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Speed of Line Protection Can We

Break Free of Phasor Limitations?


66th Annual Texas A&M Conference for
Protective Relay Engineers
College Station, TX
April 1, 2015
Edmund O. Schweitzer, III
Bogdan Kasztenny
Armando Guzmn
Veselin Skendzic
Venkat Mynam
Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.

Copyright SEL 2015

Progression of Speed
Operators tripped breakers by hand
Fuses and breakers: time overcurrent
Distance relays
Pilot wires and protection channels

Time-domain elements
based on traveling waves
and differential equations
promise 2 to 4 ms performance

Phasor-Based Protection Makes Sense


Traditional models are steady-state
The forcing functions are at 60 Hz
Instrument transformers are rated at 60 Hz
CCVTs are band-pass devices at 60 Hz

Attracted-Armature Relays
Respond to AC, DC, and transients,
but calibrated for AC at 60 Hz
Overreach for exp(-at)
Remnant flux
delays dropout
Wide margin between
pickup and dropout

Induction Disk and Cylinder Relays


Torque k I2
Transients and
remnant flux
have less effect
Pickup dropout

It Takes a Cycle to Catch a Cycle


Phasors: sinusoidal steady state
Faults change the network
We want to determine wherefast!
Determine the sinusoidal steady state
filter out everything else
Shorter windows: faster, less accurate

Digital Filter Passes Cosine,


Rejects exp(-at)
y = x1 x2 x3 + x4
DC
Ramp

= 1 1 1 + 1 =0
= 1 2 3 + 4 =0

Cosine = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 4

Speed of Present-Day Relays


Determining
steady state
takes time.
Shorter windows
are faster but
less accurate
than full cycle.

Modern Distance Relays: 816 ms


Operating Time in Cycles

Line-to-ground fault, SIR = 1.0

1.5

0.5

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Fault Location in Percent of Set Reach

90

100

The Need for Speed

Moving Energy at the Speed of Light


Safer Less Damage Improved Dynamics

15 MW more per millisecond saved


R. B. Eastvedt, BPA, 1976 WPRC

ASEA RALDA (1976)


5 ms Directional Wave Relay

BBC LR-91 (1985)


5 ms UHS Directional Relay
Fault is forward when the operating point
enters the 2nd or 4th quadrant

Why Today?
The Need for Speed
Faster communications
Powerful processors
Better simulations
May be simpler

Waves Travel Toward Line Terminals

Currents and Bewley Lattice Diagram

A SOLID Three-Phase Fault

Practical Traveling Wave Relaying


Build on TWFL Experience
Single-ended: sort out reflections; easier with
voltages
Two-ended:
Directional
comparison
Current
differential

Finding Incident and Reflected Waves

Speed of Light Limits Relay Time


S

100-mile line 600 s


300 s

300 s

600 s by line or 1,000 s by fiber


900 s or 1,300 s

The fastest communications path is the line

Propagation Adds Up to 1.6 ms


What Are Other Delays?

Propagation

1.6 ms

Signal processing 0.52 ms


POTT processing 0.1 ms
TRIP output
TOTAL:

0.1 ms
2.33.8 ms

Then, its up to the circuit breaker

Speed Limiters and Options


Circuit breaker

17 ms Solid state?

Auxiliary relay

4 ms

Dont use

Contact input delay 1 ms


Process bus

Improve signaling

0.4 ms Hard wire

Time-Domain Directional Element (TW)


v i

vF
vF

v
i

Forward

Reverse

Time-Domain Directional Element (R-L)


Incremental Quantities

Time-Domain Directional Element (R-L)


Assume R 0

v
i

Forward

Reverse

Fast Directional Element (R-L)

20

40

10

20

-10

-20

-20
-40

-20

20

40

-40
-40

-20

20

40

Fast and Secure Directional Element


50
0
-50

2000
0
-2000

4
Time
(ms)
Time (msec)

Time-Domain Distance Element

m0 = Set Reach

Fast and Secure 21


Fault at 25% of the line with m0 set to 50%
50
0
-50
-5

10

15

10

15

10

15

100
0
-100
-5
150
75
0
-5

5
Time(msec)
(ms)
Time

New TW Differential Principle


Current Only
Internal fault surges: same polarity
External fault surges:

Generally of opposite polarity

Spaced one travel time T apart

of aligned surges = OPERATE


of surges T apart = RESTRAIN

Internal Mid-Line Fault


= Is(300) + Ir(300) = BIG
= Is(300) Ir(300 +/ 600) = small
S

R
IF(0)

Internal Fault Closer to S


= Is(200) + Ir(400) = BIG
= Is(200) Ir(200 +/ 600) = small
S

R
IF(0)

External Fault Travels the Entire Line


= Is(50) + Ir(650) = small
= Is(50) Ir(50 +/ 600) = BIG
S
IF(0)

Traveling Wave Current Differential


Corner Case
The principle holds true

TW that entered S
leaves R after T

TW that entered R
leaves S after T

Fast Hardware for < 4 ms Tripping


Time
Domain, s

Today, s

Sampling
period
Processing
interval

> 100

100

1,0002,000

Trip outputs

10100

4,000

Component

Digital trip
1001,000
1,0004,000
outputs
The time to trip is determined by propagation and
Channel
501,000
2,0008,000
interface
processing NOT by the 16,667 s duration of a cycle

Breaking Free of Phasor Limitations


Energy Moves at the Speed of Light
Inherently FAST principles for 32, 21, 87 for 2
to 4 millisecond trip times
Easier to set and understand
Inherently secure for LOP
Suitable for single-pole tripping
Inherently suitable with series compensation
Addresses the need for speed