
an acute angle with each other
for all x R, then number of non
positive integral values of 'a' is

Let a , b , c be unit vectors such that
3

a + b + c = x , a x = 1, b x = ,
2

| x |= 2 and 'q' is angle between

c and x t h e n [ 2 c o s q + 2 ]
is ([]denotes G. I. F)
^
^
^
^ ^ ^
I f a = i + j + k, b = 4 i + 3 j + 4 k,
^ ^ ^
c = i + p j+ q k a r e l i n e a r l y

dependent and c = 3, then


p2 q2 =

If a , b , c are non-coplanar and

a + b + c = ad , b + c + d = ba ,

then | a + b + c + d |=

(P)

55. OABC is regular tetrahedron of unit edge length


with volume V, then 12 2V =
(Q) 0

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(R) 2

(S)

Column II

If in a cube, q is the angle (P)


b et we e n any t wo b o dy diagonals then the value of
cosq is
If in a cube, q is the angle (Q)
between a body-diagonal
and a face-diagonal which
is skew to it, then the value
of sinq is
If in a cube, q is the angle (R)
between diagonals of two
faces through a vertex, then
the value of cotq is
If in a cube, q is the angle (S)
between a body-diagonal and
a face-diagonal interesting it
then the value of tanq is

56. Find the distance of the point i + 2 j + 3 k from the


^ ^ ^
plane r ( i + j + k) = 5 measured parallel to the vector
^

53. Match the following.


Column I

Integer Answer Type


54. If a , b and c are non-coplanar vectors and




[(a + b ) (b c ) (b + c ) (c + a ) (c a ) (a + b )]

= K[a b c ]2 then value of K is

2 i + 3 j 6 k .


57. If a , b , c are unit vectors such that a is

perpendicular to b and c and the angle between

p

b and c is then | a + b + c | is
3
58. Shortest distance between the z-axis and the line
x + y + 2z 3 = 0 = 2x + 3y + 4z 4 is
59. The equation of the plane passing through
the intersection of the planes 2x 5y + z = 3 and
x + y + 4z = 5 and parallel to the plane x + 3y + 6z = 1
is x + 3y + 6z = k, where k is
60. A line from the origin meets the lines
x 2 y 1 z +1
x 8 / 3 y + 3 z 1
and
at
=
=
=
=
1
1
2
1
2
1
P and Q respectively. If the distance PQ = l, then the
value of [l] is (where [.] represents the greatest integer
function)
SOLuTIONS

1
2

1
3

1/3


1. (c) : Equation of plane passing through a , b and

containing the line is [ AP AB c ] = 0


(r a ) ((b a ) c ) = 0

r (b c + c a ) = [a b c ]
\ Length of perpendicular from the origin

[a b c ]
=
|b c + c a |
2. (a) : Equation of any plane parallel to the given
^ ^ ^
plane is r (2 i 3 j + 5 k ) + l = 0.
^
^
^

If r = x i + y j + z k, we get 2x 3y + 5z + l = 0
This plane passes through the point (3, 4, 1) if
2 3 3 4 + 5(1) + l = 0 or l = 11
Hence the equation of the required plane is
^

r (2 i 3 j + 5 k) + 11 = 0
mathematics today | february 16

65

3. (d) : Since the three vectors are coplanar. So,


1
1
x

1
1
1
2 =0
x 2 1

1 0
0
1 2
1 =0
x 2 1 x

2(1 x) + 2 = 0

x=2

4. (a)
5. (c) : Equation of any plane passing through the
^ ^ ^
intersection of the planes r (2 i 3 j + 4 k) = 1 and
^ ^
r ( i j) + 4 = 0 is [(2x 3y + 4z 1) + l(x y + 4)] = 0
(2 + l) x (3 + l) y + 4z + 4l 1 = 0
...(1)
The plane (1) is perpendicular to the plane


10. (c) : Consider OABC, OA = a, OB = b, OC = g
And OA, BC as a pair of opposite edges.

OA = a, | BC |= b

Equation of OA is r = O + t a


Equation of BC is r = b + s(b g )

[a b g]
abd sin q
d=
V =
6
| a || b g | sin q

11. (b) : | OA | = 3, | OB | = 6

Position vector of L = OL
B

^ ^ ^

r (2 i j + k) + 8 = 0
So, 2(2 + l) + (3 + l) + 4 = 0
11 + 3l = 0 l = 11/3
\ The required equation of the plane is
3(2x 3y + 4z 1) 11(x y + 4) = 0
5x 2y 12z + 47 = 0



6. (b) : We have a(a b ) + b(b c ) + g(c a ) = 0

Taking dot product with c, we have

a[a b c ] + b[b c c ] + g[c a c ] = 0

a[a b c ] + 0 + 0 = 0

a[a b c ] = 0
Similarly, taking dot product with b and c, we have


b[a b c ] = g[a b c ] = 0

Now, even if one of a, b, g 0, then we have [a b c ] = 0

a , b , c are coplanar


7.(c) : ((a b ) (c d )) (a d ) = 0,


([a c d ]b [b c d ]a ) (a d ) = 0

[a c d ][b a d ] = 0

Either c or b must lie in the plane of a and d .





8. (c) : r = (a b )sin x + (b c )cos y + 2(c a )

r (a + b + c ) = 0

[a b c ](sin x + cos y + 2) = 0

Now, [a b c ] 0 sin x + cos y = 2


This is possible only when sin x = 1 and cos y = 1
p
for x2 + y2 to be minimum x = and y = p
2
5 p2
p2
minimum value of (x2 + y2) is
+ p2 =
4
4
9. (b)
66

mathematics today | february 16

L
O

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
| OA |(2 i + 4 j + 4 k )+ | OB |(2 i + 2 j + k )

=
| OA | + | OB |
^

^ ^

3(2 i + 4 j + 4 k) + 6(2 i + 2 j + k) 18 i + 24 j + 18 k
=
3+6
9
1 ^ ^ ^
= (6 i + 8 j + 6 k)
3
1
136
So, | OL |=
36 + 64 + 36 =
units
3
3
12. (b) : Equation of the plane bisecting the angle
between the given planes are
2 x y + 2z + 3
3x 2 y + 6z + 8
=
32 + (2)2 + 62
(2)2 + (1)2 + 22
=

7(2x y + 2z + 3) = 3(3x 2y + 6z + 8)
5x y 4z 3 = 0 taking the +ve sign, and
23x 13y + 32z + 45 = 0 taking the ve sign.
13. (c) : The perpendicular distance of the origin
(0, 0, 0) from the plane x + y + z = p is
p
| p|
=
1+1+1
3
If the coordinates of P are (l, m, n),then we must
have
l +m+n p | p|
|l + m + n p| = |p|
=
3
3
which is satisfied by (c)
14. (c) : Since the line makes an angle q with the
plane. So, it makes an angle p/2 q with normal to
the plane

p
2(1) + (1)(2) + ( l )(2)
\ cos q =
1+ 4 + 4 4 +1+ l
2

1
2 l
=
l + 5 = 4 l l = 5/ 3
3 3 l+5

15. (b)
16. (d) : A(7 + 3a, 5 + 2a, 3 + a),
B(1 + 2b, 1 + 4b, 1 + 3b)
Drs of AB are 2 : 2 : 1
6 + 3a 2b 3 + a 2b 4 + a 3b
\
=
=
2
1
1
a = 2, b = 1
\ A(1,1,1), B(3,3,2), AB = 3
17. (d) : Given planes are
xyz=4
... (1)
and x + y + 2z = 4
... (2)
Since required plane passes through the line of
intersection of (1) & (2)
\ Its equation is
(x y z 4) + a(x + y + 2z 4) = 0
(1 + a)x + (a 1)y + (2a 1)z (4a + 4) = 0
.... (3)
Since (1) & (3) are perpendicular
1(1 + a) 1(a 1) 1(2a 1) = 0
1 + a a + 1 2a + 1 = 0 a = 3/2
Required equation is
3
(x y z 4) + (x + y + 2z 4) = 0
2
5x + y + 4z 20 = 0
18. (b) : Coordinates of any point Q on the given line
are (2r + 1, 3r 1, 8r 10) for some r R
So the direction ratios of PQ are 2r, 3r 1, 8r 10
Now PQ is perpendicular to the given line
if 2(2r) 3 (3r 1) + 8(8r 10) = 0
77r 77 = 0 r = 1
\ The coordinates of Q i.e., the foot of the perpendicular
from P on the line are (3, 4, 2).
Let R(a, b, c) be the reflection of P in the given line
when Q is the mid-point of PR
a +1
b
c

= 3, = 4, = 2
2
2
2
a = 5, b = 8, c = 4
and the coordinates of the required point are
(5, 8, 4).

19. (c) : Vector along the required plane is


^

i j k
^ ^
^
3 4 2 = 8 i j 10 k
4 2 3

So, normal vector (n) to the plane is


^

i j
k
^
^
^
8 1 10 = 26 i 52 j + 26 k .
2 3
4

.

