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Multiphase Flow in Pipes

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Outline
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

Components of pressure loss for


multiphase flow in pipes.
Liquid holdup.
Shape of the tubing curve.
Correlation for oil and gas wells
Critical rate to unload a well

Single-phase Flow
qL

qL

Pressure Loss Components


f v
v dv
g
dP

=
+
+
sin
dL
gc
g c dL
2gcd
tot
2

Elevation
Friction
Acceleration
4

Single Phase Flow


Fluid occupies 100% cross section of the pipe:
q

= Phase rate in bpd, cubic meters per day

= Area of cross section of pipe, ft2 or m2

= q/A, Velocity in ft/sec or m/sec

= Friction Factor = f (NRe)

= Density of fluid (lbm/ft3)

= Viscosity of fluid, cp

= Surface Tension, dynes/cm

Moody Friction Factor Diagram


Laminar

Critical Zone

Transition Zone

Complete Turbulence, Rough Pipes

Pipe Rel.
Roughness

Friction
Factor

Smooth Pipe

Reynolds Number

Reynolds Number

N Re =
Where,
v
d

1,488 vd

= q/A, Velocity in ft/sec


= Pipe diameter, ft
= Density of fluid (lbm/ft3)
= Viscosity of fluid, cp

Friction Factor
1,488 vd
N Re =

For Laminar Flow, NRe < 2000 and


f

= 64/NRe

For Turbulent Flow , 3000 < Re < 3x106


Friction Factor, f

= function(NRe , /d)

f (Smooth Pipe)

= 0.0056 + 0.5 (NRe)-0.32 ----- *

*Ref. Drew, T.B., Koo, E.C., and McAdams, W.H.: Trans., AICHE(1930),28, 56.

Pipe Roughness

Normally inside wall of a pipe is not smooth


In non corrosive environment oil or gas wells tubing may
behave like smooth pipe
Absolute Roughness , is the mean protruding height of pipe
roughness

Measured with mean protruding height of uniformly distributed, sized,


tightly packed sand grains giving same pressure gradient behavior as the
actual pipe.

Absolute Roughness
Relative Roughness
Diameter of pipe

= in.
=/d
= d in.

Friction Factor
Rough Pipe:
In turbulent flow the effect of wall roughness on pressure
loss in pipes depends on both the relative roughness and
the Reynolds number
If a thick laminar sublayer of liquid exists in the boudary layer
adhering to the pipe wall, the pipe behaves as a Smooth
pipe.

Based on his Sand Grain Experiments, Nikuradse Suggested,


1
2

= 1.74 2 log
d
f

10

Friction Factor in Transition Region


Transition Region, where friction factor varies
both with relative roughness and Reynolds
number
Colebrook (1938) proposed (Iterative),

1
2
18.7

= 1.74 2 log +
f
d N Re f

11

Friction Factor in Transition Region

A simpler equation explicit in friction factorf was


proposed by Jain (1976) - reproduces Colebrook
equation over the entire range of relative
roughness and Reynolds Number and is
presented as follows:

1
21.25

= 1.14 2 log +
0.9
f
d N Re

12

Single Phase Pressure


Loss
f v
v dv
g
dP

=
+
+
sin
dL
gc
g c dL
2gcd
tot
2

Elevation
Friction
Acceleration
13

Single Phase Calculations

Calculate Velocity from rate


Calculate friction factor from Reynolds
Number
Calculate pressure losses in small
segments assuming average fluid physical
properties in case of compressible flow
Use single phase pressure loss equations

14

Single Phase Gas


fg v
dP
dL = g g sin + 2d
gas

2
g g

Where, =

M
dL =

R 0

p TZ
pM
; q = qSc Bg ; Bg = Sc
ZRT
TSc p

p
ZT

p wf

ptf

g sin + C

ZT

dp

15

Single-Phase gas Flow


p wf

18.75 g L =

I
dp
,

ptf

p
ZT
where, I =
dp
2

p
2
sin + F
.001
ZT

2
fq
0
.
667
2
sc
and , F =
,
5
d
p = psia; T = oR; qsc = MMscfD; d = in.; andL = ft

16

Cullender and Smith Ex.


