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In creating the proposed system, the Immaculate Heart of Mary hospital will use the

system will be competitive in other hospitals in the field of I.T. The medical staff will be

educated about computers and at the same time it will lessen their work.

Background of the Study

According to the brochure given by the hospital, since its founding in 2001-2002, the

Immaculate Heart of Mary is one of the hospitals that has quality healthcare in Catanduanes and

nearby provinces. Immaculate Heart of Mary hospital has 125-bed, strategically located in Rafael

ST. Rawis Virac, Catanduanes. One of the very few tertiary hospitals in the region, it has

continuously provided the community with medical care and valuable diagnostic services at

affordable costs. Conceived by a handful of trained medical specialists and with the financial

backing of Founder and President Mr. Nilo V. Segismundo and his wife Edna C. Segismundo,

the hospital was established out of a common desire to provide the community with quality

health care.

Immaculate Heart of Mary hospital provides the following services: Clinical services

such as medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, dentistry, anesthesia, radiology,

clinical laboratory, and community health. Services like medical records management,

procurement, personnel and security are under administration. Central stores, domestic hygiene,

maintenance and repair fall under support services. On average the hospital handles about 200

patients / clients per day. Out of the services provided, and the load of work handled per day, a

lot of records are generated manually. For example the clinical writer keeps a register, the

laboratory keeps another, the wards and theatre also keep theirs. Medical follow up charts are

also produced and kept. This registration at different levels usually leads to duplication.

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Various reports are generated periodically for use at different levels of

management. The hospital is required to make monthly reports and annual reports plus any

situational reports in case of an outbreak. Production of these reports using manual system are

both done with pen and paper, thus sharing of these records among the health professionals are

usually difficult and time consuming. Health workers spend more time looking for information

than the time spend caring for the inpatients therefore patients have to wait for long time.

The researcher considered that a computerized system is needed to handle the huge

records, to quicken the generation of reports, to ease the sharing of health and to store the huge

amount of data efficiently and effectively from the replacement of the current manual system.

Information Technology Innovation

This century witnessed a giant leap in information technology. Computers are not only

used to diagnose the illness or for doing surgery, but also they are used increase of efficiency in

all fields ranging from fixing appointment with the doctor to keeping the record of the patient.

Software application can provide solution and services for the global health care industry.

By using the cutting edge technologies, hospital management can be improved with efficient

work flow and communication.

This study will enhance the management operation using Visual Basic 6.0. The proponent

used Visual Basic 6.0 because it is a powerful, interactive data-management tool used in creating

application, as well as adobe Photoshop 7.0 in development of software, it has more appealing

design to the user interface and MySQL for database because of its powerful features of data

management. To access the data efficiently the prospective users of the computerized system are

hospital staffs and doctors of the hospital.

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The proponent used fingerprint scanner for identification and will serve as the

employee’s security access for their records. Employees are also required to have a fingerprint

identification that will serve as their access to the system.

Rationale

The reason why the proponent developed this study, it’s because the proponent wants to

improve the quality and management of clinical care and hospital health care management in

Immaculate Heart of Mary hospital. Also to developed hospital management system and improve

its effectiveness and quality of work. The system is effective, flexible, user-friendly and

developed to deliver realistic benefits to hospitals.

Objectives of the Study

The following are the general and specific objectives that this proposed study seeks to

achieve.

General Objectives. The general objective of the study is to design and develop a

hospital management system that would serve as proposal to help Immaculate Heart of Mary

Hospital to their operation and provides an easier, faster, more organized, secured, and accurate

system.

Specific Objectives. The study will be conducted for the following specific process.

1. To analyze and describe how the manual system of Immaculate Heart of Mary

Hospital works.

2. To identify the problems encountered in Immaculate Heart of Mary Hospital.

3. To develop a system that will improve the scope:

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3.1 In-patient

3.2 Outpatient

3.3 Channeling

3.4 Payments

3.5 Reports

3.6 Maintenance

4. To show that the proposed system is technically, economically and

operationally feasible.

Assumption of the Study

The following assumptions were formulated since the aim of this study was to develop a

system that would not be compared to the existing system.

1. The Immaculate Heart of Mary Hospital operates manually by logging a system that

utilizes the pen and paper methodology. Information about patients is done by just

writing the patients name, age, gender, and other patient’s information. In payments

of the patients, bills are generated by recording price for each facility provided to

patient on a separate sheet and last they all summed up. Recording other transaction

records are maintained in pre-formatted sheets, which are kept in a file.

2. The problems encountered in the Immaculate Heart of Mary Hospital are:

Time consuming, information redundancy in every department, and sometimes

misunderstanding between hospital personnel and patient because of time pressure,

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data are not well organizing, minimal security, and inaccurate computation of patients

accounts.

3. The proposed system improves the:

3.1 Inpatients and Outpatient

This features helps in overall bills, and registering information about patients. A

unique ID is generated for each patient after registration. Also can view medical

history of patient.

3.2 Channeling

This feature deals with; when the ID is generated the patient receives the

appointed time and number from the receptionist and accordingly visits the doctor.

3.3 Payments

This feature will allow user with appropriate privileges to generate, store and

retrieve information of billing and keep track of individual payments.

3.4 Reports

This features help to monitor the all master records and appointments.

3.5 Maintenance

This feature allows monitoring hospital facilities, and track scheduled services.

Also monitor the doctor’s, corporate employee, medicine, ward, department, services

of hospital, and room information.