So, equation of the plane is r n = 0 x 2 y + z = 0.
20. (d)

21. (d)

22. (c) : We have,


l1
D = DD = l2
l3
2

l1
= l2
l3

m1 n1 l1
m2 n2 l2
m3 n3 l3

m1 n1 l1 l2
m2 n2 m1 m2
m3 n3 n1 n2
l12 + m12 + n12

m1 n1
m2 n2
m3 n3

l3
m3
n3

l1l2 + m1m2 + n1n2 l1l3 + m1m3 + n1n3

= l1l2 + m1m2 + n1n2

l22 + m22 + n22

l1l3 + m1m3 + n1n3 l2l3 + m2m3 + n2n3

l2l3 + m2m3 + n2n3


n32
l32 + m32 +n

1 0 0
= 0 1 0 = 1 D = 1 | D |= 1
0 0 1

23. (a, c) : Given v = a b | v |=| a || b |sin q = sin q



u = a (a b )b = a b cos q

| u |2 = (a b cos q)2 =| a |2 + | b |2 cos2 q 2a b cos q



= 1 + cos2 q 2 cos2 q = 1 cos2 q = sin2 q u = v


Again u b = a b (a b )(b b ) = 0 | u b |= 0

So, v = u + u b
24. (a, d) : (a) is proved if we take dot product of

both sides with a.

(b) If we take dot product with b, we get



l2 = b c
Choice (b) is not true.
mathematics today | february 16

67


(c) If we take dot product of both sides with a b ,

2
we get [c b a] = l3[a b ]


l3 = [a b c ] or c (a b )
Choice (c) is wrong.

(d) is correct since l1 + l2 + l3 = c a + b c + [a b c ].
^ ^ ^ ^ ^
25. (a, b, c) : r ( i + 2 j + k) = i k

^
^
^
Let r = x i + y j + z k
^

i
^
^
^
^
^ ^
^ ^
\ (x i + y j + z k) (i + 2 j + k) = i k x
1

j k
^ ^
y z = ik
2 1

Put values from options and check.


26. (a, b, d) :


(l 1)(a1 a2 ) + m(a2 + a3 ) + g(a3 + a4 2a2 )


+a3 + da4 = 0

i.e.,(l 1)a1 + (1 l + m 2 g )a2 + (m + g + 1)a3

+( g + d)a4 = 0

Since a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 are linearly independent

\ l 1 = 0, 1 l + m 2g = 0, m + g + 1 = 0
and g + d = 0
i.e. l = 1, m = 2g, m + g + 1 = 0, g + d = 0
2
1
1
i.e. l = 1, m = , g = , d =
3
3
3
27. (a, c, d)

28. (a, d) : r a = 10
\ x + y + z = 10; x 1, y 1, z 1
The required number of positions
= 10 1C3 1 = 9C2 = 36
29. (a, b) : Equation of a plane passing through the
line 3x y + 2z 1 = 0 = x + 2y z 2 is
3x y + 2z 1 + l(x + 2y z 2) = 0
Since it is perpendicular to the given plane
3
\ l=
2
\ Equation of the line of projection is
3x 8y + 7z + 4 = 0 = 3x + 2y + z
Its direction ratios are < 11, 9, 15 > and the point
(1,1,1) lies on the line
x + 1 y 1 z 1 is also the equation of the line
\
=
=
11
9
15
of projection.
30. (a, c)
68

mathematics today | february 16

l 1 m + 2
, 4,
31.(a, b): Mid point of BC =
2
2
d.rs of median through A are
m+2 l 5 m8
l 1
2 2, 4 3, 2 5 = 2 , 1, 2


The median is equally inclined to axes, so the direction
ratios must be equal, so
l 5
m8
=1=
l = 7, m = 10
2
2
32. (a, b) : 3x 6y + 2z + 5 = 0
(i)
4x + 12y 3z + 3 = 0
(ii)
3x 6 y + 2z + 5 4 x + 12 y 3z + 3
=
9 + 36 + 4
16 + 144 + 9
Bisects the angle between the planes that contains the
origin
13(3x 6y + 2z + 5) = 7( 4x + 12y 3z + 3)
39x 78y + 26z + 65 = 28x + 84y 21z + 21
67x 162y + 47z + 44 = 0
(iii)
Further 3(4)+ (6) (12) + 2( 3) < 0
\ Origin lies in acute angle
33. (a, b) : Equation of required plane is
lx + my + lz = 0
...(1)
Angle between (1) and lx + my = 0 is a.
l 2 + m2

cos a =
cos2 a =

l 2 + m2 l 2 + m2 + l2
l 2 + m2
2

l = l 2 + m2 tan a

l +m +l
Hence equation of plane is

lx + my z l 2 + m2 tan a = 0
34. (c) : The required plane is
x + 2y + z 3 + k(2x y + z 5) = 0
Since it passes through A,
\ k = 1/3
\ The equation of plane is 5x + 5y + 4z 14 = 0,
^ ^
^
i.e. r (5 i + 5 j + 4 k) = 14

35. (b) : The line of intersection of planes r n1 = d1


and r n2 = d2 is parallel to n1 n2 .
36. (b) :
^
^

^ ^
^ ^
^ ^ ^ (2 i 3 j + 6 k) 2 i 3 j + 6 k
a1 = (2 i + 3 j 6 k)

7
41 ^ ^ ^
=
(2 i 3 j + 6 k)
49


^
^ ^
^
^
^
41 ^ ^ ^ (2 i + 3 j + 6 k ) (2 i + 3 j + 6 k)
a2 =
(2 i 3 j + 6 k )

7
49
7
=
=

41
2

(49)

943
2

(49)

(4 9 + 36)(2 i + 3 j + 6 k )
^

(2 i 3 j 6 k )

41 ^ ^ ^
^
^
^
37. (a) : a1 b =
(2 i 3 j + 6 k) (2 i 3 j + 6 k ) = 41
49


38. (c) : a , a1 , b are coplanar, because a1 , b are
collinear.




39. (d) : x + y = 2b 3c and y + z = 2a + 3b 3c

a b c



\ (x + y ) ( y + z ) = 0 2 3 = 3a + 6b + 4c
2 3 3

3a + 6b + 4c
Required unit vector =
61
2 3 4
40. (a) : 1 2 1 = 0
x 1 2
2(4 1) + 3(2 + x) + 4(1 2x) = 0

x=

8
5



41. (c) : r x = y x (r y ) x = 0

r = y + lx


Also, r y = x y (r x ) y = 0 r = x + my

Now, y + lx = x + my




(2a b ) + l(a + b ) = (a + b ) + m(2a b )
2 + l = 1 + 2m, 1 + l = 1 m m = 1, l = 1

\ The point of intersection is 3a .



42. (b) : a b = c c (a b ) = c c = 1 [a b c ] = 1


a (b c ) + b (c a ) + c (a b ) = 3
4346
43. (b)
44. (c)
45. (c)
46. (d)
The vector equation of CD and BE are
l ^
^ ^
^
^
r = ( i 2 j + 4 k) + (7 j 7 k )
....(i)
3
m ^

^ ^ ^
^
^
and r = ( i + j + k) + (7 i 7 j + 7 k)
....(ii)
3
respectively.
CD and BE intersect at point P. At their point of
intersection, we must have

^
^
^ l ^
^
^ ^ ^ m ^
^
^
(i 2 j + 4 k) + (7 j 7 k) = ( i + j + k) + (7 i 7 j + 7 k)
3
3
7m
7l
7m
1 = 1 + , 2 +
=1
3
3
3
7l
7m
6
3
and 4
= 1+
m = and l =
3
3
7
7
Substituting the value of l in (i) or that of m in

(ii), we obtain the position vector r of point P as,


^ ^
^
r = i j + 3k
1
Now, D = area of DABC = | AB AC |
2

1
7 2
^ ^ ^
^
^
^
= |(3 i + j k ) ( i 2 j + 2 k ) | =
sq. unit
2
2
\ Volume of the tetrahedron ABCF
1
= (area of the base) height
3
1 7 2
7
=
2 = cubic units
3 2
3

^
^
We have, AB AC = 7 j + 7 k
^
^

(7 j + 7 k) ^ ^
= j +k
Now, PF = 2
49 + 49
^ ^
PF = j + k
^ ^ ^ ^ ^
Position vector of F = ( j + k) + ( i j + 3 k)
^

= i+ 4k
Vector equation of AF is,

^
^
^
^
^
^
r = (2 i + 2 k ) + l( i + 4 k 2 i 2 k )

^
^
^
^
r = (2 i + 2 k ) + l( i + 2 k )

47. (c)

48. (b)

49. (b)

50. A - R; B - P; C - q; D - S

(A) OA = ^i + 2 ^j + 3 k^, OB = 2 ^i + ^j 4 k^,

^
^
^
OC = 3 i + 4 j 2 k
1
1218
Area = | AB AC | =
2
2



(B) ((a b ) c ) d + ((b c) a ) d + ((c a ) b ) d = 0


(D) (a c )(b d ) (b c )(a d ) = 21
51. A P; B R; C - q, P; D S

(A) If | a + b | < 1 then (a + b ) (a + b ) < 1



So | a |2 + | b |2 +2a b < 1 a b <
2
1
2p
cos a <
<ap
2
3
mathematics today | february 16

