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Multiphase Flow

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Copyright 2006 iPoint LLC. Prepared for iPoint Clients only. All rights reserved. This work contains proprietary presentation of iPoint LLC and may not be copied or stored in an informational

retrieval system, transferred, used, distributed, translated or retransmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, in whole or part, without the express written permission of the

copyright owner.

Outline

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

multiphase flow in pipes.

Liquid holdup.

Shape of the tubing curve.

Correlation for oil and gas wells

Critical rate to unload a well

Single-phase Flow

qL

qL

f v

v dv

g

dP

=

+

+

sin

dL

gc

g c dL

2gcd

tot

2

Elevation

Friction

Acceleration

4

Fluid occupies 100% cross section of the pipe:

q

= Viscosity of fluid, cp

Laminar

Critical Zone

Transition Zone

Pipe Rel.

Roughness

Friction

Factor

Smooth Pipe

Reynolds Number

Reynolds Number

N Re =

Where,

v

d

1,488 vd

= Pipe diameter, ft

= Density of fluid (lbm/ft3)

= Viscosity of fluid, cp

Friction Factor

1,488 vd

N Re =

f

= 64/NRe

Friction Factor, f

= function(NRe , /d)

f (Smooth Pipe)

*Ref. Drew, T.B., Koo, E.C., and McAdams, W.H.: Trans., AICHE(1930),28, 56.

Pipe Roughness

In non corrosive environment oil or gas wells tubing may

behave like smooth pipe

Absolute Roughness , is the mean protruding height of pipe

roughness

tightly packed sand grains giving same pressure gradient behavior as the

actual pipe.

Absolute Roughness

Relative Roughness

Diameter of pipe

= in.

=/d

= d in.

Friction Factor

Rough Pipe:

In turbulent flow the effect of wall roughness on pressure

loss in pipes depends on both the relative roughness and

the Reynolds number

If a thick laminar sublayer of liquid exists in the boudary layer

adhering to the pipe wall, the pipe behaves as a Smooth

pipe.

1

2

= 1.74 2 log

d

f

10

Transition Region, where friction factor varies

both with relative roughness and Reynolds

number

Colebrook (1938) proposed (Iterative),

1

2

18.7

= 1.74 2 log +

f

d N Re f

11

proposed by Jain (1976) - reproduces Colebrook

equation over the entire range of relative

roughness and Reynolds Number and is

presented as follows:

1

21.25

= 1.14 2 log +

0.9

f

d N Re

12

Loss

f v

v dv

g

dP

=

+

+

sin

dL

gc

g c dL

2gcd

tot

2

Elevation

Friction

Acceleration

13

Calculate friction factor from Reynolds

Number

Calculate pressure losses in small

segments assuming average fluid physical

properties in case of compressible flow

Use single phase pressure loss equations

14

fg v

dP

dL = g g sin + 2d

gas

2

g g

Where, =

M

dL =

R 0

p TZ

pM

; q = qSc Bg ; Bg = Sc

ZRT

TSc p

p

ZT

p wf

ptf

g sin + C

ZT

dp

15

p wf

18.75 g L =

I

dp

,

ptf

p

ZT

where, I =

dp

2

p

2

sin + F

.001

ZT

2

fq

0

.

667

2

sc

and , F =

,

5

d

p = psia; T = oR; qsc = MMscfD; d = in.; andL = ft

16

Calculate the flowing bottom hole pressure

in a gas well (g=0.75),

Well Depth,L

BH Temp.,T

Wellhead Pressure, ptf

Wellhead Temp., Ts

d

qsc

= 10,000 ft

= 245 oF

= 2,000 psia

= 110 oF

= 0.00007 ft

= 2.441 in.

= 4.915 MMscfd

p(est) = p(known)(1+2.5x10-5xL/2 Sin)

17

Multiphase Flow

18

m vm dvm

fm v

g

dP

=

+

+

sin

m

dL

gc

g c dL

2gcd

tot

2

m m

Elevation

Friction

Acceleration

19

Multiphase Flow

qL ,qg

qL ,qg

20

Characteristic

More than one phases flow through everycross section of the pipe

Cross section occupied by a fluid phase

continuously change in the direction of

flow due to slippage between phases

Ratio of this cross section for any phase,

over the whole pipe cross section is

defined as the Holdup (HL) for the liquid

phase

21

Holdup??

