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# Multiphase Flow in Pipes

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Outline
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## Components of pressure loss for

multiphase flow in pipes.
Liquid holdup.
Shape of the tubing curve.
Correlation for oil and gas wells
Critical rate to unload a well

Single-phase Flow
qL

qL

f v
v dv
g
dP

=
+
+
sin
dL
gc
g c dL
2gcd
tot
2

Elevation
Friction
Acceleration
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## Single Phase Flow

Fluid occupies 100% cross section of the pipe:
q

## = Density of fluid (lbm/ft3)

= Viscosity of fluid, cp

Laminar

Critical Zone

Transition Zone

Pipe Rel.
Roughness

Friction
Factor

Smooth Pipe

Reynolds Number

Reynolds Number

N Re =
Where,
v
d

1,488 vd

## = q/A, Velocity in ft/sec

= Pipe diameter, ft
= Density of fluid (lbm/ft3)
= Viscosity of fluid, cp

Friction Factor
1,488 vd
N Re =

f

= 64/NRe

## For Turbulent Flow , 3000 < Re < 3x106

Friction Factor, f

= function(NRe , /d)

f (Smooth Pipe)

## = 0.0056 + 0.5 (NRe)-0.32 ----- *

*Ref. Drew, T.B., Koo, E.C., and McAdams, W.H.: Trans., AICHE(1930),28, 56.

Pipe Roughness

## Normally inside wall of a pipe is not smooth

In non corrosive environment oil or gas wells tubing may
behave like smooth pipe
Absolute Roughness , is the mean protruding height of pipe
roughness

## Measured with mean protruding height of uniformly distributed, sized,

tightly packed sand grains giving same pressure gradient behavior as the
actual pipe.

Absolute Roughness
Relative Roughness
Diameter of pipe

= in.
=/d
= d in.

Friction Factor
Rough Pipe:
In turbulent flow the effect of wall roughness on pressure
loss in pipes depends on both the relative roughness and
the Reynolds number
If a thick laminar sublayer of liquid exists in the boudary layer
adhering to the pipe wall, the pipe behaves as a Smooth
pipe.

1
2

= 1.74 2 log
d
f

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## Friction Factor in Transition Region

Transition Region, where friction factor varies
both with relative roughness and Reynolds
number
Colebrook (1938) proposed (Iterative),

1
2
18.7

= 1.74 2 log +
f
d N Re f

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## A simpler equation explicit in friction factorf was

proposed by Jain (1976) - reproduces Colebrook
equation over the entire range of relative
roughness and Reynolds Number and is
presented as follows:

1
21.25

= 1.14 2 log +
0.9
f
d N Re

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Loss
f v
v dv
g
dP

=
+
+
sin
dL
gc
g c dL
2gcd
tot
2

Elevation
Friction
Acceleration
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## Calculate Velocity from rate

Calculate friction factor from Reynolds
Number
Calculate pressure losses in small
segments assuming average fluid physical
properties in case of compressible flow
Use single phase pressure loss equations

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## Single Phase Gas

fg v
dP
dL = g g sin + 2d
gas

2
g g

Where, =

M
dL =

R 0

p TZ
pM
; q = qSc Bg ; Bg = Sc
ZRT
TSc p

p
ZT

p wf

ptf

g sin + C

ZT

dp

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## Single-Phase gas Flow

p wf

18.75 g L =

I
dp
,

ptf

p
ZT
where, I =
dp
2

p
2
sin + F
.001
ZT

2
fq
0
.
667
2
sc
and , F =
,
5
d
p = psia; T = oR; qsc = MMscfD; d = in.; andL = ft

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## Cullender and Smith Ex.

Calculate the flowing bottom hole pressure
in a gas well (g=0.75),
Well Depth,L
BH Temp.,T

d
qsc

= 10,000 ft
= 245 oF
= 2,000 psia
= 110 oF
= 0.00007 ft
= 2.441 in.
= 4.915 MMscfd

## Assume f =0.015 and the first pressure estimate,

p(est) = p(known)(1+2.5x10-5xL/2 Sin)

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Multiphase Flow

18

m vm dvm
fm v
g
dP
=
+
+

sin
m
dL
gc
g c dL
2gcd
tot
2
m m

Elevation
Friction
Acceleration
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Multiphase Flow
qL ,qg

qL ,qg

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## Multi phase Flow

Characteristic

More than one phases flow through everycross section of the pipe
Cross section occupied by a fluid phase
continuously change in the direction of
flow due to slippage between phases
Ratio of this cross section for any phase,
over the whole pipe cross section is
defined as the Holdup (HL) for the liquid
phase