69

p



(B) If | a b | = | a + b |, then a b = 0 a =
2

(C) If | a + b |< 2 , then cosa < 0 which is true if
p
<ap
2

(D) If | a b | < 2 , then cosa > 0 which is true if
0 a < p.
52. A - q; B - S; C - q; D - q

2
(A) a b > 0 x + 2 x + a 1 > 0
D<0 a>2
3
3

(B) (a + b + c ) x = x x 1 + + c x = 4 c x =
2
2
3
3

| c || x | cos q = cos q = [2 cos q + 2] = 2
2
4
1 1 1

(C) 4 3 4 = 0 q = 1. Also, | c | = 3 p2 = 1
1 p q
Hence p2 q2 = 0.
53. A S; B P; C R; D q

54. (4) : [(a + b ) (b c) (b + c) (c + a) (c a) (a + b )]




= [a b b c + c a a b + b c + c a


a b b c + c a]
1 1 1
2

= [a b b c c a] 1 1 1 = 4 [a b c ]
1 1 1
1
a a a b a c
2 1
55. (2) : a b c = b a b b b c =
2
c a c b c c 1
2

a b c =
2
1
1
Volume = a b c =
6
6 2
\

1
2
1
1
2

1
2
1 1
=
2 2
1

12 2V = 2
56. (7) : The distance of the point a from the plane

r n = q measured in the direction of the unit vector

q a n
b = ^
b n
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
Here a = i + 2 j + 3 k, n = i + j + k and q = 5
70

mathematics today | february 16

2 i + 3 j 6k

2 i + 3j 6k
Also b =
=
7
(2)2 + (3)2 + (6)2
^

The required distance


^

^ ^

5 (1 + 2 + 3)
= 1
=7
1 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
(2 + 3 6)
(2 i + 3 j 6 k ) ( i + j + k )
7
7



57. (2) : a = b = c = 1 and a b = 0 and a c = 0

p 1
b c = b c cos = .
3 2
2
\ a + b + c = 3 + 20 + 20 +1 = 4

\ |a + b + c | = 2
=

5 (i + 2 j + 3 k) (i + j + k)

58. (2) : Equation of plane


x + y + 2z 3 + l(2x + 3y + 4z 4) = 0

....(1)
1
If plane (1) is parallel to z-axis l =
2
Therefore plane, parallel to z-axis is y + 2 = 0 ....(2)
Now, shortest distance between any point on z-axis
(0, 0, 1 ) (say) from plane (2) is 2
59. (7) : Equation of plane passing through the
intersection of the planes 2x 5y + z = 3 and
x + y + 4z = 5 is
(2x 5y + z 3) + l(x + y + 4z 5) = 0
(2 + l)x + (5 + l)y + (1 + 4l) z 3 5l = 0
....(i)
which is parallel to the plane x + 3y + 6z = 1.
2 + l 5 + l 1 + 4 l
Then,
=
=
1
3
6
11
\l =
2
From (i), we have
7
21
49
x y 21z + = 0
2
2
2
\ x + 3y + 6z = 7
Hence, k = 7
60. (2) : From the given conditions, we have,
1
2m + 8 / 3 m + 3 m + 1
l = 3, m =
=
=
3
l+2
2l 1 l 1
10 10 4
P (5, 5, 2), Q ,
,
3 3 3
Now, l = PQ =

6 [l] = 2

nn

The entire syllabus of Mathematics of WB-JEE is being divided into six units, on each unit there will be a Mock Test Paper
(MTP) which will be published in the subsequent issues. The syllabus for module break-up is given below:
Unit- I: Algebra, Unit-II: Trigonometry, Unit-III: Co-ordinate geometry of two dimensions & three dimensions, Unit-IV: Calculus,
Unit-V: Vector, Unit-VI: Statistics & Probability.

1. An ellipse has eccentricity 1/2 and one focus at


1
S , 1 . Its one directrix is the common tangent
2
(nearer to S) to the circle x2 + y2 = 1 and x2 y2 = 1.
The equation of the ellipse in standard form is
2

(a) 9 x 1 + 12( y 1)2 = 1

3
2

5. Let f (x ) =

1 + [x]2

, where [x] is the greatest

integer, then
(a) f (x) is not differentiable
(b) f (x) > 0
(c) f (x) = 0 x
(d) none of these
100

(b) 12 x 1 + 9( y 1)2 = 1

6. If z 0, arg( | z |)dx equals


(a) 0
(c) 100

x
2
2 + ( y 1) = 1
(c)
12
9

(b) not defined


(d) 100p

7. Sum of the series


1
1
1
1
+
+
+ .... +
is
1!(n 1)! 3 !(n 3)! 5 !(n 5)!
(n 1)! 1!

(d) 3 x + 1 + 4( y 1)2 = 1

2
2. AB is a chord of the parabola y2 = 4ax with vertex
at A. BC is drawn perpendicular to AB meeting the
axis at C. The projection of BC on the x-axis is
(a) a
(b) 2a
(c) 4a
(d) 8a
3. If both roots of x2 2ax + a2 1 = 0 lies in (2, 1)
then [a], where [] denotes greatest integral function
is
(a) 1
(b) 0
(c) 1
(d) 2
4. Let R be a relation in N defined
R = {(x, y) : 2x + y = 8}, then range of R is
(a) {1, 2, 3}
(b) {2, 4, 6}
(c) {1, 2, 3, 4, 6}
(d) none of these

sin 4 p[x]

by

(a)

2n1
(n 1)!

(b)

(c)

2n
(n 1)!

(d)

2n1
n!
2n
n!

8. In a multiple choice question test there are eight


questions. Each question has four alternatives of
which only one is correct. If a candidate answers
all the questions by choosing one answer for each
question, then the number of ways to get exactly 4
correct answer is
(a) 70
(b) 2835
(c) 5670
(d) none of these
9. There are two girls Rima and Tina having m and n
distinct number of toys respectively. The number of

By : Sankar Ghosh, HOD(Math), Takshyashila. Mob : 09831244397


mathematics today | February 16

71

ways in which they can exchange their toys so that


after exchange they have the same number of toys
with them but not the same toys is
(a) m + nCm
(b) m + nCm 1
(c) m + nPn
(d) none of these

10. If the roots of x2 + 2ax + b = 0 are real and they


differ by almost 2m, then b lies in the interval
(a) (a2 m2, a2)
(b) (a2, a2 + m2)
2
2
2
(c) [a m , a ]
(d) (a2 m2, a2 + m2)
1+ 3p 1 p 1 3p
are the probabilities of
,
,
4
3
2
three mutually exclusive events, then the set of all

11. If

values of p is
1 1
(a) ,
3 3

1
(b) ,
3

1
(c) ,
13

1 1
(d) ,
13 3

3[x] 5 | x |
2
, x 0

12. f (x ) =
. Then f (x )dx =
x
3/2

x =0
2,
([] denotes the greatest integer function)
11
17
7
(a)
(b)
(c) 6
(d)
2
2
2
13. In a triangle A > B and A and B satisfy the
equation 3sinq 4sin3q k = 0, 0 < k < 1. Then C =
p
p
5p
2p
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
3
2
6
3
14. Let f : N Y be a fuction defined as f (x) = 4x + 3
where Y = {y N : y = 4x + 3 for some x N} such
that f is invertible, then its inverse is
(a) g ( y ) = 4 +
(c) g ( y ) =

y +3
4

3y + 4
3

(b) g ( y ) =
(d) g ( y ) =

y +3
4
y 3
4

15. Area bounded by |x 1| 2 and x2 y2 = 1 is


1
(a) 6 3 + log | 3 + 2 2 |
2
1
(b) 6 2 + log | 3 2 2 |
2
(c) 6 2 log | 3 + 2 2 |
(d) none of these
72

mathematics today | February 16

16. Numbers 1, 2, 3, ..., 2n (n N) are printed on 2n


cards. The probability of drawing a number r is
proportional to r. Then the probability of drawing
an even number in one draw is
n +1
n+2
(a)
(b)
n+3
n+3
n +1
1
(c)
(d)
2n + 1
2
1
17. It is given that event A and B are such that P ( A) = ,
4
2
1
P (B | A) = , P ( A | B) = , then P(B) =
3
2
1
1
2
1
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
6
3
3
2
18. From the matrix equation AB = AC, we say B = C
provided
(a) A is singular
(b) A is skew symmetric
(c) A is non-singular
(d) none of these
sin x
1
0
p /2
2 sin x
1 then f (x )dx =
19. If f (x ) = 1
p/2
0
1
2 sin x
(a) 0

(b) 1

(c) 1

(d)

20. The given expression


f (x ) =

3p
2

1
tan x + cot x + sec x + cosecx

is equivalent to
1
sin x + cos x 1
(a)
(b)
2(sin x + cos x 1)
2
(c)

1
sin x cos x +1
(d)
2(sin x cos x + 1)
2

21. Let f (x ) = e

p
cos 1 sin x +
3

7p

13 p

(a) e 12

(b) e 18

22. In a triangle if cot


then a, b, c are in
(a) G.P. (b) H.P

8p
, then f =
9
5p

(c) e 18

(d) e 12

A
B
C
, cot , cot are in A.P.
2
2
2
(c) A.P.

