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B CNG THNG

TRNG I HC CNG NGHIP THC PHM TP.HCM


KHOA CNG NGHIP THC PHM

N CNG NGH CH BIN THC PHM

TM HIU QUY TRNH SN XUT M


N LIN VI NNG XUT
1000KG/ NGY

GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn


SVTH: Nguyn Tn Thuyt
Lp: 03DHTP2
MSSV: 2005120132

TP H Ch Minh, Thng 9 Nm 2015

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Mc lc
Chng 1: M u........................................................................................................3
Chng 2: Tng quan...................................................................................................5
2.1. Tng quan m n lin..........................................................................................5
2.2. Nguyn liu......................................................................................................11
2.2.1. Nguyn liu chnh......................................................................................11
2.2.2. Nguyn liu ph........................................................................................19
2.2.3. Ph gia:......................................................................................................23
Chng 3: Quy trnh cng ngh sn xut m n lin...................................................28
3.1. S quy trnh cng ngh...............................................................................28
3.2. Gii thch quy trnh cng ngh.........................................................................29
Chng 4: Tnh cn bng vt cht...............................................................................61
4.1. Cc thng s c bn.........................................................................................61
4.2. Tnh cn bng vt cht......................................................................................63
4.3. Tnh ton kh nng cung ng nguyn liu........................................................71
Chng 5: Cc sn phm m n lin trn th trng....................................................74
Chng 6: Cc s c sy ra trong qu trnh sn xut..................................................75
Chng 7: Vn sc khe khi s dng m n lin....................................................77
Chng 8: Cch s dng m n lin m bo sc khe..........................................83
KT LUN.................................................................................................................84
TI LIU THAM KHO...........................................................................................85

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Chng 1: M u
Mc tiu ca ti
L nc ng dn th 13 th gii, vi mc tng trng dn s 1,1%/nm, Vit
Nam c nn tng khch hng ln c nhu cu v cc sn phm thc phm. Hn th, t
nc ta ang trong qu trnh cng nghip ha hin i ha, cuc sng con ngi ngy
cng bn rn th yu cu c mt ba n y cht dinh dng, ngon v gi c phi
chng l mt yu cu quan trng c t ra. Nm bt c yu cu , nhiu cng ty
cho ra i rt nhiu sn phm thc phm n nhanh p ng c nhu cu . Mt
trong nhng sn phm thc phm n nhanh m chng ta ai cng bit n l m n
lin.
Theo kho st th m n lin p ng hn mt triu ba n trong c nc.Ngoi
ra cn xut khu ra nc ngoi em li ngun ngoi t ln cho t nc.
Trong nhng nm gn y c rt nhiu cng ty mc ln, cho ra nhiu sn phm
m n lin khc nhau vi mu m v hng v khc nhau t lm cho th trng m
n lin trong nc cnh tranh mnh m vi nhau v mt cht lng cng nh mong
mun ca ngi tiu dng.
Tuy nhin cc sn phm trong nc vn cha tha mn nhu cu ngi tiu
dng. ng thi s lng cc nh sn xut m n lin trong nc cn t v phn b
khng u, nng sut cn thp cha p ng nhu cu ngy mt tng cao. Phn ln cc
nh my ln u nm min bc v min nam c th H Ni, thnh ph H Ch Minh
v cc vng ln cn.
V vy, vic xy dng nh my sn xut m n lin l nhim v cn thit. c
bit l trong giai on hin nay nc ta gia nhp WTO, l c hi sn phm hng
ha ca nc ta gia nhp th trng quc t.
ngha ca ti
Vi nhim v tm hiu quy trnh cng ngh sn xut m n lin, chng ta s
nm c mt vi kin thc v c im ca m n lin v c bit nm c quy
trnh sn xut bnh, cch tnh cn bng vt cht. va l im xut pht, va l c
s bm st trong sut qu trnh thit k nh my.
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GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn

Chng em xin chn thnh cm n c Nguyn Th Thu Huyn hng dn


chng em hon thnh n ny. Tuy nhin vi kin thc cn hn ch v ngun ti liu
tham kho khng y , qu trnh tnh ton c sai s nn khng trnh khi cc sai st.
Chng em rt mong nhn c s ch dn v gp ca cc thy c cng nh cc bn .
Em xin chn thnh cm n!

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GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn

Chng 2: Tng quan


2.1.

Tng quan m n lin


T cui th k 18, ngi Chu u bt u sn xut v s dng sn phm m si

v n tr thnh thc phm truyn thng ca cc nc Chu u c bit l v


Php. Sau sn phm du nhp vo Chu v sau tit kim thi gian ch bin
ngi Chu ( u tin l Nht Bn) a ra cng ngh sn xut m chun b ba n
nhanh gi l m n lin. T n nay, m n lin khng ngng c ci tin v
pht trin v sn lng, cht lng. Cng ngh sn xut m n lin lun c nng
cao.
ng Momofuku Ando, ngi Nht, l ngi pht minh ra m n lin. ng
thnh lp nn cng ty Nissin trc khi gii thiu ra th trng sn phm m n lin u
tin c tn gi Chicken Ramen vo nm 1958. tng sn xut m n lin n vi
ng rt tnh c sau khi chng kin cnh ngi dn ng xp hng trng m gi lnh
ch mua nhng vt m ti ti mt ca hng khng lu sau th chin th II.
Vo nm 1971, Cng ty Nissin a ra th trng loi m n lin t l loi
m n lin sn trong cc loi bt hoc cc xp cch nhit v chng thm nc c
th nc vo n ngay (rt ph bin Vit Nam hin nay) nhm vt ln trong
cnh tranh vi cc i th.
2.1.1. Tnh hnh pht trin m n lin Vit Nam
Hin nay, ti Vit Nam cc sn phm m n lin c s dng rng ri trong
mi tng lp nhn dn v tnh tin dng v gi tr dinh dng ca chng. C th ni
sn phm m n lin hin nay phn no i vo i sng ngi dn. Tr thnh mt
sn phm c yu thch rng ri. Trc nhu cu to ln ca th trng, ngnh cng
nghip m n lin v ang c nhng bc pht trin mnh m, c bit l khi nn
kinh t nc nh chuyn sang c ch th trng. Cc cng ty quc doanh nh: Miliket,
Colusa,cng nh cc lin doanh nh: Vifon Acecook, A- One, khng ngng
nng cao sn lng v cht lng sn phm, a dng ha chng loi v mu m p
ng nhu cu th hiu ca ngi tiu dng. Hin nay trn th trng c hn 10 nhn
hiu m n lin nh Miliket, Vifon, A- One,
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2.1.1. Tnh hnh s dng m n lin ca cc nc trn th gii


Bng 2.1 Tnh hnh s dng m n lin ca cc nc trn th gii.

Theo bo co mi nht ca Hip hi M n lin Th gii ti Nht Bn (WINA),


doanh s bn m gi ton cu chm mc 100 t gi mi nm. T l ny tng
ng mi ngi trn th gii tiu th hn mt gi m mi thng.
Vi vic tiu th 5,2 t gi/ cc m mi nm,Vit Nam ng th t th gii v
tng lng tiu th, sau Trung Quc, Indonesia v n .
Nu tnh theo s gi m tiu th trn u ngi, Vit Nam ng th ba v trung
bnh vi 56,2 gi m/ngi/nm, ch sau Hn Quc v Indonesia. Trong khi Trung
Quc, mi ngi dn nc ny ch n trung bnh hn 36 gi m.
Nhng nu xt t l tng trong nhm nc c truyn thng n m (khng k
cc nc Chu u, Chu M hay n nhng nc mi c khia ph v mn n
ny) th t l tiu th m gi ca Vit Nam tng mnh (t nm 2008 2012, lng tiu
th ca Vit Nam tng gn 24% tng ng vi gn 1 t gi).

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2.1.2. Tnh hnh cnh tranh gia cc doanh nghip m n lin trong nc.
Acecook Vit Nam (Vina Acecook c vn u t 100% t Nht Bn) l mt
trong nhng doanh nghip u tin sn xut m n lin ti Vit Nam t nm 1993. Vi
li th ca ngi gia nhp th trng lu nm v chin lc a dng ha sn phm, th
phn Acecook Vit Nam 3 nm lin tip gi v tr dn u vi 51,5% th phn. Cc
nhn hiu nhn din tiu biu ca hng ny n t phn khc trung bnh gm Ho
Ho, Vineacecook, Nht v Ho Ho 100.
Khc vi Acecook Vit Nam tp trung vo phn khc trung bnh, Masan
Consumer tp trung vo phn khc cao cp v ph thng nh Omachi, Kokomi. Hin
nay Masan Consumer ng v tr th 2 trong th trng, chim 16,5% th phn nm
2013.
Doanh nghip ng th 3 l Asia Food chn cho mnh hng i thng qua cc
hot ng ng gp x hi. Chin lc hng ny p dng nhn din thng hiu m
Gu l vi mi gi m bn ra s ng gp 100 ng vo qu tr em ngho. Hin
nay Asia Food chim 12,1% th phn.

Hnh 2.1 Th phn m n lin Vit Nam qua cc nm

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2.1.3. Gi tr v tnh tin li ca m n lin


Sn phm m si v m n lin c a
chung vi ngi s dng v n c cc u im
ni bt sau:
ng v kha cnh dinh dng, y l loi
sn phm c gi tr dinh dng cao do c ch
bin t bt m v ph gia c cha cht dinh
dng nh protein, lipid, vitamin, khong. Nh
vy, v c bn sn phm m n lin ni chung c
cha y cc cht dinh dng c bn. Trung bnh 100g m cung cp 359 calo.
Bng 2.2 Thnh phn ha hc ca m n lin
Thnh phn (%)

Nc

Protid

Lipid

Gluxid

Xenlulo

Tro

M si

12,5

11

1,1

74

0,5

1,0

Bng 2.3 Hm lng vitamin v khong trong m n lin (g/100g)


Vitamin

Khong

B1

B2

PP

Ca

Fe

0,1

0,04

1,1

3,4

97

1,5

Qu trnh bo qun m n lin tng i n gin .


Qu trnh vn chuyn nhanh gn.
D s dng, d ch bin: ch cn ct bao gi, cho nc si vo ch khong mt vi
pht l c th n c (i vi m n lin), i vi cc loi m si mn th thi gian

nu c khong 5 pht, i vi m dng kh th thi gian nu khong 15 20 pht.


- M c tiu ha cao.
- Tn tht cht kh trong qu trnh nu chn thp, thng khong 4 7%.
- Ty theo ph gia thm vo m ta c sn phm theo khu v ring ca tng loi m.
2.1.4. Phn loi m n lin
M n lin c phn loi da vo: nguyn liu, cch s dng, cng ngh, cch
ng gi, da vo hnh dng, kch thc si, da vo thnh phn mui trong cng
thc,
Phn loi theo phng php ch bin:
- M n lin c chin
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GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn

M n lin khng chin: l loi m c lm kh (sy) bng lung khng kh nng


(70 800C). Li im ca m sy l n cha hm lng cht bo thp, do thi
gian bo qun di v c yu thch bi mt nhm ngi.Tuy nhin, v quy trnh sn
xut loi m ny cho nng sut thp v mi v, cu trc khng ph hp nn sn phm
ny khng ph bin Chu so vi loi m chin.
c im chung:

- L loi m c dng si.


- c to dng vt trn hay hnh ch nht.
- S dng nhanh bng cch ngm m trong nc si.
- Thng s dng lun c nc ngm m.
- Cung cp dinh dng cho 1 ba n nhanh.
- M c th qua qu trnh chin hay khng chin.
Phn loi theo phm cht bt:
Hng c bit c sn xut t loi bt m tt nht (bt ly t nhn li ht).
Hng tt ly t bt m ho hng.
Hng nht t loi m hng I.
Phn loi theo nguyn liu:
M trng
M dinh dng
M c chua
Phn loi theo cch s dng:
Ch nc si
Nu
Microwave
n lin/xo, lu
Phn loi theo cng ngh:
M ti / chin / sy
Ct si / n si
Vt ri / vt gp
Phn loi theo cch ng gi:
Gi / t / ly
Hp / ti
Da vo hnh dng, kch thc si:
M dng ng
M dng si
M dng hoa: m s, nui sao, nui hoa,
M dng ng: m ng c chia ra m ng di v m ng ngn. M ng di c

chiu di khong 15 cm, b mt ng c th phng nhn,c th gn sng. Tit din ng


cng rt khc nhau, ngi ta thng sn xut m ng vi ng knh:
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D 4mm
D = 4 5,5mm
D 5,5 7mm
D 7,0mm

M ng ngn c chiu di khong 2 7mm, thng hoc cong. Loi b mt ng nhn


thng c ng knh 4 5,5mm. Loi ng gn sng thng c ng knh 4mm v 4
5,5mm. Loi n nhiu cnh thng c ng knh 22 25mm. Cc dng ng trn
y c chiu dy thnh ng khong 1,5 2mm.
Dng m si: m si l dng c tit din trn v c (khng rng).
Thng c 4 loi ng knh sau y:
-

D < 0,8mm
D 1,2mm
D 1,5mm
D 3,0mm
Dng m si c th di n 400mm (si thng). Ngoi ra ngi ta cn sn xut

m nm, l m si c vt thnh tng con nh trng lng khong 30 50g.


Dng m thanh: dng m ny c tit din hnh vung hoc hnh ch nht , chiu
dy ca si thng khng qu 2mm. Chiu di ca si thng 1,5cm (loi ngn) n
20cm (loi di). T m thanh cng c th sn xut ra m nm c trng lng khng qu
50g.
M dng hoa: ty thuc vo cu to ca khun, ngi ta c th sn xut ra m
dng hoa c hnh dng c bit nh hnh s, hnh sao, hnh hoa,
2.2.

