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Mass Communication Project

By:
Aqsa Javed
Mehak Liaqat Ali
Noor-ul-Ain Pasha
Roma Ejaz
Zainab Zameer
Zalnashta Khawar
Zara Usmani
Introduction to newspaper
 What is a newspaper:
A newspaper is a regularly published print product
containing information vital to the function of the market it
serves.
 Features in Newspaper includes:
• Editorial opinions, op-eds
• Obituaries
• Comic strips, crosswords, sudoku and horoscopes
• Weather , forecasts
• Advice, gossip, food,
• Critical Reviews.
• Classified ads
• Display ads
Origins of Newspaper
 First printed Newspaper appeared in GERMANY in late 1400’s in
the forms of Pamphlets
 The Weekly News 1622 -- the first successively published title
 1640’s-1650’s – news book format
 Pre-History:
Earliest variation on a newspaper was a daily sheet
published in 59 BC in Rome called Acta Diurna(Daily events)
by Julius Caesar
 Late-History:
* Printing press invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1447
* Manuscript newssheets were products of European Countries
in 1665
* In 1700’s development of newspaper was encourage
* First daily newspaper was The Daily Courant in London, 1702
* France’s first daily newspaper appears in 1777, Journal de
Paris
* United state first daily was Pennsylvania Packet in 1784
Origins of Newspaper
 English Newspapers in Indian Subcontinent
First newspaper sent was by British man William Bolts in 1766
In 1780 another man James Augustus Hickey Published named Bengal
Gazette/General Calcutta Adviser
In November 1781 another newspaper named “Indian Gazette” was
introduced which was pro Government and against Hickey
 Invention of Telegraph
The invention of the telegraph in 1844 transformed print media
1890 to 1920 – “Golden age” or Print media
Between 1940 to 1990 newspaper circulation dropped
Organization of The Newspaper
 Editorial Page
 Editorial page is the most important and major page in the news
paper. It is also known as the opinion page. It is the page
reserved in newspaper and magazines for publication’s editorial
 Contents of Editorial page
1. Editorial note:
The note of editor or the team of editors
2. Columns:
They are the writings and thoughts on some specific
topics contributed
by well-known writer
3. Letters to the editors:
It is the feedback to the newspaper
4. Editorial cartoons
These are not so much common. They are not
published in each and every paper
 Purposes of Editorial Page
Organization of The Newspaper
 Newspaper needs a whole team to work together. The team
works in an organized manner to compile and publish a whole
newspaper
 Parts Of Newspaper Organization
The newspaper organization have many different parts of team and
department. Initially they are three in number
1) Editorial Section
2) Administrative Section
3) Printing Section
 Editorial section
-- The editorial section is pre-divided into four parts
1)Reporting Section
2)News Section
3)Magazine Section
4)Editorial Section
Organization of The Newspaper
 The reporting Section:
It is the most important section of the newspaper
It includes: Reports about business, Showbiz etc
Chief Reporter is the head of the department, he
Examines the information and give approval
Centralized department
Information can be about the popularity of any
person among the adults, men and women

The repots can be of any rules and regulations passed by the government in
symbolic form
Organization of The Newspaper
 The News section
It is a broad section, each of the important headings or topics has
different pages, like showbiz will be published on separate page,
metro section will be publish on separate Page
Chief Editor is the in charge of this section
People working under him known as sub-editor
Or news editor, The senior most experience
person are known as senior editors
Different editors have different teams e.g.
Sports page. Women page & International page
Different geographical are given to different
sections in a new company, these are mainly
known as DESK also known as cabins and rooms
Organization of The Newspaper
 Desk of the News Section
1. Main Desk:
Deals with Front and Back Pages
2. Foreign Desk:
Deals with foreign news and information
3. Local Desk:
Deals with compiling and publishing of local news
4. Monitoring Desk:
Obtains information and news from other media
5. Sports desk:
Collect and compile news about the sport’s events
6. Business desk:
Deals with commercial news
7. Entertainment desk:
Compiles the information for showbiz page
8. Internet desk:
Usually foreign news are received here
Organization of The Newspaper
 The Magazine Section
Magazines, is a publications, generally published on a
regular basis, containing a variety of articles,
entertainment, fashion, home and garden decoration
information, showbiz, business, health, politics world
news, photos, videos, tech views, science and
entertainment news.