(d) A.G.P.

23. If w =

and |w| = 1, then z lies on


1
z i
3
(a) a circle
(b) an ellipse
(c) a parabola
(d) a straight line
x

24. If g (x ) = x log e (ex )dx , then g(p) Equals


(a) pp loge(ep)
(b) p logep
p
(c) p loge p
(d) none of these
d2 y
is
25. If xy = e e y , then

dx 2 x =0
1
1
(a)
(b)
e
e3
1
(c)
(d) none of these
e2

a,
26. For
any
vector
the
value
of
^2 ^2 ^2
(a i ) + (a j ) + (a k) is equal to
2
2
(a) | a |
(b) 3 | a |
2
2
(c) 4 | a |
(d) 2 | a |
^ ^
^ ^
^
27. Let a = i k, b = x i + j + (1 x ) k and

^
^
^
c = y i + x j + (1 + x y ) k . Then [a b c ] depends
on
(a) x only
(b) y only
(c) neither x nor y (d) both x and y
28. A value of c for which conclusion of Mean Value
Theorem holds for the function f (x) = logex on the
interval [1, 3] is
(a) log3e
(b) loge3
1
(c) 2log3e
(d) log e 3
2
dy
= y(log y log x + 1) , then the solution of
dx
the equation is
x
y
(a) x log = cy
(b) y log = cx
y

x
y
x
(c) log = cy
(d) log = cx
x
y

29. If x

30. A spherical iron ball 10 cm in radius is coated with a


layer of ice of uniform thickness that melts at a rate
of 50 cm3/min. When the thickness of ice is 5 cm,
then the rate at which the thickness of ice decreases,
is

1
cm/min
18p
5
cm/min
(c)
6p
(a)

1
cm/min
36p
1
cm/min
(d)
54p

(b)

(log x 1)
31.
dx =
2
1 + (log x )
(a)
(c)

x
x2 + 1

+C

x
(log x )2 + 1

(b)
+C

(d)

log x
(log x )2 + 1
xe x
1 + x2

+C

+C

32. If P and Q are the points of intersection of the circles


x2 + y2 + 3x + 7y + 2p 5 = 0 and
x2 + y2 + 2x + 2y p2 = 0. Then there is a circle
passing through P, Q and (1, 1) for
(a) all except one value of p
(b) all except two values of p
(c) exactly one value of p
(d) all values of p
33. The equation of the straight line passing through
the point (4, 3) and making intercepts on the
coordinate axes whose sum is 1 is
x y
x y
(a) + = 1 and + = 1
2 3
2 1
x y
x y
+ =1
(b) = 1 and
2 3
2 1
x y
x y
+ = 1 and
+ =1
(c)
2 3
2 1
x y
x y
+ =1
(d) = 1 and
2 3
2 1
34.

x+4
< 2 is satisfied when x satisfies
x 3
(a) ( , 3) (10, )
(b) (3, 10)
(c) (, 3) [10, )
(d) none of these

35. The set of values of x which satisfy the inequations


x +2
5x + 2 < 3x + 8 and
< 4 , x 1 is
x 1
(a) (, 1)
(b) (2, 3)
(c) (, 3)
(d) (, 1) (2, 3)
(2n)!
4n
<
, then P(n) is true for
n + 1 (n !)2
(a) n 1
(b) n > 0
(c) n < 0
(d) n 2

36. If

mathematics today | February 16

73

37. If n(U) = 700, n(A) = 200, n(B) = 240,


n(A B) = 100, then n(AC BC) is equal to
(a) 260
(b) 560
(c) 360 (d) 600
38. If a, b are roots of the equation p(x2 x) + x + 5 = 0
and p1, p2 are two values of p for which the roots
a b 4
a, b are connected by the relation + = then
b a 5
p
p
the value of 1 + 2 equals
p2 p1
(a) 254

(b) 0

(c) 245

(d) 254

39. The third term of a G.P. is 7, the product of its first


five terms is
(a) 74
(b) 75
(c) 76
(d) 73
40. Four parts of 24 are in A.P. such that the ratio of
product of extremes to product of means is 7 : 15,
then four parts are
3 9 15 21
11 13
(a) , ,
(b)
,
, , 3, 9
2 2 2 2
2 2
5 15 9 21
21 9 15 7
(c) , , ,
(d)
, ,
,
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
41. If the coefficients of the rth term and (r + 1)th term
in the expansion of (1 + x)20 are in the ratio 1 : 2,
then r is equal to
(a) 6
(b) 7
(c) 8
(d) 9
42. The equation of tangents to the curve f (x) = 1 + e2x
where it cuts the line y = 2 is
(a) x + 2y = 2
(b) 2x + y = 2
(c) x 2y = 1
(d) x 2y + 2 = 0
43. If the line ax + by + c = 0 is normal to the curve
xy + 5 = 0, then
(a) a > 0, b > 0
(b) b > 0, a < 0
(c) b < 0, a > 0
(d) none of these

x 2 y +1 z 2
=
=
3
4
12
meets the plane x 2y + z = 20 is
(a) (7, 8, 26)
(b) (8, 7, 26)
(c) (7, 8, 26)
(d) none of these

47. The point in which the line

48. The equation of the plane perpendicular to the line


x 1 y 2 z +1
and passing through the point
=
=
1
1
2
(2, 3, 1) is
^ ^
^
(a) r ( i + j + 2 k) = 1
^ ^
^
(b) r ( i j + 2 k) = 1
^ ^
^
(c) r ( i j + 2 k) = 7
(d) none of these
49. The maximum value of f (x) = |x ln x| for x (0, 1)
is
(a) 1/e
(b) e
(c) 1
(d) none of these
x3

dt
, x > 0 1 then
ln t
x2

50. If f (x ) =
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

f
f
f
f

(x) is an increasing function


(x) has a minima at x = 1
(x) is decreasing function
(x) has a maxima at x = 1
SOLUTIONS

1. (a) : For the circle x2 + y2 = 1 and rectangular


hyperbola x2 y2 = 1, one common tangent is evidently
x = 1, the other being x = 1.
y

44. If log2x + log2y 6, then the least value of x + y is


(a) 4
(b) 8
(c) 16
(d) 32
45. The ratio in which the xy-plane divides the join of
(1, 2, 3) and (4, 2, 1) is
(a) 3 : 1 internally
(b) 3 : 1 externally
(c) 1 : 2 internally
(d) 2 : 1 externally

46. If P is a point in space such that OP = 12 and OP


is inclined at angles of 45 and 60 with OX and OY
respectively, then the position vector of P is
^

(a) 6 i + 6 j 6 2 k
^

(c) 6 2 i + 6 j 6 k
74

(b) 6 i + 6 2 j 6 k
(d) none of these

mathematics today | February 16

O
y

We require the standard form of ellipse with focus at


1
S , 1 and directrix x = 1 which is
2
2

2 1
2
x + ( y 1) = (1 x )
2
2
1
1
x 2 x + + ( y 1)2 = (x 2 2 x + 1)
4
4
3
x
x 2 + ( y 1)2 = 0
4
2

3
1
1
x + ( y 1)2 =

4
3
12

7. (b) :

9 x + 12( y 1)2 = 1

3
2. (c): Let B be (at2, 2at)
2at 2
Slope of AB = 2 =
t
at

Equation of BC is
t
y 2at = (x at 2 )
2
[Q BC ^ AB]
Since BC meets x-axis at C.
\ Ordinate of point C is zero.

t
at 3
0 2at = x +
2
2
3
4at = tx at tx = 4at + at3
\ x = 4a + at2
Thus, coordinate of C is (4a + at2, 0) and D is (at2, 0).
\ DC = 4a + at2 at2 = 4a
3. (a) : The given equation is
x2 2ax + a2 1 = 0
x2 (a + 1)x (a 1)x + (a + 1)(a 1) = 0
x{x (a + 1)} (a 1){x (a + 1)} = 0
(x a + 1)(x a 1) = 0
x = a 1 or x = a + 1
Since, both the roots lie in (2, 1)
\ 2 < a 1 < 1 and 2 < a + 1 < 1
1 < a < 2 and 3 < a < 0
\ 1 < a < 0 [a] = 1
4. (b) : Given R = {(x, y) : 2x + y = 8; x, y N}
Here y = 8 2x
\ When x = 1, y = 6 N
x = 2, y = 4 N
x = 3, y = 2 N
x = 4, y = 0 N
\ R = {(1, 6), (2, 4), (3, 2)}
\ Range of R = {y : (x, y) R} = {2, 4, 6}
5. (c): Here f (x ) =

sin 4 p[x]

1 + [x]2
f (x) = 0 [since sine of integral multiple of p is 0]
\ f (x) = 0 x
6. (d) : |z| is a positive real number.
\ Arg(|z|) = p
100

\ p dx = 100 p
0

1 n
[ C + nC3 + nC5 + ....]
n! 1

1 n1
2
n!
[Q sum of the odd binomial coefficients is 2n 1]

1 n!
n!
n!

