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BUILDING

CONSTRUCTION[BLD60303]
Project 1: Experiencing Construction

DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

LEE HUI QIN 0322991


NG KE NING 0323015
EVELYN LAI KAH YING 0322732
NG ZHENG SI 0322585
NG HONG BIN 0319735
CHONG YU XUAN 0317950
LEE KAI YUNG 0318314
CHEW JIA CHEN 0322852

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO SITE

1
1-2

2.1 PLANTS AND MACHINERY

3.0 EXTERNAL WORK


3.1 SURVEY AND SETTING OUT
3.2 SITE CLEARANCE
3.3 EARTH WORK
3.4 DRAINAGE
3.5 TEMPORARY FACILITIES AND SERVICES

4.0 FOUNDATION
4.1 FOUNDATION DETAILS (ON SITE)

3-4
5-7

CONTENTS

2.0 SITE AND SAFETY

8
8
9

10
11
12

13
14-16

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE
5.1 SLAB
5.2 BEAM AND COLUMN
5.3 WALL
5.4 STAIRCASE

17
17-21
22-25
26-31
32-37

6.0 DOORS AND WINDOWS


6.1 DOORS
6.2 WINDOWS

7.0 ROOFING
7.1 TYPE OF ROOF

8.0 SUMMARY
9.0 REFERENCES

38
38-40
41-43
44
44-47
48
49

SITE 1: PRECINCT 11 SETIA ALAM, SELANGOR DARUL EHSAN.

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO SITE

Project Title: 68 units three storey terrace house (20 X 65)


Project Duration: 17 months
Site Possession Date: 03/06/2015
Completion Date: 02/11/2016 (Overall)
02/01/2016 (Mock Up Sample)
Precinct 11, Setia Alam is a quiet serene and low density
neighbourhood. It is located in Setia Alam, Klang which is 10km
to Subang Jaya and 45km to KLIA. There are recreation park,
primary and secondary schools, shopping malls and many
other facilities nearby. It best-kept secret, offers a serene
sanctuary tucked away in the townships northernmost point.

First Floor

Second Floor

Site plan

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Ground floor

SITE 2: FRONTIER INDUSTRIAL PARK, JOHOR.

Type of building: Semi-detached factory


Project duration : 15 months
This industrial factory project is owned by Woon Brothers. It is
located at Desa Cemerlang, Johor Bahru which is 15km far
away from the centre of the town. It is naturally eco as it
transform the landscape of industrial development.

Site plan

First floor

Side elevation

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Ground floor

Front elevation

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO SITE

Built-up area : 7,008 sq.ft.

SAFETY SIGNBOARD

CONSTRUCTION SIGNBOARD

The safety signboard is put at the entrance of the


construction site to seek people attention before
entering the site.
To ensure the safety and prevent accidents to
happen.

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT


SAFETY GLASSES
- use to protect eye from
flying particles.
SAFETY GLOVES
- use to protect hands
from injuries.

SAFETY HELMET
- use to protect head from
falling objects.

HIGH VISIBILITY
VEST
- make sure the
user is highly visible
to other personnel.

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SAFETY BOOTS
- use to protect feet from
sharp or falling objects.

SAFETY SIGNAGE

2.0 SITE AND SAFETY

The signboard indicates the construction proposal


of the site.
It shows the organisation company detail such as
owner, developer company, architect company,
C&S engineer company, M&E engineer company,
surveyor company.

2.0 SITE AND SAFETY

PUBLIC SAFETY AND HEALTH

HOARDING

CONCRETE FORMWORK

TEMPORARY TOILET

TEMPORARY CANTEEN

Workers get away from a noisy


or polluted workplace helps to
relax and recover from fatigue.
Workers can buy daily life needs
and also food ingredients.

Helps to protect the health of


the workers.
Provides a changing room for
workers to clean up and change
before heading back home.

All scaffolds require bracing for


structural support and prevent
from collapsing.
They should be secured tied and
supported.

WASHING FACILITIES

Washing facilities prevents workers


from taking home dirt from the site.
Ensure that every worker is able to
wash their hands before every meal.

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The construction site should be

fully barricaded by protective


hoarding so that public could be
protected from work in progress.

The hoarding also acts as barrier


to prevent people from trespassing
into the construction site.

2.0 SITE AND SAFETY

Formwork and reshores shall be


certified structurally safe by a
Professional Engineer and shall
be properly braced or tied
together so as to maintain position
and shape.