Different types of Magazines:


1. General interest magazines:
2. Sensational magazines:
3. Scholarly Magazines:

Two Kinds of Magazines:


• Mid-week Magazines
• Weekly Magazines
Organization of The Newspaper
 Mid-week Magazines
A magazines which comes sometime in between the week

 Weekly Magazines
It is issued on weekly basis example Jang, Sunday magazine, Weekly
Family magazine, economist, Time, Discover
Organization of The Newspaper
 Editorial section
* Opinion page,
* It is reserved in a newspaper or magazine for publication’s editorial
* Chief Editor is the one who decides that what is to be written and how the
news is to be printed in a newspaper
* Major Page of Newspaper, middle page of the newspaper
* Editorials are short, persuasive essays that express the opinions of the
editors or editors of a publication

It have for basic parts:


 The questions
 The proof
 A conclusion
 Reader action
Organization of The Newspaper
 Columns and cartoons are also included in Editorial Section
* Columns:
Educated People like Hamid Meer, Syed Mohammad Ali, Rasul
Bakhsh Rais writes these Columns
* Cartoons
Cartoons contains following components to convey their intended
meaning:
 Stereotype
 Caricature
 Exaggeration
 Symbolism
 Fact
 Opinion
 Fantasy
Organization of The Newspaper
 Administrative section:
Administration in an organization helps in the proper running of the organization in all aspects
In charge of this is a Managing Director, besides him there is a General manager
* General manager:
He works with four other officials of the staff
* Administrator:
Deals with maintenance of offices and records
* Chief Accountant:
Responsible for supervision and control of the general accounting area,
and for financial statement and report preparation
* Business management:
His primary mission is to develop and increase revenue for the
newspaper through co-op advertising
* Circulation Management:
Responsible for sales, service, distribution and collections in assigned geographic
district
Organization of The Newspaper
 Printing Section
* Types of printing
- Woodblock printing:
Widely used by east Asian
It originated in China in antiquity as a method of printing
of textiles and later on Paper
Methods of printing on cloth earliest surviving examples
from China and Egypt in 220 and 4th century respectively
- Movable printing:
System of printing and typography using movable
pieces of metal made by casting from matrices
struck by letter punches
- Rotary printing press
Invented by Richard March Hoe In 1847
It uses impressions curved around a cylinder to print on long
continuous rolls of paper
Lately Significantly improved by William Bullock
Organization of The Newspaper
 Modern Printing Technology
* Offset Printing
widely used printing technique where inked image is
transferred (or “offset”) from a plate to a rubber blanket,
then to the printing surface
Currently, most books and newspapers are printed using
The technique of offset lithography
Some other techniques
-> Flexography -> Dye transfer
-> Ink jet -> Pad printing
-> Relief Printing -> Rotogravure
-> Screen printing
* Gravure
It is an intaglio printing technique, where the image to be printed is made
up of small depressions in the surface of the printing plate.
Organization of The Newspaper
 Impact of invention of printing
* Religious impact
It was concerning that print allowed Readers, eventually including
those from all classes of society, to study religious texts and
politically sensitive issues by themselves, instead of thinking
mediated by the religious and political authorities
* Social impact
Print created a sustained and uniform reference for knowledge as
well as allowing for comparison between incompatible views
Asa Briggs and Peter Burke identify 5 kinds of development due
to introduction of print
1. Critical Reading
2. Dangerous Reading
3. Creative Reading
4. Extensive Reading
5. Private Reading
Global Village