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eq

Dr i kB&v k/ kfj r ew
Y; ka
du
v FkZ
' kkL=k d {kk& XI
1- fo"k; %fo' ks"k v kfFkZ
d {ks=k (SEZ) & l a
o`f d k ekxZ
l kj ka
'k
fo' o dsyks
x phu dh ml v l k/ kj.k l a
o`f dsckjses
av k' p; Zpfdr gS
at ksphu dh v FkZ
O;oLFkk
usfi NysN%n' kdks
aes
agkfl y fd; k gS
AfofuekZ
. k {ks
=k es
aphu }kjk fu"i kfnr ml l a
o`f nj dsckjs
es
av FkZ
' kkfL=k; ks
ausdHkh l q
uk gh ughA
a,s
l sv us
d ksadkj.k gS
aft Ugs
abl dsfy, mkjnk; h Bgjk; k t k
l drk gS
A rFkkfi ] l okZ
f/ d v fookfnr dgk t kus okyk dkj.k gS
& phu dh fo' ks
"k v kfFkZ
d {ks=k
(SEZ)

uhfr t ksu ds
oy cgq
r lq
Li "V gSv fi rqml dksykxwfd; k t kuk Hkh v Hkw
ri w
oZgS
Abl ckr

l sbUdkj ughafd; k t k l drk fd phu dh fo' ks


"k v kfFkZ
d {ks
=k (SEZ) uhfr dh l i Q
yrk dk Js
;
l gk; d rFkk l a
j pukRed ra
=k dkst krk gS
A
fi Q
j Hkh] cgq
r l syks
x bl rF; dksughat kursfd , f' k; k dk v i uh rjg dk i z
Fke v kfFkZ
d la
l k/ u
{ks
=k (EPZ) o"kZ1965 es
aHkkjr es
adka
Myk ( xq
t jkr) es
aLFkkfi r fd; k x; k FkkA t ksbl ckr dk
iz
ek.k gSfd Hkkjrh; v FkZ
O;oLFkk usl a
o`f dh i z
f; k dk i z
; kl , d l dkjkRed v k/ kj i j fd; k
Fkk i ja
r q jkLrs esa yM+
[ kM+
k x; kA Hkkjr es
a fo' ks
"k v kfFkZ
d {ks
=k (SEZ) uhfr dk y{; Hkkjrh;
v FkZ
O;oLFkk dksi z
ks
Rl kgu ns
uk j[ kk x; k Fkk i ja
r qi M+
ks
l h ns
' kks
] fo' ks
a
"kr; k phu dsl kFk] dk; kZ
fUor
djusdh fn' kk es
arq
y uk djrsl e; Hkkjr dh , l -bZ
-t M
s uhfr es
adbZdfe; kaut +
j v krh gS
A; g , d
a
mfpr rFkk ekU; rF; gSfd fo' ks
"k v kfFkZ
d {ks
=k fdl h Hkh v FkZ
O;oLFkk dsfy, peRdkj dj l drs
gS
a; fn l gh rjhdsl sfu; ks
ft r dj dsmUgs
aykxwfd; k t k, A
uhpsnh xbZdgkuh , d i z
; kl gSrkfd , d fo| kFkhZdsi fji z
{ ; es
s
aphu rFkk Hkkjr }kjk v i ukbZxbZ
fo' ks
"k v kfFkZ
d {ks
=k (SEZ) uhfr dk v i s
{ kkr t fVy eq
n~
nk ge l e> l ds
A
a

n`' ; &1 %v FkZ


' kkL=k dk , d v ; ki d d{kk i z
Lrq
fr ds#i es
av kxkeh i fj; ks
t uk dh i `"B Hkw
fe dh
ppkZdj jgk Fkk] ft l sd{kk X; kjgohadsfo| kfFkZ
; ks
adks
] l edkyhu ego dsrFkk fo| kfFkZ
; ksadh
l e> ds v uq
l kj i z
kl a
fxd fofHkUu fo"k; ks
aes
al s i <+
k; k t kuk FkkA ml us fo| kfFkZ
; ks
adks] rhu&rhu
fo| kfFkZ
; ks
adh Vks
fy; kacukusdk funs
' k fn; k rkfd og mudh i fj; ks
Z
t uk fu/ kZ
fjr dj l ds
Arhu fe=kksa
ds, d ny dks( t ksl Hkh cgq
r gh i z
frHkkoku Fkha
) v FkkZ
r Hkfo] v a
f' krk rFkk #nz
k{kh dksfn; k x; k
fo"k; Fkk & phu v kS
j Hkkjr dk fo' ks
"k v kfFkZ
d {ks
=k ( , l -bZ
-t sM) rFkk phu x.kjkT; ( i h-v kj-l h)
rFkk Hkkjrh; v FkZ
O;oLFkk es
abl dk ; ks
xnkuA
rhuks
afe=k Lra
fHkr jg x, v kS
j mUgks
usdkuki Q
a
l hiz
w
kja
Hk dj nhA ugha
] phu rFkk ml dk , l -bZ
-t S
M
ugha--------------------------------------- phu dsckjses
av kf/ dkfjd v ka
d M+
sdgkal sfeys
x\s ge , d v PNk
a
iz
ks
ts
DV ughacuk i k, a
xs-------------------------------------------------- gekjsl gi kfB; ks
adksge l sv f/ d v a
d
fey t k, xas------------------------------------------------- v kb, ge v i usv ; ki d t h l sfo"k; cnyusdsfy,
dgs
a -------------------------------------------------- ges
a dks
bZv kS
j fo"k; ns nhft , -----------------------------------------v kb, pys
a------------------------------A
v ; ki d usi w
Nk] dks
bZl eL; k\
Jheku gka------------------- ugha------------------- i ; k ------------------v ; ki d % D; k ckr gS
\ eq
>sl ki +
Q
&l ki +
Qcrkv ksfd v ki yks
xks
adksD; k ckr i js
' kku dj jgh gS
\
v kv ksv kS
j eq
>scrkv ks
A
Hkfo