HL = 0.5

HG = 1 - HL

L

qL ,qg

qL ,qg

G

HL = 0.25

22

Definition of Variables

In multi-phase flow calculations,

Single-phase flow equations are modified

Involves mixture expressions for velocity, fluid properties

with weighting factors

Based on in-situ volume or mass fraction - holdup

Weighting factors are flow pattern dependent

Example: For Liquid-Gas flow, if HL is the weighting factor

for liquid,

m = L H L + G (1 H L )

23

No-Slip Holdup

In oil-water flow,

watercut fw is defined

as,

Where, f0 = 1- fw

Under no-slip

condition, volume

fraction of liquid, L

Where, L = 1- G

qw

fw =

q w + qo

qL

L =

qL + qG

24

Note!!

For Holdup: HL + Hg = 1

No-slip Holdup: L + g = 1

Watercut: fO + fw = 1

25

Velocities

occupies the entire pipe area, Ap

Mixture Velocity (vm): Sum of phase superficial

velocities

qL

vSL =

Ap

vSg =

qg

vm =

qL + q g

Ap

= vSL + vSg

Ap

26

Because of the slippage between phases, liquid velocity

will slow down compared to gas in uphill flow and the vice

versa in downhill flow.

Actual velocities vL,vg and slip velocity vs are,,

vSL

vL =

HL

vg =

vSg

1 H L

vSg

vs = v g v L

Hg

27

Mixture Properties

No Slip condition

L = o fo + w f w

L = o fo + w f w

L = o f o + w f w

28

Mixture Properties

Slip or No-Slip condition

Numerous weighting rules used by different

authors, eg. For mixture viscosity,

s = L H L + g (1 H L )

or , s = L

HL

(1 H L )

or , n = L L + g (1 L )

29

Mixture Properties

Slip or No-Slip condition

Numerous weighting rules used by different

authors, eg. For mixture density,

s = L H L + g (1 H L )

or , n = L L + g (1 L )

30

Multiphase Flow

Mixture Properties:

Flow Regime

by Slippage between phases

31

Flow Regimes

Duns and Ros (Vertical Uphill)

Bubble

Taylor Bubble

Plug

Slug

Annular Mist

Mist

32

ql , qg

33

Bubble flow: (can be present in both upflow or

downflow)

Slug flow: (can be present in both upflow or

downflow)

Annular/mist flow: (can be present in both

upflow or downflow)

Stratified flow: (only possible in downflow or

Horizontal well)

34

calculated for each

calculation increments

(i=1,-----,m) in each

segments (j=1,----,n).

Uses pressure

gradient equation for

each increments and

segments.

Iterative calculation

Segments

1

Calc.

increments

2

3

4

35

Computing Algorithm

Marching Algorithm

Known Wellhead

pressure, pi

Calculate pi+1 in the

calculation increment

iteratively

A complete traverse is

calculated by

sequentially marching

through the traverse.

dp

p = dL

dL

0

L

p =

j =1

dp

Li , j

i =1 dL i , j

m

36

Marching Algorithm

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Start from the bottom segment L(more accurate ?) Why?? And

estimate the end of segment pressure

Estimate avg. p and T in the segment

Calculate Fluid props in the segment at this avg. p & T

Calculate the end of segment pressure, if it is not the same as the

assumed one in step 2

1.

Continue the iteration using standard methods such as NewtonRaphson or Wagsteins till it converges within acceptable

tollerance

Now assume the second segment end pressure and repeat steps 2-5

When the surface terminal segment is reached, the calculated

pressure must match this given terminal pressure.