SCAFFOLDING

2.0 SITE AND SAFETY

PUBLIC SAFETY AND HEALTH

TRUCK-MOUNTED MOBILE CRANES WITH PLATFORM

HYDRAULIC
LUFFING ARM

TELESCOPIC BOOM
SECTIONS

PLATFORM

A crane mounted on truck with


a man basket
Worker can travel easily
between floor using this man
basket.
Only suitable for low risk
construction and can use
without any setup or assembly
STABALISING JACK
SLEWING RING

ROAD DRIVING AND


CRANE OPERATION
CONTROLS

BACKHOE-LOADER

A tractor with a shovel or


bucket on the front and a small
backhoe on the back
Very useful in digging shallow
excavation and trenches
It can act as loader for loading
and carrying materials

TRACTOR

BACKHOE
BOOM

LOADER

STICK

BUCKET

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STABILIZER LEGS

2.0 SITE AND SAFETY 2.1 PLANTS AND MACHINERY

PLANTS AND MACHINERY

A full revolving superstructure


mounted on a truck.
Easily transport to a site and use
with different type of load and
cargo with little or no setup or
assembly
It is very suitable for the short
term project that required crane
utilization

TELESCOPIC HYDRAULIC RAM


HOIST ROPE
TELESCOPIC BOOM
SECTIONS

HYDRAULIC
LUFFING ARM

STABALISING JACK

THE COUNTERWEIGHTS

DROP HAMMER PILE DRIVER

Drive pile into soil to increase


shear strength of the soil
Versatility in the range of piling
LEADER
PILE HAMMER
BACK STAY
CATCH BOOM

PILE CATCH
FRONT JACK

EXCAVATOR OR
PILING RIG

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WINCH

2.0 SITE AND SAFETY 2.1 PLANTS AND MACHINERY

HOIST BLOCK

TRUCK-MOUNTED TELESCOPIC CRANES

A concrete plant, a device that combines various ingredients to


form concrete.
Concrete batching plants are widely used to produce various
kinds of concrete including quaking concrete and hard concrete,
suitable for large or medium scale building works, road and
bridge works and precast concrete plants, etc.

PORTABLE CONCRETE MIXER

A mini concrete mixer for smaller volume works


Often used at construction site, giving the workers ample time to
use the concrete before it hardens

Mini crane used for lifting in unconventional and difficult


situation
Small enough to manoeuvre into a job site and it can setup in
almost any available work space
It can used indoor and outdoor operations.

PORTABLE MINI CRANE

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2.0 SITE AND SAFETY 2.1 PLANTS AND MACHINERY

CONCRETE BATCHING PLANT

The purpose of a boundary survey is to establish the boundary lines of a new parcel of land, or to re-establish the boundary
lines of an existing parcel of land.

SETTING OUT
Setting out is the establishment of mark and line from which the whole of the building can be set out. The position of the
line must be clearly marked on-site so that it can be re-established at any time. The main aim of setting out is to ensure that
the various elements of the scheme are positioned correctly in all three dimensions.
Telescope at right angle
(swivel up and down
within range 3 to 100m)

PROCESS
1.

Boundary lines of the


land owned is
established with
known bearing and
distance from the pre
computation plan.

2.
90

tripod

sight lines
to correct
posts

Marked and checked


the main lines of the
building can be set
out by theodolite
and each corner
marked with a stout
peg.

Corner
post
Main setting out lines

Profile
board

A check should be
made of the
setting-out line
for right angles
and correct
lengths.

3.

Diagonal
check

Site
boundary

Nails
positioning
trench and
walls

Profile boards are set


up to determine the
corners and sides of
buildings. It required
at all trench and wall
intersections.

50 x 50 pointed
posts driven into
ground 450 to 600
deep height above
ground 150 to 600

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Base line

4.

Setting out lines

3.0 EXTERNAL WORK 3.1 SURVEY AND SETTING OUT

BOUNDARY SURVEY

SITE CLEARANCE

CLEARING VEGETATION AND TOPSOIL REMOVAL


Uprooting whole tree with machinery
1.

2.
A bulldozer is
then used to push
the branches and
stones to the
collecting point.

3.

4.
Reuse the topsoil

300mm

Surface soil

Excavate to the desired


depth and transport
the topsoil to another
location for other
purpose as it can be
reuse.

Topsoil
removed

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The top 300mm soil


should be remove as it
contain plant life and
decaying vegetation
which is easily
compressed and
unsuitable for
foundations.

3.2 SITE CLEARANCE

The arm of the


excavator is placed
against the trunk
and push it aside.
Then, it use the
edge of bucket to
chop the tree trunk
into smaller pieces.

3.0 EXTERNAL WORK

Site clearance is the first step in preparation of construction site where it involves clearing vegetation and removal of soil to
reduce levels in the proposed site. This is to ensure that the proposed buildings will be free from vegetation and the soil is
suitable for foundation to improve the stability of proposed buildings.

EARTHWORK

CUT AND FILL


Marked for original height level
of the land

Marked for original height level


of the land

Formation or reduced
level (cut line)

Original ground level

cut
fill

Cut
It gives undisturbed soil
over the whole of the
site.
Fill
The amount of fill should
not exceed a depth of
600mm.

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Sloping Site

Cut line is made for


reduced level and also to
estimate how much land
need to be fill.

3.3 EARTH WORK

This is used to estimate the


total volume of land been
cut by calculate the area
and height being reduced.

3.0 EXTERNAL WORK

Earthwork is a process that include removal, moving and adding of large quantities of soil or rock from a particular area to
another. This is done in order to make an area a suitable height and level for a specific construction purpose. It can be
performed by cutting into or excavating an area of ground or by constructing a new area.