% Jheku] phu dh , l -bZ


-t sM uhfr , d cgq
r O;ki d fo"k; gSv kS
j gekjh i gq
p l sckgj
a
gS
Age bl i j , d v PNk i z
ks
t sDV ughacuk i k, a
xs
A

v ; ki d % ; g fdl usdgk fd rq
e bl i j , d v PNk i z
ks
ts
DV ughacuk i kv ks
xh\
#nz
k{kh

% Jheku] gekjh d{kk dsNk=kks


adksfn, x, fo"k; ks
aes
al s; g l c l sdfBu gSv kS
j gesa
' ka
d k gSfd bl fo"k; es
a' kk; n gh dq
N v kf/ dkfjd t kudkjh miyC/ gks
A bl hfy, ]
ge bl fo"k; dksys
d j Fkks
M+
k v l gt gS
A
a

v ; ki d % ' kka
r gkst kv ks
] ' kka
r gkst kv ks
] v ki yks
xks
adksbl fo"k; dksns
usdk dkj.k ; g gSfd
d{kk es
ads
oy v ki l c dh cq
f gh l okZ
f/ d i z
[ kj gSv kS
j ds
oy v ki gh bl i zkst sDV
dksi w
j h fu"Bk rFkk bZ
ekunkjh l sdj l drsgS
A v kS
a
j fi Q
j bl l sfeyusokyk Kku Hkh
cgq
r v f/ d gks
xkA eq
>sbl ckr es
afdl h i z
d kj dk dks
bZ' kd ughagSfd v ki }kjk
fd, x, v uq
la
/ ku l sd{kk dkscgq
r ykHk gks
xkAeS
at kurk gw
fd v ki eq
>sfujk' k ugha
djs
xA
a
s
Hkkoh

% Bhd gS
] JhekuAge v ki dh v k' kkv ka
sdsv uq
: i mrjusdk i z
; kl djs
xA
a
s / U;oknA

n`' ; &2 %e; k & rhu l gs


fy; kadEI; w
Vj yS
c es
axbZ
av kS
j fo"k; ds ckjs es
a[ kks
t dhA mUgku
sas
fodfl r dh t kusokysfo"k; oLrqdksv ki l es
acka
V ys
usdk i Q
l yk fd; kA mudsi kl t kudkjh
S
bdV~
Bh djusdsfy, ] ds
oy ' kfuokj rFkk jfookj gh cpsFksv kS
j mudksd{kk esai zLrq
fr nsusdh
rS
; kjh Hkh djuh FkhA
n`' ; &3 %v kxkeh dk; Zfnol v FkkZ
r l ks
eokj dksmudh d{kk dk dejkA
v ; ki d us?kks
"k.kk dh fd v c Hkfo] v a
f' krk rFkk #nz
k{kh dh ckjh gSfd osv i uh d{kk dsl e{k
v i uh i z
Lrq
fr j[ ks
A; ku nhft , A
a
Hkfo usi z
kjEHk fd; k v kS
j phu dh , l -b-Zt M
s uhfr dk , s
frgkfl d i {k crkuk i z
kjEHk fd; kA
Hkkoh %fe=kk]s
at S
l k fd v ki t kursgS
afd bfrgkl i q
#"k ekv ksdksphu x.kjkT; dk t ud ekuk t krk
gS
] t c fd ; g Ms
x ft ; ks
a
fi a
x gh Fkk ft l sphu dh ca
n v FkZ
O;oLFkk dks[ kks
y usdk Js
; t krk gS
Aml h
us1978 es
aphu dh v FkZ
O;oLFkk dksfons'kh {ks
=kd dsmnkjhdj.k dh ' kq
#v kr dhA dbZv FkZ
' kkL=kh
dgrsgS
afd ; g i w
t hokn dksl ekt oknh l a
a
j puk es
a<kyusdk , d i z
; kl gS
t c fd nw
l jksadk
dguk gSfd ; g fons
' kh {ks
=kd dsfy, , d ekxhZjkLrk gS
A bl fn' kk es
afy; k x; k l cl segoi w
. kZ
dne Fkk & phu es
afo' ks
"k v kfFkZ
d {ks
=kks
adh LFkki ukA
v kxsc<+
usl si gys
] ge ; g l e> ys
afd fo' ks
"k v kfFkZ
d {ks
=k ( , l -b-Zt M
s) dk v FkZD; k gS
\

SEZ

dh i fjHkk"kk i z
k; %bl i z
d kj dh t krh gS& ; sosukfer {ks
=k gS
aft ues
afons
' kh@
?kjs
y wfofuekZ
r kv ksa

dksfo' ks
"krkS
j i j fu; kZ
r gs
r qfofuekZ
. k dsfy, i zks
Rl kgu fn; k t krk gS
A, s
l s{ks
=kks
aes
ackdh ns'k dh
rq
y uk v f/ d mnkjoknh dkuw
u rFkk v kfFkZ
d uhfr; kaykxwdh t krh gS
A
a