Nguyn liu
M si ni chung c sn xut t nguyn liu chnh l bt m v nc, i vi

m n lin c thm thnh phn quan trng l du Shortening. Bn cnh ty theo yu


cu dinh dng c th m c thm cc ph gia: trng, tm, bt, c chua, bt ngt,
hnh, tiu, t, ng, mui,
2.2.1. Nguyn liu chnh
Nguyn liu chnh dng sn xut m n lin l bt m.
a) Ngun gc
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La m c ngun gc t Ty Nam (khu vc Trung ng ngy nay). La m


l mt loi lng thc chung c s dng lm bt m trong sn xut cc loi
bnh m; m si, bnh, ko
Bt m c ch to t ht la m bng phng php nghin.
Phng php nghin th: Nghin khng phn loi, ch thu c mt loi bt.
Phng php nghin tinh: Nghin phn loi, thu c nhiu loi bt.
Nh nhng loi ht ha tho khc, ht la m cu to gm 4 phn: v ht, lp
-

alron, ni nh v phi ht. S phn b cc phn trong ht la m:


V ht: chim khong 10% trng lng ht, bao bc quanh ht, c tc dng bo
v phi v ni nh ht, chng li nh hng xu ca iu kin ngoi cnh. Thnh

phn ch yu l celluloza v hemicelluloza, v khng cha cht dinh dng.


Lp alron: chim khong 5% trng lng ht, bao gm mt dy t bo k vi
ni nh. Thnh phn ngoi celluloza v khong cht cn cha protein, ng, cht
bo, nhng nhng cht ny hu nh c th ca ngi khng tiu ha c v n

dnh cht vi lp v mng celluloza.


Ni nh: chim khong 83% trng lng ht, nm sau lp alron. y l thnh
phn chim t l ln nht trong cc thnh phn cu to nn ht. Ni nh l ni d
tr cht dinh dng ca ht. Thnh phn chnh l tinh bt v protein. Bt m c

xay ra t ni nh.
Phi ht: chim khong 2% trng lng ht, l phn pht trin thnh cy non khi
ht ny mm. Thnh phn gm: ng, cht bo, protein, enzym v vitamin.

Hnh 2.2 Cu to la m

Hnh 2.3 La m

b) Phn loi bt m
Bt m c ch bin t ht la m. La m c 2 loi chnh l la m en v la
m trng, do ngi ta cng chia bt m ra lm 2 loi chnh:
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Bt m en: Ch bin t ht la m en, m dng lm bnh m bng cch ln


men lactic, c v chua, ch thch hp cho mt s khu v mt s vng trn th gii.
Bt m trng: ch bin t ht la m trng. Ty theo cht lng bt ta chia lm
cc loi bt: thng hng, loi I, loi II, nghin ln.
Nc ta ch nhp loi bt thng hng v loi I.
Ty thuc vo ging la m sn xut bt m m bt m c thnh phn ha
hc khc nhau. Nhng nhn chung, bt m c cc thnh phn c bn nh sau:
Cht v c: chim t 15 17%, ch yu gm nc v mui khong.
Cht hu c: chim t 83 87% gm glucide, lipid, ptotid, vitamin, sc t,

enzyme,..
Vai tr ca bt m trong sn xut m n lin:
L ngun gluten v tinh bt chnh ca m n lin
L cht to hnh, to b khung, hnh dng, gp phn xc nh trng thi: cng,
c, dai v n hi cho si m.
c) Thnh phn ha hc ca bt m

Glucid
Trong bt m glucide chim t 70 90% trng lng kh ty theo bt m v
ging la m dng sn xut bt.
Cc glucide t nhiu u nh hng n cht lng sn phm.Hot tnh bt
cng nh th cng d b h ha, c bit trong mi trng kim. Dextrin l sn phm
thy phn ca tinh bt, lin kt km vi nc nn nu lng dextrin cao, bt s km
dnh nc, km dai v km n hi.
Cellulose v hemicellulose th khng cn c hm lng cao. Pentoza c tnh
ho nc, khi trng n s to huyn ph c (keo ha) nh hng xu n cht lng
bt nho (tng nht ca bt nho).

Protein
Protein trong bt m gm c 2 dng: n gin v phc tp.
Dng n gin gi l protein, bao gm c 4 loi : albumin, globumin,
prolamin v glutelin, trong albumin v globulin l rt t do trong la m chng nm
ch yu lp v, khi xay ly bt m th b mt i.
Dng phc tp gi l proteid gm c gluco, proteid, nucleoprotid, cremoproteid.

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Bng 2.4 Thnh phn ca protein trong ng cc (%)

La m
Ng
i mch
Yn mch
La

Albumin

Globulin

Prolamin

Glutelin

9
4
13
11
5

5
2
12
56
10

40
55
52
9
5

46
39
23
23
80

Nh vy, chng nh cc ng cc khc, trong bt m lng promalin v glutelin


chim mt t l kh cao (tr yn mch). Promalin trong bt m gi l gliadin, cn
glutelin gi l glutenin.
Gliadin v glutenin khi ht nc to thnh mng phn b u trong khi bt.
Mng ny va dai va n hi c gi l gluten. Nh m bt m nho c tnh dai,
d cn, ct nh hnh nn c dng sn xut m si, m n lin.
Hm lng Gluten t trong bt m khong 15 35% ty thuc vo hm lng
protein ca bt. Cht lng ca gluten c nh gi bng cc ch tiu vt l nh : mu
sc, n hi, dai v dn. Bt c gluten cht lng cao th n hi tt , dai
cao, dn trung bnh, trng hp gluten yu ngha l dn ln, d dai thp, t n
hi. tng cht lng gluten khi nho bt c th b sung cc cht oxy ha nh : acid
ascorbic, kali bromat, peoxid,
Ngoi ra, tnh cht vt l ca khung gluten cn chu nh hng ca hm lng
nc v mui s dng trong qu trnh nho trn cng nh nhit v cng nho
trn. Nho trn cng lu v mnh th kh nng kt dnh ca bt cng cao.

Enzyme :
Trong bt m cng c y cc h enzyme nh trong la m nhng hm lng
v hot khc nhau ty theo tng loi bt, bt loi thp th c hot cao v nc
li.
Men thy phn protid gm proteaza v polypeptidaza. Khi c s hin din ca
cht kh th hot tnh proteaza, nhng vi cht oxy ha v mui n th b km hm.
Men thy phn tinh bt gm amilaza, thy phn tinh bt thnh maltoza gip bt nho
ln men nhanh.
Ngoi 2 loi men trn, trong bt m cn c lipaza, lipoxidaza, tirozinaza cng
nh hng n cht lng bt m. Lipaza thy phn tinh bt thnh glycerin v acid bo
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cn lipoxidaza oxy ha cht bo khng no thnh peroxyd, y l mt cht oxy ha


mnh c nh hng ti gluten v trng thi ca proteaza. Tirozinaza oxy ha tirozin
to thnh melmin c mu en.

Lipid:
Hm lng cht bo trong bt m khong t 2 3%, trong l cht bo
trung tnh, cn li l phosphatit, sterin, sc t v vitamin tan trong cht bo. Trong qu
trnh bo qun bt, cht bo d b phn hy, gii phng acid bo t do, nh hng n
acid v v ca bt, ng thi nh hng n tnh cht ca gluten.
Sc t ha tan trong cht bo bt m gm carotenoid v clorofil. Vitamin c
trong bt m ch yu l vitamin E. C sc t ln vitamin u c hm lng rt t.
Bng 2.5 Ch tiu cht lng ca bt m (TCVN 4359 : 1985)
Tn tiu chun

Yu cu

Mu sc
Mi
V
Tp cht v c
Su mt
m
mn

Trng hoc trng ng c trng.


Mi ca bt t nhin, khng hi.
Khng mc, chua, ng, c mi v l.
Khng c sn.
Khng c.
Khng ln hn 13,5%
Khng ng cc, lt qua ry 118mm x

Hm lng gluten t
Hm lng tro
acid

118mm t 86% tr ln.


Khng nh hn 28%
Khng ln hn 0,75%
Khng ln hn 3,5

d) Cch bo qun nguyn liu


Cch bo qun bt m lu m vn thm ngon. Trong chui cung ng t sn
xut n tiu th th hot ng bo qun lu kho l mt phn khng th tch ri. Nhm
m bo v sinh an ton thc phm v cht lng bt m trong cng tc bo qun lu
kho.

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Hnh 2.4 Kho bo qun la m


Nh kho phi thong mt, c h thng lu thng gi khng nh sng mt
tri trc tip ri vo.
Nn nh kho phi lun sch s kh ro, trnh m t.
m bo nh sng, nhit ph hp cho cng tc bo qun, sp xp v giao
dch.
Nhit thch hp trong kho cho cng tc bo qun l 28 C v m di
70% (bt m bo qun c 06 thng nu nhit 18 C).
Bt m lu tr trong kho phi c xp trn Pallets, tt nht nn s dng Pallets
nha, nu dng Pallets g phi ph tm bt ln trn.
Cc l bt m phi c sp xp cch vch tng nh kho 1 mt, cao ti a
khng qu 3 pallets cha hng chng ln nhau v b tr cch nhau khong 40cm
50cm m bo cng vic theo di kim sot v khng kh lun chuyn to
thong
Trong thi gian bo qun lu kho nu pht hin c su mt phi lp tc cch ly
l hng v tin hnh hun trng. bo m hiu qu v an ton cho sc khe phi lin
h vi cc cng ty cung cp dch v kh trng chuyn nghip tin hnh hun trng,
gim st trc v sau thc hin.

e) Tiu chun ca bt m khi s dng


- c tnh chung v c tnh cm quan
Ht la m phi nguyn vn, sch, khng c mi l, hi mi c trng ca s
suy gim cht lng.
-

c tnh lin quan n sc khe


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Ht la m khng cha cc cht ph gia, cht c hi, d lng thuc bo v thc vt


hoc cht nhim bn khc c th nh hng n sc khe con ngi. Mc ti a cho
php c qui nh bi y ban tiu chun ha thc phm CAC.
Ht la m khng c cha cc loi cn trng sng thuc danh mc c lit k
trong Ph lc B khi xc nh theo TCVN 7847-3 (ISO 6639-3) hoc TCVN 6130 (ISO
6639-4) v ht la m khng c c nhm cn trng nh khi xc nh bng phng
php sng.
- c tnh l ha
m
m ca ht la m c xc nh theo ISO 712, khng c ln hn 15,5 %
(phn khi lng).
CH THCH Ty thuc vo kh hu, thi gian vn chuyn v bo qun mt
s ni m c th phi qui nh gii hn v m thp hn. Thng tin tip theo, xem
TCVN 7857-1 (ISO 6322-1), TCVN 7857-2 (ISO 6322-2) v TCVN 7857-3(ISO
6322-3).
Dung trng
Dung trng khi lng trn 100 lt ca ht la m phi c xc nh bng
dng c hiu chun theo phng php chun nu trong TCVN 4996-1 (ISO 7971-1)
hoc theo phng php thng thng trong TCVN 4996-2 (ISO 7971-2) v khng
c nh hn 70kg/100 l.
Tp cht
Lng tp cht ti a xc nh theo phng php nu trong Ph lc C, khng
c vt qu gi tr nu trong Bng 2.6.
Lng ti a ca ht la m b h hng (ht v, ht lp, ht khng bnh thng,
ht b sinh vt gy hi) v cc ht ng cc khc, c xc nh theo phng php nu
trong Ph lc C, khng c vt qu 15 % (phn khi lng) tng s.
Bng 2.6 Mc ti a i vi tp cht
Loi tp cht

nh ngha c
nu trong

Mc ti a cho php % (phn khi


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GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn


7a

Ht v

3.2.1

Ht lp

3.2.2

8a

Ht khng bnh thng

3.2.3

1a

Ht b sinh vt gy hi

3.2.4

2a

Ht ng cc khc

3.3

3a

Cht ngoi lai

3.4

Tp cht v c

3.4

0,5

3.5

0,5

3.5

0,05

3.5.3

0,05

Ht gy c v/hoc ht c hi,
ht b thi v ht c ca g do
nm
Mi loi ht gy c bt k
Ht c ca g do nm
a

Hm lng ti a ca ht v, ht lp, ht khng bnh thng, ht b cn trng gy hi v cc lo

khc khng c vt qu 15 % (phn khi lng) tng s.

Hot tnh -amylaza


Hot tnh -amylaza (xem 3.2.5) c xc nh theo ISO 3093 v c biu th

bng ch s ri, khng c nh hn 160.


2.2.2. Nguyn liu ph
a) Du chin

Hnh 2.5 Du shortening


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GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn

Du chin m c s dng trong cng ngh sn xut m n lin l shortening.


y l loi du c tinh luyn v hydro ha.
Ngun gc:
Shortening l mt loi cht bo dng rn c sn xut t du thc vt, chng
hn nh u tng, du ht bng.
Shortening c c do qu trnh hydro ha cc acid bo, trong cc nguyn t
hydro c cng thm vo cc acid bo cha no dng lng to nn cc acid bo no c
dng rn. N ng rn nhit phng, im nng chy t 40-47 0C (c ti liu ghi
610C). Thnh phn ca shortening ch c hn hp cc loi du c v cht bo qun
(khng c mt loi cht ph gia no khc).
Shortening ging nh mt s cht m khc n c tnh do mu trng c, xp,
b mt bng, lin khng b nt, nhit nng chy cao. dng nng chy, shortening
trong sut, c mu vng nht, khng c mi v c trng ca nguyn liu ban u.
Loi shortening tt nht c thnh phn acid bo t do di 0.1%, cht x phng ha
di 1%, PoV=0, hu nh khng cha nc, mu trng c, xp, b mc bng lin
khng b nt.
Shortening c s dng trong mt s thc n c tc dng l tng nhit
lng,tng v ngt v c tc dng bo qun gi thc n lu b h hng. Shortening
dng trong cng nghip lm bnh, m n linChc nng ch yu ca shortening
trong cc sn phm bnh l lm xp v mm. Khc vi b nhn to shortening l hn
hp nh ca 100% du v m. Mt s shortening c cho thm cht to nh. Cht to
nh thng dng nht l mono v ditriglyxerit dng vi mt lng 1,5- 3%.
Vai tr ca du chin:
-

L tc nhn gia nhit v l thnh phn sau phm.