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SUBSOIL DRAINAGE

OUTFALL TO STREAM

Cover and frame

Branch drains

The pipes are


arranged in grid
iron pattern to
cover as much
to the site as is
necessary.
Pipe channel for
access to system

Concrete bank
protection
Metal baffle

The system is
terminated at a
suitable outfall which
is river or stream.
Precautions should
be taken to ensure
the system will not
work in reverse
which cause rising
tide.

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Drain to
discharge above
water level

Brick built manhole

3.4 DRAINAGE

Grid Iron

Brick wall

A manhole or access chamber is required


to gain access to a drainage system for
un-blocking, cleaning, rodding or
inspection.

3.0 EXTERNAL WORK

Subsoil drainage is installed within the ground to remove excessive water from the soil to avoid the passage of ground moisture
to the interior of the building and damage to the fabric of the building. With the help of subsoil drainage, it helps to improve the
stability of the ground, lowering the humidity of the site and also improving its horticultural properties.

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MATERIAL STORAGE

Only one access to the site to


prevent unauthorized access and to
afford satisfactory of traffic vehicles.

It is an open storage area as the


materials are bulky and heavy and
also able to resistant to the weather.

HOARDINGS

SCAFFOLDING

It prevent unauthorized access and shield


the construction site from view to minimize
disturbance. The gaps between each panel
is to withstand wind load.

A temporary structure which


provide working platforms, ladders
and guard rails for the workers.

ELECTRICAL SUPPLY

WATER SUPPLY

Provide power supply to some


machinery or for the daily life of
workers.

For production of cement or serve


as drinking water for the workers.

SIGNAGE

Administration area and office signs


for visitors to report to and also for
security purpose.
WORKER ACCOMODATION

Temporary shed and a rest area for


construction workers.

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It is a portable cabin which is a


congregation point between contractors,
architects and engineers. Visitors need to
get permission for entering from here.

3.5 TEMPORARY FACILITIES AND


SERVICES

ACCESS AND EXIT

3.0 EXTERNAL WORK

SITE OFFICE

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Foundation is the lower portion of the building usually located below ground level, which transmits the loads of the
super structure to the supporting soil.
PURPOSE OF FOUNDATION:
To hold together and increase the stability of the structure.
To distribute the load of the structure over a large bearing area.
To load the bearing surface at a uniform rate to prevent unequal settlement.
To prevent the lateral movement of the supporting material.
To secure a level and firm bed for building operations.

4.0 FOUNDATION

FOUNDATION

Foundations are generally divided into deep foundation and shallow foundation.

Personnel Access
Pressurized Air
Tube
Supply
Air Lock
Muck Tube
Ballast Weights

Water

4.0 FOUNDATION

DEEP FOUNDATION: used to transfer the load of a structure down through the upper weak layer of
topsoil to the stronger layer of subsoil below. There are different types of deep footings including
impact driven piles, drilled shafts and caissons.

Water
Workspace

Bored foundation

Caisson foundation

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Driven foundation

13

Pile foundation is a form of deep foundation and is used when the ground is soft or is a filled ground. Piling is
generally used to transfer load from the unsuitable ground at the surface deep into the ground. Our sites use
prefabricated reinforced concrete pile.
Pile foundation is suitable when:

Load Structure

Pile Cap

The structure carries heavy


concentrated loads.
Lower Density

Piles

Higher Density

CLASSIFICATION OF PILES

FRICTIONAL FORCE
- Produced by the
resistance of earth mass
to provide lateral
stability.

COLUMN LOAD
- Transfer load from
superstructure to pile
cap.

PREFABRICATED
REINFORCED
CONCRETE PILE
- Transfer the loads
towards the more
stable stratum.

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Used when the soil is soft and no hard


strata available to a certain depth.
Carrying capacity is derived mainly from
the adhesion or friction of the soil in
contact with the shaft of the pile.
Transfer their load to the ground through
skin friction.

PILE CAP
- Connect to the cluster
of RC piles below to
ensure equal load
distribution.

4.1 FOUNDATION DETAILS


(ON SITE)

Medium Density

The soil is very soft and


solid bed is not
available at a
reasonable depth to
keep the bearing power
within safe limits.

4.0 FOUNDATION

PILE FOUNDATION

14

Step 2: Pile Cap

A pile is a column of concrete


that extends downward deep into
the soil. It is a type of deep
foundation.

A pile cap is defined as a


concrete block cast on the head
of a group of piles. Pile cap
transfers the load from the
structures to a pile group and the
load further transfers to firm soil.

Step 3: Footing

A base that supports the


structure. Footing is the wider
part of concrete that goes under
concrete wall and is used to
keep the wall from sagging.

PROCESS OF PILE FOUNDATION (DETAILS)

Step 4: Ground Beam

Ground beams are designed to


support brickwork or to form a
permanent shutter to the edge of
in-situ concrete floor slab. The
beams can be designed to
withstand any heave forces with
the use of void forming or
compressible materials.

