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Running head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Annotated Bibliography
Nick Bennett
Ottawa University

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Disproportionate Number of African American Men in Prison in the U. S.: Annotated

Bibliography
References
Alegria, S. (2014). Constructing racial difference through group talk: An
analysis of white focus groups' discussion of racial profiling. Ethnic &
Racial Studies, 37(2), 241-260. doi:10.1080/01419870.2012.716519
Alegria examines the idea of racial profiling through observing white people
in public conversations about racially loaded topics. The author finds that the
focus group uses color blind language. The author also finds that even
though color blind language is used there is still racializing discourse present.
This article is written for a scholarly audience. It is published by the sociology
department at a major university. The author has a Ph.D. in her field. This
article was written in 2012 and is up-to-date

Bebo, J. A. (1999). The war on drugs, crack cocaine, and the resulting
sentencing disparities. Discourse of Sociological Practice, 2(1), 34-38.
Bebo writes this article to expose the fact that laws are composed in ways
that make them unfair to parts of the population. He points out that criminal
sanctions and sentencing are racially unfair. He discusses how the general
public views these laws.
This article is written for a scholarly audience. It is published by a major
university. The author is a senior lecturer at the University of Massachusetts.
This article was published in 1999 but the age of it helps prove the
consistency of this problem in society.
Crutchfield, R. D., Fernandes, A., & Martinez, J. (2010). Racial and ethnic
disparity and criminal justice: How much is too much? Journal of
Criminal Law & Criminology, 100(3), 903-932.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Crutchfield, Fernandez and Martinez attempt to explore the racial patterns in


the criminal justice system. The also look at the history of these issues in
American society. The authors analyze sentencing decisions to point to
disparities in our justice system.
This article is written for a scholarly audience. It is produced by a major
university. Crutchfield is a professor at the University of Washington and
Fernandez and Martinez are graduate students. The article was published in
2010 making it up-to-date.
Ghandnoosh, N. (2015, February). Black lives matter: Eliminating racial
inequality in the criminal justice system. Retrieved September 27,
2015, from
http://sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/rd_Black_Lives_Matter.pdf
This is a report put out by The Sentencing Project with the purpose of
attempting to eliminate racial inequality in the criminal justice system. Many
statistics are shared from government agencies which are effective in
establishing that a racial discrimination problem does exist. The report then
points out the causes of the disparities and suggests best practices for
reducing racial disparity.
The author has a Ph.D. and is a research analyst. The report was published in
February of 2015 so the information that it provides is very up to date. It is
written for all audiences and uses both scholarly articles as well as main
stream media as resources.
Howell, R. S., & Hutto, T. S. (2012). Sentencing convicted juvenile felony
offenders in the adult court: The direct effects of race. Behavioral
Sciences & The Law, 30(6), 782-799.
Howell and Hutto address whether race has a direct impact on juveniles
being sentenced to restitution, probation, or jail. The juvenile justice system
is examined as to whether it is meeting its intended goal of rehabilitation.
The authors review literature about the court systems to introduce the
purpose for their current study.
This article is written for a scholarly audience. The main author, Rebecca
Howl, is a Ph.D. and is an instructor at the Department of Criminal Justice at

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

the University of Alabama. This article is produced by a major university. The


date of publication is 2012 so it is up-to-date.
Ibe, P., Ochie, C., & Obiyan, E. (2012). Racial misuse of "criminal profiling" by
law enforcement: Intentions and implications. African Journal of
Criminology and Justice Studies, 6(1/2), 177-196.
Ibe, Ochie, and Obiyan examine critical issues in criminal profiling in relation
specifically to African Americans. They look at the misuse of criminal profiling
by law enforcement. The history of criminal profiling is discussed to set the
stage for the research being completed.
This article was written for a scholarly audience and was peer reviewed. All
three of the authors have Ph.Ds. and are professors in criminal justice
departments at well-established universities. This article was published in
2012 so the information is up-to-date.

Jordan, K. L., & Freiburger, T. L. (2015). The effect of race/ethnicity on


sentencing: examining sentence type, jail length, and prison
length. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 13(3), 179-196.
doi:10.1080/15377938.2014.984045
Jordan and Freiburger examine the impact of race and ethnicity on criminal
sentencing outcomes. They examine previous research conducted among
blacks, Hispanics and whites. They find that race and ethnicity biases occur
in sentence type and length of imprisonment.
This article was written for a scholarly audience. The authors are both Ph.Ds.
and are affiliated with major universities. This article was published in 2015
making it up-to-date.
Nicosia, N., MacDonald, J. M., & Arkes, J. (2013). Disparities in criminal court
referrals to drug treatment and prison for minority men. American

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Journal of Public Health, 103(6), e77-e84.


doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301222
Nicosia, MacDonald, and Arkes investigate racial and ethnic disparities in
prison and in diversion to drug treatment sentences. They collected their
data from administrative data of 170,000 drug involved arrests. They found
racially based disparities.
This article is written for a scholarly audience and was peer reviewed.
Nicosia, MacDonald, and Arkes all have Ph.Ds. This article was published in
April of 2013 making it recent enough to be valid for current reasons.
Semien, D. S., & Roettger, M. E. (2013). Employing Du Bois and Myrdal to
analyze the U. S. criminal justice system. Race, Gender &
Class, 20(1/2), 141-155.
Semien and Roettger look to W.E.B. Du Bois and Gunner Myrdal to
understand racial inequalities. They inspect class and caste models to
explain racial disparities. This reflection gives a historical perspective on the
criminal justice system.
This article is written for a scholarly audience. Semien has a Ph.D. and
Roettger is a data analyst. This article was published in 2014 making it up-todate.
Wehrman, M. M. (2011). Examining race and sex inequality in
recidivism. Sociology Compass, 5(3), 179-189. doi:10.1111/j.17519020.2011.00362.x
Wehrman examines race and sex inequality in the recidivism rates. He looks
as why black men are more likely than other races or females to return to jail
or prison. The author gives recommendations for further study into the
inequality in the justice system.
This article was written toward a scholarly audience. Wehrman has a Ph.D. in
sociology. He is a professor at a major university. This article was published in
2011 making it up-to-date.