Tng gi tr cm quan cho m.
Tng gi tr dinh dng cho m.

Tnh cht :
-

Nhit nng chy cao : AD = 40 420C, m thc vt: 300C


C bn nhit, nhit trng hp sn phm cao.
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GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn

C rn cn thit nhng do thch hp.


C n nh tt.
Gi c mt s lng glucide cu to bi acid bo cn thit theo quy nh.
It b hi tr mi, c kh nng nh ha nhiu. Nht l thm vo 4 6 % mono v

diglicerid.
It b oxy ha hn.
Cc sn phm dng Shortening chin th tt hn cc du khc v nhiu mt

nh cm quan, cht lng.c bit l m n lin. Khi chin bng Shortening th si


m kh ro, khi b vo bao b du khng b ngm ra ngoi, thi gian bo qun lu hn
v gim c oxy ha ca oxy khng kh ln cc ni i. c bit c th dng chin
i chin li. Shortening a vo chin m phi m bo cc ch tiu cht lng sau:

Bng 2.7 Ch tiu cht lng ca Shortening

`Tn ch tiu

Shortening
(TCVN 6048 : 1995)

m (%)

< 0,1

Hm lng lipid (%)

> 96

Ch s AV

< 0,3

Ha

Ch s PV

<5

Ch s IV (Wijs)

< 70

Hm lng acid bo t do (%)

< 0,1

Nhit nng chy

30- 520C

Phn ng Kracing

Khng c

Mu sc, b mt
Cm
quan

Mi v

Mu trng, trng ng. Khng c v

Tp cht

l. Dng bn rn, mn. Khng c

Mu sc

tp cht l

Trng thi

Nhc im ca shortening:
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GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn

- Khi tin hnh hydro ha du m s sinh ra mt loi axit bo xu: Transfat.


Transfat khi i vo c th s lm tng lng cholesterol xu (LDL: low density
lipoprotein ) v lm gim lng cholesterol tt(HDL: high density lipoprotein).
- Axt bo cu hnh Trans cng l mt trong nhng yu t lm tng nguy c mc
cc bnh v tim mch.
Cch bo qun:
Khng sn phm di nh nng trc tip hoc gn ni c nhit cao v
chng d b tch lp v b oxy ha. Hp Margarine sau khi s dng khng thc n
dnh vo v phi c y kn, trnh Margarine b mc v b oxy ha.
b) Nc
Lm trng n gluten v tinh bt, to dai cn thit cho khi bt nho. Nc
dng trong sn xut m si phi m bo ng tiu chun ca nc dng trong thc
phm, chim khong 30% tng lng tinh bt. Nc s dng trong qu trnh ch bin
phi t cc yu cu c th sau:
-

Trong sut, khng c v l, khng c vi sinh vt gy bnh.


Ch s E.Coli: 20con/l.
pH : 6,5 7
cng : < 7,9mg/l.
Bng 2.8 Cc ch tiu ha hc ca nc.
Tn cht

Hm lng

Amoniac (NH3)

Di 5,0 mg/l

Nitrit (NO2)

0,0

Natri Clorua (NaCl)

70 100 mg/l

Ch (Pb)

Di 0,1mg/l

ng (Cu)

3,0 mg/l

Km (Zn)

5,0 mg/l

Asen (As)

Di 0,05 mg/l

Flo (F)

0,7 mg/l

Iot (I)

5,0 7,0 /l

Cht hu c

0,5 2,0 g/l


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GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn

Bng 2.9 Ch tiu vi sinh ca nc cho sn xut thc phm (dng thc phm c
qua gia nhit).
Loi vi sinh vt

S lng (con)

Vi sinh vt hiu kh trong 1ml

Di 100

Vi sinh vt k kh trong 1ml

Vi khun E.Coli trong 1l nc

Di 20

Vi khun gy bnh l hay thng

hn
Trng giun sn

0 (trng)

2.2.3. Ph gia:
a) Mui

Hnh 2.6 Nguyn liu mui

Mui phosphate
Vai tr:

Gi nc, gip sn phm tr nn mm mi.


Gip bt d dng vo trc cn.
To trn ln cho si m.
Mui n:

Vai tr: To v mn, lm tng gi tr cm quan cho sn phm, lm tng dai ca


gluten gip cc cng on gia cng thun li hn, sn phm m t b gy nt hn,
21

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GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn

nhng nu lng mui dng trong qu trnh trn bt nhiu qu th mui s ht nc


lm cng mch gluten, lm b bt. Lng mui s dng khong 2 -4% trng lng
gi m.
Bng 2.10 Ch tiu cm quan ca mui n
Tn ch tiu

Thng hng

Hng 1

Hng 2

Mu sc

Trng trong, trng

Trng, nh xm,

Trng xm, trng

nh vng, nh

nu

hng
Mi v

Khng mi
Dung dch mui 5% c v mn thun khit, khng c v l

Dng bn ngoi v

Kh ro, sch

c ht

C ht 1- 15mm
Bng 2.11 Ch tiu ha l ca mui n

Tn ch tiu

Thng hng

Hng 1

Hng 2

97

95

93

0,25

0,4

0,8

9,5

10,6

10,5

Ca2+

0,3

0,45

0,55

Mg2+

0,3

0,7

1,0

SO42-

0,1

1,8

2,35

Hm lng NaCl tnh theo %


khi lng kh, khng nh
hn.
Hm lng cht khng tan
trong nc tnh theo % khi
lng kh, khng ln hn
Hm lng m tnh theo %
khng ln hn
Hm lng cc ion tnh theo %
khi lng kh,khng ln hn

b) CMC (cacbonxyl methyl cellulose)


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GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn

c k hiu l E464, l mt dn sut ca cellulose, c to thnh sau phn


ng vi kim v acid chloroacetic.CMC khng c.
CMC hu ht tan trong nc lnh, v c s dng ch yu kim sot
nht m khng to gel (ngay c khi c mt ca ion Ca 2+) .
L cht rn, khng mu, khng mi, khng v
Vai tr: c pha vo dung dch trn vi bt m (thng pha vi t l 0,5 1%
so vi tng lng bt) nhm:
-

N c dng lm cht n nh trong thc phm v to dai cho si m.


To dai cho bt m do tng lin kt hydro
C tnh keo dnh, tc dng n nh bt khi nh hnh
L cht nh ha
Ngoi ra cn dng mt s ph gia khc c chc nng tng t nh: Xanthangum,
Guar gum,

c) Nc tro
L dung dch kim NaOH, KOH, Na2CO3 c pha ch theo t l khc nhau ty
theo tng loi m, tng ni sn xut.
Vai tr:
-

Tng kh nng h ha, gim s thoi ha ca cu trc bt.


B sung cc nguyn t kim loi, tng ln lc ion lm cht khung gluten v tng d

dai cho si m.
Trung ha chua ca bt (trung ha cc acid hu c c sn trong bt), gip bt
nhanh chn trong giai on hp.
d) Bt ngt
C 2 loi l gluatamat natri v Ribotide (l protein ribo nucleic c trong tht
ng vt, cho v ngt gp 100 ln bt ngt thng siu bt ngt). Hm lng bt
ngt thng chim khong 5% (tng ng vi 5kg bt ngt/ 100kg bt m).
e) Mu thc phm
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GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn

Thng dng mu vng caroten vi t l rt nh to mu vng cho si m


nhm tng gi tr cm quan cho sn phm. Cc sn phm xut khu th khng s dng
mu thc phm.
Quy nh v s dng ha cht
Hin nay vic s dng ha cht trong ch bin thc phm l vn ang c
quan tm. V vy vic s dng ha cht trong ch bin thc phm nhm mc ch lm
tng gi tr cm quan v thi gian bo qun pha tun theo liu lng nht nh v cc
yu cu sau y:
-

Khng gy c hi cho ngi s dng


Sn phm chuyn ha ca chng khng c
Khng lm thc phm c mi l
Khng lm gim gi tr dinh dng ca thc phm
Khng lm hoa mn hay ph hy bao b, thit b, dng c ch bin.

Cc gia v khc
Tiu, t, hnh, bt ngt, mui nm trong thnh phn nc trn bt, bt nm,
c pha ch khc nhau ty theo tng loi sn phm, lm nn hng v ring, lm tng
gi tr cm quan cho tng loi m.

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GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn

Chng 3: Quy trnh cng ngh sn xut m n lin


3.1. S quy trnh cng ngh
Bt m

Bt b sung

Nc

Trn kh

Ph gia

Nguyn liu ph

Ha nc trn bt
Nho bt
Cn th
Cn bn tinh
Cn tinh
Ct si
To sng
Hp
Thi ngui
Phun nc gia v

Nc gia v

Qut ro
Ct nh lng
Vo khun
Chin

Du Shortening

Lm ngui
Phn loi
Sn phm
Bt nm du

Bao gi

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GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn

Cng ngh sn xut m si pht trin ti mc kh hon chnh vi rt nhiu


quy trnh khc nhau ty theo nguyn liu, sn phm v quy m sn xut. Tuy nhin, tt
c cc quy trnh u qua ba giai on nho trn, to hnh v x l nhit.
3.2. Gii thch quy trnh cng ngh
3.2.1. Giai on nho trn bt
3.2.1.1. Ha nc trn bt:
y l qu trnh ha tan cc ph gia vo nc, to thnh mt dung dch ng
nht, khng vn cc, khng to mng, ko vng.Cc cht ph gia nh ng, mui,
bt ngt, bt sp, cht mu, cht to dai u c cn nh lng theo ng thc
n trc khi vo bn chun b nc trn bt. Cc cu t nhiu c trn trc, t
trn sau.
Ly nc theo t l qui nh vo bn trn, bt cng tc cho cnh khuy lm vic
ri t t cc cht ph gia trn vo. nh trn trong 15 pht ri tt cnh khuy. Ly
dung dch i kim tra nng . Nu dung dch t yu cu th yn bn nc trn
2 gi trc khi em nho bt.
Trc khi em dung dch i nho bt, cn bt cnh khuy tr li m bo s
ng nht ca dung dch.
Nc trn c chun b trc cho 1 ca sn xut theo cng thc ca b phn k
thut. Cc cht ph gia c pha vo nc trn bt gm:
Bng 3.1 Thnh t l phi trn gia cc ph gia
Ph gia

% so vi bt nguyn liu

Mui

2-4

CMC

0,5 -1

Nc tro

0,5

Mu thc phm

0,1
5

Bt ngt
Cc gia v: ng, bt ngt, bt sp

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GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn

Cc thnh phn trn c ha tan bng nc nng trong thng cha nc trn
bt, sau thm nc va cho mi m bt nho.
Yu cu ca nc trn:
+ Ha cht phi c cn theo ng t l.
+ Dung dch phi ng nht, khng vn cc, khng to mng, ko vng.
Song song vi cng on chun b dung dch nc trn bt, s tin hnh cng
lc cng on chun b nc lo.
Mc ch: chun b cho giai on phun gia v
Cc bin i: Cc cht rn (ph gia v gia v) ha tan trong nc to thnh dung dch
ng nht.
Thit b: thit b hnh tr, c lp v gia nhit bng hi, c cnh khuy vi motor
t trn thit b, s dng cnh khuy dng mi cho.
Cch thc hin: cc thnh phn c ha tan vi nc nng, sau thm vo
lng nc va cho mi ca sn xut.
Thnh phn ca dch nc gia v:
Theo kt qu ca X nghip sn xut m n lin Colusa Miliket ta c bng
khi lng thnh phn ph gia c trong nc gia v dng sn xut 1000 gi m.
Bng 3.2 Thnh phn ph gia lm nc gia v (1000 gi m)
STT
1
2
3
4
5
6

Nguyn liu
Bt sp
Bt ngt
Mui n
Ti kh
Bt t
ng

Khi lng (kg)


0,023
0,256
1,6
0,02
0,08
0,16

Theo yu cu ti th sn xut 1000kg m thnh phm, tng ng vi


1000000g m, mi gi m c khi lng tnh 80g, th t 1000000g m thnh phm s
thu c 12500 gi m. T nh phng php tng sut ta s thu c bng thnh
phn ph gia lm nc gia v sn xut 12500 gi m t bng 3.2
Bng 3.3 Thnh phn ph gia lm nc gia v (12500 gi m)
27

n cng ngh ch bin


STT
1
2
3
4
5
6

Nguyn liu
Bt sp
Bt ngt
Mui n
Ti kh
Bt t
ng

GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn


Khi lng (kg)
0,29
3,2
20
0,25
1
2

3.2.1.2. Trn kh:


-

Khi chun b cc loi bt phi ring v ghi k hiu r rng .