1979 l sphu usfuja


r j fo' ks
"k v kfFkZ
d {ks
=kksadk fuekZ
. k fd; k gSt gkafo' ks
"krkS
j i j fons
' kh fuos'kdksa
dksl a
i fr v f/ dkj l q
j {kk] dj l seq
fDr rFkk rjt hgh] Hkw
fe uhfr dh l q
fo/ k nh t krh gS
ASEZ dsbl
iz
; ks
x us
] phu dksfo' o dsl cl sfo' kky i z
R;{k fons
' kh fuos
' k i zkIrdkkZ
v ks
] fu; kZ
a
r dks
arFkk fons'kh
fofue; eq
nz
k / kjdks
aes
al s, d cuk fn; k gS
A
1978 dsi z
kja
fHkd dky es
] phuh ' kkl dks
a
aus , d foos
di w
. kZrFkk l a
rq
fyr mikxe v i uk; k ft l ds
v raxZ
r l Ei .wkZv FkZ
O;oLFkk dks , d l kFk u [ kks
y us ds LFkku i j Vq
d M+
ks
a( [ ka
Mokj) es
a[ kkys us dk
mikxe v i uk; k x; kAi gyspj.k es
aSEZ dsms
' ; l smUgks
uspkj , s
a
l srVh; uxjks
adk p; u fd; k t ks
v kfFkZ
d lq
n`<r+k rFkk v kS
| ks
fxd fodkl ds {ks
=kks
a es
a i gys l s gh dki Q
h fi NM+ pq
d s Fks t S
ls
Shenghen, Zuhai, Shanton

( Guangding i z
ka
r es
) rFkk Xiamen ( Fugian i z
a
ka
r es
) ckn esa
a
]

iz
kja
fHkd pkj fo' ks
"k v kfFkZ
d {ks
=kks
adsv uq
Hko rFkk l i Q
y iz
; ks
x l si z
fjr gks
s
d j] ns
' k dsv U; rVh;
{ks
=kks
aesaHkh fofHkUu i z
d kj dsfodkl h; {ks
=kks
adksi z
kja
Hk fd; k x; kA 1984 es
]a v fodfl r rVh; {ks=kksa
dksfodkl dk y{; cukrsgq
, ] 14 u, {ks
=kks
adksfons'kh O;ki kj rFkk fuos
' k dsfy, [ kks
y k x; kA
; sgS
a%
nkfy; u

fDougq
v ka
xnks

frv kuft u

;a
r kbZ

fDoa
xnks

fy; kuq
; uxa
x

uka
r ksx

' ka
?kkbZ

fua
xcks

os
u>ks

iQ
>ks
q

xq
v ka
x>ks

>uft ; ka
x

cs
gkbZ

l zkrs %xw
xy besft l

Nks
Vs v kS
j cM+
s uxjks
a ds , s
l si z
fr"Bkuks
a ds ms
' ; xgu rduhdh v k/ kfjr rFkk fu; kZ
r v fHkeq
[k
m| ks
xks
@
a
cgq
j k"Vh; da
i fu; ks
adksv kdf"kZ
r djuk FkkA fdl h {ks
=k dsHkkS
xks
fyd ykHkks
arFkk fodkl dh
lH
akkoukv ks
adks; ku es
aj[ krsgq
, ] v FkZ
O;oLFkk dsfons
' kh {ks
=kd dkseq
Dr djkusdsfy, ] phu dh
l jdkj usfofHkUu i z
d kj dsl q
/ kjkRed mik; ks
adsl kFk i z
; ks
x fd, A HkkS
xks
fyd n`f"V l sfodkl ds; s
l Hkh i z
d kj ds{ks
=k phu dsnf{k.k rFkk nf{k.k i w
oZrVh; {ks
=kks
adsfudV fLFkr Fksrkfd mUgsai ku
l ca/ah l q
fo/ k, ai z
nku dh t k l ds
av kS
j O;ki kfjd xfrfof/ ; ks
adk foLrkj gksl ds
A
; ku ns
us; kX
s; ckr ; g gSfd bu {ks
=kks
adksfo' ks
"k l q
fo/ k, arFkk mnkj i z
ks
Rl kgu fn, x, Abl dh rq
y uk
es
] ml l e; phu dsv U; Hkkx vHkh Hkh phu dh ds
a
Unz
h; fu; ks
t u O;oLFkk dsdBks
j fu; a
=k.k esaFksA
5

phuh ' kkl dks


adh ; g uhfr ^nks
gjh uhfr dk fl ka
r & , d ns
' k v kS
j nksuhfr; ka
* dk i z
frfuf/ Ro dj
jgh FkhA
; s{ks
=k l /qkjks
kj dky es
aphu dsv kfFkZ
d #i ka
r j.k dsfy, i z
kja
fHkd l a
o`f ds, d l k/ u ds: i esa
dke djrsjgs
av kS
j rRi' pkr bUgks
usi jwsfo' o dk ; ku v kdf"kZ
a
r fd; k rFkk i z
frLi / kZes
a' kkfey gks
x, A
vc eS
avi uh fe=k va
f' krk dksvkea
f=kr d: a
xh rkfd og ppkZdkst kjh j[ ks
av kS
j crk, afd phu usvi uh
vFkZ
O
; oLFkk dkspkb; ks
ard yst kusdsfy, fofHkUu vki w
frZl a
ca
/ h dkjdks
adk eq
d kcyk dS
l sfd; kA
v fa' krk %fe=kks
aueLdkj] v Hkh rd Hkfo usges
aphu dh fo' ks
"k v kfFkZ
d {ks
=k uhfr dsckjsesadq
N
cgq
r cf<+
; k t kudkjh nh gS
] rFkkfi dks
bZHkh v kfFkZ
d la
o`f dk ekW
My ds
oy , d dkjd dsl kFk
dke ughadj l drkA bl h i z
d kj] phu ds[ kq
ys
i u dsekW
My usv ki w
frZrFkk Hkkx nks
uksadks; ku esa
j[ krsgq
,] l a
o`f dh xfr dkscuk, j[ kusi j t +
ks
j fn; kAphu dksft l ckr dk l nS
o ykHk feyk og
Fkk v FkZ
O;oLFkk dsv a
r xZ
r ?kjs
y weka
x dh cgq
r cM+
hl a
Hkkoukv ks
adsfy, ogkadh t ul a
[ ; kA rFkkfi
v U; l Hkh v fodfl r v Fkok fodkl ' khy ns
' kks
adh rjg] phu Hkh v ki w
frZdseks
ps
Zi j l a
rq
y u ' kfDr esa
fi NM+
k jgk gS
Aphu dsuhfr&fuekZ
r kv ks
ausv i usf=kdks.kh; uhfr i z
; kl dk yf{kr fd; k gSrkfd , l -bZ
t sM (SEZ) ekW
My dksBks
l rFkk l i Q
y cuk; k t k l ds
Abl f=kdks
. k dsrhu dks
. k gS%