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Holdup??
HL = 0.5

HG = 1 - HL

L
qL ,qg

qL ,qg
G

HL = 0.25

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Definition of Variables
In multi-phase flow calculations,
Single-phase flow equations are modified

## To account for the presence of second or third phase

Involves mixture expressions for velocity, fluid properties
with weighting factors
Based on in-situ volume or mass fraction - holdup
Weighting factors are flow pattern dependent
Example: For Liquid-Gas flow, if HL is the weighting factor
for liquid,

m = L H L + G (1 H L )

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No-Slip Holdup

In oil-water flow,
watercut fw is defined
as,
Where, f0 = 1- fw
Under no-slip
condition, volume
fraction of liquid, L
Where, L = 1- G

qw
fw =
q w + qo

qL
L =
qL + qG

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Note!!
For Holdup: HL + Hg = 1
No-slip Holdup: L + g = 1
Watercut: fO + fw = 1

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Velocities

## Superficial Velocity (vSL): Assumes a given phase

occupies the entire pipe area, Ap
Mixture Velocity (vm): Sum of phase superficial
velocities

qL
vSL =
Ap

vSg =

qg

vm =

qL + q g
Ap

= vSL + vSg

Ap
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## No-Slip flow: Gas and liquid flows at the mixture velocity

Because of the slippage between phases, liquid velocity
will slow down compared to gas in uphill flow and the vice
versa in downhill flow.
Actual velocities vL,vg and slip velocity vs are,,

vSL
vL =
HL
vg =

vSg
1 H L

vSg

vs = v g v L

Hg
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Mixture Properties

## Oil/water mixture flow

No Slip condition

L = o fo + w f w

L = o fo + w f w
L = o f o + w f w
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Mixture Properties

## Gas/Liquid mixture flow

Slip or No-Slip condition
Numerous weighting rules used by different
authors, eg. For mixture viscosity,

s = L H L + g (1 H L )
or , s = L

HL

(1 H L )

or , n = L L + g (1 L )
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Mixture Properties

## Gas/Liquid mixture flow

Slip or No-Slip condition
Numerous weighting rules used by different
authors, eg. For mixture density,

s = L H L + g (1 H L )
or , n = L L + g (1 L )

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Multiphase Flow

Mixture Properties:

Flow Regime

## Actual phase velocities Affected

by Slippage between phases

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Flow Regimes
Duns and Ros (Vertical Uphill)

Bubble

Taylor Bubble

Plug

Slug

Annular Mist

Mist
32

ql , qg

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## Flow Regimes in Two Phase Flow

Bubble flow: (can be present in both upflow or
downflow)
Slug flow: (can be present in both upflow or
downflow)
Annular/mist flow: (can be present in both
upflow or downflow)
Stratified flow: (only possible in downflow or
Horizontal well)

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## Pressure drops are

calculated for each
calculation increments
(i=1,-----,m) in each
segments (j=1,----,n).
Uses pressure
each increments and
segments.
Iterative calculation

Segments
1
Calc.
increments

2
3
4

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Computing Algorithm

Marching Algorithm
pressure, pi
Calculate pi+1 in the
calculation increment
iteratively
A complete traverse is
calculated by
sequentially marching
through the traverse.

dp
p = dL
dL
0
L

p =
j =1

dp
Li , j

i =1 dL i , j
m

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Marching Algorithm
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

6.
7.

8.

## Assume a rate and calculate the pwf from IPR

Start from the bottom segment L(more accurate ?) Why?? And
estimate the end of segment pressure
Estimate avg. p and T in the segment
Calculate Fluid props in the segment at this avg. p & T
Calculate the end of segment pressure, if it is not the same as the
assumed one in step 2
1.
Continue the iteration using standard methods such as NewtonRaphson or Wagsteins till it converges within acceptable
tollerance
Now assume the second segment end pressure and repeat steps 2-5
When the surface terminal segment is reached, the calculated
pressure must match this given terminal pressure.
If not, either follow the steps 1-7 till a match is obtained or
graphically solve like in the with systems approach

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Tubing Curve
3500

Tubing Curve

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

## Production rate, STB/D

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Dimensionless Numbers
Liquid Velocity Number, N Lv = vSL 4

L
g L

L
g L

L g
L

L L3

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- Duns and Ros
Vertical upflow