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3.6 Other features

Tools, Windows, and Helps. The following features can help in their daily

activities and other transaction. Search engine, Microsoft Magnifier, Microsoft

narrator, calendar, System calculator and System notepad. This feature helps

hospital staff to monitor the user accounts and can change their password.

Help. This feature helps the user search and views the information of the

hospital.

4. That the proposed system is technical, economically, and operationally feasible.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

To create a more effective system, the proponent needs to know the measure of

responsibilities and boundaries of the proposed system.

Scope. In general, the focus of this study is directed towards the design and development

of a hospital management system of Immaculate Heart of Mary hospital with its doctors, staff,

managements, and patients are selected. The study is largely dependent, honesty, sincerity and

integrity of the respondents. The system has a secure log-in for doctors and staff. Managing

appointments is also integrated and billing statements and official receipts are automated.

Limitation. For its limitation, the study is limited only on the customer-employee

transactions. The inventory, employees profile, hospital profile and payroll for the employees are

not provided by the system because it will only focus in medical practice that combines medical

automated hospital solutions and hospital workflow management, customizable to the

requirements in hospital.

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Significance of the Study

This section shows the beneficiaries of the proposed study and explains what benefits

they will acquire upon using the proposed system.

Hospital. The proposed system will simplify and automate everyday hospital tasks and

can help maximize time spent with clients thereby providing better making it more profitable.

Doctors. The proposed system will make it easier for the doctors to manage the hospital

and convenient when it comes to retrieving patient records.

Medical staff. The computerized medical record system for Immaculate Heart of Mary

Hospital helps medical staff to easily find and create a medical record of a certain patient. The

proposed system will also minimize the errors of the medical staff. It will give the staff

information about the system and extend their knowledge about computer application. And by

using fingerprint scanner the medical staffs are also exposed to new technology like this.

Patients. Patients which come from any part take treatment inform of admitted basis or

out patient door basis. Patient is an important factor for hospital.

Researchers. The researcher has developed their writing, analysis, and interpretation

skills needed to make a good thesis.

Future Researchers. It will benefit the future researchers because this study will serve

their basis and guidance towards their proposal, so that they would have ideas on what more they

can do with their proposed studies.

Definition of Terms

These are the definitions of terms used in this study;

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Admitting Department. Responsible for the flow of patients and the processing of

admissions, discharges, transfers, and also most procedures to be carried out in the event of a

patient's death.

Authorized Personal. Individuals that have the right access to a certain job within the

organization.

Biometric. Refers to methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more

intrinsic physical or behavioral traits.

Database. Is an integrated collection of logically related records or files which

consolidates records previously stored in separate files into a common pool of data record that

provides data for many applications.

Database Management System (DBMS). Is the software that allows a computer to

perform database functions of storing, retrieving, adding, deleting and modifying data. Relational

database management systems (RDBMS) implement the relational model of tables and

relationships.

Existing Manual System. Refers to the present use of pen and paper method in handling

business transaction.

Fingerprint. The pattern of ridges on the tip of one’s finger that can be used for

biometric verification of one’s identity.

Hospital. A medical treatment facility capable of providing inpatient care. It is

appropriately staffed and equipped to provide diagnostic and therapeutic services, as well as the

necessary supporting services required to perform its assigned mission and functions. A hospital

may, in addition, discharge the functions of a clinic.

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Inpatients. Patient who is admitted to a hospital or clinic for treatment that requires to

stay overnight.

Information Technology Innovation. A process of making changes to something

established by introducing the latest technologies.

LAN-based. software that enables a group whose members are based in different

locations to work together and share information. Is a term which means of or using LAN

technology.

Local Area Network (LAN). is a computer network covering a small physical area, like

a home, office, or small group of buildings, or a school.

Management System. Documented and tested step-by-step method aimed at smooth

functioning through standard practices. Is the framework of processes and procedures used to

ensure that all organization can fulfill all task requirements to achieve its objective.

Outpatients. A patient is admitted to a hospital or clinic for treatment that does not

require an overnight stay.

Receptionist. An information professional trained in the organization and management

of information and service to people with information needs.

System. Refers to an assembly of computer hardware, firmware, and software configured

for the purpose of classifying, sorting, calculating, summarizing, transmitting and receiving,

storing and retrieving data with minimum of human intervention.

User Verification. one who uses a computer system. In order to identify oneself, a user

has an account (a user account) and a username (also called a screen name, handle, nickname, or

nick on some systems).

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Visual Basic (VB). is the third-generation event-driven programming language and

integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft for its COM programming model.

VB is also considered a relatively easy to learn and use programming language, because of its

graphical development features and BASIC heritage.

As Hanson pointed out that, an electronic system is important in the field of medicine

because it allows storage and retrieval of a greatly massive amount of information in a quick and

efficient manner, which makes health care more effective (p. 75, 2004). This which includes

ensuring that the system handles amendments, corrections, authentication, backups, down time,

confidentiality, printouts and reports for disclosure purposes. According to Scott and Rundall,

20005, in a fund-supported study find that the keys to successful adoption and implementation of

Electronic Health Record (EHR) include participatory selection process, flexibility regarding

staff roles and responsibilities, and decisive leadership at critical stages.

Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems have great potential to improve health care

quality. So far, however, real and perceived barriers from high costs and decreased productivity

to staff frustration have prevented most providers from implementing them.

The automation process gives enormous contribution to businesses, offices and even in

government establishments according to Lake, in the journal called “Content Management and

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Automation for the Government Enterprise” state that: the pressures of the costs associated with

advance information technologies have further encouraged automation of paper business

processes. (http://www.homelanddedjournal.com) “Retrieved 08-26-09”.