Nguyn liu chnh sn xut m n lin l bt m (82 84%), ngoi ra cn

phi trn thm tinh bt gim gi thnh sn phm v tng dai cho si m. Nguyn
liu c cn nh lng theo cng thc ca tng loi m, sau a vo my nh
trn.
- Qu trnh trn l trn trng thi kh, khng trn trng thi t m bo bt
trn u thnh h ng nht v cht lng.
3.2.1.3. Nho trn
a. Mc ch cng ngh:
Giai on nho trn c mc ch chun b to c khi bt nho thch hp
cho qu trnh to hnh tip theo.
Nho trn c xem l khu rt quan trng v n quyt nh tnh cht sn phm,
to nh hng r rt ln cc khu tip theo trong quy trnh sn xut (to hnh, chin,
sy..). Nho trn s phn phi nc, gia v v ph gia vi bt m,to nn khi bt c
ng nht.Bt sau khi nho trn phi do, dai, b mt mn mng, n hi, khng
dnh, to c khung gluten tt.
b. Phng php thc hin
Qu trnh nho trn c tin hnh theo nguyn tc: Cc nguyn liu dng rn
s c phi trn vi nhau, phn lng trn vi phn lng. Nu cht rn c hm lng
t th cn ho tan hon ton trong nc trc khi ho trn vi bt. Nh vy bt m s
c trn kh vi cc loi bt khc (nu c ) nh bt nng, bt bp. Mui, nc tro,
mu v cc nguyn liu ph khc nh trng, bt c chua, vitamin c ho tan u
28

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GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn

trong nc, chnh n nhit thch hp v phun t t vo ci trn bt kh. Tin hnh
nho trn cho n khi hn hp bt to thnh khi bt nho ng nht. Thi gian trn
thng giao ng trong khong t 10 n 15 pht.
c. Cc bin i ca nguyn liu
Cc bin i xy ra trong qu trnh nho trn bt lm m si cng tng t
nh trong qu trnh qu trnh nho trn bt lm bnh m v bnh bch quy. Khc
bit ca cc qu trnh nho trn ny l ch sn phm m si cn dai v khng cn
xp. Do qu trnh nho bt cn nh nhng hn ch ti a khng kh ln vo
khi nguyn liu. Nu lng kh ln vo t, khi gia nhit s trnh c hin tng r
trn b mt, gi c cu trc ca sn phm. ng thi, do lng kh ln vo khng
ng k nn cc sc t c trong bt m khng b oxi ho, s gi c mu sc yu cu
ca sn phm.
-

Bin i ha l (s keo ha)


Khi nho bt vi nc, tinh bt trong bt trong bt m c kh nng trng n

trong nc lnh to thnh nhng ht keo. Khi nho trn cc ht Gliadin v Glutenin
to ra cc mng mng dnh kt cc ht tinh bt trng n li vi nhau. Bt nho tr
nn do, n hi l nh khung Gluten ny.
-

Bin i ha hc (s hydrat ha)


Khi nhit nho trn t 25 400C th s hydrat ha xy ra ch yu vi

Gluten, nu nhit tng n khong 600C s hydrat ho tinh bt xy ra mnh do tinh


bt ht nc tch t Protein bin tnh.

d. Cc yu t nh hng n qu trnh
Ngoi cng thc phi trn nguyn liu th m v nhit l hai yu t nh
hng nhiu nht n cht lng bt nho.
Trong qu trnh sn xut m n lin c qu trnh hp, do hm lng nc
trong bt nho cng cao cng s lm tang dai cho sn phm sau hp. Tuy nhin, nu
29

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GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn

m qu cao th bt nho dnh trc khi cn to hnh. V vy, vi cc loi bt m


thng thng, m bt nho c gi trong khong 30-35%. Vi loi bt m c cht
lng rt tt v cng ngh hin i, cc nh sn xut Nht Bn c th nng m ti
a ca bt nho ln 40%.
Nhit ca qu trnh nho trn s nh hng ti cc mi lin kt ca protein
to mng gluten. Nhit cao th nc v cc phn t protein linh ng nn d dng
to mi lin kt, nhng li c kh nng lm bin tnh protein. V vy, n nh nhit
trong qu trnh nho trn cng s gip n nh cht lng ca thnh phm. V d nh
sn xut m t bt m c 10% protein, nhit nn gi trong khong 37-38 oC.
Nhit ca ci trn chu nh hng ca thi tit, lc ma st, cc phn ng ho hc
xy ra trong ci trn v nhit ban u ca nguyn liu. Nhit sinh ra do ma st v
do cc phn ng ho hc ph thuc vo cu trc my trn v phn lng nguyn liu,
ph liu ca cng thc lm m si nn kh thay i. n nh nhit , thit b nn
c b phn lm mt. Mt cch khc phc n nh nhit gia cc m trn l thay
i nhit nguyn liu. V d khi thi tit nng nng th s s dng nc lnh
phi trn.
e. Yu cu bn thnh phm
Qu trnh nho trn ch cn m bo sao cho cc cu t trn u vo nhau. Thi
gian trn phi hp l v nu thi gian qu lu th th s c nhiu khng kh ln vo
trong khi bt.

f. Thit b

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GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn

Hnh 3.1 Thit b trn bt


Ch thch:
1 V my

5 Cnh khuy trn

2 M t

6 Ca np liu

3 - ng dn dung dch nho bt

7 Trc quay

4 L phun dung dch nho bt

8 Ca tho bt nho

9 Khoang nho bt

10 Hp gim tc

M t thit b:
H thng trn bt gm 3 phn chnh. Phn v thit b quy nh hnh dng bn
ngoi ca thit b, c th hnh hp ch nht nm ngang hoc hnh trc trn nm nang,
.Phn quan trong nht ca thit b l cnh khuy, cnh khuy nm bn trong v
thit b, tt c cc cnh c gn vo mt trc, trc thit b c ni vi hp gim tc,
hp gim tc c ni trc tip vi ng c. Khi ng c hot ng, ng c s
truyn ng v trc lm cho trc quay, t cnh khuy quay nh hn hp trong
thit b s c trn u vo nhau. C th iu chnh tc nhanh chp ca cnh
khuy bng hp gim tc.
Cht liu sn xut thit b
V ngoi ca thit b c lm bng inox. Cnh v trc c lm bng thp
khng g m bo v sinh cng nh cht lng ca thit b trong qu trnh hot
ng.

Nguyn l hot ng:


Nguyn liu sau khi a vo khoan nho trn (9) qua ca np liu (6), tin hnh
y np v khi ng M t (2). Khi m t quay s lm cho trc c cnh khuy (7)
quay theo qua hp gim tc (10). Dung dch nho bt theo ng ng dn (3) i vo
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khoan trn v phn b u nh dy l phun (4) nm di ng. Di tc dng quay


ca 2 cnh khuy quay ngc chiu nhau (5), bt m v dung dch c nho trn vi
nhau to thnh bt nho. Khi nho xong, bt nho c x xung thng gt bt qua
ca (8). Thi gian v qu trnh x bt nho c t ch t ng.
g. S c cng ngh v cch khc phc
Khi nho bt xong, bt nho b vn cc, y c th l bt m qu m, dung dch
nho bt cho vo qu nhiu, thi gian nho qu lu. khc phc s c ny cn
kim tra li m ca bt, iu chnh lng dung dch nho bt vo my, rt ngn
thi gian nho hoc c th b sung thm bt m mi vo (hn ch v theo kinh
nghim).
3.2.2. Giai on to hnh
Giai on to hnh bo gm cc cng on: cn th, cn bn tinh, cn tinh,
ct si, to sng.
3.2.2.1. Qu trnh cn
a Mc ch ca qu trnh cn:
To cho sn phm c hnh dng thch hp theo yu cu:
-

Nhm chuyn bt nho t trng thi bi ri thnh tm bt c dy u n.

Lm ng nht khi bt v tng n hi cho khi bt nho v gim lng


khng kh ha ln trong bt nho.

Khi i qua cc l cn bt l bt s c nn cht thnh l d to hnh. ng


thi c tc dng dn l bt n thit b ko si.

b Yu cu ca l bt sau khi cn:


- Sau khi ra khi trc cn bt cn c b mt tng i mn, dy ng u.
- L bt mng, mm, xp, khng rch, khng b lm m (do c ln bt kh vo)
- Khng c l xp, b mt lng u, trng ng.
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- Kch thc ca l bt mng dn khi qua cc trc cn, l bt qua trc cn tinh dy
khong 0,8 1,2mm.
c Cc bin i ca nguyn liu:
- Ch yu l cc bin i v mt vt l nh:
Trong qu trnh cn bt:
xp v m ca khi bt b gim do mt phn khng kh v nc t do b tc
-

Nhit : tng do ma st vi trc cn.


Khi lng ring tng do loi bt khng kh v th tch gim.
Hnh dng, cu trc khi bt nho: t dng ht ri chuyn sang dng tm, cc lc

lin kt trong khi bt c sp xp li, sau l dng si v c gn sng.


Cht lng ca l bt sau qu trnh cn ph thuc vo rt nhiu yu t nh hm lng
v cht lng gluten, ng u v kch tht ca bt, m sn phm, nhit bt
nho, vn tc,s ln cn.
+ Cht lng gluten nh hng ti cht lng ca l bt l ln nht. Bt dng
lm m n lin c hm lng gluten khong 26-32%l bt c ddai cn thit. gluten
xu v bt khng mn th b mt km nhn, khng bng. Nu hm lng gluten qu
cao th bt dn hi mnh , kh p, b mt bt khng nhn.
+ m ca khi bt cng nh hng n cht lng ca l bt sau qu trnh cn:
nu m cao th d cn, b mt sn phm nhn bng.
+ Hm lng protein nh hn 14%, khi tng m qu 33% th sn phm tr nn
chy, km n hi d b dt trong khi cn.

d Cc yu t nh hng
Cht lng ca l bt sau qu trnh cn ph thuc vo rt nhiu yu t nh hm lng
v cht lng gluten, ng u v kch thc ca bt, m ca sn phm, nhit
ca bt nho, vn tc p, s ln cn,
e Thit b
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Hnh 3.2 S ng i ca khi bt trong giai on cn ct


Ch thch:
1,2,3 cp trc cn th

10,11 cp trc cn tinh

4 L m

12 - Cp trc dao ct

5,6,7,8,9 cp trc cn bn tinh

13 Lung vt m

M t thit b:
Qu trnh cn bt nho c thc hin qua 9 ln cn vi 10 cp trc, cn bt t
dy n mng. Sau khi cn xong, l bt c mt 1 cp trc ct si ct thnh nhiu si
m nh c chiu dy 1mm, chiu rng 1,2 mm.
H thng trc cn v dao ct c thit k thnh 2 phn tch bit. Phn 1 bao gm 3
cp trc cn th, phn 2 bao gm 5 cp trc bn tinh, 2 cp trc cn tinh, 1 cp trc
dao ct, 9 vch ngn nh v 1 bng ti trung gian. Hai phn c lin kt vi nhau
bng tm k nha PVC t nghing gc 350.
Cht liu sn xut thit b
Cc cp trc c lm bng thp khng g. Gia 2 cp trc c mt khong
trng cho bt i qua. 2 cp trc c chc nng cn khi bt i qua khong trng .

Phn 1: Cn th
Nguyn tc cu to

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Hnh 3.3 Thit b cn bt


Ch thch:
A My nho bt

12 Nn phn phi

B Thng gt bt

13 T bo quang in

C H cn th

14 Trc cn th ln 1

1 M t

15 C cu lch tm

2 - ng phun dung dch

16 Trc cn th ln 2

3 Ca np liu

17 ng ray cong

4 Cnh phi trn

18 Tm k PVC

5 Ca dung dch vo

19 - Chn

6 Ca tho liu

20 ng ray thng

7 Hp gim tc

21 Bng ti li kim loi

8 Cnh qut gt bt

22 - bnh rng dn ng
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9 M t

23 Xch truyn ng

10 Bng ti gt bt

24 Hp gim tc

11 Cnh gt bt

25 M t

Nguyn tc hot ng:


Bt nho t my nho bt xung thng nho bt qua ca tho liu (6) nh h
thng m np t ng. Lng bt nho nm trn bng ti (10) c chuyn bi m t
(9). Nh t bo quang in (13) o lng bt c trn cp trc cn th (14), m bng ti
v cnh qut gt bt (8) c hot ng hay khng. Nu lng bt thp th t bo quang
in s truyn tn hiu cho m t hot ng , khi bng ti v cnh qut gt bt cng
hot ng theo a bt xung trn 2 trc cn th.
Khi bt nho t thng gt bt xung trn 2 trc cn th phi i qua nn phn
phi (12). Ti y bt nho c phn phi u xung c hai cp trc. H thng trc
cn, cnh gt bt (10), bng ti li kim loi (21) trt trn ng ray (17) v (20)
phn mt c chuyn ng nh m t (25), xch dn ng (23), bnh rng dn
ng (22) v c cu lch tm (15).
Khi m t quay, tt c cc cp trc u quay, cnh gt bt nh c c cu lch
tm (15) nn chuyn ng tnh tin t trn xung v t di ln. Hai cnh gt chuyn
ng lch nhau (so le). Nh vy m lng bt c phn phi u cho 2 cp trc. Sau
khi ra khi 2 cp trc cn th, 2 l m tip tc n v hp li thnh mt cp trc cn
th th 3 nh bng ti li kim loi. Sau khi ra khi cp trc th 3 l m c tm k
nh hng nha PVC a ln h thng cn bn tinh, cn tinh, trc ct v to lung
vt m.

Phn 2 (cn bn tinh, cn tinh, trc ct v to lung vt m)


Nguyn tc cu to:

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H
Hnh 3.4 H thng trc cn ct
Ch thch:
1,2,3,4,5 cp trc cn bn tinh

12 M t

6,7 cp trc cn tinh

13 gi trc quay

8 dao ct

14 xch truyn ng

9 vch ngn

15 - bnh rng dn ng

10 bng ti trung gian

16 chn thit b

11 hp gim tc

17 bnh rng hng ng

Nguyn tc hot ng:


Khi m t (13) hot ng tt c cc cp trc (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7), cp trc
dao ct (8), bng ti trung gian (16) u hot ng nh dy xch truyn ng (9),
bnh rng dn ng (11) u hot ng theo. Trong h thng trc cn ny c 5 cp trc
cn bn tinh v 2 cp trc cn tinh. Tc quay ca cc cp trc tng dn v khe h
gia 2 trc trong mt cp gim dn.
L m c cn qua 7 ln qua 7 cp trc ri i n cp trc dao ct (8), tc
quay ca trc dao ct bng tc ca trc cn tinh s 7 (cui cng). Ti y l m
c ct thnh nhiu si m c dy 1mm, b rng 1,2mm v i qua 9 vch ngn
(18) to nn 8 lung vt m di lin tc chy trn bng ti trung gian (16). cng
on ny do tc ca bng ti trung gian chm hn cp trc dao ct nn si m qun
li. V cng do tc ca bng ti hp nhanh hn bng ti trung gian nhng li chm
hn cp trc dao nn si m c gim qun mt phn
-

f Cc s c v cch khc phc:


L bt dy khng u c th do bt nho b vn cc, trc cn mn khng u. Khi

cn xem li bt nho, thay trc cn.