2. WELD
The plate join of adjacent pile
for extension.

3. APPLY
Bitumen at joint as water proofing
coating to prevent rust.

4. DRIVE
The extension pile into the ground
until maximum.

5. CUT
Cut off the excessive extension
pile using a pile cutting machine.

6. EXCAVATE
Surrounding soil of the pile
cluster by approximately
300mm depth.

7. CAST
The pile cap in situ.

8. LOAD TEST
Carried out by putting loads on
the pile for certain period. It is a
pass If the pile does not crack.

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1. DRIVE
Starter or drive pile until maximum
at pile point.

4.1 FOUNDATION DETAILS


(ON SITE)

Step 1: Piling

4.0 FOUNDATION

PROCEDURE OF PILE FOUNDATION

15

Concrete block cast on the head of a group of


piles.
Ground stability increases with depth & pressure.
The top of pile is more vulnerable to movement &
stress.
Tie the pile heads together.

To distribute a single load equally over the pile


group & over a greater area of bearing potential.
To stabilize individual pile thus increasing overall
stability of the group.
To provide necessary combined resistance to stress
set up by the superstructure.

15cm

TYPE OF ARRANGEMENTS OF PILES

LEADER: Provide vertical


attachment support for pile
hammer.
3 pile cap

4 pile cap

HELMET: Distribute the force


from the hammer to the pile
evenly and prevent damage

Piles
MACHINERY USED:
DROP HAMMER PILE DRIVER
BACKSTAY: Transfer
the counterweight
tension from the
leader towards the
ground to stabalise
the driver.
CRANE: Lift and hoist
the pile.

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6 pile cap

DIESEL PILE HAMMER: Create


the magnitude of force to drive
the pile by inducing downward
momentum in the metal ram.

15cm

Pile length various


from 6-30m
depend on ground
condition.

4.1 FOUNDATION DETAILS


(ON SITE)

Column
Pile Cap

FUNCTIONS

Maximum load
250 kN

4.0 FOUNDATION

PILE CAP

16

Simply supported slab


These are slabs which rest in a bearing and for design purposes are
not considered to be fixed to the support and are therefore, in theory
, free to lift.In practice however they are restrained from
unacceptable lifting by their own self weight plus any loadings.
Concrete slabs
Concrete is a material which is strong in compression and weak in
tension and if member is overloaded its tensile resistance may be
exceeded leading to structure failure.

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE

SLAB

Types of slab
One way slab

Two way slab

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Length is less than double the width


(approximately square). Slab is
supported on all four sides and
bending take place in two
directions.

Suspended slabs are slabs that are not in direct


contact with the ground. They form roofs or
floors above ground level

5.1 SLAB

Length is two more times the width. Slab


supported on two sides and bending takes
place predominantly in one direction

Suspended slab

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1.Preparing site
Unless the site is flat and sandy it
may be necessary to excavate.

Incorporate a damp-proof membrane


(DPM) under the concrete slab.

A thin layer of graded, granular,


compactible material is normally used as
fine grading material to minimize friction
between the base material and the slab.

5. Reinforcing
Install the welded steel
reinforcement mesh and rebar. (two
layers of BRC A8).

3. Building Formwork
Defining the boundaries of the
concrete slab with wooden stakes.

6. Mixing Concrete
Distributes the aggregate evenly
throughout the cement paste,
ensures that all of the cement has
been fully saturated in water, and
removes large air voids.

5.1 SLAB

4.Vapour Barrier

2. Soil Support System

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE

CONSTRUCTION PROCESS OF CONCRETE SLAB

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Placed concrete into the formwork that


defines its final position and shape.

Once the concrete is in place, it should be consolidated


to remove large air voids developed during placement
and to make sure that the concrete has flowed into all of
the corners and nooks of the formwork. This process is
also called compacting.

9.Finishing

10.Curing

Final treatment of the concrete surface after it has


been consolidated to achieve the desired properties.
This can be as simple as pushing a wide blade over
the fresh concrete surface to make it flat screeding.

As the concrete hardens and gains strength it becomes


less and less vulnerable, so the critical time period is
the first hours and days after it is placed.

5.1 SLAB

8.Consolidation

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE

7. Placing Concrete

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Steel Reinforcing Bars and Welded Wire Reinforcement


Concrete is very strong when it is squeezed in compression but very weak when it is
being pulled apart in tension. Steel reinforcing bars and welded wire reinforcement
are very strong in tension, have similar thermal expansion and contraction properties
to those of the concrete, and thus can handle high-tension stresses while the concrete
can take substantial compressive stresses.

Starter bar
Starter bars are usually used to tie reinforced masonry or concrete walls to slabs or footings

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE

REINFORCEMENT OF CONCRETE SLAB

5.1 SLAB

Starter bars in beam before the installation of slab

Starter bars are bent

STRUCTURE OF SLAB
Damp proof membrane

2 layers of BRC

Bent starter bar


Beam
Compressed hardcore

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Slab

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Suspended slabs are slabs that are not in direct contact with the ground. They form roofs or floors above ground level

CONSTRUCTION METHOD OF SUSPENDED SLAB


1.Preparation of timber formwork.

3. Finished slab.

5.1 SLAB

2. Completion of steel bars


and erection of formwork to
the required size. Concrete
is poured and left to cure.