If not, either follow the steps 1-7 till a match is obtained or

graphically solve like in the with systems approach

37

Tubing Curve

3500

Tubing Curve

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

38

Dimensionless Numbers

Liquid Velocity Number, N Lv = vSL 4

L

g L

L

g L

L g

L

L L3

39

- Duns and Ros

Vertical upflow

102

10

10-1

REGION I

REGION II

REGION III

1

BUBBLE FLOW

PLUG FLOW

1

MIST FLOW

SLUG FLOW

10

102

103

40

Multiphase Flow

Phase Velocities

Phase physical properties

Pipe inclination

Production and injection

Pipe inclination

Flow Regime

41

Superficial Velocities

Flow Regime Maps

Holdup

Slippage Velocity

Two Phase Flow pressure gradients

42

Vertical Upflow

Duns and Ros (1963)

Hagedorn and Brown (1965)

Orkiszewski (1967)

Mechanistic Models: Ansari et al. (1994)

Inclined Flow

Beggs and Brill (1973)

Mukherjee and Brill (1980)

Horizontal Flow

Dukler (1964)

43

Important Dimensionless

Variables

empirical equations for flow regimes and

liquid holdup are correlated with

dimensionless variables first proposed by

Duns and Ros.

Knowing Phase rates and pipe inclination,

calculate Flow regime and liquid Holdup

Calculate pressure gradient (Ref. Note)

44

is defined differently by

different authors as it is

no more analytically

predictable as in single

phase flow.

f tp f v

dP

=

;

dL

2gc d

twophase

2

m

f

v

dP

L L SL

=

dL

2gc d

Bubbleflow

2

f g g vSg

dP

=

dL

2gc d

mistflow

45

g

dP

sin

=

s

dL

Hydrostatic g c

46

Tubing gradients

Pressure (psig)

0

0

Ansari

Aziz

2000

BB

HB

<----- Depth (ft)

4000

Muk BR

ORK

6000

8000

10000

9,810 ft at top perf.

12000

47

Gradient Curves

WHP= 200 psi

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

1000

2000

Depth, ft

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

DE

10000

Pressure, psig

Gradient (A)

Case 2 (B)

Case 3 (C)

Case 4 (D)

Case 5 (E)

Not Used

27/8;350 API; 2000 F

Inflow

Gas/Liq Ratio, scf/bbl

Outflow

Gas/Liq Ratio, scf/bbl

Inflow

(1) 100.0

(2) 200.0

(3) 400.0

(4) 1500.0

(5) 3000.0

Outflow

(A) 100.0

(B) 200.0

(C) 400.0

(D) 1500.0

(E) 3000.0

48

Published in 1963

Widely accepted throughout industry

Based on data from 1500 test well

Tubing size: 1, 1 1/4, and 1 1/2 nominal

Different liquids: water, oil: 10 - 110 cp

50

Published in 1973

Based on experimental data from inclined

90 long acrylic pipe

Pipe size: 1 and 1 1/2

Gas flow rate: 0-300 Mscf/D

Liquid flow rate: 30-1000 bbl/D

Inclination: 90, 85, 75, 55, 35, 20, 15, 10,

5, 0

52

Published in 1983

Based on data from 1 1/2 ID inclined pipe

Developed three separate correlations

Downhill stratified flow

Other downhill flow regimes

53

Wellbore Correlations

High GLR Gas Wells

Fundamental Flow

low pressure

55

Wellbore Correlations

Low GLR Gas Wells

Gray (1974)

56

Pressure Balance

pwf (q)= psep + ph (q)+(p fl (q)+pt (q)+pch (q) ) f +pacc (q)

57

Liquid Holdup

Vg

VL

VL

HL

VL + V g

m = H L L + (1 H L ) g

58

Determination Of Liquid

Holdup

Oil/Water Flow

Gradiomanometer

59

Hold-Up Determination

Water

Holdup

100%

100%

water

point

= o Ho + w Hw

1 = Ho + Hw

w

Ho =

w o

In this example

Hw = 40%

Hw

0%

100%

oil

point

oil

Error In Expected

Downhole Oil Density

tool

o

=

w o

water Gradio

Density

Uncertainty in

Error In

Measurement Water Origin and

Salinity

60

Liquids may be

Free liquid in reservoir

Accumulated liquids will reduce productivity

For a given set of conditions, there is a minimum

flow rate to lift liquids

61

62

Critical Velocity

[ (

1 4 L g

vt = 1.912

12

g

14

vt

63

Critical Rate

3060 pvt A

qc =

Tz

A

qc

= flowing temperature, R

vt

64

Examples : Perform

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