L bt b t,l bt cng khi cn. Nguyn nhn l do bt thng gt thiu, bt nho
kh. Bin php khc phc: xem li bt nho v em i nho li.
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L bt b chn, dnh trc do bt nho t, hi nho. Cn xem li bt nho, rc bt kh

ln trc.
Si m c nhiu mnh vn, ct si khng hon ton l do dao ct mn khng u, b

lch; rng lc mn khng u, b gy khng vt c bt trong khe rnh.


t xch truyn ng, b bnh rng dn ng. Nu xy ra phn nho bt th dng
ngay hot ng phn nho bt li, dng hot ng ca phn nho bt li cn cc cng
on sau vn hot ng bnh thng cho n khi lng m cn li ra khi dy chuyn.
Trong trng hp ny cn c thay th v sa cha kp thi.
g Yu cu bn thnh phm
To thnh tm bt c dy u n.
Tm bt c n hi, do dai cao thun li cho cc bc k tip.
3.2.2.2. Ct si To sng
a. Mc ch cng ngh
-

Hon thin: to si dng sng, lm tng gi tr cm quan cho vt m.


b. Cc bin i:

Vt l: S thay i hnh dng ca khi bt t dng tm sang dng si v dng


sng.

c. Thit b:

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Hnh 3.5 Thit b ct si v to sng


M t thit b v nguyn l hot ng
Tm bt sau khi qua l cn tinh cui cng s vo h thng ct v c ct thnh si
nh cc rnh dao ct.
H thng dao ct: gm 2 trc chuyn ng ngc chiu nhau, trn b mt mi trc c
nhiu rnh (kch thc mi rnh ty thuc vo kch thc yu cu cho tng loi m).
Cc rnh gia 2 trc n khp vi nhau, p tm bt thnh tng si
Si m ra khi trc ct c tc ln hn tc ca bng ti hng m, nh si b b
n li vo to bng.
Mi trc c gn 1 rng lc n st vo b mt trc ct tch si m sau khi ct xong
ra khi rnh.
Si m c ct qua c cu phn ln to thnh 6 ln m.
Thng s k thut:
ng knh trc lc ct: 88mm
Chiu su ca rnh: 3mm
Tu theo tng loi m m nh my ct si vi cc trc c bc rng ph hp: bc
rng l 1,25mm (i vi m si nh), v 2mm (i vi m si ln).
Tc dao ct: 50 65 vng/pht
Cht liu lm thit b:
Gm 2 trc trn chuyn ng ngc chiu nhau lm bng thp khng g.
d. Yu cu bn thnh phm
Chuyn bn thnh phm t dng tm bt thnh cc si bt c gn sng cao.
Si bt cng mng, cng c gn sng cao th cng lm tng gi tr cm quan cng
nh to iu kin thun li thun hin cc bc sau cho ra sn phm c cht
lng cao.
3.2.3. Giai on x l nhit
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3.2.3.1. Qu trnh hp
a. Mc ch cng ngh : ch bin.
Si m sau qu trnh to hnh s c a vo bung hp nhm lm chn s b
si m rt ngn thi gian chin v c nh cu trc si m. Hn na, hp nhit
cao cn c tc dng lm mt hot tnh ca cc loi enzyme c trong nguyn liu v
tiu dit vi sinh vt.
b. Cc bin i ca nguyn liu
Trong qu trnh hp, di tc dng ca nhit , protein s b bin tnh, nh
nc v lin kt li vi nhau to thnh khung ca si m. Tinh bt s s dng lng
nc t do trong bt nho, lng nc do protein nh ra v hp thu thm mt phn
hi nc trng n, h ho. Mt s phn t tinh bt thot khi ht tinh bt v lin
kt vi khung protein to ra c, chc cho si m.
c. Cc yu t nh hng n qu trnh
Trong qu trnh hp, nhit v thi gian hp l hai yu t cng ngh cn c
iu khin n nh cht lng sn phm. Nhit bung hp c duy tr trong
khong 95-100oC trong thi gian 100 -240 giy tu thuc loi m. Nhit hp qu
cao hay thi gian hp qu di s gy ra nhng h hng cho sn phm nh phn ng
Maillard lm sm mu m, cu trc si m c th b nh hng xu (Bn thnh phm
hp th qu nhiu nc v sn phm b nho). Ngc li nhit qu thp hay thi
gian ngn, giai on h ho tinh bt cha t, cc enzyme cha b c ch m cn ang
vng nhit ti thch s xc tc cc phn ng phn gii tinh bt, lm gim dai
ca sn phm. Nhit v thi gian hp ph thuc rt nhiu vo cht lng nguyn
liu v t l ph gia s dng. V d nh nu bt nho c b sung cc mui ho nc
(nh mui phosphate) th cn gim thi gian v nhit ca qu trnh hp . Thm
nc tro s cn tng nhit nhng gim thi gian hp.
d. Thit b v thng s cng ngh
Bung hp

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Hnh 3.6 Bung hp


M t thit b v cht liu sn xut thit b
Phng hp c dng hnh hp ch nht lm bng inox, c cch nhit bng
bng thy tinh, kch thc di x rng x cao: 7 x 0.8 x 0.9 (m). Cc ca bn c th m
ra d dng thun tin cho vic v sinh thit b.
Bng ti m c b tr thnh 3 chng i trong phng hp 3 tng. Mi tng ca
phng hp u c ng dn hi b tr dc chiu di. Cc ng ny c c l phun hi
gia nhit cho m. Hai u phng hp c ng thot hi th ra ngoi.
Bng ti m c lm bng li thp khng g c ng knh l rt nh (1mm)
thun li cho s truyn nhit (hi) khi nguyn liu di chuyn trong bung hp.

Nguyn l hot ng
Phng hp l thit b truyn nhit hai v, kiu tip xc trc tip.
M sau khi qua my ct si s theo bng ti vo phng hp lm chn m. M s c
bng ti chuyn t tng 1 n tng 3 ri i ra ngoi. Hi nc bo ha t l hi c
cung cp cho phng hp qua ng dn hi. T ng dn hi chnh s phn thnh 3 ng
dn nh hn vo ba tng ca phng hp, t ng dn hi nh mi tng ny li phn ra
lm 3 ng b tr theo chiu dc ca tng hp. Hi bo ha s phun ra theo cc l trn
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ng ng dn hi gia nhit cho m. Lng hi c th thay i (nu cn) bng cch


iu chnh van trn ng ng
e. Yu cu bn thnh phm
Si m sau qu trnh hp cn chn u, mm mi v c tnh n hi, khng t
mt di v khng dnh bt.
3.2.3.2. Qu trnh thi ngui
Mc ch cng ngh: chun b cho qu trnh ti gia v.
Thit b v thng s cng ngh: ra khi bung hp , li ti m s i qua mt h
thng qut thi ngui lm ro phn nc t do ng li trn b mt si m. Thi
ngui cng gip cho nhng si m b h ho dnh vo li ca bng ti c tch ra
khi li ti. V vy, cc qut thi ngui thng c gn bn di ca li ti.
3.2.3.3. Phun nc gia v
a. Mc ch: hon thin
To ra hng v c trng cho m, mu sc ca vt m tr nn p hn, si m khng
b chai cng
Lm cho si m ti ra, khng dnh vo nhau qu trnh v khun c d dng do
tinh bt sau khi hp rt ho nc
b. Cc bin i
Vt l: t trng tng, c s khuch tn ca gia v vo trong si m.
Ha hc: m tng, lng cht kh tng nhng khng ng k.
c. Thit b
M t thit b v nguyn l hot ng
Ngi ta c th cho bng ti m li qua thng cha nc lo trong thi gian ngn.
Dng thit b ny si m sau hp s ht m u nhng lng m tng nhiu nh hng
ti cc qu trnh sau nn t s dng.

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Nc lo theo ng dn n b phn ti, b phn ny c dng vi sen ti u


nc lo t trn xung bng ti m. Di bng ti c thng thu nc lo hon lu tr
li. Theo cch ny si m sau hp t ht m, vt m ngm lo khng u. khc phc
hin tng ny, ngi ta s dng mt thit b hnh hp ch nht c khe hp, t theo
chiu rng ca bng chuyn. Nc lo s theo ng dn vo thit b ny, qua khe hp,
to thnh mt lp mng nc mng theo chiu di thit b, ti u nc lo t trn
xung bng ti m.

Hnh 3.7 H thng phun nc gia v


d. Yu cu bn thnh phm
Cc si m phi c thm u nc gia v nhng cng khng c thm qu nhiu v
s lm cho cc si bt s nho ra nh hng n cht lng sn phm.

3.2.3.4. Qu trnh qut ro


Mc ch cng ngh: chun b cho qu trnh chin m
Thit b: si m c ti gia v s c qua mt h thng qut gim
nhanh m ca si m. Qu trnh ny gip cho si m kh hn trc khi a vo
cng on chin, nh s gim c lng cht bo c trong thnh phm.
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3.2.3.5. Qu trnh ct nh lng


Mc ch cng ngh: hon thin
Qu trnh ct nh lng l ct bng m thnh tng ming c trong lng
nht nh v to hnh cho vt m.
Vt m sau khi ct cn t ng khi lng quy nh, cc nht ct t gn, ri
hn nhau, khng to rng ca u si.
Thit b v thng s cng ngh:

Hnh 3.8 Thit b ct nh lng

Ch thch

Hnh 3.9 H thng ct nh lng

1 vt m

6 bng ti li kim loi

2 trc dao ct

7 - Cam

3 trc quay

8 thanh trt

4- vt m sau khi ct

9 tm y
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5 bng ti tm cao su
Yu cu bn thnh phm:
Tt c cc vt m sau khi ct nh lng th phi c hnh dng ging nhau, u
nhau.
cc cnh ca vt m phi c ct t gn, khng to ra rn ca cc cnh
ca vt m.
M t thit b v nguyn l hot ng:
Bng ti m (1) a 8 lung vt m vo trc doa ct (2). Ti y vt m c ct
thnh nhng vt m c chiu di nht nh. Vt m khi ct xong c chuyn n b
phn gp i nh cp trc dn (3). Trc cam (7) s truyn ng cho tm y (9)
chuyn ng tnh tin ti trn thanh trt (8). Vt m ct xong (4) nm trn tm cao su
(5) ca bng ti v khun.
3.2.3.6. Qu trnh v khun
Mc ch cng ngh: chun b cho qu trnh chin
Thit b: trc khi chin, cc vt m cn c cho vo khun to hnh dng
ng nht cho sn phm. Cc khun c hnh dng trn, hnh ch nht hay hnh chn,
ly ty thuc vo dng sn phm sau ny. Khun c gn trn xch ti v kt hp cng
vi np nhm y kn v c nh vt m.

3.2.3.7. Qu trnh chin


a. Mc ch cng ngh:
Chin nhm mc ch ch bin v bo qun sn phm.
Chin lm cho vt m tr nn gin xp, c hng v v mu sc c trng ca
m n lin. Trong qu trnh chin, nc t do s tch ra, v cht bo s thm thu vo
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trong vt m lm tng gi tr dinh dng ca sn phm. Do qu trnh tin hnh nhit


cao nn hu ht vi sinh vt b tiu dit, cc enzyme b v hot. Mc khc, lng
nc cn li trong sn phm thp nn hot ca nc thp c kh nng hn ch qu
trnh pht trin ca phn ln cc vi sinh vt mi xm nhp vo sn phm sau khi chin.
M sau khi chin phi khng dnh du, vng u hai mt,khng b v vn, khng c
m sng.
b. Cc bin i ca nguyn liu
giai on u ca qu trnh chin, khi nhit ca sn phm thp hn nhiu
so vi nhit du chin, trong sn phm c s tng nhit hng ti cn bng vi
nhit du. thi k ny, nhn b ngoi trng thi v hnh dng ca sn phm cha
c s thay i ln. Tuy nhin du s bt u khuch tn vo b mt si m. Nu giai
on ny ko di, b mt m si s thm mt mng du ngn cn qu trnh thot m
sau ny. Khi nhit trong si m tng ln trong khong 50-90oC, cc ht tinh bt cha
b v trong qu trnh hp s kp hp vi lng nc thm vo m trong qu trnh ti
gia v thc hin tip qu trnh h ha.
n khi nhit t 100oC, nc s bc hi v lm tng th tch si m. Sau ,
nc trong sn phm bt u thot ra ngoi v du t ngoi thm vo sn phm nhiu
hn. Do b mt nc nn cui thi k ny hnh dng v cu trc ca si m b
bin i su sc, si m tr nn kh gin. Do nhit du chin cao, trong si m xy
ra cc phn ng to mu v to mi (phn ng Maillard, caramel ha), lm tng gi tr
cm quan cho sn phm. Mt khc s bin i ca du chin di tc dng ca nhit
cao v nht l trong iu kin c oxy li to ra cc sn phm khng c li cho sc
khe. u tin l qu trnh thy phn du sinh glycerol v cc acid bo. Glycerol va
to thnh li tip tc b nhit phn hy to thnh acreloin v nc. Acreloin l cht c
si nhit thp nn d bay hi. Hp cht ny gy mi kh chu v lm chy nc
mt.
Cc acid bo dng t do s d dng b oxy ho to ra cc acid, ketone,
aldehyde, peroxyde... Cc cht ny to mi v v kh chu cho sn phm. V vy,
khun m phi ngp trong du v khng nn chin nhit qu cao.