102

10

10-1

REGION I
REGION II

REGION III

1
BUBBLE FLOW

PLUG FLOW
1

MIST FLOW

SLUG FLOW
10

102

103

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Multiphase Flow

## Determine Flow Regime

Phase Velocities
Phase physical properties
Pipe inclination
Production and injection

Pipe inclination
Flow Regime

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## Multiphase Flow Calculation

Superficial Velocities
Flow Regime Maps
Holdup
Slippage Velocity

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Vertical Upflow
Duns and Ros (1963)
Hagedorn and Brown (1965)
Orkiszewski (1967)
Mechanistic Models: Ansari et al. (1994)
Inclined Flow
Beggs and Brill (1973)
Mukherjee and Brill (1980)
Horizontal Flow
Dukler (1964)

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Important Dimensionless
Variables

## In multiphase flow calculations different

empirical equations for flow regimes and
liquid holdup are correlated with
dimensionless variables first proposed by
Duns and Ros.
Knowing Phase rates and pipe inclination,
calculate Flow regime and liquid Holdup

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## Two phase friction factor

is defined differently by
different authors as it is
no more analytically
predictable as in single
phase flow.

f tp f v
dP
=
;
dL
2gc d
twophase
2
m

f
v
dP

L L SL
=
dL
2gc d

Bubbleflow

2
f g g vSg

dP
=
dL
2gc d
mistflow

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g
dP

sin

=
s
dL
Hydrostatic g c
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Pressure (psig)
0

## 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

0
Ansari
Aziz

2000

BB
HB
<----- Depth (ft)

4000

Muk BR
ORK

6000

8000

10000
9,810 ft at top perf.
12000

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WHP= 200 psi
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

1000
2000

Depth, ft

3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000

DE

10000

Pressure, psig

Case 2 (B)

Case 3 (C)

Case 4 (D)

Case 5 (E)

Not Used

## Rate = 2000 bpd

27/8;350 API; 2000 F

Inflow
Gas/Liq Ratio, scf/bbl
Outflow
Gas/Liq Ratio, scf/bbl

Inflow
(1) 100.0
(2) 200.0
(3) 400.0
(4) 1500.0
(5) 3000.0

Outflow
(A) 100.0
(B) 200.0
(C) 400.0
(D) 1500.0
(E) 3000.0

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## Hagedorn and Brown

Published in 1963
Widely accepted throughout industry
Based on data from 1500 test well
Tubing size: 1, 1 1/4, and 1 1/2 nominal
Different liquids: water, oil: 10 - 110 cp

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## Beggs and Brill

Published in 1973
Based on experimental data from inclined
90 long acrylic pipe
Pipe size: 1 and 1 1/2
Gas flow rate: 0-300 Mscf/D
Liquid flow rate: 30-1000 bbl/D
Inclination: 90, 85, 75, 55, 35, 20, 15, 10,
5, 0

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## Mukherjee and Brill

Published in 1983
Based on data from 1 1/2 ID inclined pipe
Developed three separate correlations

## Uphill and horizontal flow

Downhill stratified flow
Other downhill flow regimes

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Wellbore Correlations
High GLR Gas Wells

Fundamental Flow

low pressure

## Adjusts gas density for GLR > 50,000

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Wellbore Correlations
Low GLR Gas Wells

Gray (1974)

## Hagedorn and Brown (1963)

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Pressure Balance
pwf (q)= psep + ph (q)+(p fl (q)+pt (q)+pch (q) ) f +pacc (q)

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Liquid Holdup

Vg

VL

VL
HL
VL + V g
m = H L L + (1 H L ) g

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Determination Of Liquid
Holdup

Oil/Water Flow

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Hold-Up Determination
Water
Holdup
100%

100%
water
point

= o Ho + w Hw
1 = Ho + Hw

w
Ho =
w o

In this example
Hw = 40%

Hw

0%

100%
oil
point

oil

Error In Expected
Downhole Oil Density

tool

o
=
w o

Density

Uncertainty in
Error In
Measurement Water Origin and
Salinity

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Liquids may be

## Vaporized in reservoir gas

Free liquid in reservoir

## Liquids will accumulate if not lifted to surface

Accumulated liquids will reduce productivity
For a given set of conditions, there is a minimum
flow rate to lift liquids

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## Entrained drop model

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Critical Velocity

[ (

1 4 L g
vt = 1.912
12
g

14

vt

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Critical Rate

3060 pvt A
qc =
Tz
A

qc

## = critical rate, Mscf/D

= flowing temperature, R

vt

## = real gas deviation factor, dimensionless

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Examples : Perform

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