+
+
+ ....

n ! 1!(n 1)! 3 !(n 3)! 5 !(n 5)!

8. (c): There should be exactly 4 correct and 4 wrong


answers.
Let C stands for correct and W stands for wrong
answers. One order of doing so is illustrated.
CCCCWWWW
The number of permutation of above mentioned
8!
demonstration is
.
4! 4!
Since each correct answer can be marked in 1 way and
that for wrong in 3 ways.
8!
34 = 5670
\ Required number of ways =
4! 4!
9. (b) : Let us mix the toys making m + n number of
distinct toys in all. Now Rina can pick up m toys out of
these m + n toys in m + nCm ways which includes one
way in which she can pick up her own original toys.
\ Required number of ways = m + nCm 1.
10. (c): Let the roots are a and b
\ a + b = 2a and ab = b
Also given that |a b| 2m
(a b)2 4m2
Now, (a + b)2 4ab = (a b)2
4a2 4b 4m2 a2 b m2
a2 m2 b
... (i)
2
Also, the discriminant 4a 4b 0 (as roots are real)
a2 b
... (ii)
From (i) and (ii), we have
a2 m2 b a2
i.e., b [a2 m2, a2]
11. (d) : We know that probability of any event lies
between 0 and 1 and both 0 and 1 are inclusive.
1+ 3p
1
\ 0
1 gives p 1
4
3
1 p
0
1 gives 2 p 1
3
mathematics today | February 16

75

1 3p
1
1
1 gives p
2
3
3

Since the events are mutually exclusive.


\ 0

1+ 3p 1 p 1 3p
1
+
+
1 gives
p 1
4
3
2
13

The set of all values of p is

1
1
p .
13
3

\ Required area = 2 x 2 1 dx

12. (a) : The given function

|x|

, x 0
3[x] 5
f (x ) =
x

2,
x =0

1
x 2

= 2
x 1 log x + x 2 1
2
2
1
3

= x x 2 1 log x + x 2 1

3[x] 5 when x > 0

= 3[x] + 5 when x < 0

when x = 0
2
Now,

= 6 2 log | 3 + 2 2 |
16. (d) : Let P(r) be the probability that the number r is
drawn in one draw. It is given that
P(r) = kr, where k is a constant.
Further, P(1) + P(2) + .... + P(2n) = 1
k(1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 2n) = 1
1
k=
n(2n + 1)
Hence, the required probability
= P(2) + P(4) + P(6) + ... + P(2n)
= 2k(1 + 2 + ... + n)
2
n(n + 1) n + 1
=

=
n(2n + 1)
2
2n + 1

f (x )dx

3/2

3/2

= f (x )dx + f (x )dx + f (x )dx + f (x )dx


1

3/2

= 1dx + 2dx + (5)dx + (2)dx


3

= 1 1 + + 2(0 + 1) + (5)(1 0) + (2)(2 1)

17. (a) : We know that P ( A | B) =

1
11
1
= 1 + 2 5 2 = + 2 5 2 =
2
2
2
13. (c)
14. (d) : Let y = f (x) x = f 1(y)
\ y = 4x + 3
f 1 ( y ) =
\ g ( y) =

x=

y 3
4

y 3
[By using (i)]
4

y 3
4

15. (c): The given equation of the curves


|x 1| 2 and x2 y2 = 1
\ The graph of required curve is
1 x 3, x2 y2 = 1
76

mathematics today | February 16

.... (i)

P ( A | B) = P (B | A)

P ( A B)
P ( B)
P ( A B) P ( A)
=

P ( A) P (B)

P ( A)
P ( B)

2 1

1
\ P ( B) = 3 4 =
1
3
2
2
1
1

P (B | A) = 3 , P ( A) = 4 and P ( A / B ) = 2
18. (c): Let |A| 0
\ A1 exists.
Given that AB = AC
\ A1(AB) = A1(AC)

(A1A)B = (A1A)C
[Associative law]
B=C
[Q AA1 = I]
A is non-singular
sin x
1
0
2 sin x
1
19. (a) : Here f (x ) = 1
0
1
2 sin x

\
\

= sinx(4sin2x 1) 1(2sinx)
f (x) = 4sin3x 3sinx
f (x) = 4sin3x + 3sinx = (4sin3x 3sinx)
f(x) = f(x)
f (x) is an odd function.
p /2

f (x )dx = 0

p /2

sin x cos x
sin x
=
1 + sin x + cos x sec x + tan x + 1
sin x
sin x(1 + tan x sec x )
=
=
(1 + tan x ) + sec x
(1 + tan x )2 sec2 x

20. (b) : f (x ) =

cos x(1 + tan x sec x ) sin x + cos x 1


=
2
2

21. (b) : f (x ) = e

p
cos 1 sin x +
3
8p p

1
8 p cos sin 9 + 3
\ f =e
9

=e

11p
cos 1 sin
9

=e
=e

cos

=e

22. (c): Given that cot

x
24. (a) : g (x ) = x log e (ex ) dx

d x
(x )dx
dx
g(x) = xx + C
\ g(x) = xx log(1 + x) = xx loge(ex)
g(p) = pp loge(ep)
25. (c): xy = e ey
dy
dy
y+x
= e y
dx
dx
dy
dy
ey
+x + y =0
dx
dx
dy
\ e + 1 = 0 [As x = 0 \ y = 1]
dx
dy
1

=
dx
e
=

... (i)

Differentiating (i) with respect to x, we get


d2 y

d2 y
dy
dy
+ey + x
+2 =0
2
2

dx
dx
dx
dx
dy
1
= , we get
Using x = 0, y = 1,
dx
e
ey

d2 y

1
= 2
dx
e
2

22 p
cos 1 sin
18

9 p 13 p
sin +
18 18

13 p
cos 1 cos
18

(3x)2 + (3y 1)2 = 9(x2 + y2)


6y 1 = 0 which is a straight line.

=e

cos

p 13 p
sin +
2 18

13 p

= e 18

A
B
C
, cot , cot are in A.P.
2
2
2

s ( s b)
s(s a )
s( s c )
2
=
+
(s a)(s c)
(s b)(s c)
(s a)(s b)
2(s b)= (s a) + (s c)
2b = a + c
\ a, b, c are in A.P.
3z
23. (d) : Given that w =
.
3z i
3| z |
\ |w| =
| 3z i |
|3z i| = 3|z|
|3(x) + i(3y 1)| = |3(x + iy)|

^
^
^
26. (d) : Let a = a1 i + b1 j + c1 k

\ | a |2 = a12 + b12 + c12 .


^
^
^
a i = b1 k + c1 j

^
| a i |2 = b12 + c12 .

^
^
Similarly, | a j |2 = a12 + c12 and | a k |2 = a12 + b12
^
^
^
\ | a i |2 + | a j |2 + | a k |2 = 2(a12 + b12 + c12 )

= 2 | a |2
a1 a2

27. (c): [a b c ] = a (b c ) = b1 b2
c1 c2

[z = x + iy]

1
= x
y

0
1
1
1 x
x 1+ x y

a3
b3
c3
(C3 C1 + C3)

mathematics today | February 16

77

1
= x
y

= ez f (z) + C

0
0
1
1 =1
x 1+ x

which is independent of x and y


f (b) f (a) f (3) f (1)
=
ba
3 1
log e 3 log e 1 1
f (c) =
= log e 3
2
2
1 1
1

= log 3 =
c 2 e
2 log 3 e

28. (c): By L.M.V.T., f (c) =

\ c = 2log3e
dy
= y(log y log x + 1)
dx
dy y y
=
log + 1
dx x x

29. (d) : x

\ v+x

y
dv

= v[log v + 1] Putting = v
dx

v+x

dv
= v log v + v
dx

dv
dx
y
=
log = Cx
x
v log v
x

4
30. (a) : V = p( y + 10)3 , where y is thickness of ice
3
dy
dV
= 4 p(10 + y )2
dt
dt
10
50
dy
=

dt y =5 4 p(15)2
10 + y
dV

3
As dt = 50 cm / min
=
31. (c):

1
cm/min
18p

(log x 1)2

\ e z ( f (z ) + f (z )) dz
78

1 + (log x )

+C =

x
1 + (log x )2

4
3
+
=1
a [(a + 1)]

4a + 4 3a = a(a + 1) a2 + a = a + 4
a2 = 4 a = 2
\ When a = 2, b = 3 and a = 2, b = 1
x y
x y
So equations are = 1 and
+ =1
2 3
2 1
x+4
<2
x 3
x+4
x + 10
x 10
2<0
<0
>0
x 3
x 3
x 3
{x 10 > 0 and x 3 > 0} or
{x 10 < 0 and x 3 < 0}
{x > 10 and x > 3} or {x < 10 and x < 3}
x ( , 3) (10, )