Calculate the flowing bottom hole pressure
in a gas well (g=0.75),
Well Depth,L
BH Temp.,T
Wellhead Pressure, ptf
Wellhead Temp., Ts

d
qsc

= 10,000 ft
= 245 oF
= 2,000 psia
= 110 oF
= 0.00007 ft
= 2.441 in.
= 4.915 MMscfd

Assume f =0.015 and the first pressure estimate,


p(est) = p(known)(1+2.5x10-5xL/2 Sin)

17

Multiphase Flow

18

Pressure Loss Components


m vm dvm
fm v
g
dP
=
+
+

sin
m
dL
gc
g c dL
2gcd
tot
2
m m

Elevation
Friction
Acceleration
19

Multiphase Flow
qL ,qg

qL ,qg

20

Multi phase Flow


Characteristic

More than one phases flow through everycross section of the pipe
Cross section occupied by a fluid phase
continuously change in the direction of
flow due to slippage between phases
Ratio of this cross section for any phase,
over the whole pipe cross section is
defined as the Holdup (HL) for the liquid
phase

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Holdup??
HL = 0.5

HG = 1 - HL

L
qL ,qg

qL ,qg
G

HL = 0.25

22

Definition of Variables
In multi-phase flow calculations,
Single-phase flow equations are modified

To account for the presence of second or third phase


Involves mixture expressions for velocity, fluid properties
with weighting factors
Based on in-situ volume or mass fraction - holdup
Weighting factors are flow pattern dependent
Example: For Liquid-Gas flow, if HL is the weighting factor
for liquid,

m = L H L + G (1 H L )

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No-Slip Holdup

In oil-water flow,
watercut fw is defined
as,
Where, f0 = 1- fw
Under no-slip
condition, volume
fraction of liquid, L
Where, L = 1- G

qw
fw =
q w + qo

qL
L =
qL + qG

24

Note!!
For Holdup: HL + Hg = 1
No-slip Holdup: L + g = 1
Watercut: fO + fw = 1

25

Velocities

Superficial Velocity (vSL): Assumes a given phase


occupies the entire pipe area, Ap
Mixture Velocity (vm): Sum of phase superficial
velocities

qL
vSL =
Ap

vSg =

qg

vm =

qL + q g
Ap

= vSL + vSg

Ap
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Actual Phase Velocity

No-Slip flow: Gas and liquid flows at the mixture velocity


Because of the slippage between phases, liquid velocity
will slow down compared to gas in uphill flow and the vice
versa in downhill flow.
Actual velocities vL,vg and slip velocity vs are,,

vSL
vL =
HL
vg =

vSg
1 H L

vSg

vs = v g v L

Hg
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Mixture Properties

Oil/water mixture flow


No Slip condition

L = o fo + w f w

L = o fo + w f w
L = o f o + w f w
28

Mixture Properties

Gas/Liquid mixture flow


Slip or No-Slip condition
Numerous weighting rules used by different
authors, eg. For mixture viscosity,

s = L H L + g (1 H L )
or , s = L

HL

(1 H L )

or , n = L L + g (1 L )
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Mixture Properties

Gas/Liquid mixture flow


Slip or No-Slip condition
Numerous weighting rules used by different
authors, eg. For mixture density,

s = L H L + g (1 H L )
or , n = L L + g (1 L )

30

Multiphase Flow

Mixture Properties:

Holdup Weighting or Dependence


Flow Regime

Actual phase velocities Affected


by Slippage between phases

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Flow Regimes
Duns and Ros (Vertical Uphill)