v kb, budk , d&, d djdsv ; ; u djs


a%
1-

iz
' kkl fud O
; oLFkk es
a i fj or Z
u & fo-v k-{k-s

(SEZ)

uhfr l s phu dh v FkZ


O;oLFkk esa

fods
Unz
hdj.k dh "kk dk mn; gq
v k gSft l l sv kt Hkh / w
i ( ped) i z
kIr gksjgh gS
A fo-v k{k-s (SEZ) dksi z
R;{k #i l sLFkkuh; ' kkl u dsv / hu dke djuk Fkk] ft udksfodkl ; kts ukv ksa
dsfuekZ
. k] fuos
' k i fj; ks
t ukv ksadksLohfr i z
nku djuk] chek] cS
fda
x rFkk dLVe v kfn dk
dke l kS
i k x; k FkkA bl dsfy, cM+
a
&cM+
s
sl a
LFkkxr l q
/ kjks
adh v ko' ; drk Fkh rkfd l a
of` ds
u, jkLrs[ kq
y l ds
A, s
a
l sl q
/ kj] ckn es
aphuh v kfFkZ
d <ka
psdsfy, l a
o`f dsi z
eq
[ k ra
=k fl
gq
, A i fj.kkeLo: i ] phu us l q
/ kjks
a l s i gys ds dky dh dBks
j iz
' kkl fud i z
f; kv ksa dk
l jyhdj.k fd; k t gkav kfFkZ
d fu.kZ
; ds
Unz
hr fu; ks
t u dsek; e l sfy, t kusFks
Av FkZ
' kkfL=k; ksa
dsv uq
l kj bl dk nq
"i z
Hkko i gysl si z
kja
Hk dh xbZfofHkUu fodkl i fj; ks
t ukv ks
adh xfr , oa
dk; Zdq
' kyrk i j i M+
kA
2-

fuos
' k dhi z
j . kk & fofHkUu fokh; rFkk xS
s
j &fokh; v kd"kZ
. k ; ks
t ukv k]s
at S
l sdjks
aes
afj; k; r]
i fj; ks
t ukv ks
adk , d gh LFkku i j Lohdk; Zgkst kuk v kfn] ds}kjk] phu uscM+
hl i Q
yrki w
oZ
d
fo-v k-{k-s (SEZ) uhfr dk ckt k+jhdj.k fd; kA ; g dne bl fy, mBk, x, rkfd phu dh
v FkZ
O;oLFkk es
afuos
' k djusdsfy, fons
' kh fuos
' kdksadksv kdf"kZ
r fd; k t k l ds
A ds
oy bruk
gh ugha
] ,s
l h ; ks
t ukv ksaes
ai ; kZ
Ir yphyki u Hkh vi uk; k x; kA mnkgj.k dsrkS
j i j] dki ksZ
j sV
v k; dj dh 15 nj] ?kjs
y wm| fe; ks
ai j FkkS
i h xbZ30 dh nj l s dki Q
a
h de gS
A ml ds
v frfjDr fons
' kh m| fe; ks
adks3 LFkkuh; v k; dj l sHkh eq
Dr dj fn; k x; k FkkAxa
r O; ; g Fkk
fd fons
' kh fuos
' k dksi z
fjr rFkk v kdf"kZ
s
r fd; k t k, ] ct k, bl dsfd mUgs
a, d i z
ns'k l snw
l js
iz
ns
' k es
a?kjs
y wl a
l k/ uks
adsv kca
Vu dh v kKk nh t k, A ; gka, d v kS
j dgus; ks
X; v k' p; Z
t ud
fca
nq; g gSfd phu es
afo-v k-{k-s (SEZ) dksHkkjh v kd"kZ
d la
j puk miyC/ gks
usdsckot w
n]
l jdkjh [ kt +
kus dks dks
bZjkt Lo dk uq
d l ku ugha gq
v kA bl ds foi jhr] fo-v k-{k-s uhfr ds
dk; kZ
Uou us
] v k' kk ds v uq
: i ] l jdkjh jkt Lo es
a ; ks
xnku fn; k] ct k; bl ds fd foi jhr
l kekft d i fjfLFkfr; kai S
nk dh t k, a
A

3-

v fo' okL; l a
j puk & ; g , d v k/ kjHkw
r l R; gSfd dks
bZHkh l a
o`f v fHkeq
[ k ; ks
t uk] fcuk
mi; q
Dr l a
j pukRed O;oLFkk ds
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a

la
nHkZ
1.

www.sezindia.nic.in

2.

www.commerce.nic.in

3.

www.dipp.nic.in

4.

The Economist

5.

Research Paper by Zin Wang on Chinese SEZ, London School of Economics.

6.

Tax Exemption in SEZs in China (Ernst & Young).

7.