34. (a) : We have,

35. (d) : We have, 5x + 2 < 3x + 8 and

1
f (z ) =

1 + z2

mathematics today | February 16

+C

33. (d) : Let the equation of the line be


x y
... (i)
+ =1
a b
Given that a + b = 1
Since (i) is passing
through (4, 3)
4 3
\
+ =1
a b

(1 + (log x )2 )2
Let logx = z ezdz = dx
2z
1
= ez

dz
2
1+ z
(1 + z 2 )2

1+ z

e log x

+C =

32. (a) : Here S1 : x2 + y2 + 3x + 7y + 2p 5 = 0


and S2 : x2 + y2 + 2x + 2y p2 = 0
S1 S2 = 0
x + 5y + 2p 5 + p2 = 0
... (i)
If there is a circle passing through P, Q and (1, 1),
then its necessary and sufficient condition is that
(1, 1) does not lie on PQ.
i.e. 1 + 5 + 2p 5 + p2 0
p2 + 2p + 1 0 (p + 1)2 0
\ p 1
Thus for all values of p except 1, there is a circle
passing through P, Q and (1, 1).

dx

ez

x < 3 and

(x + 2)(x 1)
(x 1)2

< 4, x 1

x +2
<4
x 1

x < 3 and (x + 2)(x 1) < 4x2 8x + 4


x < 3 and 3x2 9x + 6 > 0
x < 3 and x2 3x + 2 > 0
x < 3 and (x 1)(x 2) > 0
x < 3 and (x < 1 or x > 2) x (, 1) (2, 3)

36. (d) : Let P (n) =

4n
(2n)!
<
n + 1 (n !)2

41. (b) : tr = t(r 1) + 1 = 20Cr 1 xr 1 and tr + 1 = 20Cr xr

For n = 1, P(n) is not true.


For n = 2, P(2) :
which is true.

42
4!
16 24
<

<
2 + 1 (2)2
3
4

Let for n = m > 2, P(n) is true i.e.


Now,
=
=

(2m)!
4m
<
m + 1 (m !)2

4m+1
4m 4(m + 1) (2m)! 4(m + 1)
=

<
.
m + 2 m +1 m + 2
(m !)2 m + 2
(2m)!(2m + 1)(2m + 2) 4(m + 1)(m + 1)2
(2m + 1)(2m + 2)(m !)2 (m + 1)2 (m + 2)
2(m + 1)2
[2(m + 1)]!
<
2 (2m + 1)(m + 2)
[(m + 1)!]
[(m + 1)!]2
[2(m + 1)]!

2(m + 1)2
< 1 m > 2

(2m + 1)(m + 2)

Hence, for n 2, P(n) is true.


37. (d) : We know, n(AC BC) = n[(A B)C]
= n(U) n(A B)
= n(U) 100 = 700 100 = 600
38. (a) : p(x2 x) + x + 5 = 0 px2 (p 1)x + 5 = 0
p 1
5
\ a +b =
and ab=
p
p
Now,

a b 4
(a + b)2 2ab 4
+ =

=
b a 5
ab
5

( p 1)2 10 p 4
=
p2 16 p + 1 = 0
5p
5

\ p1 + p2 = 16, p1p2 = 1
p
p
( p + p )2 2 p1 p2
Now, 1 + 2 = 1 2
p2 p1
p1 p2

\ 4a = 24 a = 6
(a 3d )(a + 3d ) 7
3
=
d=
Again,
(a d )(a + d ) 15
2
3 9 15 21
\ Required numbers are , ,
,
2 2 2 2

\ Required value is 254.


39. (b) : Given that ar2 = 7 \ a ar ar2 ar3 ar4
= a5 r1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = a5 r10 = (ar2)5 = 75
40. (a) : Let the numbers are
a 3d, a d, a + d, a + 3d

According to the problem,


20
Cr 1 1
1
r
=

=
20

+
2
20
1
2
r
Cr

2r = 20 r + 1 3r = 21
\ r=7
42. (b) : When y = 2, then e2x = 1 x = 0
df
df
\
= 2
Now,
= 2e 2 x
dx x =0
dx
\ The equation of the tangent is
y 2 = 2(x 0) 2x + y 2 = 0
dy
dy
y
43. (a) : xy = 5 x + y = 0
=
dx
dx
x
[Q xy = 5]
Since, the line ax + by + c = 0 is normal to the curve
y a
a
\

= 1
<0
x
b
b
the slope of the normal is negative
a
a
<0
> 0 a > 0, b > 0 or a < 0, b < 0
b
b
44. (c): Given that log2x + log2y 6 log2(xy) 6
xy 64
Also for log2x and log2y to be defined, x > 0, y > 0
... AM GM,
x+y
\
xy x + y 2 xy 2 64 = 16
2
45. (b) : Suppose xy-plane divides the join of (1, 2, 3)
and (4, 2, 1) in the ratio l : 1. Then the coordinates of
the point of division are
4 l + 1 2l + 2 l + 3
,
,

l +1 l +1 l +1
The point lies on xy-plane. So, z-coordinate = 0
l+3

= 0 l = 3
l +1
Hence, xy plane divides the join of (1, 2, 3) and
(4, 2, 1) externally in the ratio 3 : 1.

46. (c): Let l, m, n be the direction cosines of OP .


1
1
Then l = cos45 =
, m = cos 60 =
2
2
mathematics today | February 16

79

Now, l2 + m2 + n2 = 1

Let OP = r

n=

1
2

1 ^ 1 ^ 1 ^
^
^
^
i + j k
\ r = | r |(l i + m j + nk ) = 12
2
2
2
^
^
^
= 6 2 i + 6 j 6k

47. (b) : Any point on line is (3r + 2, 4r 1, 12r + 2)


and if it lies in the plane also, then
3r + 2 8r + 2 + 12r + 2 20 = 0
7r = 14 r = 2
Hence the required point is (8, 7, 26)

49. (a) : f (x) = |x lnx|


For x (0, 1), f(x) = x lnx
1

f (x ) = x + ln x = (1 + ln x )
x

1
1
f (x) = 0 x = , f (x ) = < 0.
e
x
f (x) will be maximum at x = 1/e.
1 1 1
Maximum value of f (x) = ln = .
e e e
x 3 dt
50. (a) : f (x ) =
ln t
x2
For increasing or decreasing function,

48. (b) : The given line is parallel to the vector


^ ^ ^
x = i j + 2k .
The required plane passes through the point (2, 3, 1)
^

f (x ) =
=

i.e. 2 i + 3 j + k and is perpendicular to the vector


^ ^ ^
n = i j + 2k .
So, its equation is
^
^ ^
^ ^
^

[r (2 i + 3 j + k )] ( i j + 2 k ) = 0
^ ^ ^
r (i j + 2 k) = 1

1
ln x

3x 2

1
ln x 2

2x

1
(x 2 x )
ln x

Sign of f (x)
0
1
Since f (x) > 0 for x > 0, x 1
Hence f (x) is increasing function.
It does not have minima as x = 0 is not in its
domain.
nn

Contd. from page no. 30

px
1
40. If f(x) = A sin + B, f = 2
2
2
1
2A
and f (x )dx =
. Then the constants A and B are,
p
0
respectively
(a) p/2 and p/2
(b) 2/p and 3/p
(c) 0 and 4/p
(d) 4/p and 0
log[ x]
, where [x] is the greatest integer less
x x
than or equal to x is
(a) 1
(b) 1
(c) does not exist
(d) 0
41. Lim

42. If at any point (x, y) on a curve, subtangent and


subnormal are of equal length, then the length of
tangent is
(a)
(c)

2y
y

(b)

2y

(d) None of these

43. If a straight line in space is equally inclined to


the coordinate axes, the cosine of its angle of
inclination to any one of the axes is
80

mathematics today | February 16

(a)
(c)

1
3
1

(b)

1
2
1

(d)
2
3

44. Let v = 2 i + j k and w = i + 3k . If u is a unit


vector, then the maximum value of the scalar triple

product [u v w] is
(a) 1

(b)

10 + 6

(c)

(d)

60

59

ANSWER KEYS
1.
6.
11.
16.
21.
26.
31.
36.
41.

(b)
(d)
(a)
(b)
(b)
(c)
(a)
(a)
(d)

2.
7.
12.
17.
22.
27.
32.
37.
42.

(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(b)

3.
8.
13.
18.
23.
28.
33.
38.
43.

(c)
(b)
(d)
(a)
(a)
(b)
(b)
(a)
(c)

4.
9.
14.
19.
24.
29.
34.
39.
44.

(a)
(b)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(c)

5.
10.
15.
20.
25.
30.
35.
40.