Bubble

Taylor Bubble

Plug

Slug

Annular Mist

Mist
32

Stratified Flow - Downhill


ql , qg

33

Flow Regimes in Two Phase Flow


Bubble flow: (can be present in both upflow or
downflow)
Slug flow: (can be present in both upflow or
downflow)
Annular/mist flow: (can be present in both
upflow or downflow)
Stratified flow: (only possible in downflow or
Horizontal well)

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Pressure Traverse- Segmentation

Pressure drops are


calculated for each
calculation increments
(i=1,-----,m) in each
segments (j=1,----,n).
Uses pressure
gradient equation for
each increments and
segments.
Iterative calculation

Segments
1
Calc.
increments

2
3
4

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Computing Algorithm

Marching Algorithm
Known Wellhead
pressure, pi
Calculate pi+1 in the
calculation increment
iteratively
A complete traverse is
calculated by
sequentially marching
through the traverse.

dp
p = dL
dL
0
L

p =
j =1

dp
Li , j

i =1 dL i , j
m

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Marching Algorithm
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

6.
7.

8.

Assume a rate and calculate the pwf from IPR


Start from the bottom segment L(more accurate ?) Why?? And
estimate the end of segment pressure
Estimate avg. p and T in the segment
Calculate Fluid props in the segment at this avg. p & T
Calculate the end of segment pressure, if it is not the same as the
assumed one in step 2
1.
Continue the iteration using standard methods such as NewtonRaphson or Wagsteins till it converges within acceptable
tollerance
Now assume the second segment end pressure and repeat steps 2-5
When the surface terminal segment is reached, the calculated
pressure must match this given terminal pressure.
If not, either follow the steps 1-7 till a match is obtained or
graphically solve like in the with systems approach

37

Tubing Curve
3500

Tubing Curve

Flowing bottomhole pressure, psi

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

Production rate, STB/D


38

Dimensionless Numbers
Liquid Velocity Number, N Lv = vSL 4

Gas Velocity Number, N gv = vSg 4

Pipe Diameter Number, N d = d

L
g L

L
g L

L g
L

Liquid Viscosity Number, N L = L 4

L L3

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Two-Phase Flow Regime Map


- Duns and Ros
Vertical upflow

LIQUID VELOCITY Number, NLv

102

10

10-1

REGION I
REGION II

REGION III

1
BUBBLE FLOW

PLUG FLOW
1

MIST FLOW

SLUG FLOW
10

102

103

GAS VELOCITY Number, Ngv


40

Multiphase Flow

Determine Flow Regime

Phase Velocities
Phase physical properties
Pipe inclination
Production and injection

Determine Holdup - Dependence on

Pipe inclination
Flow Regime

41

Multiphase Flow Calculation

Superficial Velocities
Flow Regime Maps
Holdup
Slippage Velocity
Two Phase Flow pressure gradients

42

Pressure Gradient Prediction

Vertical Upflow
Duns and Ros (1963)
Hagedorn and Brown (1965)
Orkiszewski (1967)
Mechanistic Models: Ansari et al. (1994)
Inclined Flow
Beggs and Brill (1973)
Mukherjee and Brill (1980)
Horizontal Flow
Dukler (1964)

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Important Dimensionless
Variables

In multiphase flow calculations different


empirical equations for flow regimes and
liquid holdup are correlated with
dimensionless variables first proposed by
Duns and Ros.
Knowing Phase rates and pipe inclination,
calculate Flow regime and liquid Holdup
Calculate pressure gradient (Ref. Note)

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Two-Phase Friction Gradient

Two phase friction factor


is defined differently by
different authors as it is
no more analytically
predictable as in single
phase flow.

f tp f v
dP
=
;
dL
2gc d
twophase
2
m

f
v
dP

L L SL
=
dL
2gc d

Bubbleflow

2
f g g vSg

dP
=
dL
2gc d
mistflow

45

Two-Phase Hydrostatic Gradient

Two phase hydrostatic gradient is defined as,

g
dP

sin

=
s
dL
Hydrostatic g c
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Tubing gradients
Pressure (psig)
0

