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22-04-2010

SOLAR ENERGY & ITS APPLICATIONS

Prepared by,

Hardik P. Sonagra Ankit Patel

(08BEC169)

(05BEC128)

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Introduction

Solar energy is in the form of the light and heat.

About 30% of total energy received by the earth is reflected back towards the space. Remaining energy is

absorbed by the clouds, oceans and land masses.

• •The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will ever be obtained from all of the Earth's non-renewable resources of coal, oil, natural gas, and mined uranium combined. • •Solar energy is the primary energy source among all of the renewable source like wave energy, hydro-electricity, wind energy, biomass etc.

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Classification of solar energy

Solar energy

22-04-2010 Classification of solar energy Solar energy Active solar energy • Itinclude photovoltaic panels and solar

Active solar energy

Itinclude

the

use

of

photovoltaic

panels

and

solar thermal collectors to harness the energy.

Passive solar energy

It include orienting a

building

to

the

Sun,

selecting

materials

with favorable thermal

light dispersing properties,

mass

or

and

designing spaces

that circulate air.

naturally

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Solar thermal

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Solar water heater

Solar water heater uses solar collector panel to transfer the heat energy of sun light to the water. •

The

unit

uses

convection

(movement of hot water upward)

to

move

the

water

from

collector

to

tank.

Neither

pumps nor electricity are used

to enforce circulation. •

Material

uses

into

the

fabrication

of

tank

is

insulator for heat so heat of the hot water can not transfer to the surrounding enviornment and hence water can be keep hot for long time.

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Solar water disinfection

Solar

water

disinfection,

also

known as SODIS is a method

of

disinfecting

water

using

only

sunlight and

plastic

PET

(PolyEthylene bottles. •

Terephthalate)

SODIS

is

a

free and effective

method

for

decentralized water

treatment, usually applied at the

household level and is recommended

by

the World Health Organization

(WHO) as a viable method for it. •

UV-A

rays

from

the

sun destroys

cell structures of bacteria. •UV-A reacts with oxygen dissolved in the water and produces highly reactive forms of oxygen that are believed to also damage pathogens.

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Solar cooker

Principle : Sunlight is converted to heat energy that is use for cooking purpose. This is done as follows:

Concentrating sunlight. Converting light to heat. Trapping heat Plastic Sheet

22-04-2010 Solar cooker • Principle : Sunlight is converted to heat energy that is use for
22-04-2010 Solar cooker • Principle : Sunlight is converted to heat energy that is use for
22-04-2010 Solar cooker • Principle : Sunlight is converted to heat energy that is use for

1. Box cooker

2. Panel cooker

3. Parabolic dish

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Solar power

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Photovoltaic

Principle

:

 

Some

materials

release

electrons

when

hit

with

rays

of

light,

which

produces an electrical current.

This effect was discovered by Alexander-Edmond Becquerel. The

first

solar

cell

was

constructed by Charles Fritts

in the 1880. • •There

are

at

least

fourteen

types

of

photovoltaic cells,

such

as

thin

film,

mono

crystalline

 

silicon,

polycrystalline

silicon,

and

amorphous

cells,

as

well

as

multiple

types

of

concentrating solar power. • •Efficiency is about 4.5% - 6%

for

silicon

type

of

hotovoltaic cells

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Fig : Unit solar cell

Photovoltaic • Principle : Some materials release electrons when hit with rays of light , which

Fig : 11 MW Serpa solar power plant in Portugal

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Concentrated solar power systems

Concentrated solar power systems are divided into :

Øconcentrated solar thermal (CST) Øconcentrated photovoltaic (CPV) Øconcentrating photovoltaic and thermal (CPT)

Principle

: Concentrate

the sunlight at particular

point

to

convert that energy

into

another

form

of

energy.

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Concentrated solar thermal (CST)

Concentrated solar thermal (CST) is used to produce renewable heat. •

CST systems use parabolic lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight onto a small area. •

Each concentration

method

is

capable of producing high temperatures and correspondingly high thermodynamic efficiencies • •They vary in the way that they track the Sun and focus light. • •Solar thermal is more efficient method to produce heat.

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Concentrated solar thermal (CST)

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Fig : Using Flat mirror reflector. (Courtesy of www.visualdictionaryonline.com)

Concentrated solar thermal (CST)

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Fig : Using parabolic reflector. (Courtesy of www.visualdictionaryonline.com)

Concentrated solar thermal (CST)

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Fig : Combination of previous both method (Courtesy of www.visualdictionaryonline.com)

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Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV)

Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems employ sunlight concentrated onto photovoltaic surfaces for the purpose of electrical power production. • •Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems classified as follows:

ØLow concentration CPV (concentration of 2-100 suns) Ø ØMedium concentration CPV (concentration of 100- 300 suns) Ø

Ø

High concentration (concentration of 300 or

more suns)

Concentration method using solar collector is cheaper then solar cell as solar cell is costlier than solar collector. • •Electricity cost for solar collector is about $3/watt.

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Electricit cost for solar cell is about $3-5/watt

Solar chimney power plant

22-04-2010 •Principle : It uses the principle of solar energy & wind energy both. It also
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•Principle
:
It
uses
the
principle of solar energy &
wind energy both. It also use
the principle of green house
effect.
•It
has
a
high
chimney.
(Height arround 1000 mtr.)
•This
is
surrounded by
a
large
collector
roof
made
from
glass
or
resistive
plastic
supported
on
a
framework.(Diameter in order
of 130 mtr.)
•In the center of the chimney
there is a wind turbine, which
generate
electricity
using
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wind velocity which is due to
the solar Energy.

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Vent Chimney

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Green house & Agriculture

Agriculture

seek

to optimize

the capture of solar energy in

order

to

optimize

the

productivity of plants. •

Greenhouses convert solar light

to

heat,

production

enclosed

specialty

enabling

and

the

year-round growth (in

of

environments)

crops

and

other

plants not naturally suited to the local climate.

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Green house & Agriculture • Agriculture seek to optimize the capture of solar energy in order

Fig : courtesy of http://en.wikipedia.org/wik

i

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