(a)
(c)
(c)
(b)
(b)
(c)
(a)
(d)

For detailed solution to the Sample Paper,


visit our website : www. vidyalankar.org. nn

soLUtioN set-157

1. (a) : Differentiating h(x) = {f(x)}2 + {g(x)}2 w.r.t. x,


h(x) = 2f(x)f (x) + 2g(x)g(x)
...(1)
Now, f (x) = g(x) f (x) = g(x)
f(x) = g(x)
[ f (x) = f(x)]
\ (1) h(x) = 2f(x) g(x) + 2g(x){f(x)} = 0
\ h(x) = c; but h(5) = 11. So 11 = c.
\ h(x ) = 11 x
\ h(10) = 11.
2. (b) : The point P(2a, a + 1)
y2 = 4x
will be an interior point of
both the circle x2 + y2 4 = 0
and the parabola y2 4x = 0
x2 + y2 = 4
(2a)2 + (a + 1)2 4 < 0
i.e., 5a2 + 2a 3 < 0
...(1)
2
and (a + 1) 4(2a) < 0,
i.e., a2 + 10a + 1 < 0
...(2)
From (1), (5a 3)(a + 1) < 0
3
\ By sign-scheme we get, 1 < a <
...(3)
5
By sign-scheme for (2), we get
5 2 6 < a < 5 + 2 6
...(4)
The set of values of a safisfying (3) and (4) is
1 < a < 5 + 2 6
3. (a) : The new equation is 2x y + 3z + 5 + l (5x 4y
2z + 1) = 0
(2 + 5l)x (1 + 4l)y + (3 2l)z + 5 + l = 0 ...(1)
It is perpendicular to 2x y + 3z + 5 = 0.
\ 2(2 + 5l) + (1 + 4l) + 3(3 2l) = 0
7
14 + 8l = 0 l =
4
Now, from (1), the required equation of plane is
27x 24y 26z = 13.
4. (d) : S = (1 + x)100 + 2x (1 + x)99 + 3x2 (1 + x)98
+ + 101x100
2
Sx
100
= (1 + x ) x + 2 x
1+ x
1+ x
1 + x
3

101

x
x
+ 3
+ ... + 101
1 + x
1 + x
Subtraction of this from the above,
S
=
1+ x

101

x 101
x

(1 + x )100 (1 + x ) 1
101

+ x
1 + x
1

\ S = (1 + x)102 (1 + x)x 101x101. The

( )

coefficient of x50 is 102


50
5. (b) : Taking the line as x = 5 + r cos q,
y = 4 + r sin q. It meets x + 3y + 2 = 0 at B.
\ 5 + r cos q + 3 ( 4 + r sin q) + 2 = 0
15
\
= cos q + 3 sin q
AB
6
10
= cos q sin q
= 2 cos q + sin q and
Likewise,
AD
AC
2

15 10
6
AB + AC = AD 3 sin q + 2 cos q = 0
2
or tan q =
3
2
\ The line is y + 4 = (x + 5) or 2x + 3y + 22 = 0.
3
6. (a, c) : Let S be the sample space, then
n(S) = 11 11 = 121
Consider,
A = {(x, y): |x y| = 0} = {(0, 0), ... (10, 10)}
n(A) = 11
B = {(x, y): |x y| = 1} n(B) = 20
C = {(x, y): |x y| = 2} n(C) = 18
D = {(x, y): |x y| = 3} n(D) = 16
E = {(x, y): |x y| = 4} n(E) = 14
F = {(x, y): |x y| = 5} n(F) = 12
(i) At random case: Probability
n( A) + n(B) + n(C ) + n(D) + n(E ) + n(F ) 91
=
=
n(S)
121
Solution Sender of Maths Musing
set-157
1. Gajula ravinder (Karim Nagar)
2. Khokon Kumar Nandi (West bengal)
3. N.Jayanthi (Hyderabad)
4. Gouri Sankar adhikari (West bengal)
set-156
1. Gouri Sankar adhikari (West bengal)
2. Gajula ravinder (Karim Nagar)
3. Khokon Kumar Nandi (West bengal)
4. Divyesh Saglani (Hyderabad)
mathematics today | February 16

81

(ii) Without random case: Probability


n(B) + n(C ) + n(D) + n(E ) + n(F ) 80
=
=
n(S)
21
1

7. (d) : Gn = ((n + 1)(n + 2)...(n + n))n


1

Gn 1 2 n n
= 1+
1 + ... 1 +
n n n n

n
1
G
r
lim ln n = lim ln 1 +
\
n
n n n n r =1
1

4
= ln(1 + x )dx = 2 ln 2 1 = ln
e
0

Gn 4
=
e
n n

1 n
lim f
n n r =1

r
= f (x )dx
n

2 x

(3 cos 5x 4 sin 5x )dx


= e 2 x (a cos 5x + b sin 5x ) + c

23
14

e 2 x cos 5x + sin 5x
29

29

= e2x (a cos 5x + b sin 5x)

On comparing, we get a and b.


14 23 37
\ a +b = + =
29 29 29

Rn
7
=
3
n n
lim

ASSAM & NORTH EAST at

n n

nC j jCi

= nC1(1C0 + 1C1) + nC2(2C0 + 2C1 + 2C2)


+ nC3(3C0 + 3C2 + 3C3) + nC4(4C0 + 4C1 + 4C2 + 4C4)
+ ... + nCn(nC0 + nC1 + nC2 + ... + nCn)
n
n
= C1(2) + C2(2)2 + nC3(2)3 + nC4(2)4 + ... + nCn(2)n
= (1 + 2)n 1 = 3n 1
10. (b) : P. Since a > 0, b > 0 and c > 0
(b + c)log e a (c + a)log e b (a + b)log e c

=
=
b2 c 2
c 2 a2
a 2 b2
(b + c)log e a + (c + a)log e b + (a + b)log e c
=
0
b+c
c+a
\ loge a + loge b + loge ca+b = 0
loge(ab+c + bc+a + ca+b) = 0
ab+c + bc+a + ca+b = 1
Q. AC = AP + PQ + QC

= 1 cot + 2 + 1 cot = 2 (1 + 3 )
6
6
3
3
ar ( ABC ) =
AC 2 =
4(1 + 3 )2
4
4
= 6 + 4 3.
mathematics today | February 16

nn

Your favourite MTG Books/Magazines available in

i =0 j =1

82

S.

lim

1
R
1 n r
7
lim n = lim 1 + = (1 + x )2 dx =
0
n
3
n n
n n r =1

9. (9) :

82n (62)2n + 1 = (9 1)2n (63 1)2n + 1


= (multiple of 9) + 1 ((multiple of 9) 1)
= multiple of 9 + 2.

(n + 1)2 + (n + 2)2 + ... + (n + n)2 2


8. (c) : Rn =

R.

Books Corner- Agartala


Ph: 0381-2301945; Mob: 985635894

Suravi Sahitya Kutir- Dibrugarh


Ph: 0373-2322085; Mob: 9435002641, 9435031727
Prime Books & Periodicals- Guwahati
Ph: 0361-2733065; Mob: 9954126701
Book Emporium- Guwahati
Ph: 0361-2635094; Mob: 9864057226
Books View- Guwahati
Mob: 9706081383
Jain Book Shop- Imphal
Mob: 9856031157
PC Jain- Imphal
Ph: 0388-2451756, 2225004; Mob: 9856084649
Naveen Pustakalaya- Jorhat
Ph: 0376-2323940; Mob: 9435514204, 9435051093
Abhan- Silchar
Ph: 03842-231844
Haque Book Stall- Tezpur
Ph: 03712-231129; Mob: 9435081257

sectiOn - i

This section contains 25 multiple choice questions. Each question


has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d), out of which only one is
correct.
Marks: 25 3 = 75
Negative marking (1)

5 + 3x 1 + x 19
+
< ,
6
2
3
x belongs to the set of whole numbers, is
(a) 3
(b) 4
(c) 5
(d) none of these

1. The number of solutions of

2. If 3 a 5, 5 b 2, then
(a) 0 a2 + b2 25 (b) 0 a2 + b2 50
(c) 4 a2 + b2 50 (d) 13 a2 + b2 50
3. The number of integer values of 30x, where x
1 1
belongs to the solution set of 0 < 3 < , is
x 2
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 4
(d) 5
4. Total number of relations from A to B is 4096,
the number of relations from B to C is 64 and the
number of relations from A to C is 256 .Then which
of the following is definitely true ?
(a) n(A) = 6
(b) n(B) = 4
(c) n(C) = 2
(d) n(A) = 3
5. The number of integers in the solution set of the
inequation 12 |4x 17| 19, are
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 0
(d) 4
6. P(n): n2 n + 2 is divisible by 11. This statement is
true
(a) for all n 5
(b) for all n 7
(c) for n = 5, 6, 7
(d) none of these
3
, then modulus of 5iz is
2
5
(b)
cos a
(d) 5 cot a

7. If z = 1 + i tan a, < a <


(a) 5 cos a
5
(c)
cos a

8. (5i26 + 3i39)2 =
(a) 16 + 30i
(c) 16 30i
9. If z =

18
1 + 3i

(b) 34 + 30i
(d) 34 30i
, then principal arg(iz) =

2
(b)
(c)
(d)
6
3
6
3
10. P(n): 3n > 9n + 2. This statement is true
(a) for all n N
(b) for all n 2
(c) for all n 4
(d) none of these
(a)