Prologis Research Bulletin

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nf{k.k , f' k; k dsnksl c l scMs
+ns
' k] Hkkjr o i kfdLrku ( ft u dh dq
y t ul a
[ ; k 1-4 fcfy; u gS
)
nks
uksadh l hek] l a
Ld`fr rFkk bfrgkl , d l eku gS
AfudVrk rFkk v U; l ekurkv ks
a
adsckot w
n] nksuksa
ns
' kks
aes
ads
oy ukeek=k O;ki kj gS
A Hkkjr dk i kfdLrku dsl kFk gks
usokyk O;ki kj] Hkkjr dso"kZ
2010 dsdq
y O;ki kj dsv k/ si z
fr' kr l sHkh dki Q
h de Fkk v kS
j i kfdLrku dk Hkkjr dsl kFk
O;ki kj ml dsdq
y O;ki kj ds5 i z
fr' kr l sHkh de FkkA Hkfo"; es
agks
usokysO;ki kj es
ao`f dh
la
Hkkouk, adki Q
h v f/ d gS
aft l l snks
uksans'kks
adksv o' ; ykHk i gq
ps
xkArFkkfi ] nkuks
ans
' kksal sl efi Z
r
iz
; kl ks
adh v ko' ; drk gS
A

Hkkj r &i kd O
; ki kj l Eca
/
l Hkh ns
' kksadksv i uh t urk dh v ko' ; drv ks
adh i w
frZdsfy, oLrq
v ks
arFkk l s
okv ks
adh v ko' ; drk
gks
r h gS
A oLrq
v ksav kS
j ls
okv ksadksmRiknu dsfy, l a
l k/ uks
adh v ko' ; drk gks
r h gS
Ai z
R;s
d ns'k ds
i kl l hfer l a
l k/ u gS
A dks
a
bZHkh ns
' k mu l Hkh oLrq
v ks
arFkk l s
okv ks
adk mRiknu ughadj l drk
ft udh ml s v ko' ; drk gks
r h gS
A t ks oLrq
, arFkk l s
ok, afdl h ns
' k es
ami yC/ ugh gks
r h v Fkok
v i ; kZ
Ir ek=kk es
agks
r h gS
] mudksv k; kr djusdsfy, ] nw
a
l jsns
' kks
ai j fuHkZ
j jguk i M+
r k gS
Abl h i zd kj]
; fn fdl h ns
' k ds i kl dks
bZoLrqv ko' ; drk l s v f/ d ek=kk es
agSv kS
j v U; ns
' kksadks ml dh
v ko' ; drk gS
] rksog mUgs
afu; kZ
r Hkh dj l drk gS
A
fons
' kh O;ki kj ( v a
r jkZ
"Vh; O;ki kj) v a
r jkZ
"Vh; l hekv ks
av Fkok {ks
=kks
al sckgj i w
t h] oLrq
a
v ksarFkk l sokv ksa
dk fofue; gS
A bl es
afofHkUu eq
nkzv ksadk ys
uns
u gksrk gSrFkk l a
ca
f/ r ns
' kks
adsdkuw
uks
] fu; eksarFkk
a
fofue; ks
al sl a
pkfyr gks
r k gS
A v kS
| ks
xhdj.k] fodfl r i fjogu] oS
' ohdj.k] cgq
j k"Vh; dEi fu; ksarFkk
16

ck l k/ uka
s dk fons
' kh O;ki kj O;oLFkk i j
iz
eq
[kiz
Hkko i M+
r k gS
A oS
' ohdj.k dh fuja
r jrk
ds fy, c<+
r k gq
v k fons
' kh O;ki kj v fr
egoi w
. kZgS
A
lS
ka
frd : i l s fons
' kh O;ki kj rFkk ?kjs
yw
O;ki kj es
adks
bZv a
r j ughagSD; ks
fd O;ki kj es
a
a
Hkkx ys
usokysyks
xks
adh i z
js
. kk rFkk O;ogkj ds
ew
y : i l s dks
bZi fjorZ
u ugha v krkA eq
[;
v raj rc v krk gSt c ; g ys
u&ns
u v Fkok

Source: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade


(http://www.hsc.csu.edu.au/economics/
global_economy/tut7/Tutorial7.html)

fofue; v rajkZ
"Vh; l hek dsv kj&i kj gks
r k gS
A
v rajkZ
"Vh; l hek dsdkj.k dq
N] v frfjDr ew
Y;

Hkh c<+t krsgS


A ft udk eq
a
[ ; dkj. k gkrsk gS
A v k; kr ' kq
Yd l hek i j gks
usokyh ns
j h rFkk ns'kksaesa
Hkk"kk] dkuw
u] O;oLFkk] l ka
Ld`fr] eq
nz
k fofue; nj v kfn i j v k/ kfjr va
r jA fons
' kh O;ki kj rksbfrgkl
dsgj dky es
agks
r k jgk gS
] i jUrqbl dsv kfFkZ
d ] l kekft d rFkk jkt uhfrd ego es
agks
usokyh o`f
orZ
eku ' krkfCn; ks
aes
agh ns
[ kh xbZgS
A
vf/ dk'ak ns'kks
aes
abl sl dy ?kjs
y wmRikn (t h-Mh-i h-) dk , d egoi w
. kZHkkx ekuk t krk gS
A fons'kh
O
; ki kj dksl Eiw
. kZfo' o es
afdl h ns
' k dsvkfFkZ
d fodkl dsl kFkZ
d fu/ kZ
j dks
aes
al s, d l e>k t krk gS
A