(Klein, 2006), states that there is an opportunity to transform health care and improve

patient safety by better leveraging information technology to improve the efficiency, accuracy,

and effectiveness of the health care system. However, adoption has been slow and the results

have been mixed up. If deployed incorrectly, without well-conceived process improvements, I.T

systems can do just the reverse, leading to critical delays or mistakes.

As describes by (Ellwood, 2005), Patient record is the principal repository for

information concerning a patient’s health care. It is very important to have storage for data and

information especially when it comes in keeping the records of patients. This could not be use

for future search of records. Without the core of storing data and information, the record would

not be trace promptly in time of looking for the files. In this sense, the proponent desires to

achieve the needs of automation of patients record to which is very vital in keeping information

of the patients and patient record improvement could make major contributions to improving the

health care system of the nation.

According to I.T Hawryszkiewycz in his book entitled “Introduction to System Analysis

and Design” 3rd Edition (2005) stated that one of the most important factors in building systems

is to develop a good understanding of the system and its problems. This is necessary in order to

identify the correct system requirements and provide solutions that are acceptable to an

organization and its personnel. (p.62)

An understanding of the system cannot be developed by analysts simply sitting down and

drawing a model of the system or setting user requirements in the privacy of an office. It can

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only be done by discussion with users to find out what they require of the system and then

building systems that satisfy these requirements. Thus, in summary, it is necessary to spend some

time studying the system, talking to its users and obtaining information about how the system

works and what is needed of the new system.

According to Petroutsos in his books entitled “Mastering: Database programming with

Visual Basic 6” (2006) stated that since corporations based, when it comes to designing a very

large database, most corporations will hire consultants to do the job. Medical companies, for

example, with large computer installations and an army of programmers, database administrators

and all kinds of computer specialists, usually outsource design of their database. From time to

time, they’ll bring consultants to tune the database, as well. (p.39)

There’s a good chance you may never have to design a corporate database. The database

may already be in place, or your company may outsource the design of its main database. Even

so, in order to develop applications for an existing database, you should understanding its

structure and not be intimidated by its size.

In recent years, computerization of hospital management system has increased at a

moderate rate and this trend is likely to continue, particularly as technology improves and

becomes more affordable and as the demand for healthcare information increases. If future

hospital management system is merely automated versions of most current records, however, an

opportunity to improve fundamental resource for healthcare will have been lost. Every access to

and sound organization of data elements can be provided by automation of hospital management

system, but the availability of the data elements depends on whether practitioners collect and

record such data in the first place. The statement of Reihdl in his study entitled “The Computer-

Based Patient Record” stated that “The automation of patient record retrieval, maintenance, and

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use is necessary, but not sufficient, for record improvement”. Well, he has the point of giving the

findings of what he believes. We can achieve record improvement in a way of valuing the record

keeping.

Related Studies

Computers are being employed in clinical medicine in hospitals for various purposes.

They can act as arithmetic calculators, they can process and analyzed output from recording

devices, and they can make possible the automation of various machine systems.

However, in the field of case records their role is much less well defined, for here the

organization of data as a preliminary to computer input is the real stumbling-block. Data banks

of retrospective selected clinical information have been in operation in some centres for the

number of years. Attempts are now being made to design computerized “total information

systems” to replace conventional paper records, and the possibility of automated diagnosis is

being seriously discussed.

Golla (2007) stated that record keeping is an organized way of storing valuable

information about certain persons handling of such records the proposed system includes all the

important records that are organize and place on the system database that are subjectively

relating to the transactions of the hospital.

Santos in her thesis entitled “A LAN-based Patients record and Billing System of San

Lorenzo Hospital of Galon”(August 2006), stated that every establishment started from nothing

so as this hospital that we are designing a system. It was conceived by a group of pioneering

physicians who envisioned a modern hospital with all the advance technologies and amities that

can service affordable to patient from the common mass. (p.1)

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Francisco and Rivera in their thesis entitled “LAN-Based Computerized Patient Record

System for General Tinio Hospital’ (April 2008), stated that a computer is a tool used by a

human in problem solving processes rather than a problem solver itself. Companies extended

known capabilities due to the following attributes: speed of operation, memory capacity and cost

effectiveness in many applications. (p. 7)

Many hospitals are now using a computerized system. According to Maglonzo and Cruz

on “Billing System for Castro Maternity and General Hospital” (2005), the system is a major

leap forward in computing. It makes computation easier and more fun to use with many user

interface and performance enhancement. It will get more work in less time. Professionals in

every field are discovering knowledge to meet these changes. To compete effectively in world

market, every individual is making effort to explore in their respective firms.

Computer-based patient record has a great advantage over the paper-based record since it

can be accessed from multiple locations within the health care facility. Depending on the system

security configuration, computer-based patient record may also be accessible from distant

locations e.g. a physician dialing in to the hospital information system from his/her or home.

Documentation in a computer-based patient record is more legible because it is recorded

as printed text rather than as hand writing, and it is better organized because software display

structure is imposed on the input.

Theoretical Framework of the Study

This part describes the relationship between the dependent variables, independent

variables and intervening variables of existing system and proposed system. As shown the figure

1.0 below.