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE

SUSPENDED SLAB

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FORMWOK DESIGN

Formwork construction for


concrete column

Formwork construction for


concrete beam

Concrete fromwork purpose is to place and form concrete


mixture according to prescribed size and design.
It is a temporary building structure which needs to be
opened when the concrete inside hardens.
Reinforcement steel bar

Columns in timer formwork,


waiting to dry.

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Beams are set on beaming pads on


the column corbels.
Steel angles are welded to metal
plates cast into the beams and
columns and the joint is grouted solid.
Diagonal cracking & crushing of
concrete can be prevented in joints.
Mostly, for this large column size is
the most effective.

Cement concrete

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE 5.2 BEAM AND COLUMN

REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM TO


COLUMN CONNECTION

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Beam

Column

Beam is horizontal load bearing member


which is used to withstand load. It does
so by allowing the structure to maintain
its shape and not bend. It is commonly
reinforced with rebar.

Column is vertical load bearing member


which transfer loads from beams to the
foundation. Reinforcement are applied to
strengthen their compressive force.

For our particular site, the beams and column are made of concrete. There are two different type of concrete beams
and columns, pre cast and in-situ. Pre cast being beams and columns that are pre-casted off site and brought on site to
be assembled on to the structure and in-situ being casted on site using formwork which was that was used in our site.
Our site uses cast on site reinforced concrete. Concrete is strong in compression but weak in tensile forces. Therefore
steel reinforcement bar(rebar) are applied. Into concrete beam, slab and column to increase their tensile strength and
resist compression, tension, shear and bending.
Column

Beam

Scaffolding

Hold up the formwork


and concrete so that it
Timber formwork
maintains its shape.

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE 5.2 BEAM AND COLUMN

Beam and column are elements that make up a buildings structure.

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Material: Reinforced Concrete, timber & steel

1. Setting up of
reinforcement bars. The
thickness of bars and the
number of bars used
depends on the load it has
to bear.

5. Reinforcement
bars for beams are
set up.

6. Cement is poured into


the formwork. A concrete
vibrator is then use to
ensure that the concrete
settle firmly in place.

3. Cement is being poured into


the formwork. A concrete
vibrator is then used to
release trapped air and excess
water.

7. The formwork is removed after


the concrete dried. Columns and
beams are formed. Excess rebar on
top of column is for continuation of
rebar for next floor.

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4. When the concrete


of the columns have
dried up after 28
days, cladding of
formwork for beams
can be done.

2. Cladding of formwork
using plywood.

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE 5.2 BEAM AND COLUMN

PROCESS CONSTRACTING BEAM AND COLUMN

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Dowels tie column to support beam or


slab.
Vertical reinforcement should not be less
than 1% nor more than 8% of the cross
sectinal concrete beam.
Types of reinforcement steel includes T12,
T14, T16, T20, T25, T32 and T40.
T represents reinforcement steel and the
numbers indicates the diameter.

The timber is for plywood formwork,


the oil beside it is used to paint on it
so that the concrete will have shinny
surface.
Timber formwork

Lateral Reinforcement

Number of reinforcement bar used in


columns may be varied instead of varying
the size of columns.
Formations of lateral reinforcement bars
depends on the number of vertical
reinforcement bars used in a column.
Lateral ties should have a minimum
diameter of 10 meter.
Type of reinforcement used is usually T12,
reinforcement steel with diameter of
12mm.

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Concrete columns mat be supported by


isolated footings or by pile caps.

Scaffolding

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE 5.2 BEAM AND COLUMN

Length of overlapping reinforcement


bar is 24 times of the diameter of bar.

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A wall is a continuous, usually vertical structure, thin in proportion to its length and height, built to provide shelter or compartments.

TYPES OF WALL

Clay brick masonry wall

MASONRY WALL

Standard brick size

Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such


as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units together, fill and seal the
irregular gaps between them.

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75mm

MORTAR

5.3 WALL

Masonry is the building of structures from individual units


laid in and bound together by mortar.

Concrete load- bearing wall

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE

WALL SYSTEM

26

2.

1.

3.

4.

Corner lead

Footing

Preparing mortar

Lay the bricks starting from


the corner using mortar. Use
a level to check the course
for correct height.

End lead

Corner and end lead of


masonry wall.

Fill in the lead.

INSTALLATION OF DOWEL BAR

A damp proof course (DPC) is a physical barrier inserted into the


fabric of a building to stop water passing from one place to
another.

Dowel bars are short steel bars that provide


a mechanical connection between two
surfaces without restricting horizontal joint
movement.

Damp-proof
course(DPC)

5.3 WALL

INSTALLATION OF DAMP-PROOF COURSE (DPC)

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE

METHOD OF MASONRY WALL CONSTRUCTION

Damp-proof course(DPC)
Damp-proof
course(DPC)

150mm
A horizontal DPC is usually
placed 150mm above
ground level

Dowel bars connect the brick wall with


the column. It helps to strengthen the
brick wall by pulling the force towards
column.

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Damp proof course is


laid between an even,
fresh bed of mortar in
continuous lengths for
the full width of the
wall

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The purpose of using stiffener is to improve the strength of the brick wall and help to withstand the wind load.