Hkkj r d h fons'kh O
; ki kj uhfr
iz
R;s
d ns'k dk ; g y{; gks
r k gSfd og v i us fons
' kh O;ki kj ds l q
O;ofLFkr fodkl ds fy,
v ko' ; d i ; kZ
oj.k dksfu; a
f=kr , oal `ft r djs
A
Hkkjr dsfons
' kh O;ki kj dk ekxZ
&n' kZ
u bl dh fu; kZ
r &v k; kr uhfr ( , fDke i kfyl h) v Fkok fons'kh
O;ki kj uhfr }kjk gks
r k gS
A ; g Hkkjr es
aoLrq
v ks
adsv k; kr rFkk fu; kZ
r l sl a
ca
f/ r ekeyks
adsckjsesa
ekxZ
&n' kZ
u rFkk fn' kk funs
' kks
Z
adh , s
l hl w
ph gSft l sfons
' kh O;ki kj egkfuns
' kky; }kjk LFkkfi r fd; k
x; k gS
A
17

bl es
auhfr rFkk v us
d iz
f; k l st q
M+
k] l jdkj }kjk fy, x, osv us
d fu.kZ
; gSft udk l Eca
/ fu; kZ
r
dh l a
Hkkoukv ks
adksryk' kuk] fu; kZ
r dksi zks
Rl kgu ns
usgs
r qmik; ykxwdjuk] fu; kZ
r dh miyfC/ ; ksaesa
lq
/ kj ykuk] fons
' kh O;ki kj dksi z
ks
Rl kfgr djuk rFkk , s
l h fLFkfr es
aykuk fd Hkq
xrku l a
rq
y u ns'k ds
i gq
p esgks
a
Abl uhfr dksl q
n`<+cukusfd fy, v us
d v f/ fu; e i kfjr fd, x, gS
at S
l s%
fons
' kh O
; ki kj ( fod kl , oafu; eu) v f/ fu; e %ft el s
a; g i z
ko/ ku gSfd Hkkjr esa
v k; kr dk l jyhdj.k djds rFkk fu; kZ
r dks c<+
kok ns
d j fons
' kh O;ki kj dks fodfl r rFkk
fu; fer fd; k t k, A bl fons
' kh O;ki kj v f/ fu; e us1947 dsv k; kr&fu; kZ
r ( fu; a
=k.k) dk
LFkku fy; k gS
A
v k; kr&fu; kZ
r dsHkq
xrku dsfy, dh t kuh okyh v nk; xh dksfons
' kh fofue; i z
ca
/ u v f/ fu; e
1999 ds}kjk l a
pkfyr fd; k x; k gS
A
v k; kr ' kq
Yd v f/ fu; e] 1962 ds}kjk ; krk; kr dsfofHkUu l k/ uks
adsek; e l soLrq
v ksarFkk
ls
okv ksadsykusyst kusdksfu; a
f=kr fd; k t krk gS
A
Hkkjr dks oLrq
v ks
arFkk l s
okv ks
ads , d xq
. kokki w
. kZmRiknd rFkk fu; kZ
r d cukus gs
r qfu; kZ
r
( xq
. kokk fu; a
=k.k rFkk fujh{k.k) v f/ fu; e] 1963 i gysl sgh dk; Zdj jgk gS
A

Hkkj r r Fkk i kfd Lr ku


Hkkjr v kS
j i kfdLrku dk ca
Vokjk 1947 dksfoHkkt u dsi ' pkr~gq
v k FkkA i kfdLrku Hkkjr dsi f' pe
es
afLFkr gS
At EewrFkk d' ehj] i a
t kc] jkt LFkku v kS
j xq
t jkr t S
l sHkkjrh; i z
ka
r ksdh l hek i kfdLrku ds
l kFk yxrh gS
A
Hkkjr dh rjg] i kfdLrku dh rVh; js
[ kk Hkh v jc l kxj l syxrh gS
AHkkjr dsv frfjDr] i kfdLRkku]
bLykkfed x.kra
=k ( l a
oS
/ kfud uke) dh l hek, av i Q
xkfuLrku] phu rFkk bjku l syxrh gS
A
Hkkjr v kS
j i kfdLrku dschp 2900 fdyks
ehVj yEch rFkk l okZ
f/ d t fVy l hek js
[ kk gS
A fofHkUu
iz
d kj ds, fsrgkfl d] HkkS
xks
fyd] jkt uhfrd] l ka
Ld`frd rFkk v U; dkjdks
adsdkj.k bu nks
uksans'kksads
chp gks
usokyk O;ki kj v ; ; u dk , d jks
pd {ks
=k gS
A

18

Hkkj r v kS
j i kfd Lr ku %O
; ki kfj d l k>s
nkj
Hkkxhnkjh , fsrgkfl d rFkk jkt uhfrd dkj.kks
al s
] nks
uksans
' kksadsl a
ca
/ ks
aes
av us
d ks
amrkj&p<+
ko v k, gS
A
a
Hkkjr v kS
j i kfdLrku dschp O;ki kj l caa
/ gj oDr nks
uks
ans
' kksadschp l a
ca
/ ks
adh rkdr v kS
j fons'k
uhfr i j fuHkZ
j djrsgS
A t c nks
a
uksaes
afe=krki w
. kZl a
ca
/ gks
r sgS
A] ml l e; O;ki kj Hkh dki Q
a
h gn rd
c<+t krk gS
A
1965 l s1974 rd] chp ds9 o"kZ[ kkyh Nks
M+
d j] Hkkjr v kS
j i kfdLrku , d nw
l jsdsl kFk 1947 l s
O;ki kj dj jgs gS
A Lora
a
=krk ds l e; nks
uks
ans
' k i jLi j , d nw
l js i j dki Q
h fuHkZ
j Fks
A okLro esa
1948&49 es
ai kfdLrku ds oS
' fod fu; kZ
r rFkk v k; kr es
aHkkjr dk fgLl k e' k%23-60 rFkk
50-6 FkkA 1975&76 es
a; g ?kVdj 1-3 rFkk 0-06 jg x; kA 1951&52 es
aHkkjr ds oS
f' od
fu; kZ
r dk 1-1 Fkk t ks/ hj&/ hjsde gks
r sgq
, 2005&2006 rd 0-7 rFkk 0-13 jg x; kA Hkkjr
v kS
j i kfdLrku dschp O;ki kj rhu rjhdks
al sgks
r k gS
A
1)

l jdkjh ek; e l sgks


usokyk v kS
i pkfjd O;ki kj %oS
' fod v ka
d M+
ksdh rq
y uk esabl i d
z kj dk
O;ki kj ukeek=k gS
A