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Khi c s tip xc gia du v nc trong thit b chin, s to ra mt lp nh


tng du nc. Lp ny rt d b tc ng ha hc v vi sinh vt d hot ng.
c. Cc yu t nh hng n qu trnh
Ngoi cht lng ca du th m ban u ca sn phm, nhit du v thi
gian chin l cc yu t nh hng mnh m n cht lng m thnh phm. m
sn phm cao th sn phm s gin xp nhng d thm du. Nu m sn phm qu
thp, sn phm s b chai cng. Nhit du cao, thi gian chin ngn th nc bc
hi nhanh nn sn phm t thm du, c mu vng sm v c mi ph hp vi th hiu
ca ngi tiu dng Vit Nam nhng du chin mau b h hng. V vy, ko di
thi gian s dng du, cn h nhit chin.
d. Thit b v thng cng ngh
Hin nay, cc nh my sn xut m n lin thng s dng phng php chin,
trong du c gia nhit bng phng php gin tip trong mt thit b trao i
nhit trc khi cho du vo cho chin. Qu trnh chin tin hnh 150-160oC. Thi
gian lu ca m trong cho chin khong 100-110 giy. Du s c tun hon lin tc
gia thit b trao i nhit v cho chin.
Trong qu trnh bm, du s c qua thit b lc th v lc tinh loi b m
vn v chy. Nh thit b lc m du chin s lu b oxy ha hn.
Sau mt thi gian chin, shortening s chuyn sang mu nu m, c, c mi du
kht. Khi ch s acid ca du ln hn 2 v ch s peroxyde ln hn 4 th cn loi b.

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Hnh 3.10 H thng chin


Ch thch:
1 khun m

7 bng ti np

2 bng ti khun

8 np thit b

3 - nhit k

9 m t

4 np

10 np rung

5 vi

11 chn thit b

6 nn thot hi du v hi nc

12 cho chin

13 ca du vo.
Nguyn l hot ng
Khi ng c (9) hot ng, bng ti khun (2) s a vt m trong khun (1)
vo cho chin (12). Du c a vo theo 4 ca (12) mt pha y ca thit b.
Du ra theo ng thng nhau hnh ch nht nm cng pha nhng cao hn so vi 4 ca
u vo.
M sau khi chin xong c np rung lm sch nhng gn m cn st li,
ng thi to iu kin thun li cho cng on tch ra khi khun. Hi du b li
cun theo nn (6) ra ngoi mi trng.
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Khi v sinh thit b du cn c ht ht ra khi cho chin a ln thng cha


du. Ti thng cha, du c gia nhit n nh trng thi lng ca du, mc ch
phc v kp thi cho ca sn xut tip theo.
T hp iu khin trung tm, tin hnh cp in cho m t trong thit b chin
hot ng. Khi m t hot ng s lm quay bnh vis v np thit b c nng ln
nh 4 trc vis 4 gc ca cho chin. Sau a nc nng vo v sinh, nu cho
chin qu bn, cn bm cht khi cn s dng st chi ra. Nc ra c x ra
ngoi qua van x y cho pha i din vi 4 ca du vo.
e. Yu cu bn thnh phm
Du phi lun ngp vt m 5cm, cn b sung v hon lu du lin tc.
Du chin phi lun m bo ch s AV<4
B sung BHT (butylhydroxytoluen )nh k nhm hn ch qu trnh oxy ha v
tng thi gian bo qun sn phm.
Sau khi chin, m ca m l 4,5%, hm lng lipid 15%.
3.2.4. Giai on hon thin sn phm
3.2.4.1. Lm ngui:
a. Mc ch:
Hon thin: H nhit lp shortening ng li lm kh vt m gip tng gi tr
cm quan, hn ch s ht m v thi m.
Bo qun: lm ngui nhanh s hn ch s nhim VSV. Nu vt m ngui t t th
VSV s pht trin rt nhanh trong khong nhit t 45 n 50oC.
b. Cc bin i:
Vt l:
T trng gim.
Nhit gim dn n 30-340C
Ha hc: hm m gim n 5%
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Ha l:
S bc hi m
S ng t ca shortening.
Cm quan: vt m kh ro, gin
c. Cc yu t nh hng
Ch n m bn thnh phm u vo v m ca bn thnh phm u ra
la chn h thng lm ro sao cho hp l, chiu di bng ti vn chuyn, vn tc
chuyn ng ca bng ti
d. Thit b

Hnh 3.11 H thng lm ngui


Ch thch:
1 bng ti np

8 m t truyn ng bng ti phn lung

2 mng cong

9 thng thu hi du

3 v my

10 mng cong

4 bng ti thanh kim loi

11 - sng my kim loi c c l

5 ng ray

12 chn my

6 m t qut ht

13 m t qut thi

7 m t truyn ng bng ti thanh kim loi


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Nguyn l hot ng:


Vt m nm trong khun (1) ca bng ti khun (2) i vo mng cong (2), di
tc dng ca trng lc, vt m s ri xung mng cong tip theo (10) c chiu ngc
li. Ti y vt m c bng ti thanh kim loi (4) y i n khoan lm ngui ca
my lm ngui. Trc khi vo khoan lm ngui, du cn st li v m vn ca vt m
ri xung qua h thng x rnh ca mng cong, l ca sng kim loi (11). Du c
cha trong thng (9), m vn mc li trn bn mt l v thng xuyn c ly ra
ngoi.
Khi vo khoan lm ngui vt m c lm ngui bi 2 qut thi gi pha di
(13), gi c thi t di ln qua l sng v n lm ngui vt m v mt qut ht (6)
ly khng kh nng ra khi my. Nhit ca vt m sau khi ra khi my lm ngui
gn bng nhit phng.
3.2.4.2. Phn loi
a. Mc ch: hon thin, phn ring ra cc loi m: m chnh phm, m ph
phm (m chy, kht, dnh bn), m ph phm (m vn, b) chun b cho qu trnh bao
gi.
b. Thit b: qu trnh c tin hnh th cng.
3.2.4.3. ng gi
a. Mc ch:
Hon thin sn phm: sn phm chnh cng cc gi gia v chun b sn c cho
vo bao, ghp m v ng thng, to m quan cho sn phm.
Bo qun: Bao b c tc dng che chn, bo v sn phm bn trong, trnh tc ng ca
mi trng ngoi.

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b. Thit b:

Hnh 3.12 S phn lung vt m vo b phn ng gi


Ch thch:
1 lung m

5 b phn vo gia v

2 bng ti cao su

6 b phn ng gi

3 vch ngn phn lung

7 b phn ng thng

4 b phn phn loi


Qu trnh phn loi , vo gia v v ng thng c tin hnh th cng cn qu
trnh ng gi th c t ng ha.
Khi phn loi, nhng vt m cha kh c a tr li trc khoan lm ngui.
Vt m ng tiu chun khng b gy nt, mu sc vng u, khi lng t yu cu.
Qu trnh phn loi thc hin ngay trn dy chuyn.
Loi m t tiu chun c bng ti a vo my ng gi, ng thng, mi
thng ng 30 gi.
Qu trnh ng gi c thc hin nh sau: Vt m (6) c bng ti a n
my ng gi. Ti y vt m c a vo lng ca bao PE (2) v c bao li do c
cu trong my to nn. Sau chy cp con ln p m (3) tin hnh ghp m ngang
pha di v ghi ghp m c 3 vt m to thnh mt hng dc vi khong cch
gia hai vt m t 3 4cm th cp trc va ghp m thng va ct (4) hot ng. Cui
cng vt m c bao gi hon ton. Thnh phn khng kh cn st li trong bao b l
khng kh ca mi trng

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Hnh 3.13 M hnh thit b bao gi


Ch thch:
1- Trc quay
2- Bao b PE
3- Con ln gp m ngang

4 Cp trc ghp m v ct
5 Bao b thnh phm
6 Vt m thng

Yu cu k thut: Gi m phi kn, ng ct ng v tr, bao b phi ph hp


vi loi m, mi gi phi c thnh phn bn trong.

3.2.5. Qui trnh chun b cc gi gia v


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3.2.5.1. Qui trnh cng ngh sn xut gi gia v


Mui

Sy
900C, 3 gi)

Bt tiu, ti kh, m chnh, ng

Xay

Quay trn

Bao b

ng gi

Sn phm
Quy trnh cng ngh sn xut gi gia v

Thuyt minh:
Mui 5% c sy ti m 0.5% (900C, 3 gi), sau xay nhuyn bi my xay dng
ba p.
Tiu, ti sy kh sau cng c xay nhuyn thnh bt bng my xay trn.
Mui, tiu, ti v cc ph gia c cn chnh xc theo cng thc quy nh v cho vo
my quay trn. Thi gian trn 5-10 pht.

Bt gia v quay trn xong c a qua ng gi. Vi trng lng mi gi t 3-4.5


gram ty theo tng loi gia v cho tng loi m khc nhau.

3.2.5.2. Qui trnh cng ngh sn xut gi du


Du tinh luyn
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C hnh, ti
Gia nhit
(110 1200C)
xt lt hoc
xay nhuyn
Gia nhit

Lc s b

Lc trong

Hng liu

Cn

Phi trn

ng gi

Thnh phm

Quy trnh cng ngh sn xut gi du


Thuyt minh:
Cc nguyn liu c ra sch, xay nhuyn v ring tng loi.
Du tinh luyn c cho vo ni v gia nhit t 110-120 0C, sau cho tng loi
nguyn liu vo nu (90 1100C)cho n khi vng th vt b ra ngoi v cho nguyn
liu k tip vo, v cng lm nh trn. Ln lt nu cho n nguyn liu cui cng ri
bm du ra thng cha, cho qua lc s b bng thng vi sau lc trong ct lc. Tip
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GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn

n, du c pha hng liu khuy u a qua ng gi vi trng lng mi gi t


1,5 2g ty theo tng loi.
3.2.6. Sn phm m n lin
Tiu chun cht lng sn phm
Tiu chun cht lng ca m n lin Vit Nam c quy nh trong TCVN
5777:2004.
Bng 3.2 Ch tiu cm quan
Tn ch tiu

Yu cu

Trng thi

Vt m trc khi nu: nguyn vn, u n, si m bng u,


khng c khuyt tt ng k.
M sau khi nu: cho nc si vo, sau 4 pht si m vn dai
c trng, sau 8 pht si m trng n khng ng k.

Mu sc

Mu vng sng dc trng c hai mt. cho php mt mt hi


m hn.

Mi v

Vt m kh: mi thm dc trng, khng c mi hi, i, kht


hoc mi l.
Nc m: mi thm bo c trng ca m v gia v, c v ngt,
khng c v l.

Bng 3.3 Ch tiu ho l


Tn ch tiu

Mc

Hm lng protein, tnh theo phn trm cht kh

10

m (%)

5.0
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Hm lng cht bo, tnh theo phn trm cht kh

15-20

Hm lng nito tng s ca gi gia v, tnh theo phn trm cht kh

2.0

Hm lng NaCl trong vt m, tnh theo phm trm cht kh

4.0

Hm lng tro khng tan trong acid HCl, tnh theo phn trm cht 0.1
kh
acid, s mg KOH dng chun 1g mu th (mgKOH/g)

2.0

Ch s peoxyde, s mg Na2S2O3 0.002N dng chun 1g mu th:


Trong vt m

0.4

Trong du sate

0.5

Bng 3.4 Khi lng tnh v sai lch khi lng


Loi gi

Sai lch cho php (g)

70g

85g

1000g

10

i vi loi gi c ng trn 1000g tr ln, sai lch khi lng cho php l 1%
Ch tiu v sinh: theo quy nh ca B Y t

Chng 4: Tnh cn bng vt cht


4.1 Cc thng s c bn
Chn nng sut ca nh my l 1000kg sn phm/ngy.
Bng 4.1 Hm lng m ca nguyn vt liu
Nguyn vt liu
Bt m

m (w) % khi
lng
12 13

Bt nho

33

M hp

40

M lm ngui

36
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GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn

M nhng nc xp

44

M ro

38

M chin

Lm ngui sau chin

Bng 4.2 nh mc hao ph nguyn vt liu (%)


Nho bt
Bt m

2
5

Cn bt ( cn th + cn tinh)

Ct si To sng

Hp
Thi ngui
Pha ch nc xp
Qut ro

Khi lng bn thnh phm tng ln


(chi tit tnh ton)
Khi lng bn thnh phm gim xung
(chi tit tnh ton)
2
Khi lng bn thnh phm gim xung
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(chi tit tnh ton)

Ct nh lng

Vo khun

Khng tn tht

Chin m

0,5

Hao ht du khi chin

22

Lm ngui
Phn loi

Khi lng bn thnh phm tng ln


(chi tit tnh ton)
5
Th phm so vi ton sn phm

Bao gi

Khng tn tht

Hm lng du trong m trc khi chin: 2 %

Hm lng du trong m sau khi chin: 16 %

T l ph gia a vo trong sn xut

Mui chim 2 4% khi lng bt nguyn liu (chn 3%)


CMC chim 0,5 1% khi lng bt nguyn liu (chn 0,5%)
Mu thc phm chim 0,1% khi lng bt nguyn liu
Bt ngt 5% so vi khi lng bt nguyn liu.
Nc tro chim 0,5% khi lng bt nguyn liu.
4.2 Tnh cn bng vt cht
a) Sn phm (kt qu ca qu trnh phn loi)
T l th phm so vi chnh phm m tm l 5%
V theo yu cu n l sn xut 1000kg m n lin xem nh 1000kg l m
chnh phm khng tnh m th phm trong . Vy:
Khi lng th phm l ( t l th phm so vi chnh phm l 5%)
G th phm
=5 Gth phm =Gchnh phm .5 =1000.5 =50 kg
G chnh phm

kg

Vy khi sn xut ra c 1000kg m chnh phm th i km theo 50kg m th


phm.
Vy khi lng bn thnh phm giai on sau lm ngui chun b vo giai
on phn loi l: Gsau lmngui=G chnh phm +G th phm =1000+50=1050 kg
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Vy c trong 1050kg m c sn xut ra th c 1000kg m chnh phm v 50


kg m th phm (m chnh phm sau c em i ng gi v bn ra th trng).
b) Qu trnh lm ngui sau chin
V yu cu m ca m thnh phm l 5%
G tr

lm
c
ngui

Gsaulm ngui .(1005) 1050.95


=
=1039 kg
1004
96

Khi lng m tng ln sau qu trnh lm ngui l: Gtng =1050 1039 = 11kg
T l bn thnh phm tng ln l: G tr

G tng

.100=

lmngu
c
i

11
.100=1,06
1039

c) Qu trnh chin m (Ta c Gsau chin = Gtrc lm ngui = 1039kg)


Hao ht trong qu trnh l 0,5%
Lng m qua chin tch nc cn m 4%, hm lng cht bo tng t 2%
ln 16%.
Gtr

chin
c

Gsau chin . ( 1004 ) . ( 10016 ) 100+ 0,5


.
( 10038 ) . ( 1002 )
100

1039 . 96 . 84 100,5
.
=1385,9 kg
62. 98
100

Lng bn thnh phm hao ht trong qu trnh chin l :


Ghao ht = Gsau chin - Gtrc chin = 1385,9 1039 = 346,9kg
Tnh ton lng du trong qu trnh chin.
Hm lng du ca m trc v sau khi chin l 2% v 16%, khi lng du
ngm vo m sau khi chin l:
Gdu ngm=

Gsau chin .2Gtr


100

chin
c

.16

1044,2 .161385,9 . 2
=139,4 kg
100

Khi lng du cn cho qu trnh chin:


100

Gdu tng = Gdu ngm * 10022

139,4

100
= 178,72kg
78

Khi lng du hao ht trong qu trnh chin:


Gdu haohut = Gdu tng - Gdu ngm = 178,72139,4= 39,32kg
d) Qu trnh vo khun chun b chin xem nh khng c tn tht.
e) Qu trnh ct nh lng (hao ph 1%)
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Khi lng bn thnh phm trc qu trnh ct nh lng (sau qu trnh qut
ro) bao gm c hao ph l : (Gsau ct nh lng = Gtrc chin = 1399,8kg)
Gtrc ct nh lng = Gsau ct nh lng.