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

0
Ansari
Aziz

2000

BB
HB
<----- Depth (ft)

4000

Muk BR
ORK

6000

8000

10000
9,810 ft at top perf.
12000

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Gradient Curves
WHP= 200 psi
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

1000
2000

Depth, ft

3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000

DE

10000

Pressure, psig
Gradient (A)

Case 2 (B)

Case 3 (C)

Case 4 (D)

Case 5 (E)

Not Used

Rate = 2000 bpd


27/8;350 API; 2000 F

Inflow
Gas/Liq Ratio, scf/bbl
Outflow
Gas/Liq Ratio, scf/bbl

Inflow
(1) 100.0
(2) 200.0
(3) 400.0
(4) 1500.0
(5) 3000.0

Outflow
(A) 100.0
(B) 200.0
(C) 400.0
(D) 1500.0
(E) 3000.0

Reg: Authorized User - Dowell Schlumberger

48

Hagedorn and Brown

Published in 1963
Widely accepted throughout industry
Based on data from 1500 test well
Tubing size: 1, 1 1/4, and 1 1/2 nominal
Different liquids: water, oil: 10 - 110 cp

50

Beggs and Brill

Published in 1973
Based on experimental data from inclined
90 long acrylic pipe
Pipe size: 1 and 1 1/2
Gas flow rate: 0-300 Mscf/D
Liquid flow rate: 30-1000 bbl/D
Inclination: 90, 85, 75, 55, 35, 20, 15, 10,
5, 0

52

Mukherjee and Brill

Published in 1983
Based on data from 1 1/2 ID inclined pipe
Developed three separate correlations

Uphill and horizontal flow


Downhill stratified flow
Other downhill flow regimes

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Wellbore Correlations
High GLR Gas Wells

Cullender and Smith (1956)

Fundamental Flow

Dry gas only. GLR > 100,000 scf/bbl

Dry gas only. GLR > 50,000 scf/bbl. Shallow depth,


low pressure

Fundamental Flow adj

Adjusts gas density for GLR > 50,000

55

Wellbore Correlations
Low GLR Gas Wells

Gray (1974)

Wet gases, gas condensates

Ros and Gray (1961)

Oil well correlations may also be useful

Duns and Ros (1963)

Hagedorn and Brown (1963)

56

Pressure Balance
pwf (q)= psep + ph (q)+(p fl (q)+pt (q)+pch (q) ) f +pacc (q)

57

Liquid Holdup

Vg

VL

VL
HL
VL + V g
m = H L L + (1 H L ) g

58

Determination Of Liquid
Holdup

Oil/Water Flow
Gradiomanometer

59

Hold-Up Determination
Water
Holdup
100%

100%
water
point

= o Ho + w Hw
1 = Ho + Hw

w
Ho =
w o

In this example
Hw = 40%

Hw

0%

100%
oil
point

oil

Error In Expected
Downhole Oil Density

tool

o
=
w o

water Gradio
Density

Uncertainty in
Error In
Measurement Water Origin and
Salinity

60

Critical Rate To Lift Liquid

Most gas wells produce some liquids


Liquids may be

Vaporized in reservoir gas


Free liquid in reservoir

Liquids will accumulate if not lifted to surface


Accumulated liquids will reduce productivity
For a given set of conditions, there is a minimum
flow rate to lift liquids

61

Models for Liquid Transport

Continuous film model

Entrained drop model


62

Critical Velocity

[ (

1 4 L g
vt = 1.912
12
g

14

vt

= terminal velocity of liquid droplet, ft/sec

= liquid density, lbm/ft3

= gas density, lbm/ft3

= interfacial tension, dynes/cm

63

Critical Rate

3060 pvt A
qc =
Tz
A

= area open to flow, ft2

= flowing pressure, psia

qc

= critical rate, Mscf/D

= flowing temperature, R

vt

= terminal velocity of liquid droplet, ft/sec

= real gas deviation factor, dimensionless


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Examples : Perform

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