Input Process Output

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Hospital Management Manual Recording, updating, Written Patient’s Record,
System transaction, searching, Updated Patient’s
patient’s records information
Existing System
Hospital Management Computerized Recording, Printed Patient’s Record,
System transaction, updating, updated Patient’s
Searching, Patient’s Records Information
Proposed System

Figure 1.0
Theoretical
System Framework of the Existing and Proposed System

In figure 1.0, paradigm represents as the existing system. It shows the input, process and

output of the hospital management system and then the process is manual recording of

information, searching and updates. In this process, the output is handwritten record and updated

information of the patients.

The lower paradigm of figure 1.0 explains the proposed system that is computerized to

where the process is being computerized. The process is as follows: Inputs of patient’s

information, then the process of recording, updating and searching will be manipulated by the

computer. The output of the process is the printed patient’s information.

The aim of the study is to increase the efficiency and productivity of hospital

management system. Computerization of the current manual system saves labor and time in

recording information, inquiring records, updating surgical results records and the manual

admitting tasks. The computerized proposed system utilizes a database for record keeping and

report generation.

Conceptual Paradigm of the Study

Conceptual paradigm shows how the proposed system will work. The proponent makes

use of graphics such as clip arts to represent how the proposed system process would be.

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5. Printed
Report

4. Authorized User

1. Patient’s
Information

2. HMS/Fingerprint log-in 3. Server

Figure 2.0
Conceptual Paradigm of the Proposed Study

In figure 2.0 shows how the proposed system operates. First is that the admitting in-

charge will encode the information given by the patient. Second is that after encoding the

information of the patient, it will go directly to the HMS with a security log-in by means of

fingerprint. Third is that, when the information is being save, it will be stored directly to the

server for safe keeping. Fourth is that, the authorized user can view the information record of the

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patients from the HMS but in a limited access. Lastly, is that the HMS will provide a printed

report for the patient and some concerns.

Through the figure shown above, it would be easy to recognize on how the proposed

system works through its flows.

Research Design

The proponent evaluates the existing and proposed software, a research design that had

been applied. Descriptive survey was used to determine the problems encountered on the existing

software. Weighted arithmetic mean was the statistical tools used to determine the feasibility of

the proposed software. (Manese, Ubaldo. 2008)

Methods of Research Used

In order to achieve a through understanding of all the activities required defining and

designing software. The proponent used different methodologies in order to establish the

problems and simultaneously formulate the solution. The methods used are the following.

Descriptive Research Method. The method is characterized briefly as fact finding with

adequate interpretation. The descriptive method is something beyond just data gathering. Facts

obtained may be accurate expression of central tendency of duration, or of correlation, but the

report is not research unless discussion of these data is carried up into the level of adequate

interpretation. Data must be subjected to the thinking process in terms of ordered reasoning. It

also involves the analysis, description and recording of the gathered information. The researcher

used this method of research in the generalization of essential information for the development of

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the proposed system. The proponent formulates possible alternatives for improvement of the

proposed system through analysis, interpretation and determination of its defects. (Manese,

Ubaldo. 2008)

Library and Documentary Research. This type of method falls under descriptive

job analysis where the pertinent data gathered from books, accomplished thesis and other

resources found in the library are being used in developing the proposed software. This

method was adapted in order to create well supported and more probable security

software. This research method was conducted by the use of different libraries. The

proponent was able to view other resourceful documents from different libraries as a

fulfillment to a successful study. Libraries of different universities and colleges visited by

the proponent include the University of Sto. Tomas, Far Eastern University – East Asia,

University of the East (Recto Manila) and AMA Computer University. (Scates, Douglas

E. 2008)

Creative Research Method. It is the design and presentation of the system based

on the knowledge that the proponent have learned in school. Through this they were able

to make the system fulfill its objectives. (Manese, Ubaldo. 2008)

Data Gathering Instruments and Techniques

These are varieties of research that supports data gathering. The tools used for the

research are instruments that provide for provide for collection of data upon which they were

tested. It is essential for the researcher to collect as much possible reliable information needed

for more scientific investigation of the system to be implemented using the following techniques;

Observation. The proponent learned a large portion of what he knows through

observation. Through the use of observation method, the proponent was able to identify the

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problems or difficulties experienced by the users in the present software. This method enabled

the proponent to obtain additional knowledge and information objectively. Both viewpoints are,

of course, helpful for a complete understanding of software yet observation is the simplest way

of gathering data. This instrument includes listing down of every relevant information that

caused the problems of the software. (Manese, Ubaldo. 2008) (See Appendix B)

Interview. Is the general term for the method used to draw information from a

respondent. This involves the collection of data through direct verbal interaction between the

interviewer and the respondent. Through interview the proponent were aware on how the present

system works its structure, advantages and disadvantages, limitation, and problems. (Manese,

Ubaldo. 2008) (See Appendix D)

Questionnaire. Is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other

prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. This method used to select

respondents without bias, to be able to improve the quality of the new system. The use of this

method was for the proponent to secure detailed facts, views and opinions on paper.

Questionnaires were made to obtain their opinions, attitudes and sentiments regarding the study

being conducted. (Manese, Ubaldo. 2008) (See appendix C)

Evaluation. An evaluation form checklist was used to know how operationally feasible

the system is using a set of criteria to measure the feasibility of the proposed system in becoming

an effective and functional program that users can eventually use.

With friendly user interface at no cost whatsoever the following criteria where provided

in the evaluation form: Accuracy, Efficiency, Reliability, User-Friendliness, and Security. (See

appendix E)

Methods Used in Developing the Software

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In developing the proposed software, the researcher used the waterfall model by Ian

Sommerville. Each researcher needs methods to achieve good results. The researcher used the

Waterfalls method. It is a system development model designed to simplify the understanding of

the complexity associated with developing systems. In systems engineering it is used to define a

uniform procedure of product of project development. This system model would help the

proponent to create, design and maintain the proposed system because it summarizes the main

steps to be taken in conjunction with the corresponding deliverables within computerized system

validation framework.