1.

2.

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE

STIFFENER

5.3 WALL

Stiffener is built in the gap in between


brick walls. Steel bars are arranged in
formwork.

Concrete is poured and left to


cure.
The thickness of the stiffener is
same as the size of brick.

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A load-bearing wall or bearing wall is a wall that bears a load resting upon it by conducting its weight to a foundation structure. The
materials most often used to construct load-bearing walls in large buildings are concrete, block, or brick.

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE

LOAD BEARING WALL

5.3 WALL

Concrete load bearing wall

Wall Forms
Spreaders
Usually made of wood, space and
keep the wall or forms apart.

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Plywood Sheathing
Inner surface of panels leaves an impression on
the concrete, thus are coated with parting
compound oil, wax, or plastic.

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1.

2.

Preparation of timber formwork

4.

3.

Completion of steel
bars and erection of
formwork to the
required size

Closing of formwork,
concrete is poured and
left to cure

Completed RC shear wall

formwork

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Completed RC shear wall

5.3 WALL

Installation of
RC shear wall
formwork

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE

CAST IN-SITU SHEAR WALL

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Plastering is to coat a layer of plaster on the wall . The purposes of plastering are
to give resistance to the wall, increase fire resistance of the building elements,
and to give a good appearance to the wall. Cement plaster is usually coated on
masonry wall.

METHOD OF PLASTERING
2. Undercoating

1. Preparation
Chases cut before
plastering
Surface well
brushed with
hard broom to
remove loose
material and
dust

Wall
surface
to be dry

Fixing plug
inserted
before
plaster is
applied

Trims and decorative


finishes applied after
plaster has set and
cured

Thin coats of undercoat


plaster applied and built
up to required thickness
Fine wooden
scratcher used
to form key for
finishing coat

Floated undercoat
brought to a true and
level surface with a rule
or straightedge

Finishing coat
of plaster
applied with
steel trowel
to give a
smooth finish
Textured surfaces
can be obtained by
using different tools

5.3 WALL

Any metal
fixings to be
painted or
galvanized to
prevent
staining

3. Finishing

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE

PLASTERING

SKIM COATING
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Skim coating is a name for a plastering technique. The widely used mixture is
made up of lime putty and sugar sand. Skimming is a thin coat of plastering layer
applied to the existing plaster to upgrade the surface. The thickness of skimming
depends on clients request.

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A staircase is a construction designed to link a large vertical distance by


dividing it into smaller vertical distance which is called steps.It allows
easy movement between different levels.
Aspect that should be considered when designing a staircase is the
placement of stairs, ease of travel and most importantly the safety.The
design of a staircase should take proper consideration of the width,
treads, riser, nosing, landings, handrails which are the requirement of
a staircase.

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE

STAIRCASE

TYPES OF STAIRCASE USED ON SITE


2.Double Quarter Landing Stairs
Represent a variety of straight stairs, which also include a
landing. But here the landing is needed to change a
direction of the flight by 90 degrees and at the same time it
serves as a place for rest when moving.

5.4 STAIRCASE

1.U shaped stairs with winder treads


"Winder" stairs refer to stairways that make a turn
without including an intermediate landing or platform
to provide a flat rectangular turning space.

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Reinforced Concrete Staircase


Concrete staircase are usually
specified for its durability, long
lasting, high strength, fire and
weather resistance.
Reinforced concrete stairs are
designed as slabs and requires
structural analysis of load,
support and span conditions.
A staircase consists of riser, going(run), stair waist,
handrail, balustrade, newel other components according
to the types.

5.4 STAIRCASE

Details of Reinforced Concrete Staircase

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE

Material

External wall

Half landing area

Main bars
Tension lap
Starter bars
Rebar(Reinforcing bar)

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Main bars
Distribution bars

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In order to achieve a connection with the subjacent floor there must


be properly placed starter bars. Moreover, starter bars must be
positioned and at the superjacent floor for the staircase of the next
level.

1.Placement of starter bar


Before the positioning of the staircases formwork
(planking), the starter bars are properly bent at the
necessary height.

2.Staircase formwork and reinforcement at the starter bars

During the final phase of the positioning of the


staircases reinforcement, the lower rebars (in red
color) are tied to the distribution bars to their
proper position. The stringers and the risers are
placed last

the lower rebars of the staircase are not continued into


the staircase slab and therefore, they are not
presented.

The staircase will be supported on those starter


bars and the starter bars of the lower floor.

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4. Staircase construction in following phase

5.4 STAIRCASE

3.Starter bars at the top of staircase

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE

Starter bars in staircase

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Step 1: Measuring

Step 2: Determine the dimension of foundation

Calculate the height of one floor to the other


(total rise). Measure the horizontal distance of
the staircase (total run). Measure the width of
each step from left to right in the area where the
staircase will go (staircase width).

The dimension of foundation will be the length


of total run by the width of the staircase
measured in step 1.