2)

v oS
/ rFkk v ukS
i pkfjd O;ki kj % ; g O;ki kj Hkkjr&i kd Hkw
fe l hek l s gks
d j v Fkok
vi Q
xkfuLrku dsjkLrsl sgks
r k gS
A

3)

r`r h; ns
' kksads ek; e l s O;ki kj %bl es
aeq
[ ; r%nq
cbZrFkk fl a
xki q
j v krs gS
] t ks fu' kq
a
Yd
ca
njxkgs
agS
arFkk Hkkjr v kS
j i kfdLrku] nks
uks
ans
' kks
adh O;ki kfj; ks
adsoS
/ ,t s
V~
a
l dksLFkku ns
ns
r sgS
A
a

; g t kuuk Hkh cM+


k jks
pd gSfd Hkkjr v kS
j i kfdLrku dsl a
ca
/ pkgsdS
l sHkh gks
] v ukS
i pkfjd ekxksZ
a
l sO;ki kj pyrk jgrk gSt S
l sr`r h; ns
' k ekxZ
] rLdjh v Fkok mu i fjokjks
adsek; e l st ksnku
sksans'kksa
es
av krst krsjgrsgS
A
a

Hkkj r &i kd v kS
i pkfj d O
; ki kj
; g og f}i {kh; v kS
i pkfjd O;ki kj gSft l sdkuw
uh rkS
j i j Hkkjr&i kfdLrku dh l hek v Fkok ca
njxkgksa
i j ?kks
f"kr rFkk i a
t hd`r fd; k t krk gS
Ai kfdLrku ds, d nS
fud l ekpkj i =k esai z
d kf' kr uhpsfn; k
x; k l ekpkj orZ
eku fLFkfr i j i z
d k' k Mkykrk gS
A
19

Hkkjr v kS
j i kfdLrku dschp O;ki j 2-1 l sc<+
d j 2-4 fcfy; u Mkyj rd gksx; k gS
A
gekjsl a
oknnkrk }kjk
eq
fnz
r %14 ebZ
] 2013
bLy kekckn %Hkkjrh; mPpk; q
Dr ds v uq
l kj fi Nys o"kZHkkjr v kS
j i kfdLrku ds chp f}i {kh;
O;ki kj 2-1 l sc<+
d j 2-4 fcfy; u Mkyj gksx; k] D; ks
fd ubZfnYyh }kjk i z
a
kIr ykHkks
adh rq
y uk
es
ai kfdLrku usO;ki kj dsl kekU;hdj.k l sv f/ d ykHk mBk; k gS
AHkkjr dsokf.kT; rFkk miHkkD
srk
ea
=kky; dsv a
r xZ
r okf.kT; d l rdZ
r k rFkk l ka
[ ; dh egk&funs
' kky; }kjk fn, x, v a
fre v ka
d M+
ksds
v uq
l kj ( ft Ugs
al ks
eokj dks gh fn; k x; k Fkk) fi Nys o"kZv i z
y l s bl o"kZekpZrd v a
S
fdr
f}i {kh; O;ki kj es
a' kq
410 fefy; u Mkyj dh o`f gq
bZgS
A
i kfdLrku }kjk Hkkjr dksfu; kZ
r es
a28 o`f gq
bZgS
at cfd Hkkjr }kjk i kfdLrku dksfu; kZ
r es
a19
dh o`f gq
bZgS
A f}i {kh; O
; ki kj c<+
d j 2-4 fcfy; u Mkyj gkspq
d k gS
A ; fn nks
uks
ans
' k , d nw
l js
dsl kFk l eku O;ogkj djs
] rks; g O;ki kj v kxkeh nkso"kks
a
Z
aes
a6 fcfy; u Mkyj Hkh i gq
p l drk gS
A
bLykekckn es
aHkkjrh; mPpk; q
Dr }kjk t kjh dh xbZ, d l jdkjh foKkfIr ds v uq
l kj] Hkkjr ds
fi Nysfok o"kZ( v i z
y 2012 l sekpZ2013 rd) es
S
] i kfdLrku dk Hkkjr dksfu; kZ
a
r 28 l s
c<+
d j 513 fefy; u Mkyj rd i gq
p x; k gS
A/ kfRod ykS
g] v ; Ld rFkk yks
gsdh drju] t S
fod
jl k; u] di kl rFkk peM+
k v kfn mu eq
[ ; oLrq
v ka
s es
agSft udsdkj.k ; g egoi w
. kZo`f gq
bZ
A
mPpk; q
Dr usi kfdLrku }kjk bl 28 o`f dksi z
Hkko' kkyh crk; k gS; fn bl dh rq
y uk Hkkjr ds
dq
y v k; kr dh ukeek=k o`f l sdh t k, Abl h dky es
aHkkjr }kjk i kfdLrku dksfd; k t kusokyk
fu; kZ
r c<+
d j 300 fefy; u Mkyj gksx; k v FkkZ
r 19 o`fAi kfdLrku dksHkkjr }kjk dq
y fu; kZ
r
1-84 fcfy; u Mkyj jgk t ksO;ki kj l a
rq
y u dksubZfnYyh dsi {k es
ayst krk gS
A
mPpk; q
Dr usdgk fd f}i {kh; O;ki j es
ao`f] fo' ks"krkS
j i j i kfdLrku }kjk Hkkjr dksfu; kZ
r ] mu
dneks
adsl dkjkRed i z
Hkko dksn' kkZ
r h gSft Ugs
aO;ki kfjd l a
ca
/ ks
adksi w
. kZ
r ; k l kekU; cukusdsfy,
mBk; k x; k gS
A O;ki kj dsokrkoj.k dksv kS
j v kxsl q
/ kjusdsfy, ] v k; kr ' kq
Yd l g; ks
x] feyt q
y