Requirements
Analysis and
Definition

System and
Software
Design

Implementation
and Unit
Testing

Integration and
System Testing

Operation and
Maintenance

Figure 2.0
Waterfall by Ian Sommerville

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Requirements Analysis and Definition. In this phase, the requirements of the proposed

system are collected by analyzing the needs of the users. This phase is concerned about

establishing what the ideal system has to perform. However, it does not determine how the

software would be designed or built. Usually, the users are interviewed and a document called

the user requirements document is generated. The user requirements document would typically

describe the system’s functional, physical, interface, performance, data security requirements etc

as expected by the user. It is one which the business analysts use to communicate their

understanding of the system back to the users. The users carefully review this document as this

document would serve as the guideline for the system designers in the system design phase. The

user acceptance tests are designed in this phase.

System and Software Design. The proponent analyzed and understands the business of

the proposed system by studying the user requirements document. They figure out possibilities

and techniques by which the user requirements can be implemented. If any of the requirements

are not feasible, the user is informed of the issue. A resolution is found and the user requirement

document is edited accordingly. The software specification document which serves as a blueprint

for the development phase is generated. This document contains the general system organization,

menu structures, data structures etc. It may also hold example business scenarios, sample

windows, reports for the better understanding. Other technical documentation like entity

diagrams, data dictionary would also be produced in this phase. The documents for system

testing are prepared in this phase.

Implementation and Unit Testing. After code has been generated, unit testing is

performed to verify that each unit meets its specification.

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Integration and system testing. The individual program unit or programs are integrated

and tested as a complete system to ensure that the software requirements have been met.

Operation and maintenance. Maintenance involves correcting errors missed in earlier

stages of the life cycle, improving the system implementation, adding performance or functional

enhancements (e.g., user may request new requirements) or making changes due to

accommodate changes in the software’s external environment (e.g., new operating system). This

is normally the longest stage in the life cycle,

Justification of methods Used

The proponent used the waterfall model to complement the needs of developing software

for business operations. The proponent believed that business applications undergo continuous

enhancements since business operations may change from time to time according to business

trends and innovations that would benefit the customers and increase profit. Using the waterfall

model would enable identifying new problems, opportunities and objectives whenever

enhancements were made. Thus, the continuous flow of stages can be applied again for further

revisions to comply with the business operations.

Analytical Tools

A significant aspect in software development, analytical tools is used to clearly exemplify

the graphical representation of the existing and proposed system. With the suitable textual

details, It provides a step by step process that will form the flow of the system. Tools such as

DFD, VTOC, IPO and SFC will use in the study.

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Data Flow Diagram (DFD). A modeling tool used to describe the transformation of

inputs into outputs. A graphic illustration that shows of flow of data and logic within the system.

(Manese, Ubaldo. 2008) (See appendix F)

Visual Table of Contents (VTOC). This is a tool being used in the presentation of the

Visual Table of Contents of the program, which illustrates the hierarchical process in the level of

detail, increase from top to bottom, modify from general to specific. It consists of a tree-

structured directory which summarizes the contents of each input-process-output overview

diagram. This was used by the proponent in presenting a hierarchical view of their software by

indicating individual; modules at each level, as the modules that succeed them. By viewing the

modular structure through VTOC, the proponent were easily able to evaluate and refine the

design and organization of the software. Flaws are also noticed more easily and are then

corrected prior to implementation. It also served as a basis for the IPO. (Manese, Ubaldo. 2008)

(See appendix G)

Input Process Output (IPO). A tool representing the Input-Process-Output of the

software, which may be their general or specific. To have an understanding on how the program

is meet. This specifies the functional processes in the software by describing the inputs,

processing steps and outputs for the functions specified. Each module of the VTOC is broken

down into IPO chart, and through this, the subunits of each modules input, process, outputs are

viewed. Through the nature of the presentation, the proponent easily able to follow a programs

structure as they code, modify and maintained the program. (Manese, Ubaldo. 2008) (See

appendix)

System Flowchart This is a graphical representation of the program logic and the design

of the proposed software. This is used in order to show or to convey the flow of the program.

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Being another visual approach to program design and documentation, it epitomizes the flow of

the process therefore, not much attention is paid to the inputs and outputs. These tools depict the

flow of the program and not necessarily the structure; hence they should be used in conjunction

with the VTOC for greater benefit. This was used by the proponent in portraying the course of

progression of the program. (Manese, Ubaldo. 2008) (See appendix I)

Method Used for Product Evaluation

Evaluation of the proposed system would not only resolve the problems encountered in

the proposed system but to prove that it is technically and operationally feasible.

Technical Feasibility. Market availability of hardware and software components needed

in programming system is the primary function of this method.

Operational Feasibility. This evaluative instrument is necessary to determine the

applicability and effectiveness of the proposed system. The following criteria were used evaluate

the existing and proposed system.

Accuracy. Refers to the consistency of a measure. The condition quality of being

true, correct, or exact, freedom of error.

Efficiency. The production of the desired effects or results with minimum waste

of time, effort, or skill. A measure of effectiveness; specifically, the useful work output divided

by the energy input in any system.

Reliability. This tells about the dependability of the system in performing its

intended functions and giving satisfactory results.

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User-Friendliness. Refers to ease of use in accessing information in terms of

usage and convenience for use with minimum amount of efforts use was disseminate and

communicate with other people at any given time.

