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THE EFFECTS OF NEUTRAL

SHIFTS ON PROTECTIVE
RELAYING
Joe Perez P.E.

Amir Makki

Shijia Zhao
TAMU

Presented at the 68th Annual Texas A&M Relay Conference

Presentation Outline
Basics of:
Grounded Systems
Ungrounded Systems
Derivation of Neutral Shift
Graphical Representation
Neutral Shift
Grounded Systems
Ungrounded Systems

Case Study

Grounded Systems

Grounded Systems

Ungrounded Systems

A=G=0
n=g
C

B
N

Ungrounded Systems

A=G=0
n=g
C

B
N

Ungrounded Systems

A=G=0
n=g
C

B
N

Derivation of Neutral Shift


Normal Balanced Status
Vng=0
Vag-Van=Vng
Vbg-Vbn=Vng
Vcg-Vcn=Vng
++=Van+Vbn+Vcn=
Vag+Vbg+Vcg-3Vng=0
(Balanced System)

Derivation of Neutral Shift


Fault Conditions
A-G Fault
Vag=0
Van=-Vng (by & )
Vbg=Vbn+Vng=Vbn-Van=Vba
Vcg=Vcn+Vng=Vcn-Van=Vca

A-G Fault Ungrounded System


Graphical Representation

A-G Fault Grounded System


Graphical Representation

A-G Fault Transmission System


Neutral Shift

Case Study

Case Study: Neutral Shift


Waveforms 1 & 2

THANK YOU
Joe Perez P.E.
jperez@synchrogrid.com

Amir Makki
amir@softstuf.com

Shijia Zhao
zsjjames@email.tamu.edu