20

dj ekuna
Mksdh i gpku djusrFkk O;ki kj l a
ca
/ h f' kdk; rks
adksnw
j djusds{ks
=kksaes
arhu f}i {kh;
l e>kS
r sv kS
j t ks
M+
sx, ft u i j 2012 es
agLrk{kj gq
,A
fi Nyso"kZi Q
jojh es
] v kxsdh v ks
a
j , d cgq
r cM+
h Nyka
x yxkrsgq
, ] , d l dkjkRed l w
ph dks
l ekIr dj fn; k ft l es
a1956 O;ki kj ; ks
X; oLrq
v ksadsuke Fksv kS
j ml dsLFkku i j 1209 mu
oLrq
v ksadh udkjkRed l w
ph t kjh dj nh ft udk O
; ki kj rc rd ughafd; k t k l drk t c rd
fd nks
uks
av ks
j l sfuckZ
/ O;ki kj dsl kekU;hdj.k i j l gefr ughacurhA
14 ebZ
] 2013 dksn , Dl i z
l fVC;w
s
u es
ai z
d kf' kr ; gk dq
N v kS
j fopkj.kh; v ka
d M+
sfn, t k jgsgS
a%

Hkkj r v kS
j i kfd Lr ku d schp f} i {kh; O
; ki kj
; -w
, l - Mky j fefy ; u esa
o"kZ

fu; kZ
r

v k; kr

dq
y O
; ki kj

O
; ki kj l a
rq
yu

2005&06

689-23

179-56

868-79

509-67

2006&07

1350-09

323-62

1673-71

1026-47

2007&08

1950-53

287-97

2238-5

1662-56

2008&09

1439-88

370-17

1810-05

1069-71

2009&10

1573-32

275-94

1849-26

1297-38

2010&11

233-62

332-51

2666-13

2001-11

( 2011&12 v i z
y & t uojh)
S

1268-32

294-5

1562-82

973-82

21

Hkkj r &i kd l hek i j O


; ki kj } kj

Hkkjrh; Vd i kfdLrku esat kusdsfy, rS


; kj gS
A
a
(Source: http://www.livemint.com/Politics/9f5kNKuVPasQn8LOFkMfjP/
Saarc-countries-hope-to-finalize-traffic-pact.html)t

i kfd Lr ku es
ai z
os
' k gs
r wr S
; kj Hkkj r h; Vd

v kS
i pkfjd ekxZl si kfdLrkuh l keku dk v kokxeu Hkkjr esa
(http://www.oneindia.com/india/customs-to-set-up-undervehicle-scan-system-in-indo-pak-border-1643686.html)

22

Hkkj r &i kd v ukS


i pkfj d O;ki kj
v ukS
i pkfjd v Fkok v oS
/ O;ki kj i z
k; %fuEufyf[ kr dkj.kks
al sgks
r k gS%

fofHkUu dkj.kks
al sdq
N fof' k"V enks
adsv k; kr i j i z
frca
/ tS
l sLokLF; l a
ca
/ h eq
s
] / kfeZ
d
fo' okl v Fkok v kfFkZ
d dkj. kA

ns
' k es
arLdjh l sykbZt kusokyh oLrq
v ks
adksega
xk cukusokysmPp ' kq
Yd v ojks
/ d v Fkok
i fjogu O;; A

xS
j ' kq
Yd ck/ kv ks
adk FkkS
i k t kuk t S
a
l sfd ek=kkRed i kca
fn; kA

?kjs
y wuhfr; ks
aes
arks
M+
&ejks
M+t S
l k fd dj u yxkuk v Fkok v i s
{ kkd`r de dj gks
uk v kS
j og
Hkh , s
l sns
' k es
at gk i M+
ks
l h ns
' kksal sv oS
/ oLrq
v ks
adksykusokyks
adksi z
ks
Rl kgu fn; k t krk gS
A

Hkkjr v kS
j i kfdLrku dschp v ukS
i pkfjd O;ki kj eq
[ ; : i l srLdjks
av Fkok O;ki kfj; ks
a}kjk fd; k
t krk gS
aft l sHkkjr&i kd l hek i j oLrqfofue; }kjk fd, t kusdsl kFk&l kFk O;fDrxr l keku ; kst uk
dsv raxZ
r va
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23

dschp v krafjd O;ki kj 11 jkLrks


al sgks
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24

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25

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26

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2-

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27

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ade nkeks
ai j oLrq
, arFkk l sok, a

28

miyC/ gks
xhA bl l syks
a
xks
adh cpr djusdh {kerk dksc<+
kok feys
xk ft l l sf' k{kk] LokLF; rFkk
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l sl kekft d l w
pdks
ai j l dkjkRed i z
Hkko i M+
xkA
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la
nHkZ

www.icrier.org

SDPI, Islamabad

PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry

The Express Tribune

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dks
bZv U; i z
kl a
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;k
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v kW
Vks
eks
ckby] bLi kr v kfn m| ks
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adksHkkjr l sv k; kr dsdkj.k gkfu gksl drh gS
A
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j yxkuk (MfEia
x)

29

( 5)

dks
bZv U; fcUnq
( l exz: i es
aew
Y; ka
fdr fd; k t k, xkA)
2-

ya
ch nw
j h dsi fjogu] Hkk"kk v kS
j l ka
Lo`Q
frd fHkUurk, ] eq
nz
k fofue; njs
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k v kS
j dkuw
uh
dkxkh dk; Zdh v ko' ; drk miHkks
Drk O;ogkj i fjorZ
u v kfn dsdkj.k mRiUu ck/ k, s
al a
f{kIr
O;k[ ; kA

( 5)

( l exz: i es
aew
Y; ka
fdr fd; k t k, xkA)

30