Security. The ability of the system to secured from unauthorized user.

Statistical Treatment of Data. Information and data gathered in the course of the study

were both qualitative and quantitative in form. For the quantitative data, the researcher applied

statistical methods of analysis in order to the properly interpret and present data in a more

understandable form. The following statistical methods were used interpret the results:

Percentage. This statistic refers to the relation between the part under consideration to

the whole, expressed in hundredths.

Ranking. This refers to arranging scores of the data in numerical order.

Frequency. This represents the number of respondents that obtained a particular score.

These are the following formula use in computing the operational feasibility

1.) Mean

Mean (M) = -f (x1+x2+…..xn)/n

Where:

M = is the mean for each criteria

n = the total number of respondents.

f = refers to the frequency of the number of times that a given (x) was chosen by the

respondents as rating for a given criteria.

x1, x2 …..xn = respondents only numerical rating 1,2,3,4 & 5 representing the

the evaluators rating given criterion.

2.) Weighted mean

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Weighted Mean (WM) = ∑f ( x1 + x2 +…..xn)/n

Where:

f( x1 + x2 +…..xn)/n = representing the sum of all Means (M) of each criterion.

n = the total number of criteria being rated.

3.) WMP - WME

T-test √ (∑MP2) + (∑ME2)

n(n–1)

Where:

WMP = weighted mean of proposed system.

WME = weighted mean of existing system.

∑MP2 = represent the sum and square of the weighted mean of the proposed system.

∑ME2 = represent the sum and square of the weighted mean of the existing system.

n = total number of respondents.

n-1 = degree of freedom.

Likert Scale

The Likert scale was applied to the qualitative data collected because its appropriateness

in giving meaning to the feedback obtained from respondents. A Likert scale measures the

extent to which a person agrees or disagrees with the question.

Table 1.0
Likert scale by Rensis Likert

Rating Range Equivalent


5 4.21-5.0 Excellent
4 3.41-4.2 Very Good
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3 2.61-3.4 Good
2 1.81-2.6 Fair
1 1.01-1.8 Poor

Economic Feasibility

The proposed study was subjected to market analysis to determine the cost development

the software, especially the pay back period or benefit the return of investment.

Formula for System Development Cost

Hardware Cost

Salvage Value – Hardware cost/Life Expectancy* Development Period

12 months

Annual Depreciation Cost – Hardware Cost – Salvage Value

Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy of Hardware

Monthly Depreciation Cost – Annual Depreciation cost / 12 months

Hardware Depreciation Cost – Monthly Depreciation cost* Development Period

Software Development Cost

Salvage Value – (Software cost / Life Expectancy)* Development Period

12 months

Annual Depreciation Cost – Hardware Cost – Salvage Value

Life Expectancy

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Life Expectancy of software

Monthly Depreciation Cost – Annual Depreciation cost / 12 monthly

Software Depreciation Cost – Monthly Depreciation cost * Development Period

Labor Cost

Labor Cost – Developers Fee * Development Period

Miscellaneous

Overhead Cost

Computer, Fingerprint Reader, Printer, Scanner, Electric Fan, Light

KWH Used – No. of Watts * No. of Hours * Month

1000w

Total Overhead Cost – KWH Used

Total Software Development Cost – (Hardware Cost + Software Development Cost +

Labor Cost + Miscellaneous + Overhead Cost)

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Table 2.0 presents the distribution of respondent’s profile and its percentage distribution.

Table 2.0
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Member-beneficiaries according to Position

Criteria No. of Respondents Percentage (%)

Doctors 2 6.66%

Nurses 24 80.00%

Physical Therapy 1 3.33%

Cashier 1 3.33%

Clerk 1 3.33%

Management 1 3.33%

Position. Table 2.0 reveals that most of the respondents are nurses consisting of two

doctors, followed by twenty-four nurses, one physical therapy, one cashier, one clerk and one

management. These people are employees of the hospital we visited and also member-

beneficiaries of the proposed system. This further reveal that most of the respondents are nurses

which have a total percentage of 83.33% followed by doctors who have total of 6.66%, Physical

Therapy 3.33%, Cashier 3.33%, Clerk 3.33% and the management which also has a total of

3.33%.

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The respondents are from the Immaculate Heart of Mary Hospital. The following table

will present the respondent’s data with regards to the existing system and were asked to fill out

the appropriate boxes. Criteria with multiple answers are also asked to be filled out.

Table 3.0
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Member-beneficiaries according to the
Record Keeping

Criteria Frequency Percentage (%)

Log Book/Record Book 17 56.66%

Store files in cabinet 6 20.00%

File Racks 8 26.66%

Others 0 0%

In this portion, the record keeping of the hospital were evaluated as shown in table 3.0.

There are 56.66% of respondents assessed that they keep the file on log book/ record book,

followed by 26.66% of the total respondents said that they keep the files on file racks, while 20%

of respondents that they store files in cabinet and 0% respondents go to others. This further

reveals that most of the respondents assessed in log book/record book for their medical records.

The majority of the respondent’s uses log book/record book for all their transaction in the

hospital. This can prove the proposed can be favored by users against the existing system

because of the improvement of record keeping in proposed system.