100+1
=1385,9 . 1,01=1399,8 kg
100

Khi lng bn thnh phm hao ht torng qu trnh ct nh lng l :


1399,8 1385,9 = 13,9 kg
f) Qu trnh qut ro ( m trc v sau qut ro tng ng 44% v 38%)
Khi lng bn thnh phm trc qu trnh qut ro (sau phun nc lo) l :
Trong (Gsau qut ro = Gtrc ct nh lng = 1399,8kg)
Gtr

qu
c t ro

G sauqut ro .(10038) 1399,8. 62


=
=1549,8 kg
10044
56

Lng nc b tch ra l : Gtch = Gtrc qut ro Gsau qut ro = 1549,8 1399,8 =150kg
g) Giai on phun nc gia v :
m trc v sau giai on phun nc gia v tng ng l 36 v 44%
Khi lng bn thnh phm trc khi phun nc lo l :
Trong (Gsau phun = Gtrc qut ro = 1549,8kg)
Gtr

phun
c

G sau phun .(10044) 1549,8 .56


=
=1356 kg
10036
64

Lng nc gia v thm vo sau khi phun l :


Ggia v thm = Gsau phun - Gtrc phun = 1549,8 1356 = 193,8 kg
Do c hao ht 2% nn lng nc gia v cn pha l :
Gpha = Ggia v .

100
98

= 193,8 .

100
98

= 197,8 kg

h) Giai on thi ngui (khi lng bn thnh phm sau qu trnh thi ngui bng
Gtrc phun)
m bn thnh phm trc v sau khi thi ngui tng ng l : 40 v 36%
Khi lng bn thnh phm trc qu trnh thi ngui l :
Trong : Gsau thi ngui = Gtrc phun = 1356kg
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c i ngui

GVHD: Nguyn Th Thu Huyn

G sauthi ngui (10036) 1356 . 64


=
=1446,4 kg
10040
60

Lng nc b tch ra trong qu trnh thi ngui l :


Gtch = Gtrc thi ngui - Gtrc phun = 1446,4 1356 = 90,4 kg
i) Giai on hp
m bn thnh phm trc v sau qu trnh hp l : 33 v 40%
Khi lng bn thnh phm sau qu trnh hp bng Gtrc thi ngui
Gsau hp = Gtrc thi ngui = 1446,4kg
Khi lng bn thnh phm trc qu trnh hp l :
G tr

h
c p

G tr

(10040) 1446,4 . 60
=
=1295,3 kg
10033
67

th
c i ngui

Khi lng nc bm vo si m sau khi hp l :


Gnc hp = Gtrc thi ngui - Gtrc hp = 1446,4 1295,3 = 151,1 kg
j) Giai on ct to sng
Hao ht ca qu trnh l 1%
Khi lng bn thnh phm trc giai on ct to sng l :
Trong Gsau ct = Gtrc hp = 1295,3kg
Gtrc ct = Gtrc hp.

100+1
100

= 1295,3 . 1,01 = 1308,3 kg

Hao ht ca qu trnh l : 1308,3 1295,3 = 13 kg


k) Giai on cn bt
Hao ht ca qu trnh l 2%
Khi lng bn thnh phm trc qu trnh cn bt l :
Trong Gsau cn = Gtrc ct
Gtr

cn
c

=Gsaucn

100+2
=1308,3.1,02=1334,5 kg
100

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Hao ht ca qu trnh l : Ghao ht = Gtrc cn Gsau cn = 1334,5 1308,3 = 26,2 kg


l) Giai on nho bt
Do hao ph trong qu trnh nho bt l 2% nn khi lng bt nho cn l:
Gnho = Gtrc cn .

100 1334,5100
=
=1361,7 kg
98
98

Khi lng bt m l:
100W nho
10033
=1361,7.
=1048,7 kg
100W bt m
10013

G bt m = Gnho *

Khi lng bt m cn cho qu trnh sn xut:


100

100

Mbt m = Mbt m * 95 =1048,7. 95 =1103,9 kg


Khi lng nc cn thm vo cho qu trnh nho bt l:
Gnc = Gnho Gbt m - Gph gia = 1361,7 1103,9 - 100,5 = 157,3 kg
*Gph gia c tnh bng cch tnh tng cc ph gia dng trong qu trnh trn bt
(tnh pha di)
-

Tng khi lng nc cn l : 157,3 + 151,1 = 308,4 kg

Ta c khi lng bt m cn trong qu trnh sn xut l : 1103,9kg

Tng khi lng du l : 178,12 kg

Vy khi lng ph gia cn thm vo trong qu trnh sn xut l:


-

Mui chim 2 4% khi lng bt nguyn liu (chn 3%)


mmui=mbt m .3 =1103,9 . 0,03=33,117 kg

CMC chim 0,5 1% khi lng bt nguyn liu (chn 0,5%)


mCMC=mbt m .0,5 =1103,9 . 0,005=5,52 kg

Mu thc phm chim 0,1% khi lng bt nguyn liu


mmuTP =mbt m .0,1 =1103,9 . 0,001=1,1 kg

Bt ngt 5% so vi khi lng bt nguyn liu.


mbt ngt =mbt m .5 =1103,9 . 0,05=55,2 kg

Nc tro chim 0,5% khi lng bt nguyn liu.


mn

tro
c

=mbt m .0,5 =1103,9 . 0,005=5,52kg

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Bng 4.3 Nguyn liu dng lm ph gia cho thng nc trn bt


STT Nguyn liu

Khi lng (kg)

Mui

33,117

CMC

5,52

Mu thc phm

1,1

Bt ngt

55,2

Nc tro

5,52

Tng nguyn liu lm ph gia l: Gphgia = 100,5kg


Theo quy trnh sn xut thc t (X nghip sn xut m n lin Colusa
Miliket) ta thu c cc bng s liu v Nguyn liu dng lm sa t cho 1000 gi m
thnh phm, Nguyn liu dng lm gi bt nm cho 1000 gi m, Nguyn liu dng
nu nc lo cho 1000 gi m thnh phm.
T thc t yu cu ca n l sn xut 1000kg m n lin tng ng vi
1000000g m n lin, khi lng tnh ca mi gi m n lin gn bng 80g, vy th
1000000g m n lin s cho ra 12500 gi m.
T cc bng s liu v nguyn liu dng sn xut 1000 gi m, t ta s
suy ra c khi lng nguyn liu dng sn xut ra 12500 gi m bng phng
php tng sut.
Ta thu c cc bng nguyn liu tng ng sau:
Bng 4.4 Nguyn liu dng lm sa t cho 1000 gi m thnh phm
STT

Tn nguyn liu

Khi lng (kg)

Du tinh luyn

1,44

Bt t

0,52

Ng v hng

0,08

Ti kh

0,0909

Bng 4.5 Nguyn liu dng lm sa t cho 12500 gi m thnh phm


STT

Tn nguyn liu

Khi lng (kg)


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Du tinh luyn

18

Bt t

6,5

Ng v hng

Ti kh

1,136

Bng 4.6 Nguyn liu dng lm gi bt nm cho 1000 gi m thnh phm


STT

Tn nguyn liu

Khi lng (kg)

Bt ngt

1,36

Mui n

1,1

Tiu

0,04

Hnh

0,044

Bt t

0,04

Ti kh

0,0308

Bng 4.7 Nguyn liu dng lm gi bt nm cho 12500 gi m thnh phm


STT

Tn nguyn liu

Khi lng (kg)

Bt ngt

17

Mui n

13,75

Tiu

0,5

Hnh

0,55

Bt t

0,5

Ti kh

0,385

Bng 4.8 Nguyn liu dng nu nc lo cho 1000 gi m thnh phm


STT

Nguyn liu

Khi lng (kg)

Bt sp

0,023

Bt ngt

0,256

Mui n

1,6
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Ti kh

0,02

Bt t

0,08

ng

0,16

Bng 4.9 Nguyn liu dng nu nc lo cho 12500 gi m thnh phm


STT

Nguyn liu

Khi lng (kg)

Bt sp

0,29

Bt ngt

3,2

Mui n

20

Ti kh

0,25

Bt t

ng

4.3 .Tnh ton kh nng cung ng nguyn liu


-

S ngy nh my hot ng trong 1 nm:


Gi s mt nm c 48 tun, mi tun nh my c ngh 1 ngy (Ch nht) vy

1 nm ngh 48 ngy.
Gi s thi gian ngh tt, quc khnh, 30/4,.khong 15 ngy.
Mi qu hng nm b ra 2 ngy bo dng thit b, vy s ngy bo dng
thit b trong 1 nm l 2.4 = 8 ngy.
Vy s ngy nh my lm vic trong 1 nm l:
365 (48 + 15 + 8) = 294 ngy
-

S ngy hot ng trong 1 thng:

1 thng gm 4 tun, mi tun nh my c ngh 1 ngy.


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Ly trung bnh 1 thng c 30 ngy, vy s ngy hot ng ca nh my trong 1 thng


(khng tnh cc ngy ngh l) = 30 4 = 26 ngy.
Ta c cc bng tng hp sau:
Bng 4.10 Tng nguyn liu s dng

Thi
1 ngy (kg)

1 thng (kg)

1 nm (kg)

Khi lng du

178,12

4631,12

52367,28

Khi lng bt m

1103,9

28701,4

324546,6

Khi lng nc

308,4

8018,4

90669,6

Mui

66,867

1738,542

19658,898

CMC

5,52

143,52

1622,88

Nc tro

5,52

143,52

1622,88

Mu thc phm

1,1

28,6

323,4

Bt ngt

75,4

1960,4

22167,6

Du tinh luyn

18

468

5292

Bt t

208

2352

Ng v hng

26

294

Ti kh

1,771

46,046

520,674

Tiu

0,5

13

147

Hnh

0,55

14,3

161,7

Bt sp

0,29

7,54

85,26

ng

52

588

Nguyn

gian

liu

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Bng 4.11 Khi lng nguyn liu v bn thnh phm i vo cc thit b trong
quy trnh sn xut (1 ngy)

Khi lng bn thnh

Khi lng bn thnh

phm vo (kg)

phm ra (kg)

Nho bt

1361,7

1334,5

Cn bt

1334,5

1308,3

Ct si to sng

1308,3

1295,3

Hp

1295,3

1446,4

Thi ngui

1446,4

1356

Phun nc gia v

1356

1549,8

Qut ro

1549,8

1399,8

Ct nh lng

1399,8

1385,9

Chin

1385,9

1309

Lm ngui

1309

1050

Phn loi

1050

1000

Thit b

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Chng 5: Cc sn phm m n lin trn th trng

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Chng 6: Cc s c sy ra trong qu trnh sn xut


6.1. Trong qu trnh trn bt:
Khi trn bt bao gi cng c mt lng nh khng kh ln vo bt nho. Lng
khng kh ny c nh hng xu n s trng n gluten, lm cho si m b t khi
to hnh bng my p n.
Bt nho b nho: bt s kh cn, bng trn vt m kht, du khng ngm u
khi chin, lm cho vt m b m.
Khi thy bt nho b nho do cho lng nc trn bt qu mc cn thit, th ta cn
cho bt vo thm kt hp vi nh trn cho n khi bt va.
Bt nho b kh: lm vho bt d b nt khi cn thm nc trn bt kt hp
vi nh trn.
nh bt lu bt d b vn cc: sn phm s khng t yu cu v mu sc,
n xp,.. Cn nh lng chnh xc cc cht ph gia khi pha nc trn bt.
Ha cht khng tan ht do khi pha nc trn bt khuy khng u: lm cho
khi bt nho khng ng nht Cn khuy nc trn bt trc khi s dng m
bo s ng nht cho dung dch.
6.2. Trong qu trnh cn ct si:
Bt nho khi cn b nng, nu bt kh khi cn d t tm iu chnh khu
trn.
Cc l trc chuyn ng khng u, gy ra s c b n tm bt hoc b t l
bt iu chnh li vn tc l l.
L bt b rch 2 bn mp iu chnh 2 bn.
Bt dnh l cn cn xem li no.
6.3. Qu trnh ct si to hnh:
Chp si v ri si m: do b phn lc khng t st vo b mt trc dao.
Dn si m thp: do chnh lch vn tc m ra khi dao ct v vn tc bng
chuyn nh. gim tc bng chuyn hoc tng tc dao ct.
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M khng t hn: do khe h gia 2 trc dao nh hn khng nhiu so vi l


bt, c th khc phc bng cch iu chnh khe h.
Si m khng bng kim tra li cc rnh trn dao ct.
6.4. Qu trnh hp v lm ngui:
Hp chn qu : do ko di thi gian hp, p lc hi cao kh o m bin
php x l: tng vn tc ca bng chuyn, gim thi gian hp hoc gim p lc hi.
M sng: do thi gian hp ngn, p lc hi khng do thiu nc l hi s
lm cho vt m xp, si m b gim vn tc ca bng chuyn tng thi gian hp
hoc thm nc vo l hi tng p lc.