11. Three sets A, B and C are such that A = B C and


B = C A, then
(a) A B
(b) A B
(c) A = B
(d) A B
12. A = {x : x is a prime factor of 240}, B = {x : x is the
sum of any two prime factors of 240}. Then
(a) A = B
(b) 7 A B
(c) 8 A B
(d) n(A B) = 1
13. A market research group conducted a survey of
2000 consumers and reported that 1720 consumers
liked product P1 and 1450 consumers liked product
P2. The least number of consumers who must have
liked both the products is
(a) 1170
(b) 3170
(c) 270
(d) none of these
14. If X and Y are two sets, then X (Y X) equals
(a) X
(b) Y
(c) f
(d) none of these
15. The relation R defined on the set A = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
by R = {(a, b): |a2 b2| > 16}, then
(a) Domain = {5}
(b) Domain = {4, 5}
(c) Domain = {1, 2, 5} (d) none of these
5

1 1 1 1
i , then
+ i +
16. If z =
3 2 3 2
(a) Re (z) = 0
(b) Im (z) = 0
(c) Re (z) > 0, Im (z) < 0
(d) Re (z) < 0, Im (z) > 0

Contributed by : A.P Singh, Intelli Quest, Chandigarh, 09914428383


MatheMatics tODaY | FEBRUARY 16

83

17. If A and B are two sets such that n( A B) = 5,


n( A B) = 4 and n(A B) = 12, then
(a) n(A B) = 6
(b) n(A B) = 2
(c) n(A B) = 72
(d) n(A B) = 56
18. Domain of f (x ) =
(a) [0, )
(c) ( , 0]

is
| x | x
(b) ( , 0)
(d) (0, )

19. If 3z + 2z = 5 + 2i , then
(a) Re(z) = 2
(b) Im(z) = 2i
(c) |z| = 5
(d) none of these
20. If (a + ib)(c + id) = 3 + 5i, then the value of
(a2 + b2 )(c2 + d2) is
(a) 4 + 30i
(b) 4 30i
(c) 29
(d) 34
21. If |z| = z + 3 2i, then z equals
7
7
(a) + i
(b) + 2i
6
6
5
5
(c) + 2i
(d) + i
6
6
22. If z is multiplicative inverse of 5 + 12i, then
Re(13z) + Im(13z) is equal to
13
(a)
(b) 65 + 156i
5 + 12i
7
(c)
(d) 7
13
23. If z, w are complex numbers and |3z| = 5, then
75 27 zw
=
z w
(a) 12
(b) 15
(c) 45
(d) none of these
24. If A = {z : (1 + 2i)z + (1 2i)z + 2 = 0} and
B = {z : (3 + 2i)z + (3 2i)z + 3 = 0}, then
(a) n(A B) = 1
(b) A B
(c) B A
(d) A B = f
25. If z1 and z2 are roots of z2 z + 1 i = 0, then a
z
possible value of 1 is
z2
(a) 1 + i
(b) 2 + 2i
(c) 1 i
(d) none of these
sectiOn-ii
This section contains 5 multiple choice questions. Each question
has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d), out of which one or more
than one is correct.
Marks: 5 4 = 20
Negative marking (2)
84

MatheMatics tODaY | FEBRUARY 16

26. Let A and B have 3 and 6 elements respectively, then


which of the following is correct.
(a) minimum value of n(A B) is 3
(b) maximum value of n(A B) is 3
(c) minimum value of n(A B) is 6
(d) maximum value of n(A B) is 9
27. S is a relation defined on R and is given by (x, y) S
if |x y| 1, then ...
(a) (x, x) S x R
(b) (x, y) S implies (y, x) S
(c) (x, x2 ) S x [ 1, 1]
(d) (x, y) S, (y, z) S implies (x, z) S
28. If |2z + 5| = 6z 9 and |z|2 = k Re(z) + g, where k and
g are real numbers, then...
(a) k 8g = 18
(b) k + 4g + 3 = 0
(c) k = 4
(d) g = 7
29. The relations f and g are defined by
2ax 2 + b, 0 x 3
f (x ) =
4 x , 3 x 10
x 2 , 0 x 2
. If these relations are also
g (x ) =
ax + b, 2 x 10
functions then
(a) 6a + b = 10
(b) 18a + b = 12
(c) 2a + b = 4
(d) 10a + b = 8
30. If 4 x < 5 then
(a) Range of f(x) = x2 + 6x + 10 is [1, 65)
1
2

(b) Range of
is , [2, )

x +3
4
(c) Range of 5 |x + 3| is ( 3, 0]
2 1
2
(d) Range of 2
is ,
x + 10 x + 27 3 51
sOlutiOns

1. (c) : Multiplying both sides by 6 and simplifying,


we get x < 5.
2. (c) : 3 a 5 0 a2 25 and 5 b 2
4 b2 25 4 a2 + b2 50
1 1
1
1 1
1
< < 3 < ,3 0
x 2
2
x 2
x
5 1 7
1
< < ,x

2 x 2
3
2
2
1 60
< x < , x < 30 x < 12, 30 x 10

7
5
3
7
30x = 9, 11

3. (a) : 0 < 3

4. (c) : Let n(A) = p, n(B) = q, n(C) = r, then 2pq = 4096 = 212


pq = 12
Similarly qr = 6 and pr = 8
(pqr)2 = 12 6 8 pqr = 24

21. (c) : z = a + ib a2 + b2 = a + ib + 3 2i
5
b = 2, a =
6
1
5 12i
5 12i
=
13z =
5 + 12i
169
13

5. (d) : 12 |4x 17| 19


12 4x 17 19 or 19 4x 17 12
1
5
29

x 9 or x
2
4
4
6. (d)

22. (c) : z =

7. (b) : | 1 + i tan a |= 1 + tan2 a = sec a .


3
Now < a <
sec a = sec a
2
| 5iz |= 5 | z |= 5 sec a

z (z w )
z w
= 27 z
= 9 | 3z |= 45
z w
z w
24. (a) : (1 + 2i)z + (1 2i)z + 2 = 0 x + 2 y + 1 = 0
and (3 + 2i)z + (3 2i)z + 3 = 0 6 x + 4 y + 3 = 0
A and B have one common element

8. (a) : i26 = 1, i39 = i


\ (5i26 + 3i39)2 = ( 5 3i)2
= 25 9 + 30i = 16 + 30i
9. (b) : z =
iz =

10. (c)

18
1 + 3i
18i

1 + 3i

arg(iz ) =
6

iz =

18i(1 3i) 18
= ( 3 i)
4
4

= 27

1 1 4(1 i)
25. (d) : z 2 z + 1 i = 0 z =
2
z
i
i(1 i)
=
z = 1 + i, i 1 =
z2 1 + i
2
or

z1 1 + i
= 1 + i
=
i
z2

26. (b, c, d) : 0 n(A B) 3 and 6 n(A B) 9


27. (a, b)
28. (a, b, c) : |2z + 5| = |6z 9| |2z + 5|2 = |6z 9|2

11. (c)
12. (d) : 240 = 24.3.5 A = {2, 3, 5} and B = {5, 7, 8}
13. (a) : |U| = 2000, |P1| = 1720, |P2| = 1450,
|P1 + P2| = |P1| + |P2| |P1P2| |P1 + P2| = 3170 |P1P2|
but |P1 + P2| 2000 3170 |P1P2| 2000
|P1P2| 1170
14. (c)
15. (c) : R = {(1, 5), (2, 5), (5, 1), (5, 2)}
\ Domain = {1, 2, 5}
16. (b) : Here z = z Im(z ) = 0
17. (d) : AB = A + B AB AB = 3
Also A = AB + AB = 8
Similarly B = 7
18. (b) : f(x) is defined if |x| x > 0 i.e. |x| > x x < 0
19. (d) : z = a + ib a = 1, b = 2
\

23. (c) : |3z| = 5 |3z|2 = 25 9zz = 25


75 27 zw 27 zz 27 zw
Now,
=
z w
z w

Re(z) = 1, Im(z) = 2 and | z |= 5

4 | z |2 +10(z + z ) + 25 = 9[4 | z |2 +9 6(z + z )]

7
32 | z |2 = 64(z + z ) 56 | z |2 = 2(z + z )
4
7
2
| z | = 4 Re(z )
4
29. (b, c, d)

30. (a, b, d) : 4 x < 5 1 x + 3 < 8 0 (x + 3)2 < 64


1 (x + 3)2 + 1 < 65 1 f(x) < 65
4x<5
1 x + 3 < 8 1 x + 3 < 0 or 0 < x + 3 < 8
2
1
2
2 or <
<
<
x +3
4 x +3
1
2 f (x ) < or < f (x ) <
4
4 x < 5 1 x + 5 < 10 1 (x + 5)2 < 100
2
1
3 (x + 5)2 + 2 < 102 f (x ) <
3
51

20. (d)

nn
MatheMatics tODaY | FEBRUARY 16

85

86

MatheMatics tODaY | FEBRUARY 16