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Table 4.0
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Member-beneficiaries according to the
Tools they use in Recording Patient’s attendance

Criteria Frequency Percentage (%)

Log Book/Record Book 6 20%

Paper and Book 9 30%

Coupon Bond 5 16.66%

Time card 20 66.66%

The tools used in recording data as shown in table 4.0. There are 30% respondents

assessed that they use paper and book, followed by 20% of the total respondents that they use log

book and record book, and 16.66% said that they used. The majority of the respondents choose

the time card as the tool used for recording the information of the patients which has the average

percentage of 66.66%. This further reveals that the recording patient’s attendance on hospitals

mostly relies on forms which are out numbered from the choices given on the table above. This

is show that the proposed system is most favored because of the enhancement of recording

patient’s attendance.

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Table 5.0
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Member-beneficiaries according to the
The Common Problems Encountered in Record Management

Criteria Frequency Percentage (%)

Time Consuming 9 30%

Damaged file book record 10 33.33%

Encounters voluminous of
records 9 30%

Misplaced records
15 50%

others
1 3.33%

Table 5.0 above is the common problems encountered in record management and these

are the result of the evaluation given to the respondents. There are 50% respondents assessed of

misplaced records other 33.33% of respondents assessed to damaged file book record, followed

by the time consuming in record management which has the percentage of 30%, there are 30% of

respondents assessed to encounters voluminous of records and lastly assessed to others is 3.33%.

As the result of evaluation on table above, this further reveals that the most common problems

encountered in record management of the manual operation are both slow in process and

unorganized.
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Table 6.0
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Member-beneficiaries according to the
Problem encountered of their Recent System

Criteria Frequency Percentage (%)


Numerous outputs of
records 9 30%
Frequent errors in
computation 10 33.33%

Human error 14 46.66%

Unsecured data 8 26.66%

Others 1 3.33%

Below are the findings of their recent operation as shown on table 6.0. There are 46.66%

of the respondents assessed human error, 33.33% frequent errors, followed by 30% of

respondents choose the numerous outputs of records operation of their recent system, 26.66% of

the respondents choose the unsecured data and 3.33% to others. The result of evaluation given on

above table reveals that the majority of respondents found the difficulties of operation with their

recent system.

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Table 7.0
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Member-beneficiaries according to the
Features incorporate to the current system

Criteria Frequency Percentage (%)


Faster accessing and
organization of medical cases 10 33.33%
Fast and accurate
computation w/ printed
receipt 10 33.33%
Security in the patient
records 8 26.66%
Process and store the medical
cases both in and out patient 14 46.66%

Others 0 0%

Table 7.0 as shown above is the result of the security of their recent system. There are

46.66% of the respondents chose the process and store the medical cases both in and out, while

another 33.33% of respondents chose the faster accessing and organization of medical cases,

33.33% respondents chose for process and store the medical , 16.66% of respondents of security

in the patient records and 0% for others. In this evaluation, it shows that the majority of

respondents chose the process and store the medical cases both in and out patient operation of

their recent system.

The Components of the Proposed System

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This section provides the development of the features and components that will make up

the proposed software. They are to be used by the users in order for proper functioning of the

software.

General Functions/Features. The hospital management system with fingerprint security

log-in for Immaculate Heart of Mary hospital generate reports; automatically update the database

and record of a particular patient. It has different features such as patient admission, managing

inpatient, and managing outpatient, channeling services, reports, maintenance, pharmacy and

billing. These functions would help the user to manipulate the HMS with the ease of use because

of its friendly interface. It also provides a search function that helps the user for immediate

inquiries as well as printed reports.

Icon Driven. Icons are provided in order to help the user to easily navigate the program

by clicking the different buttons with tags at the bottom using the mouse can promptly do the

task.

Report. Forms and reports can also be printed.

User-friendliness. The proposes software is said to be user-friendly because it is mouse

driven and icon driven, through this it will be easy for the user to understand the flow of the

system.

Software Development

The proponent has considered the following elements during the development of the

proposed system.

Specification. The very first step to be taken in developing software. The proponent first

enumerated the features and functions to be carried out by the proposed system to have a clear

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view of what is to be developed. Also in order to operate the proposed system the user must have

at least an Intel processor with 128 MB of memory.

Design. Designing software is done when the entire requirement has been collected. The

researcher made use of the following software components such as program flowchart, visual

table of contents, input-process-outputs, and others to facilitate the development of the software.

The design was based on the data gathered using the data gathering instruments used such as

interview, questionnaire, evaluation form, and observation.

Programming. It deals with the preparations of a set of instructions for the computer to

use in the solution of the weaknesses, the desired programming language and the forms are

specified, the computer programs that make the hardware run. The proposed software was

developed using Visual Basic 6.0 was chosen by the proponent due to its capabilities of being an

OOP (object oriented programming), this was used in creating the GUI (graphical user interface)

of the system. And for the presence of MySQL as for database management. Adobe Photoshop

7.0 was used for the graphics of the system do it will be more appealing.

Testing. Before the system can be used, it must be tested and there will be a series of

tested to show the proposed system and afterward compare it with the existing system. Testing

and checking the reliability of the program is needed in order to affirm a sufficient output.

Source code must be verified and validated to improve the quality of the product. On the other

hand, the proponent might find some errors and will continue to do so until there are no more

errors found. Therefore the proponent conducted a series of testing and debugging in order for

the program to be free from errors.

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Table 8.0
Software Components

COMPONENT USED MINIMUM RECOMMENDED


Operating System Windows XP SP3 Windows 2000 SP4 Windows XP SP3
Program Visual Basic 6.0 Visual Basic 6.0 Visual Basic 6.0 (SP6)
Application Enterprise edition
Database MYSQL Enterprise MYSQL Enterprise MYSQL Enterprise
Application Edition 6.0 Edition 6.0 Edition 6.0
Server WampServer 2.0 WampServer 2.0 WampServer 2.0
Graphics design Adobe Photoshop CS3 Adobe Photoshop 7 Adobe Photoshop 7

Below is the table of hardware specifications that the proponent used.