Total rise

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE

CONSTRUCTION PROCESS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STAIRCASE

rise
run

Step 3: Building and Assembling Formwork

Width of staircase

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The form can be made by plywood or framing


lumber. The first step is to cut the side forms
according to the tread and riser calculations.
They must be securely adhered to the
building's foundation. Depending on the width
of the stairs, you might have to add bracing to
the center of each riser

Total run

5.4 STAIRCASE

Total run

35

Step 6: Pouring Concrete

Step 7: Add Finishing

Start from the bottom and pour one step at a time.


Make sure the mortars are spread evenly. Grease
the inner surface area of your to release the panels
easier after the cement set.

Produce sufficient and well mixed


mortar with portable cement mixer.

Repeat the trowelling process several


times for each step to smooth the steps.

5.4 STAIRCASE

Step 5: Preparing Concrete

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE

Step 4: Reinforcing
Reinforcing the concrete staircase
with steel.

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Spray the steps with curing compound and


cover it with burlap. Once the concrete has
hardened for a week, removed the form
lumber.

Step 9: Installing the handrails


i) Position the stair railing onto the staircase
where it will be installed
ii) Mark the position
iii) Drill pilot holes into the staircase at the
marks you made
iv) Place the railing into the pilot holes
v) Pour cement into the hole to fix the
handrail

5.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE

Step 8: Curing

5.4 STAIRCASE
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SLIDING DOOR

Sliding doors make excellent


use of space, and allow
significantly larger entryways
than conventional hinged
doors. 'Pocketed' sliding doors
even allow you to conceal
doors inside wall cavities.

HINGED DOOR
the basic hinged door is almost
certainly the type that comes
to mind. Find out how they
work, what options are
available and where they are
and aren't suitable.

HEAD

SILL
Style O-X-X
Triple track. The right hand door
is fitted to the inside of the track
and slides to the left with the
middle door. The far left door
remains fixed.

METAL SLIDING DOOR IN


BRICK VENEER WALL

6.0 DOORS AND WINDOWS 6.1 DOORS

TYPE OF DOORS

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SOFFIT

JAMB DEPTH

RABBET
RABBET

BACKBENDS

THROAT OPENING

HEAD JAMB

CORNER CONNECTION
SIDE JAMB

FACE

WALL WIDTH

DOOR OPENING
HEIGHT

DOOR STOP

DOOR OPENING
WIDTH

WIRE MASONARY
ANCHORS

METAL FRAME

MASONRY
WALL

MASONRY
ANCHORS

SILL ANCHORS

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METAL DOOR FRAME ELEMENTS:


DOOR FRAME
HEAD AD SIDE JAMP WITH STOPS
CASING OR TRIM
DOOR HARDWARE HINGEDS AND LOCKSET

6.0 DOORS AND WINDOWS 6.1 DOORS

DOOR METAL FRAME AND CONSTRUCTION DETAIL

39

4.

2.

Identify brickwork
location and door
position

Use planks and nails to prop up metal


door frame. Ensure the correct
direction of the door hinge then erect
the door frame.

5.

Place mortar into each gap between the brick


and frame of each layer. This is to ensure the
frame is properly filled to give rigidity and
strength by becoming an integral part of the
structure.

3.

Use spirit leveller to


check whether the frame
is properly plumbed.

6.

Wire masonry anchors


are used to ties with the
brick and the metal door
frame. These tie are for
binding the bricks.

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Begin brickwork by laying


the bring into the rebate
behind the back or the
metal door frame.

1.

6.0 DOORS AND WINDOWS 6.1 DOORS

METAL FRAME INSTALLATION

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Casement Window
Casement windows are hinged on the side and open outward
to the left or right. Usually taller than wide, their entire sash
opens to provide top-to-bottom ventilation.

Awning Window
Awning windows are hinged at the top and open outward.
Usually wider than they are tall, their entire sash opens to
provide full side-to-side ventilation.

6.0 DOORS AND WINDOWS 6.2 WINDOWS

TYPE OF WINDOWS

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WINDOW ELEMENT (CASEMENT WINDOW)


HEAD

SILICON SEAL
CASING

WINDOW SASH

JAMB

LOCK

HINGE

Elevation of casement window

HINGE TRACK
HINGE ARM

SILL

The windows element contain main 3 part, which is glazing,


sash, and the frame.

RETAINER CLIP

Elevation of awning window.

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Glazing: Clear glass of a window


Sash: The part that holding glazing
Frame: The fixed part of assembly the receives sash.

JAMB

6.0 DOORS AND WINDOWS 6.2 WINDOWS

METAL WINDOW FRAME DETAILS

42

1.

2.

Aluminium Plate

Position the sub-frame


using the aluminium
plate

4.

3.

Anchor Head

Check the alignment of


the sub-frame

5.
Millet

Joints with wall

Seal the anchor head and the


joints with the wall with
protection tape on the frame

Placing main frame on the subframe. Use millet to knock the


finishing frame.

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Anchor the sub-frame into


the rough opening using
nail

6.0 DOORS AND WINDOWS 6.2 WINDOWS

INSTALLATION OF ALUMINIUM WINDOW FRAME

43

Part of a building envelope that covers the uppermost part of a building or shelter which provide protection from
weather and animals.