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Chng 7: Vn sc khe khi s dng m n lin


7.1. Cht bo Transfat
7.1.1. Ngun gc
Shortening l mt loi du dng cng (cha nhiu axt bo no y l loi axt
kh tiu ho) thng c tch ra t du c bng phng php phn on (phng
php ny khng sinh ra axit bo dng trans). Tuy nhin, trong khu chin m, cc nh
sn xut thng chn du shortening c sn xut theo phng php hydrogen ha
lm mt cc ni i v tr trans, do c th to ra acid dng trans (trans fat).
Shortening dng ny khng b oxy ha nn t b i, kht trong qu trinh trnh bo qun
m.
Trong qu trnh sn xut, m n lin c chin trong du shorterning nhit
cao nn du d b oxy ho. Nu du dng chin i chin li nhiu ln s c kh
nng to ra cc cht bo dng trans nhiu hn, do vy cc nh sn xut cn c cng
ngh chin m thch hp hn lng du khng ng li trong m qu cao (mt s
loi m c hm lng axit bo no ti 20%).
Axt bo dng Trans th rn c th dng nh b cn c mt trong cc loi
"fastfood" nh m tm, khoai ty chin, u phng da c. Khi vo c th, cht bo
trans khng th chuyn ha c trong c th m "ng" li, do cc enzym lipase ch
c th tc dng ln cu hnh cis, cn cu hnh trans th bn vng vi enzym ny.
Tuy nhin, theo nghin cu gn y ca Trung tm Dch v Phn tch Th nghim
thuc S Khoa hc - Cng ngh TP.HCM pht hin c ti 38% mu m gi c cha
Trans fat.
7.1.2. Tc hi
-

Theo T chc Y t th gii (WHO),Trans fat lm tng cholesterol xu (LDL) v ng

thi cng lm gim cholesterol tt (HDL).


Gy x va ng mch (gy hp lng ng mch) nn lm gim s lu thng ca

mu, tng nguy c b cc bnh tim mch.


Ngoi ra, khi xm nhp vo c th, cht bo ny to ra nhng mng m bm vo thnh
mch mu, dn dn bt kn mch mu,
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Hu qu l lm cho mu khng lu thng c, gy tc nghn v c th dn n nguy


c t qu i vi ngi mc bnh bo ph hoc bnh tim mch.
7.1.3. Vn s dng thc phm c Transfat
a) Trn th gii
Cc nghin cu khoa hc cc nc u M chng minh tc hi ca Trans
fat nn ngy nay, h c lut cm dng cc cht bo Trans trong thc phm, hoc
phi ghi y hm lng axt bo Trans c trong thc phm trn nhn sn phm
.ngi tiu dng bit m la chn.
Trn th gii, cc nh sn xut phi cam kt khng dng du chin cha Trans
fat v ghi r sn phm khng cha cht bo c hi ny trn bao b. Ti an Mch,
Anh, M, Canada, t nm 2003, chnh ph ban hnh lut cm dng cc loi du c
cha hm lng Trans fat cao hoc yu cu cc cng ty sn xut thc phm phi ghi r
hm lng cht ny trn bao b.
b)Vit Nam
Trong cc sn phm m n lin hin nay c bn trn th trng Vit Nam c
nhiu loi khng c hoc c rt t cht bo dng trans. chng minh iu ny, cc
nh sn xut cn phi cng b trn nhn mc sn phm ca mnh khng c Trans fat
ngi tiu dng yn tm la chn khi mua m n lin.
Ti Vit Nam cha c bt c quy nh no ca c quan qun l thc phm v
Trans fat.
Trong lc ch i nhng quy nh v vic hn ch Trans fat trong cc sn phm
thc phm Vit Nam, ngi tiu dng cn phi t bo v bn thn bng cch chn
mua cc sn phm ca cc nh sn xut c thng hiu, nht l cc c s p dng
H thng qun l an ton thc phm theo tiu chun HACCP/ISO 22000.

7.2. Ha cht E102


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7.2.1. Tng qut


E102 l k hiu ch cht nhum mu nhn to Tartrazine. y l cht bt
mu vng, tan trong nc c s dng lm cht to mu khng ch trong ngnh sn,
mc in, nha, da m cn xut hin trong m phm, dc phm v c bit l thc
phm.

7.2.2. Tc hi
Trn th gii, lin tip c nhng cng trnh nghin cu khoa hc vi tin cy
cao khng nh s c hi ca phm mu vng E102 trong thc phm vi sc khe
ngitiudng.
Cc nh nghin cu ti i hc Southampton (Anh) ch ra:
Phm mu vng E102 c trong ch n s lm tng s hiu ng thi qu v gy
km tp trung tr 3 tui v 8-9 tui.
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Ti Australia, mt nghin cu khc a ra kt lun v s thay i hnh vi kh


chu, bn chn v ri lon gic ng ca tr c lin quan n vic s dng E102.
Khng ch tc ng ti tr em l nhng i tng c sc khng yu, phm mu
vng E102 cn c nguy c gy tn thng nghim trng n sc khe sinh sn ca
nam gii. Ti M, trong mt nghin cu khoa hc thc hin trn chut c c tim
Tartrazine, kt qu cho thy: S lng tinh trng gim v gy nn nhng bt thng v
hnh thi ca tinh trng. Nghin cu ny c cng b trn Tp ch "Dc hc v c
dc" uy tn ti M gy bng hong d lun bi nu s dng sn phm c cht ny,
rt c th gy hu qu khn lng cho con ngi trong tng lai.
7.2.3. Tiu chun s dng trong thc phm
a) Th gii
-

T nm 2003 Nht Bn ra quy nh cm s dng phm mu vng E102 vi mt s

thc phm, trong c sn phm m.


Nm 2008, EU cnh bo v s nguy hi ca phm mu vng E102 v yu cu cc sn
phm c s dng E102 phi ghi khuyn co trn nhn nh sau: phm mu vng E102 -

c th c nh hng xu ln hot ng v s ch ca tr em.


M v mt s nc khc cng khuyn co v vic cn thit phi ghi trn bao b sn
phm v vic c s dng E102 ngi tiu dng c c thng tin cn thit v t la
chn.
Ban K thut Codex quc t v ph gia thc phm (CCFA) ang hon thin cc
iu khon quy nh mc ti a ca E102 cho khong 80 loi thc phm thuc cc
nhm khc nhau.
Nhiu tiu chun Codex c nu r mc ti a trong sn phm. Tiu chun
Codex cho m n lin (Codex stan 249-2006 Codex standard for instant noodles) quy
nh mc ti a cho Tartrazine l 300mg/kg.
b) Vit Nam
Ban K thut v ph gia thc phm ca y ban Codex Vit Nam hp v kt
lun: Phm mu E102 c JECFA cng nh Hi ng khoa hc thuc C quan An
ton thc phm chu u (EFSA) nghin cu nh gi nhiu ln trn c s cc bng
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chng khoa hc v thc nghim u thng nht quy nh mc n vo hng ngy chp
nhn c (ADI) l 7,5mg/kg th trng/ngy. E102 vn nm trong danh mc cc cht
ph gia thc phm ca Codex (cp nht 2010) vi s hiu INS102, c quy nh c
tnh k thut, mc ADI=7,5.

c) Lu khi s dng
Khng nn n m n lin vi s lng trn trong mt thi gian di v s tch ly
ca cht E102 trong c th s gy hi.
Ty theo tui c khu phn n hp l. c bit, khng nn cho tr em n
nhiu m n lin lin tc trong mt thi gian di, cc bc ph huynh nn thay i thnh
phn ba n tng thm cht dinh dng v b sung nhiu cht thay v vic ch s
dng m n lin.
Vn dinh dng
M n lin l mt mn n rt tin li, tuy nhin theo cc chuyn gia dinh dng,
m n lin l mt thc phm khng m bo tt vn dinh dng cho ngi tiu
dng.
Thnh phn ca m n lin:
- Gi m si: Bt m, shorterning, tinh bt khoai m (hoc tinh bt khoai ty);
mui; cht mu; cht bo qun Butylathydroxyanisol BHA (320), Butylathydroxy
toluen BHT (321).
- Gi sp : Du c tinh luyn, mui, cht iu v (monosodium glutamat - 621;
dinatri Guanilate - 631; dinatri Inosinat - 627); rau ti; ng; acid citric; cht chit
xut t nm men. Mt s loi m c thm nc ct c c t tht v xng; gi tht;
mu caramen t nhin; hng liu; cht bo qun (benzoat natri); cht n nh
Natrihydrocacbonat (E500i); Kalicacbonat (E 501i); ti; tiu; t hoc hnh phi. C loi
cn b sung vitamin E v vitamin C.

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T thnh phn trn chng ta thy ca m n lin cha rt nhiu cht bo bo ha


(shorterning), carbonhydrates (cht bt) v t cht x. ng ch l trong m n lin
c thnh phn cht bo chim t 15 - 20%, trong c mt lng tng i ln v
ch yu l dng acid bo no (cht bo bo ha).
V gi tr dinh dng, m n lin ch yu cung cp cht bt t bt m v 9%
cht m thc vt - cng t bt m, nu trn khoai ty vo th hm lng m s rt
thp, khoai ty ch cha 1 - 2% protein. Gi tr dinh dng ca m n lin l khng
cn bng v thiu m ng vt v vitamin t rau qu ti.
Ngoi ra trong gi gia v ca m cha rt nhiu cht ph gia, tuy chng c tc
dng to s ngon ming cho ngi n nhng khng c dinh dng v cay nng, ngi
huyt p cao hoc thn nhit cao nn dng t loi m c gia v cay.
Theo cc chuyn gia ti Vin Dinh dng ca Hc vin Khoa hc Nga, thng
xuyn s dng cc sn phm n lin s hi n gan, tuyn ty v gy chng vim d
dy.
Ngoi ra, m n lin cn nh hng n h min dch, mch mu, gy tnh trng
thiu vitamin v khong cht v vy cc chuyn gia khuyn co rng, khng nn dng
m n lin thay cho cc ba n chnh hng ngy v m n lin thng ch cung cp
nhiu calo ch khng cung cp vitamin hay protein cho c th.

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Chng 8: Cch s dng m n lin m bo sc khe


M n lin ngy cng tr thnh mt mn n thng dng, tin li v cch ch bn
n gin, nhanh gn. Di y l cch ch bin a s ngi tiu dng s dng:
Cho nc si v bt nm vo, nu trong khong 3 pht. Sau , m sn sng
s dng.
Nhng l cch nu m sai, v: khi nu si, bt ngt (MSG: Monosodium
glutamate)c trong gia v s b bin dng cu trc phn t, tr thnh cht c. Bn
cnh , si m cn c ph bi mt lp sp m c th cn 4-5 ngy mi tiu ha ht
c.
Do , ch bin m n lin theo ng cch l:
1. Luc m trc vi nc si, cho m chn sn.
2. B nc luc c,cho nc si mi vo, tt bp.
3. Cho thm gia v vo.

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Cc chuyn gia dinh dng khuyn co, khng nn dng m n lin thay cho
cc ba n chnh hng ngy v m n lin thng ch cung cp nhiu calo ch khng
cung cp vitamin hay protein cho c th. bo m an ton cho sc khe, khi n
m n lin chng ta nn b sung thm rau xanh v cc loi m t tht, trng b p
lng vitamin v protein thiu ht ca m n lin. i vi nhng ngi b bnh tim
mch th vic n thng xuyn m n lin cng c hi hn. Mt ngi bnh thng
cng khng nn n qu 1 gi/1 ngy.

KT LUN
Sau khi hon thnh n c giao, em c h thng li cc kin thc ca
hc phn Cng ngh ch bin thc phm v cc mn hc c lin quan, v c bit
vn dng nhng kin thc c trong mn hc
gii thch cc bc trong mt quy trnh cng ngh
theo yu cu ca n. Tuy nhin cc ti liu v
thit b khng nhiu, khng r rng nn vic la
chn thit b cng nh nu nguyn l lm vic ca
thit b cn gp nhiu kh khn.
Trong phm vi n vi nhiu iu kin
hn ch nn khng th tin hnh thc nghim
xc nh r cc thng s thc t, thng s hao ph
trong cc qu trnh. Cc s liu v phng php tnh ton trong n da t nhiu
ngun ti liu khc nhau d dn n sai s v s cha chnh xc ca cc kt qu.
V ti tng i di gm c phn l thuyt v my mc,rt mong s nh gi
nhn xt t thy c chng em c th hon thin hn n v nng cao kh nng
tip tc pht trin n, nng cao kh nng ng dng thc t ca kt qu t n.
SVTH
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Nguyn Tn Thuyt

TI LIU THAM KHO


[1]. Cng ngh ch bin thc phm, L Vn Vit Mn, NXB i hc Quc gia
Tp.HCM (2011).
[2]. Bi ging Cng Ngh Ch Bin Lng Thc, Trng i Hc Cng Nghip Thc
Phm TP.HCM (2014)
[3]. K Thut Ch Bin Lng Thc Tp 2, Bi c Hi, NXB Khoa hc v K
thut (2009)
[4]. Cc qu trnh cng ngh c bn trong sn xut thc phm, L Bch Tuyt, NXB
Gio dc, 1996.
[5]. TIU CHUN VIT NAM (bt m) (TCVN 6095 : 2008)
[6]. TIU CHUN VIT NAM (du shortening) (TCVN 6048 : 1995)

80