Table 9.0
Hardware Components

COMPONENT USED MINIMUM RECOMMENDED


CPU Intel Celeron Pentium 4 Pentium 4
2.0 GHz 2.40 GHz 2.40 GHz
Memory 1 GB 256 MB 1 GB
Hard Disk Space 80 GB 40 GB 80 GB
Monitor 14” LCD 14” CRT 14” LCD
Keyboard 101/102 Keyboard 101 Keyboard 101 Keyboard
Mouse Microsoft PS/2 Microsoft PS/2 Microsoft PS/2
Optical Device DVD-R/RW CD-ROM DVD-R/RW
Printer Canon S100SP Canon S100SP Any type of printer
Sound Card Realtek HD Audio Realtek HD audio Any type of
soundcard
Fingerprint Sensor EDS Finger ID USB fingerprint USB fingerprint
system Sensor sensor

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These hardware requirements are optional but are strongly advised in order for the

proposed software to work suitably in the accepted manner.

Operational Feasibility. The proposed software was designed in order to meet the needs

of the prospective user and satisfy their requirements. The proponent distributed evaluation

forms to 30 respondents regarding the performance of the proposed software with given criteria

such as Accuracy, Efficiency, Reliability, User-friendliness and Security. After conducting

survey, the results obtained where interpreted using the evaluation according to the Likert scale

and the minimum requirements are not mandatory but the mentioned, makes of higher models

thereof are needed in order for the software to run correctly and proficiently.

Table 10.0
Evaluation of the Proposed System

Criteria Weight Point Descriptive Equivalent

Accuracy 4 Very good

Efficiency 4.1 Very good

Reliability 4.4 Very good

User-friendliness 4 Very good

Security 4.3 Very good

Evaluation of the Proposed Software

The proposed software entitled Hospital Management System with Fingerprint Security

Log-in for Immaculate Heart of Mary Hospital is technically and operationally feasible for

implementation based on the result on the conducted survey. The proponent conducted a survey

with 30 respondents regarding the performance of the existing system and the proposed software

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are rated from excellent, very satisfactory, satisfactory, fair and poor. Under categories are

accuracy, efficiency, reliability, user-friendliness and security.

Technical Feasibility. This method was used to determine the requirement needed for

the implementation of the software. Listed below are the minimum computer hardware that are

required for the efficient operation and performance of the proposed software.

The proposed software requirements are the following; a computer system unit at least

Pentium 4 processor with an operating system of at least Windows 2000, memory of at least

64MB SDRAM and a minimum of at least 30MB free hard disk space, A CD ROM Drive at

least 4X in speed, any kind of mouse, keyboard and printer.

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Chapter 5

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION

This chapter discussed the summary of the entire previous chapter and came about with

an interpretation of the problems and objectives of the study. A conclusion then was formulated.

Summary

The study deals with a proposal for a Hospital Management System with Fingerprint

Security Log-in for Immaculate Heart of Mary Hospital. The objective of the study is to develop

software that would enhance the operations of the existing system. From the general objective,

specific objectives, specific objectives were: 1.) To analyze and describe how the manual system

of Immaculate Heart of Mary Hospital works. 2.) To identify the problems encountered in

Immaculate Heart of Mary Hospital. 3.) To develop a system that will improve the scope: In-

patient, Outpatient, Channeling, Payments, Reports and Maintenance. 4.) To show that the

proposed system is technically, economically and operationally feasible.

Different methods were used to attain the objectives of the study. The proponents made

use of the descriptive research method where the library research method and research survey

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falls under this category, and creative type of research. To gather necessary data, the proponent

made used of the data gathering techniques such as observation, interview, and evaluation. The

data gathering instruments used was observation, survey questionnaires, and interview guide and

evaluation forms.

In developing the software the following analytical tools were used: data flow diagram

(DFD), visual table of contents (VTOC), input-process-output (IPO) and program flow chart

(PFC). The proponent also used the waterfall model by Ian Sommerville as the method for

developing the software.

The proponent also made use of statistical tools such as Weighted Arithmetic Mean and

Likert’s scale.

Method of software evaluation was used to prove its operational and technical

feasibility of the proposed software. The technical feasibility was proved by proving information

regarding the hardware and software specifications which includes the minimum and

recommended requirements. The operational feasibility was proved under the criteria of

accuracy, efficiency, reliability, user friendliness and security of use.

Conclusion

The hospital management system is to modernize the handling of records in a hospital.

The software takes care of all requirements of an average hospital and is capable to provide easy

and effective storage of information related to patients.

Through facts findings and prior research done by the proponent. He was able to meet the

goal of developing the software. A system for hospitalization that is fast, reliable and efficient

has been developed. This study has shown to be fit for its intended use and purpose.

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Recommendation

The proposed system Hospital Management System with Fingerprint Security Log-in for

Immaculate of Mary Hospital is recommended to be adapted by hospitals or the improvement

and streamlining of its operations. The results of this study were based on the response of actual

users of the system who stand to derive the benefits offered by the proposed system. Employee

and patient in the Immaculate of Mary Hospital can lead into more organize, secured and faster

transaction.

The study is open to be used as reference material for interested parties who are

undertaking similar studies. The proponent is also open for improvements on its proposal to take

into future changes in technology.

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