SLED ROOF

METAL ROOF

CLAY TILED ROOF

Scaffolding font size: 14

7.1 TYPE OF ROOF

Also known as the monopitched roof, is a roof structure that has one sloping surface
and the sloped surface does not rest on any form of wall on the opposite ends.
Monopitched roof encourages good drainage during rainy weather as well as aiding in
reflecting heat away from the building if oriented appropriately. It is one of the easiest
roof structures to build and requires less cost.
Our site consist of 2 types of sled roof:
Metal roof
Clay tiled roof

7.0 ROOFING

ROOF

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Advantages CLAY TILED ROOF

Durable and long lasting able to last for more


than 100 years.
available in a variety of shapes, sizes, and
colors, unlike regular shingles.
has reflective properties, which help to
increase the efficiency of heating and
cooling systems.
not susceptible to mold or rot, can
withstand hurricane-force winds.
does not shrink and expand with the
temperature like wood.

Proven performance expectation of 50+ years.


Beautiful styles to match any home or
neighborhood.
Interlocking panels for maximum wind resistance.
Fire resistance.
Energy efficiency by keeping homes cooler.
Low weight to help preserve structural integrity and
life.

Disadvantages of METAL ROOF

Disadvantages CLAY TILED ROOF

Noisy during rain or hail.


High cost.

7.1 TYPE OF ROOF

Advantages of METAL ROOF

7.0 ROOFING

ADVANTAGES AND DISADAVANTAGES

Weight of the individual tiles.


Needs strong support beams to support the
weight.
High cost.

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7.0 ROOFING

CONSTRUCTION PROCESS OF METAL ROOF


1.The rafters are installed following the direction of
the roof slope. Each rafters are 12 to 24 inches
apart. The rafters act as the spine for the roof.

Purlin

Rafters

Tie rod

3. After purlin and rafter, A layer of reflective foil


laminate is put into place. It helps cooling and
prevents condensation. Which can cause roofing
sheets to rust prematurely.
Reflective foil laminate

CHONG YU XUAN
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4. Next will be putting on the metal roofing sheets


The metal roofing sheets are light, and are usually
passed up to the roof by hand, one by one.
Theyre laid in place, and are carefully marked and
cut for hips and valleys. Metal sheets is then
drilled and screwed down.

7.1 TYPE OF ROOF

2.Then the purlin is installed with a string like tool


called tie rod, which is used to hold the purlin in
position so that the distance between each purlin
will be the same.

46

1. The construction of tiled roof begins


with installation of the guttering and fascia boards.

Battens

Fascia board

Reflective foil

5.Tiles are then laid out


across the roof and
clipped on. Tiles at the
edges are cut to make
even lines along the hips
and valleys of the roof.

Rafters

4. Next, anti-ponding board (APB) is installed


underneath the sarking at the edges of the roof.
The purpose of the anti-ponding board is to
prevent water from pooling underneath the tiles
at the outer edge of the roof.

CHONG YU XUAN
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3. A layer of sarking (commonly a reflective foil


laminate, or RFL) is then laid down over these setout nails, with the reflective side facing
downwards.

7.1 TYPE OF ROOF

2. Measurements are made


and set-out nails are
hammered in place along
the rafters to hold the
battens, which are timber
pieces that run horizontally
across the surface of the
roof to keep everything in
place.

7.0 ROOFING

CONSTRUCTION PROCESS OF CLAY TILED ROOF

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8.0 SUMMARY

SUMMARY
In this project, we learn about the construction process which is the part where ideas become reality. The
underappreciated middle part of architecture. We studied the building process through observation, selfexperience and also research. From site & safety, plant and machineries, external works, foundation,
superstructure, doors, windows to roofs. Each part of the process shows utmost importance in producing the final
outcome, the piece of architecture that the people can enjoy.

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Barry, R. (1996). The construction of buildings. Oxford: Blackwell Science.


Charlett, A. J. (2007). Fundamental building technology. London: Taylor & Francis.
Chudley, R., & Greeno, R. (2000). Construction technology (3. ed., reprint). Harlow: Longman.
Chudley, R., & Greeno, R. (2001). Building construction handbook. Oxford; Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Levy, S. M. (2010). Construction databook: construction materials and equipment. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Mehta, M. (1997). The principles of building construction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

9.0 REFERENCES

BOOKS

WEBSITE
Building concrete stairs(2012)Retrieved from October 12,2015,from
http://www.idscontractors.com/articles/building-concrete-stairs/
Building construction 8. formworks and scaffoldings(2012)Retrieved from October 12,2015,from
http://www.slideshare.net/hamo92/building-construction-8-formworks-and-scaffoldings

Rcc slab casting-work procedure(2014).Retrieved October 19,from http://theconstructor.org/concrete/rcc-slabcasting-work-procedure/1656/


PARTS OF PELLA DOOR. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.pella.com/support-center/glossary/dooranatomy/default.aspx
Health and Safety Executive. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.hse.gov.uk/construction/
How steel / Colorbond / Zincalume roofs are installed. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.build.com.au/how-steelcolorbond-zincalume-roofs-are-installed
How tile roofs are installed. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.build.com.au/how-tile-roofs-are-installed

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